--' --- - J. .c.YONQ-E,. 7,.--^^ iAQ. B
S 1924 E. J:^ ^!^ 1'
"FLORIDA'S ONLY CITRUS NEWSPAPERS'
BSBBCBIPTION PRICB 50 CENTS PER YBU
TAMPA, FLORIDA; FEB. 15, 1932 .
Entered u .8lr
at the Peet 01
fi. -ider da A
A special survey of the frost
damage to California made
for the Florida Citrus Fx-
change indicates that the dam-
age by frost approximated 15
percent with the injury affect-
ing Navels more than Va-
However, it is further re-
ported that heavy rains which
followed brought an increase
in sizes.-which will overcome
part of the loss in volume from
the frost. It is estimated that
about a third of the frost loss
Helped By Special
W ork of Exchange
Brings Wider Distribution
And Makes Record In ,'
'Many Markets f
The n ranor-id morhn'rii nri
IrCr Ml~c3_' ~ 3.- iEtitk'atSf wrA'i3wln Mfl dbas&
-f --t :.st W L-SJZC~VS 'jr'-7 i'- "<-c
rease in size. The survey in-
SdiratEB that the damage was
- very spotted.
Test Poves Big Value
O i window Displays
S Wiodo.w displays have a tremen-
dous' ales influence, materially in-'
.creasing. business, a recent 'test
To.-heck definitely the v.lue .of
Swindo.w. displays, a representative
:.store removed all goods from 'its
.vindows and kept them draped for
three weeks. Sales fell sharply and
the store figured a'net loss of $1,000
a week. Decreases' ranged from 42
percent on one line of goods down
to 15 percent on others.
The matter is of interest to citrus"
growers. Window displays' are one
-of the features of the Exchange
.merchandising "progrd each' season,
hile.on-the other hand practically
-no competitor of the Exchange uses
them. Ac4ual check shows that win-
gram, on tang.i esh-eris r16i
Citrus Exchange has materially
-changed-the tangerine situation.'
Where a few weeks back indifference
of the private markets forced the
sale of most of the .tangerines in the
auctions, today the private markets
are taking mbre Exchange fanger-.
jnes than the auctions and at prices
in line with the auction returns..
* 'Dur advertising ard dealer serv-
ice work is producing good results
and our distribution this season on
tangerines, particularly in the west-
ern territory, will show a marked
improvement," General .$ales Man-
ager Fred W. Davis reported.to'the
Board of. Directors. Thedaily.and
weekly records .oT .the ptst, few*
weeks support this statement" -They
show an ever widening distribution.
Mr. Davis recently' visited the
western field and gives the'fo'llving
summary of .his observatjrs':.
'~ "U fonhnd..tangerines gaining -in
popular favor and selling in carlbts
in many markets which in previous
seasons have- handled 'bn6y-a few
boxes. Our disttibutimn'n.: the west,
2aSDr e~~AALW~.SL. jfltshqi; ~fCt2LW~in
Eikhange fruit 200. to 300 percent
_uring the display and days after.
- le L(Continued'on LL age .5) i
Shipment of canned grape-'
fruit out of Tampa port
reached the highest total dur-
ing January for nine months,
exceeding by nearly 50 per-
cent the shipments for De-
cember. A total of 38,917Y'
case'tmoved out of the prin-
cipal West Coast port during
January compared-with '26,544
cases during fDecember. Ex-
change fruit' was among the
The Pacific Coas ucipg
-Califarri a,. onit -'be
tomefs. It todka b -al-bt n '
casqs which were exported to
the British Isles. Coastwise
Shipments were not included.
Multitude-of Sh ppers
-No hope of solvink the pr;btem of
fhe Florida citrus "industry can be
expected through coordination of
the shippers, the number of shippers
is. too many to bd ever brought'to-
.gether in continued. .hartnony, of
action, John S.- Tayfor, "vice-presi-
dent bo the .Florida Citlrus El'hange
and formerly an'independent Agi--
per, told the Tampa" irwanis'clth.b
Yet, Mr. Taylor poih'ted-dut,,ten.I
tralization dfo'fablifies. and- efforts.
nmust .'e obtairied if Florida citrus.
"is to meet competition and4bi-ing
returns which .will give the growers
a fair profit. Cooperation is. the
only method by-whichjthe problem
'adi-be solved, he declared.
inan-y, mar et i'organiizations-.and
too' many shipp rs" Mr. Taylor said.'
"I 0p not beli.ve"in' monopoly but.
I do believe that expenses could be
cu. by more centralization.
"The state has abput 125 market-
ing. organization? when four or. fiye
would. be sufficient. I-- do notbe-
lieve 125 can ever be brough,.tq.
gether .while four or five could,
'"Thhe growerstulc dcn.first;' 4If
there is.15 cen tf rofit;-for the packer,
and nothing -fior, the ;gower th en:
the orwer should get lis share of,
.th ie i cents "'.The gro'we fte'
fals .-Bethi. share." .-;-
E^'-TBS'h'f'i~ i s'.iLt A1<.I',,''H''i'i^i
Curb : ril
Joint Acdvert Eifr
In Main MaStsA
SThe 'ift s
an e l'be"-b M. .
vrertisirig. plan --s o
limitation of them o.
fruit is conti fu bd.
.Ths is. the o o
curtailbig 12i!h in J'id
*Wedhes:dy ,ebrS to Mohd
8. Th .Flonda titru jExha
member .siBopeof t heo
House a b gt. v'ottbpick g
during tf atpe'-i 'dand" i
t eI e g o :- h e's !ib -p pger
b.erA of eitheigro ptbjoi
-.epresent'atives of the
grirupt ms in Winter
day'. Tfep'8 .t:check bh
ShTpe'ents. h iad ~;~ta1
cars, anee fO e vo
be picked';al as
or precool oor
hadto-l:-eC .e- eral
." When 1t
i n teir'd,*h@
t 1 eY. i
eott ov;robk th4e value 'ofdiS
he'i~b6 phto' shoi~ This;is'-a
;tiei.ihn wic' EItEchaxii e display jir
iceas the- Tvolin di.of, citrts~ a ]
11=- S . '
ays- to increase, boi demand i -,, ,
idow iihsDiyt6 hi only e ofT S
figrnllbe Suc displays
1r306 percent or more *.,3; ,'
-y '#Wir~~ j~p~:
~EALD-SWEET CHRONICLE February 15, 1932
Will Attempt To
(Continued from Page 1)
station had been made that the
whole body of shippers would co-
operate in the present emergency.
Shipments fell from around 100 cars
a day to an average of 65 cars a day.
It had previously been decided by
the representatives of the Exchange
and the Clearing House that an ad-
vertising program in the principal
markets would be tied in if the
demonstration was considered suc-
cessful. It was proposed that the
Exchange and the Clearing House
each contribute $20,000 toward this
and that the third group of shippers
be asked to contribute a like amount.
The Exchange board approved this
appropriation at its recent meeting.
Concerning the restriction of
movement it was decided to handle
the program by the week, repre-
sentatives of the three groups meet-
ing weekly to set the figure for the
succeeding week. It was agreed
among all that curtailment must be
effected if the markets are to be
steadied and the growers to get any
*profit. It also is agreed that past
shipments have been far too much
for the markets to absorb.'
For the week of Feb. 8, it was
decided that the proper movement
should be 60 percent of the average
weekly movement of January. This
would make the shipment total for
the week around 400 to 425 cars.
Representing the Clears House
in the joint advertising mittee
are R. B. Woolfolk FW. IH.
Mouser. For the Exch ge are E.
E. Patterson and JoJft Moscrip. A
fifth member is to e chosen prob-
ably from the third group.
N. Y. AUCTION
Though the Exchange ship-
ped 42 percent of the state cit-
rus shipments the week ending
Jan. 16, its sales in the New
York auction were only 27.2
percent contrasted to its com-
petitors' 72.8 percent, the com-
parable week ending Jan. 23.
The week following shipment
is taken for sales to allow for
the time required to ship the
fruit from Florida to New
York and offer it for sale.
The week ending Jan. 23
the Exchange shipped 33.4
percent of the total state
movement. Yet it sold only 30
percent while competitors had
70 percent of the New York
auction sales for the compar-
able week ending Jan. 30.
Editor's Note-This is first of a number
of articles from the principal men of the
Exchange out in the markets, giving their
impressions and opinions on the citrus
situation and the Exchange system. Mr.
Zorn is in charge of the biggest and most
important market and is regarded by the
trade as well as the Exchange as one of the
most experienced and valued men in the
Many people have asked, "What's
wrong with Florida" and the query
has been prompted by Florida's ap-
parent inability to realize full value
for its products and particularly its
farm products. I have been asked
the question so many times and have
explained to outsiders so often, that
I have come to the conclusion it
might be well to tell Floridians what
Davis Reports On Western Situation
Texas citrus can be dislodged dency to restrict distribution con-
from its position of almost com- siderably in every jobbing territory.
plete central of the Western terri- The situation has been about as one
tory, but it is going to require extra jobber explained to me. He stated
hard, intensive work by the Flor- that the less business he did, the more
ida citrus industry, is the decision money he made, and with him it
brought back by Fred W. Davis, gen- was just a case of keeping in busi-
eral sales manager of the Florida ness until conditions readjusted
Citrus Exchange, after a visit to the themselves.
Western territory recently to check "Apples and other commodities in
up on the situation. Following is his the fruit line have been selling at
report on the Western territory: very low prices and this has had
"During the past two weeks, I its effect upon citrus sales generally.
made a trip to the markets and in- By comparison Florida growers have
terviewed a large number of the obtained more money for their fruit
jobbing trade throughout the south- than growers in any other producing
ern and western territory. Condi- district. All storage are loaded
tions generally throughout this ter- with apples, which are not moving
ritory are not encouraging. The and in many cases are being sold by
buying power, 'I am advised by all the storage companies to cover
jobbers, is only about half of what charges.
it. was last year. Jobbers report a Texas Competition
very slow movement on all commodi- "Texas, in view of a much heavier
ties, and supplies are being turned crop, has been shipping very heavily
over on a very small margin of profit into the southern and western ter-
and in many cases at a loss. ritories, which has made it extremely
"The credit situation in all ter- difficult for Florida shippers to com-
ritories has been very acute and this pete. Jobbers generally report that
has in many instances had a ten- (Continued on Page 7)
An Attractive Exchange Window Display
An attractive Exchange disp'ay in a town in the Cincinnati division, part of the regular
S. mercdandising service of the Exchange. Though such displays more than double or
, re :sal -erlthe' cost fo Ihe groer is only the regular retains for sales and advertising,
.^ c^.*. ombped. ,.epense, that is less than competitors' charges without this service.
Protest Rate Reduction
The-proposal of the Atlantic Coast
Line and the Seaboard Air Line rail-
roads to reduce the citrus rates to
the Eastern territory 18 percent has
been protested by steamship, in-
terests serving Florida, but as yet
the Interstate Commerce Commis-
sion has not suspended the new tariff
filed. The new tariff is to become
effective Feb. 22, one month after
it was filed, unless suspended by the
The reduction proposed by the
railroads 'would make the railroad
rates closer to a parity with the
conibined rail and boat rates, de-
creasing the advantage of the steam-
ship companies in the competition
for' transportation of citrus. The
protest was not unexpected as the
steamship companies made their
position clear before.
I have told others, in the hope it
may, in some small way, be of help.
From time to time I shall recount
in the Chronicle experiences which I
have had handling citrus fruit in
various markets and will give opin-
ions which are purely personal, but
opinions which are based upon num-
erous years of work in various
northern cities. I shall not attempt
to offer any program for correcting
the existing evils, because I feel
that there are those in Florida far
better fitted for that. I shall merely
recite incidents and happenings,
quote a few figures and offer a few
opinions, in the belief that by so
doing some uncertain points may be
cleared up and growers may obtain
a somewhat clearer view of the
broad aspect of the situation.
Price Control and the Grower '
Let us start with the dream of
all farmers-The Control of Prices.
To a very large degree manufac-
turers control the prices of their
products, but farmers, except in
rare instances, have been unable to
(Continued on Page- 7)
On Co-op Problems
Unanimous opposition to repeal.
of the Agricultural Marketing Act
or any amendment which would
abolish the Farm Board or transfer
its functions was voiced by the Na-
tional Cooperative Council at its
annual meeting in Washington, Jan.
The Council represents more than
$1,000,000,000 of agricultural co-
operative business. The Florida Cit-
rus Exchange is a member and is
represented on its Board of Direc- .-
tors by Pres. John A. Snively.
The Council is the national agency.
through which the cooperative or-.
ganizations, local, regional and na-
tional, can discuss national problems
and consolidate their influence on
cooperative problems to which' all
are agreed. It is one of the charter
rules that the Council shall work
on only those subjects upon which a
unanimous agreement has been
reached by the members.
The Council agreed unanimously
also upon repeal'of the provisions of
the Marketing Act which authorize
loans to cooperatives. It formally
expressed its appreciation of the
efforts of the Farm Board.'
It agreed unanimously against all
new irrigation or reclamation pro-
jects which would bring more land
into farm production.
It particularly urged vigorous
effort of the Department of Agri-
culture to obtain and provide farmn-
ers with specific and detailed in-
formation on the production and
marketing trends- affecting supply
and demand.. ''
What's Wrong With Florida Citrus?
By ERROL M. ZORN, Manager, Eastern Division
February -15,. 193.2
SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE February -15, "1932
Published twice a month in
the interest of cooperative
marketing and for the infor-
mation of the citrus growers
606 Citrus Exchange Bldg.
Postoffice Box 2349
Net Grower Circulation
Space Rates: $60.00 per page;
$35.00 half-page; $20.00 one-
quarter page; $2.00 per inch
all space under one-quarter
page. Minimum space: 1 inch.
Vol. VII FEB. 15, 1932. No. 18
"Banking" On Cooperation
Speaking before the New Orleans
meeting of bankers and cotton co-
operative executives, Eugene Sykes,
president of the First National Bank
of Aberdeen, Mississippi, was vigor-
ously applauded when he strongly
advised the marketing of cotton
through the cooperative associations.
He said: "They can store it, insure
it, and merchandise it cheaper than
we can, and they offer the logical
and most economical machinery for
getting the most out of this crop."
The same facts apply to citrus.
For example, the low cost of pack-
ing in the Exchange associations.
Practically no competitor packs as
cheaply even though the Exchange
standards are higher.
Another example is the sales and
advertising cost of the Exchange.
Combined, these charges are less
Than the competitors' sales charge
Sand he does not advertise nor give
the grower dealer service nor have
salaried men out in the markets to
Protect the growers' interests in the
SAgain also with salaries, the much
mh ooted question with s6me growers
ii rdthe object of much propaganda
by competitors. All the Exchange
salaries, including the northern
frce, do not amount to four cents
a box. Competitors pay five cents
a, bpx to solicitors alone with all
Sthe other salaries to be added to this.
SAs for "logical," is it logical for
the private operator' to reduce ship-
ments and reduce his profits or to
'viden distribution, intensify sales
-fforts, either of which increases his
expense and again reduces .his
As the banker said, cooperative
marketing is "the logical and most
economicall machinery for getting
the most out of the-crop."
"What farmers need is to do hud-
dle thinking," the Texas Farm and
Ranch quotes A. F. Lever as saying
in a recent address. It was Mr.
Lever who sponsored, in Congress,
the law for our present agricultural
extension service which carries his
name. He is a farmer and can chide
farming people as one who knows
and loves and is one of them.
Picturing a football team on the
field, Mr. Lever continued: "a pause
in the game; they 'go into a huddle,'
heads together, planning the next
move; and when the move is made,
it is made as a unit; each individual
acts his part in perfect coordination
with every other individual toward
a common goal.
"What is the next move in.the
game for farmers? Why not take a
lesson from the gridiron, put heads
together, plan the play, and all get
behind it, each in his own place? We
cannot all carry the ball; there must
be fullbacks and quarters, and some
for nothing more spectacular than
running interference for the man
with the ball.
"Coaches make mistakes in their
strategy; so do those chosen to di-
rect farm organizations. But the
men on the team do not sulk and
walk off the field in the midst of a
game. When cooperative members
take as much interest in learning
their own game os football enthus-
iasts do; when they give the best
they have themselves instead of
relying on the coach and the cap-
tain to carry the ball over the goal
line, cooperatives will begin to
achieve more of the goals which
farmers have yearned for these
Hand Writing On The Wall
"'Independent action cannot sur-
vive the present economic trials and
emergencies; there- must be regula-
tion ."'The Gainesville Sun de-
clares editorially, speaking of the'
situation.in Florida's citrus industry.
It is a serious and troublesome
problem, states the Sun'which takes
the stand that there must be "cen-
tralization of the entire industry if
disaster is to be averted."
The comment of the Sun is occas-
ioned by the article on compulsory
cooperation in a recent issue of the
Farm and Grove section of. 40 of
the state's newspapers. The article
'also has' attracted editorial atten-
tion ,from the Tampa Tribune and
No opinion directly uponkthe ques-
tion has been ventured by the press
so far. It is indicative of the seri-
ousness with which the present sit-
uation is regarded that spontafieous
opposition did not immediately fol-
low. 'Compulsory action except as:
it relates to restraint of crime has-
never been popular in this country
even in relation to moral questions.
Yet, we now witness serious thought
to a suggestion of compulsory action
which, we can safely say, would have
received instantaneous rejection a
few years back.
Only a gravely serious condition
could bring about this change in atti-
tude. Two successive seasons of im-
proper and inadequate distribution
and unsatisfactory returns have left
their mark upon all. Such reserve as
the growers have been enabled to
accumulate in seasons of good or
fair returns are not available this
season to carry over to the next. The
growers are in fact "up against it."
And when the growers are in such
condition, the State is adversely
affected with equal force.
So, the Gainesville Sun says "there
must be regulation, hence the argu-
ment that the State has the right
to step in and take drastic action to
that end as has now been done in
the case of arsenic.' ": ': :.
"The question arises as to how
far Florida can. and will go in the
conservation of one of its greatest
While the Tribune concludes that
the Florida Farm and Grove advo-
cacy of compulsory cooperation
"m'nay well receive the close and
thoughtful attention of Florida pro-
ducers and public. We have seen," it
continues, "the failure of repeated
efforts to bring the citrus interests
into complete cooperation and the
growers have, year after year, paid
the costly penalty of that failure."
Very interesting and illuminating
on public opinion toward the subject
is the editorial comment of the State
press on the-Supreme Court decis-
ion affirming the "anti-arsenic" law.
'The Gainesville Sun stated the de-
cision "brings a fresh.ray of hope
to Florida's already sadly and badly
handicapped citrus industry." It
brands the use 'of the aTsenical spray
as a. "nefarious practice-' .. : .
The Tampa Tribune calls the de-
cision a "decided victory for the
reputation and. quality of Florida
citrus, while the Winter Haven
Chief asserts "citrus growers of
Florida cannot help but feel a real
satisfaction in the action of the State
The Chief believes that the "use
of arsenic spray was largely.to blame
for the unsatisfactory returns from
the 1930-31 crop and that it came
near causing as much harm this sea-
son." The Chief further asserts that
'there is no legitimate excuse for
the use of such a spray while there
are a hundred reasons why it should
Turning into a boomerange, the
investigation of the special Senate
committee into the activities of the
Farm Board as demanded by antag--
onistic interests has been expanded
to include all the phases of handling
farm products, including the trade ,
exchanges and private distributors.
It is expected to reveal interesting
information on the profits and prac-
tices of the trade- and the specula-
The richest farmers in the world
are the Danish. This has been cited
by unquestioned authority too often
to be questioned. Naturally any
grower and farmer wonders why
the difference in standing between
the Danish and other agriculturists.
There is one general and specific
difference. All Danish farmers, in
fact all Danish agriculture, is co-
operative nationally cooperative.
It has been for many years..; -
"';lQuotihig Dr. E. C: Bransori of'the
University of North Carolina, *'they
are rich because they produce, inantu-
facture, finance and market their:
"They produce directly but they
finance, manufacture and market by
proxy through their cooperative or-
ganizations. And there .is no other
way out for the farmers in any land -'
Not so many years back as history
goes, the Danish farmers were serfs,
virtually slaving for others, their
only recompense the right to live.
Today they are the most independent
of all agriculturists of the world.
In contrast, how independent is
the American farmer, particularly.
the Florida citrus grower inde-
pendent in the, marketing of
his product, bound to no joint action
with his neighbor and state grower- :
except as he wills, "free" to do "as
he wishes? Such independence is
questionable-it does not even per-
mit.him to buy "grits and bacon"
freely. -- .
Isn't it a fact (judge the present
situation-and that for decade~ hack)
that the so-called "independence"
the farmer and grower here prizes
is leading him to almost. virtual--
slavery to others? : -
Danish farmers apparently have
found the true independence and
their secret of success is none other
than "dependence in each other-
Appropriation of $55,000' for
further experimentation with the
Medfly in Hawaii has been approved
by the House of Representatives.
Dr. C. L. Marlett, chief of the bureau
of entomology, U. S. D. A., testify-
ing during hearings on the agricul-
tural supply bill, reported to the
house appropriations committee
that the fly had been eradicated in
The fly is reported to be present
to a considerable extent in Hawaii
'where conditions are unuSually fav-
orable to it. This affords in'excep-
tional opportunity to study' it and
conduct experiments for its elimina-
tion -- ..
FReb~ruary -16,:7,1632 -
Febuan 1. 132SEAD-WEE CRONCL
Government studies show that 75,-
000 boxes is about the minimum vol-
ume for economic and efficient oprea-
tion of a packing house but there is
always the exception to the rule, as
for instance, Winnemissett Park
Company's operations in its Jasper
plant near DeLand.
Average volume of this small,
family plant is around 18,000 boxes,
yet it is probable that few plants in
the state, including the largest, have
a lower operating cost in spite of
the difference in volume of thou-
sands of boxes of fruit.
The secret of the low cost opera-
tion or rather the fundamental basis
for it rests in the fact that it is a
family institution from its location
almost in the heart of the family
grove holdings on to its operation
and management directly by the
"family~ It-belongs to the Keplers
with R. J. Kepler, Jr., a director on
the-board of the Florida Citrus Ex-
change, the directing head.
With the groves right at the doors,
The packing house of the Winnemissett Pa
the office door. The groves lie on the oppos
from the side yard
the cost of hauling the fruit is
practically nothing. Handling cost
is also held low by the use of field-
boxes only two-thirds the size of
standard boxes. This permits one
man to handle the fruit wherever
it is in the field boxes.
i -.. .Another important-low- cost-fac-
tor is the help can be interchanged
*'between the plant and field work,
Why experiment, when ORTHO
KLEENUP has proven its effect-
iveness in control of Florida's
citruspests.Made from a unique
oil especially refined for spray-
ing use.Write for folder.
oi spray for
a condition that only a small, fam-
ily operation would permit. It is
a very easy matter to shut down or
slow up house operations at little
or no expense, shifting most of the
house force to field work. With
the average packing house there are
often times when operations must
be slowed down and yet the labor
force must be kept at hand.
Such a family operation also
keeps office expense unusually low.
One bookkeeper comprises the whole
office staff and serves jointly for
the grove and the plant. Most small
houses have a minimum office force
and frequently the book work is
done principally by the manager,
but the expense still must be charged
wholly to house overhead, while in
this case it is divided between the
plant and grove.
The house itself in its structure
and equipment and the arrangement
of equipment and system of opera-
tion follows the family idea. The
building is "L" shaped and is com-
rk Company with Mr. Kepler standing near
ite side of the road. The picture was taken
of the Kepler home.
parable to the family home that is
added to as the family increases.
When originally started more than
a score of years ago, it was little
more than one moderate sized room.
This was intended and then later the
The Keplers years ago 'engaged,
in the mail order business which has
grown to important proportions. One
part of the "L" handles this part
of the business, while the older part
prepares the fruit for regular carrot
sales. The old and main part has
the dryer and washer and a half
sizer backed against the wall while
set beyond this in the newest addi-
tion is another half sizer from which
the fancy, mail order fruit is packed.
The dryer is the old Maull model,
first oi one of the first mechanical
dryers used in Florida, using a hot
air blast to assist in the drying of
One feature is the small amount
of equipment and its simple arrange-
ment.. The equipment is lined along
the wall leaving most of the space
in the building free for the stacking
of the boxes and handling of the
packed boxes. Receiving and load-
ing out are carried on all along the
Tangerine Situation Helped By Special Woirk
(Continued from Page 1)
the auction markets and has been
the means of developing an outlet
in many sections which will prove
very advantageous in seasons to
come. Many of the jobbers who
have declared that the tangerines
could not be sold in the smaller mar-
kets are now putting forth their best
efforts to supply the demand which
Exchange advertising and publicity
work created in their territories.
"The tangerine advertising cam-
paign in the west is an example of
what can be accomplished through
effective advertising and close sales
tie-up and is a clear indication of
what can be accomplished on a larger
scale for Florida citrus fruits as a
opposite side of the building which
has many wide doors allowing easy
access.: :' '
'All in all, the house is unlike any
other in Florida both in structure
and arrangement. It makes an in-
teresting study in comparison to the
intricately and elaborately equipped
and operated modern'plant.
whole if sufficient funds were avail-
able to put over a satisfactory cam-
"Under anywhere near normal
conditions, the success of this effort
from a price standpoint would have
been better, however; in spite of
the adverse conditions in all the mar-
kets, we have been able to get a
desired distribution at the prevailing
market price which is itself a de-
"The advertising and dealer sery-
ice work on tangerines will be con-,.
tinued for the balance of the season'
and new markets will be opened up
as rapidly as we are able to develop
In building the campaign, the Ex-
change selected a list of apparently
good consuming centers in which
taiigerine sales have beeie'very low.
in the past. It concentrated adver-
tising, dealer service and other pro-
motional'work in these areas, first.
setting in each a quota.
The service Brogdex renders our citrus crop is a
specialized one and has to do with its better carry-
ing and better keeping qualities.
Because this service has. become of recognized
value it is being imitated in one way or another.
These substitute methods are declared by the spon-
sors as being "just as good." Imitations of a good
article seldom give the satisfaction realized from
the genuine so these riake-shift methods are meet-
ing with indifferent success.
It is generally admitted that the value of borax
depends upon being followed by a good job of wax ,
application. If done otherwise ageing and wilt are
hastened and instead of improving delivery you ,.
have actually made it more difficult to put the fruit
into the market in a sound and attractive condi-
tion. The wax atomizer that melts the wax and
produces a wax fog through which the fruit passes
is a Brogdex developmeit-it is the only effective
way available today. But there are some very poor
ways of applying wax and by their use it is im-' -
possible to give the dealer the same beneficial serv-
ice that has developed for Brogdex a decided mar-
ket preference-and the dealer, don't forget, is the
mainspring 'ofthe market organization. -
Growers will find it will pay well to adopt the -
Brogdex pack, insuring sound delivery and longer
keeping time. .The market pays for that kind of
service because it protects the dealer's profits by
controlling his losses. ;
FLORIDA BROGDEX DISTRIBUTORS
B. C. SKINNER, Press. DUNEDIN, FLA.
Economy Operations At Winnemisset
- -.r - --c.
February 15, 1932
6 SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE February 15, 1932
GROVE, FIELD AND CROP NOTES
The first of the association annual
meetings of the season was hdld by
Lake Hamilton association, Tuesday,
Feb. 2, an advanced date to allow
non-resident members who are win-
tering in the state to attend.
One of the most important dis-
cussions related to the attitude
which has been allowed associations
in the sale of certain fruit, largely
brought about by the development of
truck and bulk movement. The asso-
ciation by resolution to Polk Sub-
Exchange recommended that this
attitude be eliminated and the sale
of all fruit hereafter be consumated
entirely through the sales depart-
In the election of the board and
organization, N. B. Cass was re-
elected president. Charles B.
Anderson was elected vice-president,
A. J. Wiley, second vice-president;
the Bank of Lake Hamilton, treas-
urer; D. B. Street, representative
Sto the Sub-Exchange; A. G. Rosell
and F. A. Holmes, additional mem-
bers on the Board and Lee B. Ander-
son, secretary and manager.
Pres. John A. Snively, Gen. Man.
C. Q. Commander, Vice-Pres. John
S. Taylor, C. H. Walker, president
of the Growers Loan and Guaranty
Company; J. Reed Curry, organizer
and,Earl Haskins of the Sub-Ex-
change, addressed the meeting.
: President Cass in his annual talk
called special attention to the value
of the trademark and stated that
S o.ne of the main efforts of an asso-
c lation should be to measure up to
the requirements of the Exchange
and give satisfaction to the trade
and consumers. Manager Anderson
reported volume handled to date at
75,000 boxes with 125,000 boxes to
move. Financial condition of the
association was fine, he advised.
Lakeland association has reduced
its charge for packing tangeries 15
cents a box and will refund this
-amount on the tangerine pools al-
ready paid out. Lower cost, through
savings from operations and re-
duced cost of materials, allows for
H. HARRIS & CO.
Fruit Auction Terminal
C r 'B. Doner. Fre d' L. Sprisgford
-- "i lrtll F. Miles
'J. bier Daly Clifford E. Myen
Probably no other feature of the
Florida Orange Festival arounsed as
much interest as did the huge com-
posite citrus fruit displayed by the
Florida Citrus Exchange. No less
than 8,243 persons stopped to "esti-
mate" the crop in this unique fruit.
Gusses ranged from 500 to one
northern visitor's imaginative reck-
oning that there must be 10,000,000
fruit jammed in the big ball which
was 10 feet wide and seven feet tall.
Another northern visitor figured
there must be at least 5,000,000.
Generally the guesses ranged
around the 30,000's as an average.
Governor Carlton guessed in this
range as did most of his official staff.
A committee of five counted the
fruit starting late in the evening of
the last day of the Festival. At
one time several thousand spectators
watched the counting and even as
the daylight hours approached there
were still a few.
Oh, yes, the number of fruit was
Difficulties interposed in the way
of a reduction of the express rates
on citrus to the Southern territory,
ranging from 20 to 30 percent, have
been smothed out and the reduc-
tion is in effect to this territory on
all express lines. The proposal in-
itiated by the Railway Express Com-
pany was suspended by the Inter-
state Commerce Commission on the
protest of the Southeastern Express
Company, which did not protest
against the reduction but against not
being included in making the re-
Effective Feb. 25, Texas will again
permit the entry of Florida citrus in
all but the Eexas citrus triangle and
a border of counties about this area.
Packed fruit must have a tag or
sticker which shows that the fruit
is admitted under the special regula-
tion and must not be taken into the
In the case of-bulk shipments the
railroad or other carrier must send
a statement to the State Department
of Agriculture showing date of ar-
rival of the fruit and to whom con-
The tags for the packed fruit may
be placed on the boxes after the car
of fruit has left the state but they
must be attached before the fruit
can be offered for sale by the Texas
Texas grapefruit is off of the mar-
ket months earlier than Florida and
the state should be a good consumer
of Florida grapefruit. Formedly it
was a heavy user of Florida citrus.
Polk county continued its suprem-
acy in citrus at the South Florida
Fair again winning first award with
Manatee county, its chief rival in
recent years, second by only a nar-
row margin of points less. A new
winner appeared among the citrus
exhibitors in Alachua county which
placed third, just ahead of Marion
county. The awards carry cash
prizes respectively of $500, $400,
$300 and $200. Hillsborough and
Pinellas counties, both of which had
attractive citrus exhibits, did not
compete for prizes.
Growers of the Crescent City sec-
tion have organized the Citrus
Growers Seminar for the discussion
and study of growers' problems in-
cluding marketing. T. S. Carpenter,
president of Crescent City associa-
tion, was elected president and Prof.
F. K. Knight of the department of
vocational agriculture, secretary.
Meetings will be held monthly with
special meetings on call. Informa-
tion on fertilization, cultivation,
spraying and other important citrus
subjects will be passed to the grow-
ers through the Seminar.
Sebring association had its annual
meeting Monday, Feb. 8, electing the
board and officers. It wil have a
general meeting and dinner for the
members later in the month.
Elected to the board were Col.
G. K. L. Bailey, re-elected president;
Edwin Lewis, vice-president; L. T.
Farmer, Wyack and Hollenberg.
Ray Nix was re-appointed secretary
"Florida's Finest" oranges and
grapefruit, branded "Seald-Sweet"
are now on the White House table,
delivered personally by the "Queen
of the Florida Orange Festival"
Kathleen Kelly of Lakeland. The
honor comes to the Exchange
through Florence association which
for the fifth time was awarded the
grand sweepstakes of the Festival
in probably the greatest competition
for the honor in the history of the
Rep. Herbert Drane of Lakeland
presented Miss Kelly to the Presi-
dent and Mrs. Hoover as the first
event in a program of entertainment
and honor to the "Queen." A won-
derful round of entertainment was
given Miss Kelly who reached the
Capitol by airplane. Luncheons, teas,
and dinners were tendered in her
honor while the opportunity was.
given her to meet many of the lead-
ing figures at the capitol.
Phil C. Peters, secretary and
treasurer of Winter Garden associa-
tion, will serve as manager for the
balance of the- season. Earl Hunter,
manager for several seasons, has re-
signed and is now connected with
the Florida branch of the Brogdex
Company and is stationed in New
York on an educational campaign
among the trade.
Sebring association has reduced
its packing charge on grapefruit and
tangerines 10 cents a box. Bulk
charge has been reduced five cents
r Widely recognized as a dependable
control for Aphis and Thrips on CiLrus
Fruits. May be added to other stand-
ft ard spray materials and fungicides.
This "double acting" insecticide has been the favorite spray
material of successful citrus growers for the past 20 years.
It not only kills Aphis and Thrips by direct contact, but also by
nicotine fumes. This is an advantage not possessed by any
non-poisonous, non-volatile insecticide.
RECOMMENDED BY EXPERIMENT STATIONS
"Black Leaf 40" enjoys the endorsement and recommendation
of leading growers, Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Sta-
tions and editorial writers throughout the country. Being
highly concentrated, this re!ilb'e insecticide is economical to
use as a little goes a long way. Full directions appear on
every package. Sold everywhere.
TOBACCO BY-PRODUCTS & CHEMICAL CORPORATION
February 15, 1932 SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE
Davis Reports On
(Continued from Page 2)
the consumer and retail trade have
.been very well pleased with the
quality of Texas fruit and that there
is a decided preference for Texas
grapefruit, largely on account of its
being a seedless variety. The grade
and pack from Texas has shown a
doecided improvement over former
seasons and this has been a decided
advantage to them in holding the
jobbing and retail trade in line.
"I received reports from many
of the western markets indicating
that individuals in those markets had
interests in Texas groves and were
doing considerable work in popular-
izing the sale of Texas fruit in each
section. Large land developments
in Texas have sold property to a
great many people throughout the
Central and Middle-West, naturally
these people have an interest in their
property and have been very en-
thusiastic over Texas fruit. The
jobbers generally advise that there
is much less sales resistance in sell-
ing Texas fruit and that both the re-
tail and consumer trade are demand-
ing seedless fruit, which makes the
sale of Florida seeded varieties very
"The facts of the matter are that
Texas with practically no advertis-
ing, has been able to maintain a
strong position in the West. In
order to re-establish Florida fruit
in this territory, particularly our
Duncan variety, it is going to neces-
sitate an intensive advertising cam-
paign bringing out very forcibly the
full value of Florida fruit to the
consumer. This will have to be fol-
lowed up by effective Dealer Serv-
ice work in getting both the re-
tailer and jobber to cooperate to the
West Against Bulk
"The shipment of bulk fruit on
.(oth oranges and grapefruit has
been comparatively light in the West.
the part of the trade towards hand-
Sling bulk fruit, most of the jobbers
Refusing to handle bulk fruit at all.
SIn nearly every instance the job-
bers I talked to advised that they
had lost money in handling bulk
fruit. Short weights, poor quality
and general loss in handling has con-
tributed to this condition.
"The trade generally are demand-
ing the standard package so as to
relieve any uncertainty as to what
they are buying. A limited demand
among the peddling trade for bulk
-still exists, however, this business
is generally undesirable and is only
available at very cheap prices. The
generally poor quality fruit, particu-
larly grapefruit, which has been
loaded in bulk for the western trade,
has made all buyers skeptical of
Fine Dealer Service Work
"I am very glad to report that
our dealer service men in the west-
ern territory have been doing very
effective work in connection with
our advertising and sales. Not only
the large markets, but all of the
small markets have been covered and
both the jobbing and retail trade
have been contacted. A number of
demonstrations have been held on
grapefruit and many attractive dis-
plays have been placed throughout
the West. Our coverage has been
very complete and has had the full
cooperation of all Exchange repre-
sentatives. Dealer service men are
being assigned to all territories so
that the Exchange advertising work
can be closely followed up with sales.
"During my trip to the West, I
noticed a great many of our bill-
boards featuring Exchange oranges
and grapefruit and am pleased to
advise that these posters were very
effective in color and were favorably
commented on by many of the job-
bing trade. At a meeting of all
western Exchange representatives,
we impressed upon the men the
necessity of pushing sales of grape-
fruit in their territory and to exert
every possible effort to keep their
trade fully supplied on grapefruit,
oranges and tangerines for the bal-
ance of the season."
What's Wrong-With Florida Citrus?
(Continued from Page 2) compelled to absorb a lot of punish-
do so and Florida citrus growers
hardly ever. Of course the answer
to that is, the manufacturer pro-
duces only that quantity of his prod-
ucts which, after careful survey, he
feels reasonably sure the public will
take, while the citrus producer does
not have absolute control over the
production of his product. Since,
then, that is an accepted fact, the
grower should endeavor to exercise
some measure of control over prices
by-regulating the quantity and qual-
ity shipped and by establishing some
reasonable restraint to the quota-
tions placed on the products offered
for sale. Unfortunately, so far as
Florida is concerned, the growers
have never even scratched the sur-
face in this respect. Quality has
ranged from the finest grown to
culls; no thought has been given to
the quantity shipped until after the
damage was done and as for quota-
tions, one man's guess has been as
good as another.
Reactions of the Primary Markets
Flooding some terminal markets
and partially starving others seems
to have been a favorite passtime of
Florida since the inception of the
citrus-industry. -- This practiceAis.
the inevitable result of an exces-
sively large number df shippers
handling the crop, for because of
their number it is impossible for
all of them to work together. The
result is quotations cover a wide
range, the trade becomes confused
and hesitant, f.o.b. sales slow up,
the consignment evil shows its head
and the price level drops precipi-
An attempt is then made to rectify
the situation by drastically curtail-
ing shipments and this brings about
.a sharp upward reaction in prices
which immediately develops greatly
increased shipments and prices again
come tumbling down, and the most
drastic fluctuations occur in the
primary markets which could be
kept on a fairly level keel because
of -their influence .on the secondary
and smaller markets of. the country.
The, primary markets, however,' are
ment. When shipments are increas-
ing, shippers become panicky and
f.o.b. quotations vary greatly, which
makes the dealers- in private sale
markets slow to make commitments.
Cars begin to pile up at diversion
points and then in desperation ship-
pers roll the cars to the large cen-
ters, without regard to the require-
ments of those markets, and prices
break badly. Then the dealers in
the smaller markets, not knowing
what to expect and witnessing heavy
receipts in the large auction mar-
kets, revise their price ideas down-
ward and in a very short time the
entire price structure for the coun-
try has been lowered unnecessarily.
Influence on the Secondary Markets
A few weeks ago I was in Syra-
cuse and this was all brought forci-
bly to my attention. I arrived there
early one Tuesday morning and
called on our representative who
told me that he had sold several
cars of oranges the previous day and
had several people interested who
would probably buy that morning.
Ihe day before, 91 cars of Florida
oranges had been sold in New York,
the largest sale in the history of
the business, and an unnecessarily
large offering. While we were talk-
ing the New York market report
came in the office, stating that the
market had declined considerably.
The inevitable, of course happened;
the Syracuse buyers all wanted to
buy oranges under our quotations
and were quick to cite the break in
the New York market as their rea-
Now, obviously, nothing had hap-
pened over night to change the sit-
uation. in the local market, but the
Syracuse trade insisted upon buy-
ing at lower quotations simply be-
cause the New York market had
declined. And what happened in
.Syracuse was duplicated in most
other secondary markets of the
country on that particular Tuesday.
This was due to poor distribution.
brought about by numerous small
shippers rolling fruit blindly with-
out knowledge of what their neigh-
bors were doing.
This wonderful orange is
rapidly gaining a de-
served popularity in the
northern markets and is
selling at a premium over
all other varieties.
One Orange County
grower (name on re-
quest) sold his fancy
Temples- this -seaso6-i-fr
$6.00 per box and the
balance of them for $2.75
per box on the tree.
TEMPLE trees, under our
exclusive copyright, ean
be sold legally only by
this Nursery. So great
has been the demand for
trees this winter, we are
now practically sold out.
Next winter, however, we
will have an ample sup-
ply of splendid trees. We
suggest that you place
your order long before-
hand, so as to avoid dis-
Glen Saint Mary
Write for a copy of our Special
American National Bank Bldg.,
in charge of
Mr. H. E. Cornell and Mr. G. A. Scott
Orlando Bank & Trust Bldg.
in charge of Mr. E. J. Parker
Room 31. F it National Bank Bldg.:--
inr charge of Mr.' L. L. Colljnsa-, .
-.. .. .- .a ,, f, s
February 15, 1932
-....f- ~-.- i-.- i
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LAKELAND b- 'IiGH_ L .ANIS :
CO-OPERATIVE- .ASSc CA I'O-
i .anini tIke Ci"is .ves of itsJ ?i," b ..
LAKELAND, FLORIDA OFFCE-7-i
January 4, ..1 "2
Lyorns Fertilizer company
- Gentlemen: .
-At the start of a new year I wish to take -
the ocoasion a st. opportune for extending to you the
appreciation of thi Aessociation in the-aid you have given
us In improving the quality of our frruilt, as wella;s the.
general conaltion of our groves. '
About three years ago we started using your -
fertilizer as prescribed by you, with the. result thate. have h 'v'-
nad from year to year an improvement in-the grade of" rdult. : .'--
produlced. As our groves cover a large part of twenty see.toni'..
wth a big variety.-of citrus trees _add .diferent-sobi- .'o l
our fertilizer problem has. alwyly 'be'e one requirngooin li
study and-a.ttentt i. The results have:.attained testify
the. quality of. your-produots '-ab d. te rvioe of, your
. .. . _- _
a. .-. 7
,- ., __- .- ".: L . . -.
U-I .- GS: : .-
T h is -..,- . -.-.. ,- : -
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a,-This Association has found -that it is not the first., cost per ton,6
., -( final results in aeld d' .qUality ._ f_ B_.urnihtrrne ^-ne 5 i i
:' . . -, .' .- . : .. .. -.
of + q-.- fertlZerl:. economy. .-. -. -, -
SThere IS A Diff erce- In Fertilizer In.
f .....- -
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a.,. A-- - -
Exc8. Bldg. -
..41i L, M LA. L --. ;W.1
61~a MS..-- C..v~a -
S QA-LITY EZR
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