Title: Seald-sweet chronicle
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075292/00024
 Material Information
Title: Seald-sweet chronicle
Alternate Title: Seald sweet chronicle
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Florida Citrus Exchange
Florida Citrus Exchange
Place of Publication: Tampa Fla
Publication Date: November 1, 1931
Frequency: semimonthly
Subject: Citrus fruit industry -- Newspapers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Tampa (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Hillsborough County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: newspaper   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Hillsborough -- Tampa
Coordinates: 27.970898 x -82.46464 ( Place of Publication )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased on Apr. 15, 1932.
General Note: "Florida's only citrus newspaper."
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 4, no. 24 (May 15, 1929).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075292
Volume ID: VID00024
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AJH6537
oclc - 31158390
alephbibnum - 001763371
lccn - sn 97027656

Full Text


I POSTMASTER: If addressee has moved

$500,000 in Refunds

By Associations Out

OF Operating Saving
Refunds of associations out of
packing savings of the past season
aggregated more than $500,000, ac-
cording to special reports on the
matter which have been received by
General Manager Commander. This
answers conclusively, Mr. Com-
mander believes, the question raised
in regard to grower-ownership of
packing plants.
It is noteworthy that these re-
funds were made out of packing
charges which generally were the
lowest in years and were around 10
to 15 cents a box or more under
tha competitive standard. In a few
instances the refunds were out of
charges which had been set in line
with competitive charges.
Prove Efficiency
This general level of lower charges
shows the growth of efficiency and
economy of operations among the
associations, in the opinion of Mr.
Commander. The refunds also show
the value of grower-ownership and
operation of plants.
About one-fourth of the associa-
tions made up the group which was
able to make the cash refunds out of
savings. Many others made cash
redemptions of retain certificates
which were not included in the above
total. It is the policy of the Ex-
change to build up the standards of
operations in all associations so that
all will be on the same level of
efficiency and economy.
Mainly, however, this is a prob-
lem for the grower-members of the
associations, according to Mr. Com-
mander. They elect the directors
who cUDse the manager. It is up to
the growers, he believes, to see that
effective directors are selected and
that the management is equal it the

Carrying the first export of
the Exchange, the "Georgian"
is scheduled to leave Jackson-
ville for London, Nov. 6 with
,seven cars of Exchange fruit.
The "Shickshinny" is sched-
uled to sail from Jacksonville
for Liverpool on the 12th with
eight cars from the Exchange.
Another ship probably will
easve shortly after the 15th
for London. :

Recent parliamentary elections
in England had a direct in-
terest for citrus growers. The
new parliament will take up
the question of tariffs which
has become one of the import-
ant issues and which has an im-
portant bearing on citrus ex-
ports from this country.
At present Florida citrus is
admitted duty free and there is
considerable agitation to im-
pose a duty, both as a means
of raising revenue sore iniFeed-
ed and as a protective measure
in behalf of Empire producers.

Sales Meeting Nov. 2

The annual sales convention of the
Florida Citrus Exchange will open in
Tampa, Nov. 2, with all division and
district managers and some of the
brokers present. It is held in Florida
this year to give the market staff
first hand views of citrus culture and
the handling of the fruit.
The first day will be given over
almost entirely to business with sub-
exchange and association directors
and managers invited to attend. It
will be held in the Exchange as-
sembly room. Sales and advertising
plans will be discussed thoroughly in
connection with the conditions re-
ported by the visitors for their re-
spective territories.
The visitors will be taken over the
state Wednesday, visiting groves
and packing houses in the various

Hyde Sees Cooperation as Security

Of Fundamental National Principles

Says Only Way to Preserve Individual Independence;
Condemns Legislative Restriction of Production
Also Oklahoma and Texas "Shotgun Cooperation"

Exchange Gains More

Than Million Boxes

New memberships have given the
Florida Citrus Exchange a net gdin
of more than 1,150,000 boxes after
deducting the loss through with-
drawals. This makes an appreciable
increase in the percentage of con-
trol exercised by the Exchange.
This does not mark all the in-
crease. The reports on which the
figures were based were submitted
several weeks ago and since then
many additional new memberships
have been signed, several of which
represent large individual volumes.
It is probable that the figure above
will be increased by several hundred
thousand boxes before the final gain
for-the season is recorded.

Help Florida Develop Citrus Products

Above are the several executives of the Department of Agriculture who are responsible
for the program and work- of Florida's citrus laboratory, formally presented to the de-
partment Friday- Oct. 23. Lft to right: Dr. Henry C. Knight chief of,,the Bureau of
Ch~mistry. and Soils; Secretary -of Agriculture Arthur M. Hyde, Dr. W. W. Skinner,
assistant chief, Chemical and-Technological Research; Harry 'W. Von Loesecke, senior
chemist of. the laboratory; Dr. E. M. Cbace, chief chemist for Fruits and Vegetable
Field Work; Dr. F. C. Blanck, Chief of Division of Food Research.

Formal presentation of the FTor--
ida citrus laboratory to the United
States Department of Agriculture'
turned into an oracle through which
cooperative marketing was pro-
nounced to be not only the salvation .
of agriculture but the one means to
preserve that independence of the
individual upon which the nation
was founded and continue the high
American standard.
The new doctrine appeared in the
words of the Secretary of Agricul-
ture, Arthur M. Hyde, that "the only
way to preserve the rights of the
individual is for the individuals
themselves to cooperate" and "until
this policy is taken with American
industry human rights, liberty and
political freedom that our fore-
fathers fought for, will be lost." -
Interesting Program
The dedicatory ceremony at Win-
ter Haven, Friday, Oct. 23, starting
with luncheon at the Haven hotel,
was very interesting. It pulsated
with the high hopes for the future
that the laboratory has inspired.
Speaker after speaker, including
the Secretary- of-Agri-cltttuife',stes-*-' 7
sed the possibilities that lay in re-
search. .
Without diminishing in the slight-
est degree the position of research '-
in. the.. progress of the industry,
cooperative marketing, however, be-
came the keynote of the ceremony.
The Secretary of Agriculture, "rep-
resentative of the nation on a mis-
sion of goodwill to Florida," quoting
Mayor O. P. Warren in his welcome,
blew up the flame of cooperative
marketing so brightly that it was the
main topic 'of comment among the
200 assembled as tl y left the din-
ing hall.
Of special interest were the ievs
he expressed presumably toward the
recent legislative attempts to regu-
late .production and also toward the
utilization of martial law, in QOk-
homa and Texas :to. fbrce Moit tol
among the oil produceis. -
S (Cohtinied on Page 2) --

. -

to another potoce notify sender n fo. JACKSON ST.
3547. postage for which is guaranteed.I 1924 E. JACKSON ST

Seald-Sweet Chronicle


Entered as Seeend Class Mail Matter
Vol. VII sUBCoIPTION PRICE o50 cNTm PERB iE~ TAMPA, FLORIDA, NOVEMBER 1, 1931 at the P st Office at Tampa, Florida No. 11
Under the Act of March 8. 1879.


Truck Movement Now

in Daily Report on Citrus

Shipments From


Florida is the first state in thle
union to have authentic records
daily on truck movement out of the
state, clearing away the clouds of
guesswork which handicapped in-
telligent planning of distribution.
Maturity inspection guards posted
on all the arteries out of the state
now report the movement of truck
fruit daily, affording the industry
for the first time a complete picture
of the citrus movement and enabling
marketing agencies to allow ac-
curately for the truck volume in
planning their shipments.
The innovation is of immeasur-
able value. Heretofore, one could
only guess at the volume of the
truck movement and the guesses
were as far apart as the poles.
The truck volume for last season still
is a puzzle with some estimating as
low as 1,500,000 boxes and others as
high as 4,000,000.
Mayo Cooperates
The authentic information on the
truck movement is available through
Commissioner of Agriculture Nathan
Mayo who instructed the guards to
report on the movement daily. Daily
reports will enable the federal mar-
ket news service, which includes the
truck movement in its report, to pass
on the information only 24 hours be-
hind the rail movement.
The guard service is on duty day
and night and is in the position to
obtain exact information. They stop
every truck of citrus to see if it is
covered by proper maturity certi-
fication. No truck is allowed to pass
if the certificate is missing or faulty.
The inspection service ends Decem-
ber 1, but arrangements have been
made to continue the check on move-
ment to Jan. 1 and efforts will be
made to continue it through the sea-
son if it possibly can be done.

Mediterranean Basin

Reports Large Crop
Recently released figures on the
orange production in the Mediter-
ranean Basin show the tremendous
handicap against development of or-
ange exports from this country.
Agricultural Cimmissioner N. I.
Nielson estimates 1931-32 produc-
tion from the Basin will total more
than 47,000,000 boxes.
The principal volume is produced
in Spain for which the estimate is
35,000,000 boxes. Italy is second
with 8,000,000 boxes. Palestine's
citrus industry is steadily growing
as can be seen by the export esti-
mate of 2,900,000 boxes. Algeria,
the remaining Mediterranean com-
mercial producer is credited with
1,300,000 boxes.

Selling the Nation on Grapefruit



Hundreds of newspapers throughout the country gave grapefruit a million dollars
worth of publicity with this picture above of the famous orchestra leader, Paul White-
man, "weighing in" minus 70 pounds as result of grapefruit before each meal as
prescribed by his bride, the movie star, Margaret Livingston. Erwin, Wasey & Com-
pany, advertising agency of the Exchange, issued the. picture and story to the press
through its publicity department.

Prepare Special Plan

To Handle Tangerines

For Greater Profits
Plans which it is hoped will put
tangerines on a profitable basis have
been worked out for the Exchange,
General Manager Commander re-
ported to the Board of Directors.
These will include specialty work
and considerable advertising.
Arrangements have been made
with the Clearing House to avoid
duplication of effort in advertising.
The Clearing House will expend its
funds in selected cities and Ex-
change tangerine advertising will
appear in othl3rs. All these markets
will be open to both, however.
Will Even Distribution
Special effort will be made to
build up those markets which have
been poor consumers of tangerines.
The survey by the Exchange the past
summer disclosed a disasterously un-
even distribution.
It is estimated that the Exchange
has about 40 percent of tla tanger-
ine crop. It is believed that the
auctions, highest markets for tan-
gerines, should take about half. It
is proposed that only the best sizes
and grade be sent to the auctions.
The smaller sizes and lower grade
will be handled in special manner,
first to encourage wider use of tan-
gerines and second, to build up wide

Markets Dull as Volume

Increases; Hot Weather

Delays Seasonal Demand
Markets continued dull the last
helf of the month as grapefruit
shipments became Heavy and or-
anges began to move forward in
greater volume. Warm weather held
down demand while California or-
anges held their preference over the
Florida fruit.
The market showed a further de-
cline the week ending Oct. 24, auc-
tions averaging $3.04, delivered, for
all sizes and grades, compared with
$3.47 the week before. On Nov. 1
the price range for the week was
$4.24 to $2.02 and for No. 2, $3.55
to $1.92. In the private markets
Seald-Sweet was selling for $2.00
f.o.b. with 25 cents a box more for
cars of favorable sizes and 25 cents
a box less on cars of the off sizes.
Texas got even less, averaging $2.13
in the auctions.
.Orange Averages
On oranges that week the auc-
tions .averaged $3.46 delivered for
No. 1 arid $2.40, delivered, for No.
2. The Exchange sold only one car
at auction" following the policy of
private sales. Sald-Sweet in the
private markets brought $3.50 to
$2.75 f.o.b. and Mor-juce $3.00 to
$2.50, f.o.b:. Base price has been on:
216s; 250s and smaller taking heavy
discounts. California oranges de-

Cooperation Security of

Fundamental Principles
(Continued from Page 1)
"Whenever the time comes in this
country when anybody except the
farmer himself can tell how many
acres of land the farmer can plow
and plant, we shall say goodbye to
our ideas of personal liberty," Mr.
Hyde declared at one point in his
Shotgun Law
At another point he said:
"I hope I never live to see whJsn
the farmer's production is limited
by 'shotgun' law."
Excerpts from Mr. Hyde's address
appear elsewhere in this issue.
Judge Allen E. Walker, chairman
of the program committee, after in-
vocation by Mayor Warren, turned
the program over to Rep. Herbert
J. Drane of Lakeland, who was given
the tribute by several of the speak-
ers of having had much to do with
getting the laboratory for Florida.
Mr. Drane read the telegraphed re-
grets of Governor Doyle E. Carlton
that he was unable to attend. Gov-
ernor Carlton proclaimed tWe open-
ing of the laboratory as "another
step in the wonderful progress of
the citrus industry."
Leslie B. Anderson, chairman of
the Winter Haven special committee,
made the formal presentation of the
laboratory to the Department of
Agriculture, commenting upon the
public spirit of George Andrews,
prominent citizen of Winter Haven,
who personally guaranteed the un-
derwriting of the laboratory before
the plans of financing by equal con-
tributions of Winter Haven, the
Florida Citrus Exchange and the
Clearing House were concluded.
Dr. Henry C. Knight, chief of the
Bureau of Chlamistry and Soils, ac-
cepted the laboratory for the De-
partment. Dr. W. W. Skinner,
assistant chief of Chemical and
Technological Research, spoke on
what the research means to the cit-
rus industry. Dr. F. C. Blanck, chief
of the Division of Food Research
followed with a talk on the program
for the new laboratory.
Chairman E. L. Wirt of the Ex-
change board and A. M. Tilden, presi-
dent of the Clearing House made
shJort talks, -while following the ad-
dress by Mr. Hyde, Sen. Park Tram-
mell of Lakeland and Nathan Mayo,
Commissioner of Agriculture, were
S.Visit Laboratory
Inspection of the laboratory fol-
(Continued on Page 5)

dined though eating quality of the
fruit is good and appearance appears
to be. improving instead of going
It is estimated that California had
around 700 cars of Valencias to
move- after the 1st.-----.


November 1, 1931

Official Committee Issues Uniform Fertilizer Recommendations

After weeks of work upon uni-
form fertilizer recommendations a
special committee of the College of
Agriculture has submitted a report
for the guidance of the growers.
The report on citrus recommenda-
tions follows in full.
The committee was composed of
members of the resident teaching,
Experiment station and Extension
service divisions. Members were:
W. L. Floyd, E. L. Lord, H. G.
Clayton, E. F. DeBusk, W. E. Stokes,
M. R. Ensign, H. H. Hume, O. C.
Bryan, J. Lee Smith, R. W. Ruprecht,
A. F. Camp, Wilmon Newell, S. T.
Fleming, A. P. Spencer, W. T. Net-
tles, R. M. Barnette, G. H. Black-
Following is the report:
Citrus Fertilizer Recommendations
Local conditions, such as moisture,
soil type, cover crop, variety, root-
stocks, etc., play an important part
in the behavior of citrus trees toward
fertilizer treatments. Therefore, the
fertilizer recommendations herein
set forth are subject to local modi-
Organic Matter
Most citrus soils in Florida are
low in organic matter. Moreover, it
is generally recognized that organic
matter increases the efficiency of
the fertilizer as well as improves the
quality of the soil. Therefore, the
committee recommends that at least
three tons (dry weight) of coarse
organic matter, in the form of cover-
crops (or hauled into the groves),
be applied to each acre of grove soil
Fertilizer Nutrients
Chemical analysis shows that the
average Florida citrus soil (virgin)
is low in the essential fertilizer
nutrients nitrogen,' phosphorus,
and potassium. Citrus production
has been obtained by adding these
elements to the soil from time to
Nitrogen Sources:
Inorganic Sources of Nitrogen:
Sulphate of ammonia and nitrate of
soda have been used most extensive-
ly and have given satisfactory re-
Newer Sources of Nitrogen: The
newer sources of chemical nitrogen
have not been tested as extensively
or for as long a period, but indica-
tions are that the following may be
recommended for further trial by
the growers: urea, nitrate of lime,
urea-nitrate of lime, nitrate of pot-
ash, nitrate of soda potash, am-
monium phosphate and ammonium
nitrate sulphate.
Organic Sources of Nitrogen:
Under tests certain single sources of
organic nitrogen have not been as
efficient as sulphate of ammonia and
nitrate of soda. However, organic
sources in combination with inor-
ganics Have been extensively used,

(Each of the following programs is complete within itself)
Mixed Fertilizer Program
Time of Kind and amount of fertilizer materials and mixtures to
Application** be applied per foot of tree spread (or diameter of top)
Jan.-Feb. 1 lb. mixed fertilizer, 5-6-3, or its equivalent
SUMMER 1 lb. 4-6-8 or equivalent to trees under 10 years old
April-June 1 lb. 4-6-10 or equivalent to trees over 10 years old
FALL 1 lb. 4-6-5 or equivalent to trees under 10 years old
Dec.*** 1 lb. 4-6-8 or equivalent to trees over 10 years old

Materials Program
Time of Kind and amount of fertilizer materials and mixtures to
Application** be applied per foot of tree spread (or diameter of top)




1/ lb. nitrate of soda or 1/6 lb. ammonium sulphate
Organic nitrogen may be used when justified by prices and
For further trial by growers
1/ lb. nitrate of soda-potash or nitrate of l'me
% lb. urea-nitrate of lime,, or 1/121bs. urea, or equivalent
amounts of materials recommended for trial
(a) Repeat the spring application of nitrogen, reducing the
amount 10-20% where spring cultivation is practiced
and 20-30% following a Heavy legume cover crop.
(b) 1 lb. superphosphate (16%) or the equivalent. This
may be reduced 50% in groves over 20 years old.
Other sources of phosphorus may be used when justified
by delivered unit price conditions.
(c) 1/6 lb. sulphate or muriate of potash to trees under
10 years of age.
1/5 lb. to older trees or trees believed to need more
potash. Other potash materials may be used in equiv-
alent amounts.

Repeat summer application (a) and (c)

Modified Program
Time of Kind and amount of fertilizer materials and mixtures to
Application** be applied per foot of tree spread (or diameter of top)
Jan.-Feb. Use spring application in Material Fertilizer Program.
SUMMER 1 lb. 4-8-8 or equivalent to trees under 10 years old
April-June 1 lb. 4-8-10 or equivalent to trees over 10 years old
Oct.- Same as summer application
For trees 1 to 6 years old reduce the regular fertilizer from 30% to 5%, re-
spectively. On heavy hammock the total amount of plant food may be somewhat
** For each program of fertilizer practices, apply /2 to % the spring application of
nitrogen ni August or September to non-bearing trees, and to trees showing the need
of nitrogen, and where a heavy non-legume cover crop has been turned into the soil.
*** Fall application of fertilizer may bei reduced or even omitted in northern part
of citrus belt or where conditions seem to justify the practice.

and may be used where prices and
conditions justify.
Sources of Phosphoric Acid:
Super phosphate has been the most
satisfactory source of phosphoric
acid under ordinary grove condi-
tions. Other sources of phosphates
may be used for trial by the grow-
er when the delivered unit price is
in keeping with economic practices.
Sources of Potash:
High grade sulphate of potash has
been the most commonly used source
of potash under average grove con-
ditions, but muriate of potash seems

practically as good so far as it has
been tested. The following sources
of potash are recommended for
further trial by the grower-nitrate
of potash, nitrate of soda potash,
and sulphate of potash-magnes'a.
Ratio of Fertilizer Nutrients
From an analysis of citrus fruit
and trees, a ratio of 4-1-5 (NH3-
P205-K20) would take care of crop
needs. But due to the differences in
availability and absorption of the
nutrients by the soil, especially phos-
pHates, the above ratio of fertilizer
nutrients has not always been satis-

factory. This is especially true with
heavy soils with a high phosphate
fixing power. On the other hand
recent studies show that the sandy
soils of the citrus belt have a low
phosphate fixing power, but a high
retaining power for phosphate, and
it is not necessary to add a high
proportion of phosphate in the fer-
tilizer as is the case on the heavy
clay soils, or loams of other sections
of the country. In many instances
the results indicate that a ratio of
/2 phosphoric acid to 1 of ammonia
would supply all the phosphorus
needs of old groves on the sandy
soils of the citrus section. With all
angles considered it appears safe to
add a ratio approximately 1-1-11
(NH3-P205-K20 respectively).
Time and Rate of Application
It is the usual practice to apply
fertilizer to citrus according to the
age and bearing capacity of the
trees. This practice, however, is sub-
ject to criticism, because of the ir-
regular bearing habits of trees, as
well as the differences in size of thef
trees due to variations in soil,- root-
stock, etc. Recent studies show that
under ordinary conditions the spread
of the tree or the tree size would be
a more correct index of tree needs
than age and bearing capacity. So
the recommendations suggested
herein base the rate of application
on the actual tree spread (diameter
of top). This amounts to approxi-
mately .13 of a pound each of am-
monia, phosphoric acid and potash
per foot spread of tree. Preliminary
field measurements show that this
compares favorably with grove prac-
For a large part of the citrus belt
experimental results and field ob-
servations indicate that the most
reliable results can be obtained
under general conditions with three
applications of nitrogen per year-
spring, summer, fall. But due to
the retaining.power of the soil for
phosphates and potash, there is ap-
parently little to be gained by add-
ing the phosphoric acid and potash
three times per year.
Method of Application
The fertilizer should be applied
evenly over the soil surface, as far
as the roots extend.

The St. Johns River Line, operat-
ing river ships between Sanford and
Jacksonville, has added a new, all-
steel boat, the "City of Sanford,"
with facilities for 8,000 boxes of
citrus. It is understood the com-
pany has agreed to transport the
fruit from the packing houses to
the docks. TLa company has two
other boats which can carry 5,000
and 2,000 boxes, respectively, and
another boat available which has a
capacity of 15,000 boxes. The com-
pany quotes a rate to New York of
46 cents a box.

November 1, 1931


S~ALD-SWEET CIIRONICLI~ November 1, 1931

Seald- Sweet


Published twice a month in
the interest of cooperative
marketing and -for the infor-
mation of the citrus growers
of Florida.

606 Citrus Exchange Bldg.
Publication Office:
Tampa, Florida
Postoffice Box 2349

Net Grower Circulation
over 12,500

Space Rates: $60.00 per page;
$35.00 half-page; $20.00 one-
quarter page; $2.00 per inch
all space under one-quarter
page. Minimum space: 1 inch.

Vol. VII NOV. I, 1931. No. 11

Times-Union on Citrus
An unusually fine editorial on the
citrus industry, tide growers and the
Florida Citrus Exchange appeared
recently in the Jacksonville Times-
Union and is reproduced below.
With another citrus season "just
around the corner," and with a great
deal to be done in the way of closing
ranks and completing organization,
shipping and marketing plans for
1931-32, it behooves every citrus
grower in Florida to take of condi-
tions at home and elsewhere, if the
interests of the grower are to be
safeguarded and the men whlo pro-
duce the goods are to receive their
just share of the proceeds.
Subnormal Conditions
Nobody should need be told that
conditions are abnormal in every in-
dustry, citrus included. Perhaps
subnormal would be the better word,
because the pulse of the entire busi-
ness world is alarmingly low, in spite
of half heartedly optimistic reports
from widely scattered localities and
in greatly divergent lines of in-
dustry. Curtailed buying power is
a condition that exists all over this
country. Wage earners who are out
of work or working part time, pro-
fessional people whose incomes have
been whittled down almost to the
vanishing point practically every
body loosely bunched under the
classification "the great American
buying public" find themselves
feeling the pinch of unaccustomed
conditions; and so far, no workable
plan has been brought forward to re-
lieve this nation-wide condition. Of
course nobody is gloomy and blue
enough to hold that this general con-
dition will not eventually be over-
come; American resilience and re-
sourcefulness will surely see to that,
in time. But Florida citrus growers
cannot wait for the slow process of

evolution and the slow swing of the
business pendulum from nadir to
zenith. They must do something
now, immediately, if tHey are to save
themselves and the industry of which
they are units. And they can do it!
In the Florida Citrus Exchange,
and in no other agency, can the cit-
rus growers do this, but they can do
it with that agency, if they will.
The Exchange has been in exist-
ence more than 20 years. In that
time it Has made friends and
enemies. It has made many suc-
cesses and some mistakes. It has suf-
fered at times from ill-advised poli-
cies, as what business has not? But
it has gone on, year after year, try-
ing; and of what Florida industry
can that be said as truly and fairly?
One of this country's great fra-
ternal organizations has as its motto:
"The faults of our brothers we
write upon the sands; their virtues
we inscribe on the tablets of love
and memory."
Forget Benefits
In the citrus industry of Florida
it has all too often been the other
way around; we have graven the
sHortcomings of the Florida Citrus
Exchange in undying memory, while
its benefits have soon been forgotten.
If it were possible to burn into the
mind of every Florida citrus grower
the fact that the growers themselves
have the power, at any time they see
fit ti use it, to bring about -any
changes they desire, the situation
would be clarified almost overnight.
The structure of the Exchange is
built upon and around the growers
themselves-tHrough their local as-
sociation, through the sub-exchanges
and straight up to the central organ-
ization. When causes for complaint
are permitted to continue, the fault
lies right at the door of the growers
themselves, and nobody else. If a
man sees his house burning down
and chooses to go fishing instead of
getting his neighbors on the run to
help him put it out, whose is the
The Florida Citrus Exchange is
what the growers have made it.
That they have done a fairly good
job is attested by the fact that the
Federal Farm Biard has placed upon
it the seal of approval as the one
recognized citrus cooperative to be
permitted to borrow Federal funds
for financing. Its structure and man-
agement last season earned the high-
est commendation of C. C. Teague,
then the citrus and small fruit mem-
ber of the farm board, who said,
while on an inspection trip to this
state, that he had "heard many com-
pliments to C. C. Commander, gen-
eral manager of the Exchange, as a
thoroughgoing fruit man who knows
the citrus business from the bot-
tom up, and who has the confidence
of- many in hits knowledge of the
rJerghaJdising 'ot'cijpug."'; :
Should Dominate
With an organization like the Ex-

change, already built and function-
ing; with that organization given
the confidence and support of the
Federal Farm Board; with a man at
the helm of management who knows
his business "from the bottom up,"
there should be no great difficulty
in placing the Exchange in a posi-
tion where it could exercise, unchal-
lenged dominance in the citrus in-
dustry of Florida. This will not be
brought about by bickering, fault-
finding, recriminations, and asser-
tions of mismanagement, from out-
side the Exchange. Growers, put
this down in your little red memo-
rondum book: When a man, or men
representing interests in conflict
with the organization that has re-
ceived the O.K. of the United States
Government itself, tries to stir up
dissatisfaction and strife and ill-feel-
ing among growers, that man has
a personal ax to grind, and he's go-
ing to use it to cut off your own
financial head.
If there are faults in the struc-
ture and operation of the Exchange,

correct them from within. If you re-
fuse to line up with the Exchange
and the growers who compose it,
you haven't a shadow of right to
criticise it. Not only that, but you
are hurting your own business and
you are hurting the business of every
other grower as long as you continue
your fault-finding and remain out-
side the Exchange. From the heads
of that great Florida citrus coop-
erative down, from President
Snively, General Manager Com-
mander, Merton L. Corey, nation-
ally known organizer of coopera-
tive associations, down to the small-
est grower in the ranks, the Ex-
change has been approved by the
Federal Farm Board-approved to
the extent of more than $3,000,000
with more to come when needed to
finance this State's citrus industry.
Get In
Get into the Exchange, and then
if you find things you don't like,
get to work to correct the faults
(Continued on Page 5)

Pack through-


-and get more
"We will insist that the fruit we buy is Brogdexed and are willing
to pay a premium for it."--W. M. FISHER & SONS Co., Columbus.
"If it were up to us to pay the small amount to have the fruit
Brogdexed we would gladly do so."-O'DONNELL-DUNN Co.,
Almost without exception buyers' prefer Brogdexed
fruit. They specify it on f.o.b. sales and frequently
pay a premium for it on auction sales. Some will not
handle any other kind.
Florida packers are fully aware of this situation.
They have seen the Brogdex volume jump from 1'/2
million boxes to 6 million boxes in a year's time. They
realize the time has come when it will be necessary
to ship better keeping fruit.
Some have played the game safe and put in Brogdex.
Others will attempt to obtain the equivalent of Brog-
dex control through experimental methods. It goes
without saying that there is going to be a lot of grief
and some heavy losses in store for those growers who
are willing to gamble on results.
Substitutes are rarely equal to the original. There
are spurious imitations of any thing that is good.
Brogdex has established a fine reputation and stands
today the popular choice of buyers in every northern
Your own interest should dictate the use of the
genuine Brogdex treatment and let the other fellow
pay for the experimental work. There is a Brogdex
house near you.
Tune in on WFLA every Monday night at 7:45 for the Brogdex program.

B. C. Skinner, Pres. d Duine'in, Florida "


November' 1, 1931


Cooperation Security of National Principles
(Continued from Page 2) the meat-packing industry, there was
lowed immediately after the lunch- nothing wasted. In his opinion the
eon program and many took the op- most pressing problem is the preser-
portunity to visit it under the guid- vation of citrus juices. There are
ance of the department executives, also a number of components in Flor-
Two rooms have been equipped ida citrus fruit for which new uses
while a third, long room, later to-be should be discovered. He mentioned
equipped, contained charts explain- naringen, which is the bitter ele-
ing the department's activities and ment in grapefruit peel and is avail-
several tables on which were as- able to the extent of four to eight
sembled various citrus products and pounds per ton of fruit. Also, there
samples of several for the visitors. is hespinden the chief glucoside in
Later in the day two films were orange juice for wlich a use should
shown, one on the citrus industry of be found, he said, pointing out these
Florida and the other on citrus by- as examples of the possibilities of
products. the work.
The department executives under "The number of problems that we
Mr. Hyde appeared as elated about have are practically unlimited, in
the laboratory and as hopeful of its fact that is the way with research,"
possibilities as the luncheon guests. Dr. Blanck said. "A new problem
The presentation, Dr. Skinner will bring out a side issue that may
said, was for him seeing "a day- prove to be more important than the
dream come true." He discussed the main issue.

Times-Union on Citrus
(Continued from Page 4)
from within. Give the Exchange
the 75 percent control of the crop
that it needs to function fully. If
you don't, you are going to find
yourself shipwrecked, along with the
industry upon which you depend
for your living. This year, with all
its complex and harassing economic,
financial, commercial and industrial
problems, is going to require the best
brains of the industry, plus careful
management, plus a great deal of
aggressive advertising and publiciz-
ing, if the citrus industry is to weath-
er the storm. Unless a substantial
majority of the men who actually
produce the fruit line up in intelli-
gent, unselfish cooperation, every
man Jack pulling for- his own bene-
flit and for that of everyone else,
instead if working for himself alone
and for the immediate dollar that

looms so big just now-well, to use
the expressive slang phrase, "it's
going to be too bad."


...follows the use of ORTHO
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trol.Has been widely usedin
Florida with great success.
Very economical too.
Write for full information-i
61W.Jefferson St.
Orlando, Florida
a proven
oil spray for
citrus pests

relation of research to industry and
said that a laboratory of this nature
was the "bridge over the gap be-
tween experiments and their trans-
lation into effects."
Agriculture, he said, has been liv-
ing off the cream and the citrus in-
dustry has reached tHe point where
it must "utilize every valuable por-
tion of the product that comes to
"Science knows no limitations be-
yond the horizon," he said. "The
significance of even small affairs
need to be looked at in terms of
practical results. We believe that
out of this work there will come
fundamental things that may be of
tremendous value to this industry."
He spoke of the success that had
been made in California, where in
1929-30 the problem of tHe products
laboratory was not the disposal of
the products but the difficulty to get
Enough fruit to supply the require-
ments. He suggested that "by-" be
left out of "by-products" as it had
grown to such importance and vol-
ume to have become a main product.
Three of these products had a value
of more than $6,000,000 in Cali-
fornia in 1929, he said.
Dr. Skinner said that the labora-
tory was a model plant, not over-
costly but designed for 100 percent
Prospecting for Citrus Gold
"Remember," he concluded, "we
are prospecting, prospecting for
gold, prospecting for Florida citrus
Alluding to the presentation of
the laboratory to tHe department,
Dr. Blanck said he believed it was
the first time in the history of fed-
eral experience that an industry had
contributed part. He declared the
laboratory was one of the finest he
had seen.
Dr. Blanck said that he considered
it was the obligation of himself and
his Lassociates to develop the re-
sources of the industry so that like

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With 50 heaters an acre,
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One cord of long leaf, yel-
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November 1, 1931



"I am interested here to notice
that nearly every one has discussed
the production and marketing prob-
lems of the' citrus industry.. There
was .a time when the. production
problems were, the real and only
problems of American agriculture.
That time has long since passed.
Success in agriculture and in every
line of human endeavor today is
not only production problem, but a
whole group of economic problems.
They begin withJ the planting of the
crop and end only when the crop
is in the hands of the consumers ..
"I Wonder if you gentlemen who
look so hopefully to this laboratory
for the ways and means of widening
the market for your product of fruit
juices, have ever stopped to think
that probably the 18th Amendment
had more to do with the market for
fruit juices than.anytling else ....
"... I am advised that there are
3,500,000 bearing grapefruit trees
with another 1,000,000 coming on;
that there are 9,000,000 bearing or-
ange tree sand one and one-half mil-
lion more coming on. In those facts,
I think you will find one of the great-
est problems your industry must
face, the problem of following the
crop through to the last consumer.
This fact you will find true in" every
phase of American agriculture,

whether we speak of citrus, wheat,
cotton or what not.
Needs of Agriculture
"In a meeting in New York City
the other day, I told that what agri-
culture most needed in America was
more forests, more game preserves,
more and longer golf courses and
more gentlemen farmers with larger
acreage and smaller returns ..
"If you expect your citrus in-
dustry to go forward, we must
answer this problem in two ways.
One, if possible to expand the mar-
kets and in this I hope the new
laboratory will aid to such an extent
as to keep pace with the initiative
of the growers. The other is by some
means to achieve a balance between
thea volume of production and the de-
mands of the market.
"The time has gone by in any com-
modity of which I have information
when American farmers can go
ahead blindly expanding their pro-
duction. The time is past when any
county in America can produce agri-
cultural products without being
mindful of competition that is com-
ing from every other county in
America. The time has gone by
when American agriculture can ex-
ist unless it takes a national view-
point of the production of these com-

Excerpts from Address of Secretary Hyde

Foreign Competition
"Also in many crops and in citrus,
we must be mindful of foreign com-
petition. There has been as you
know, a great development of cit-
rus fruit in foreign countries, espe-
cially in Spain, Italy, Palestine and
South Africa. It is therefore of im-
portance that the citrus grower of
Florida know that his fruit will meet
the competition of the others in the
markets of the world.

"Let us not forget, my friends, the achievement of profits for the
when our crops must meet foreign farmer, and success is not going to
competition in the world markets, (Continued on Page 7)

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while we may be able to do this, yet
we can only do it by measuring our
standard of living by the weight
scales of our foreign competition. I
want to say that the whble affairs of
this administration are not going
to be to produce a large amount of
wheat, cotton and other things. We
are not going to measure our pos-
sibilities by the number of pounds,
the number of bushels or the num-
ber of groves. It is going to be in

- ------------ - -

November 1, 1931


November 1, 1931 SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE .7

Excerpts From Address of Secretary Hyde

(Continued from Page 6)
be measured by just profits but in a
larger profit left in the farm.
Cheap Standards
"There are those who think it is
economically good to sell as cheaply
as possible. . I grant you that as
a matter of cold economy that is the
truth. .. But we hold, my friends,
that low prices mean no profit. No
profits mean cheap living standards.
Cheap living standards mean cheap
educational standards and cheap
educational standards mean cheap
people of the kind we do not want
in America.
"How are we going to achieve this
balance between production and the
market demand?
"Two measures are suggested, one
for brevity sake I shall call the
Oklahoma and Texas plan, the other
the voluntary plan.
"You know, as having been con-
nected with agriculture, I Have been
irked somewhat by the continued
statements that the American farmer
is so big a fool that he cannot regu-
late his own affairs. It has given
me a lot of malicious pleasure to
watch the oil people try to regulate
theirs. Most of these, friends, have
two shirts and a college education,
yet when they got into the very same
situation that agriculture is in, so
far as controlling their own produc-
tion thay were making agreements
one day and retracting them the
Shotgun Law
"Then came Oklahoma to regu-
late production with shotguns, fol-
lowed by Texas and we heard a great
many people say that that is the
proper answer. Whenever the time
comes in this country when anybody
except the farmer himself can say
how many acres of land the farmer
can plow or plant, we shall say good-
bye to our ideas of personal liberty.
I hope I never live to see thJe time
when the farmer's production is lim-
ited by shotgun law.
"The only way is the voluntary
action of the farmers themselves
and, until this policy is taken with
American industry, human rights,
liberty and political freedom that
our forefathers fought for will be
"The only way is for the farmers
themselves to cooperate. It is the
only way to preserve the riglNts of
the individual. I know that there are
a lot of farmers who would rather
ride than pull. There are a lot of
farmers who will be -putting their
weight on the breeching rather than
the collar. Take your own citrus in-
dustry. You have not- been success-
ful in organizing your own state 100
National Citrus Legislature
"Nevertheless, I maintain that it

in Florida and then around thle Gulf
rim. This cooperation of the farmer
himself will control the marketing
of his product. These county or-
ganizations can be federated into
regional organizations. The regional
organizations can set up a national
federation of citrus growers who
can sit in Washington and act as a
national legislature for citrus pro-
duction. They can pass back to the
regionals and the counties legisla-
tion that will be equitable and which
will bring back to the growers that
which is equitable and fair.
"In the Federal Farm Board and
the Agricultural aMrketing Act has
been given the farmers the machine
to do just that thing. The national
citrus legislature can plan and bal-
ance this production and bring back
to the grower the live-giving profit
that will make this state of yours

Farmers Cooperative Oil
Has Become Big Business
Cooperative oil companies of this
country serve 400,000 farmers and
others and last year supplied more
than 244,000,000 gallons of gaso-
line, 65,000,000 gallons of kerosene,
6,489 gallons of lubricating oils and
4,571,000 pounds of grease.
So much attention has been given
the cooperative marketing of agri-
cultural products, that its develop-
ment has drawn the spotlight of
public attention. Other cooperative
activities of concern to the farmers
have been forced into the shadows
outside of public attention, so that
it is with surprise, in fact, amaze-
ment to learn of the tremendous de-
velopment which is taking place in
the second principal division of co-
The report on the cooperative oil
activity was given the American In-
stitute of Cooperation by Howard
A. Cowden, president of the Union
Oil Company.
Farmers began to organize to
purchase petroleum products co-
operatively about 10 years ago, he
said, because they felt they were
paying too high a price for a com-
modity which, in many sections of
the country, is a large factor in the
cost of producing farm products.
"A survey of the cooperative oil
companies of the United States cov-
ering 1930 operations showed that
these companies are today- saving
400,000 farmers and other cus-
tomers," he said. "They have 'a
paid in capital of $5,922,000, and a
total net worth of $14i95:2,610.
These 847 companies handled last
year 244% millions of-gallons of
gasoline, 65% millions of gallons of
kerosene, : 35% millions of gallons
of -distillate, 6,489,000 gallons of
lubricating' oils and 4,571,000

is possible to organize every county pounds of grease.

"I Would Like to Plant Glen Saint Mary

Trees, But Their Prices are too High'

Growers, there is no excuse for such a statement
this year.

Realizing existing conditions, we have come to
the conclusion that right now price talks louder
than quality and have therefore reduced the price -;
of our trees very materially.

But do not misunderstand. The low price em-
phatically does not mean a reduction in qual-
ity. Our trees for delivery this season, number-
ing nearly half a million, are as fine as we have
ever produced.

And, of course, they will be sold under our usual
ironclad guarantee and liberal replacement policy,
which, in a few words, means that we do not
consider our obligation to customers fulfilled un-
til their plantings show 100 percent perfect stands
of healthy, vigorous young trees, true to name
in both bud and root.

This season we have a complete line of standard
varieties as well as a particularly fine stock of
much desired specialties such as Temple Orange,:
Tahiti Lime, Foster Pink and Pink Marsh Seed-
less (Thompson) Grapefruit.

Before buying citrus stock, let us quote you
prices. For the convenience of our customers we
maintain three offices:




Americaii National Bank
Bldg.,- in charge of Mr.
H. E. Cornell and Mr. G.
A. Scott.

Room 701, Orlando Bank
& Trust Bldg., in charge
of Mr. E. J. Parker.

Room 312, First National
Bank Bldg., in charge of
Mr. L. L. Collins.

These men are qualified by long experience 'to
give you expert advice and valuable suggestions-
in connection with your proposed citrus plant- :

Glen Saint Mary Nurseries Company

Winter Haven, Florida

Ask for our new 1932 Special Citrus Catalog

November 1, 1931


' 7


Asso.cia -
S tion managers
-, probably do not
consider the com-
mendation o f
their growers as
unusual though it
is a pleasant
occurance. One
recently has been
received, ho w -
Sever, which falls
in the unusual
Recently, Gen-
eral Manager
Commander re-
ceived a letter
from A. W. Clark
of Old Green-
wich, Connecti-
cut, which in-
cludes this comment:
"May I take this opportunity to
express my admiration for Mr.
Boulware, the Highlands manager,
who, many times, has gone out of his
way to render service to me.
"I congratulate you in having such
a man associated with you."
We take this way of passing on
Mr. Clark's praise to Manager R. S.

Apparently showing their consent wih the luncheon and the normal presentation of
the laboratory which they are now going to inspect are: W. J. Howey, R. 0. Philphot,
Haines City; Harry W. Von Loesecke, chemist in charge of the laboratory; George
Andrews, Winter Haven; Pres. John A. Snively of the Exchange; Dr. F. C. Blanck,
U. S. D. A.; Mayor O. P. Warren; Secretary of Agriculture Arthur M. Hyde; O. C.
Owen, President Winter Haven Chamber of Commerce; (Representative Herbert J.
Drane; Allen E. Walker, Winter Haven; Dr. Henry C. Knight. U. S. D. A; A. M.
Tilden, President Clearing House; Dr. W. W. Skinner and Dr. E. M. Chace, U. S. D. A.

DeSoto Sub-Exchange has ap-
pointed Leland Booth of Pinellas

Boulware of Lakeland-Highlands county as manager to succeed Horace
association. L. Carlton of Arcadia who resigned

Managers of association plants
which have opened have started off
splendidly in regard to careful hand-
ling and close grading and packing,
Harold C. Crews, head of the field
department, reported.
So far, he stated, the percentage
of decay has been exceedingly light,
the least, in his opinion, in several
years. He is very much pleased
with the manner in which the houses
have started.
Three inspectors have been added
to the force. Gordon Brown, for-
merly manager at Arcadia, is in-
spector for Lee from which J. L.
Staudenmier has been transferred
to Polk. James F. Godward has been
assigned to Indian River and Harold
Worden to Lake.
In Hillsboro, Pinellas, St. Johns
and DeSoto Sub-Exchanges the Sub-
Exchange managers will do the in-
spection work.
Less than half of the Exchange
houses are open. Several are ex-
pected to open shortly after Nov. 1,
but all will not be in operation until
the last of the month.

All Styles Ind Sizes
*Finest Made. Cuts from both sides of
limb.'Doesnot injure bark. Delivered
'free.- Sind fdr booklet "T."
Rhodes Mfg. Co., Grand Rapids, Mich.

Mr. Booth, formerly a government
inspector, has for the past five years
been connected with the Florida Cit-
rus Exchange in inspection service
and organization work. He is vice-
president of Palm Harbor associa-
Mr. Booth's family is the pioneer
family of Pinellas. His great-grand-
father, Don Phillippe was the first
settler it had, and according to H.
Harold Hume, noted Florida horti-
culturist, may have introduced
grapefruit into Florida. It is ad-
mitted, at least, that he planted one
of the oldest grapefruit groves in
the state, a grove which still exists.
The Duncan grapefruit came from
this grove.

Sarasota association is precool-
ing its fruit in thi cars under the
system devised by federal specialists.
The method was used somewhat last
season as a test and gave such re-
sults it will be used regularly this
Bunkers of the refrigerator car
are filled with ice with which the
proper proportion of salt is mixed.
'A fan is put into the bunker to give
adequate circulation of air. Tem-
perature of the fruit is lowered in a
very reasonable time.
While not as efficient as precool-
ing plants, the method saves .the
heavy initial investment of a plant.'
Its cost is reasonable.

No disarmament is permissible in
the war on insects, a bulletin on in-
secticides just issued by the U. S.
Department of Agriculture indicates.
It explains how fruit growers must
fight some insects by feeding them
poison, others by actually hitting
them with poison spray to control
them, and how it is sometimes neces-
sary to dig a third group of insects
out of their hiding places.
The bulletin is a revision of Farm-
ers' Bulletin 9081F, published 13
years ago, and is entitled, "Insecti-
cides, Equipment, and Methods for
Controlling Orchard Insect Pests."
It is Farmers' Bulletin 1666-F and is
a complete "battle" guide for the
It describes the insecticides which
are now most commonly used against
orchard pests, and the best methods
far applying the poisons and the
proper time for spraying.
An important part of the publica-
tion discusses spraying and dusting
outfits for both large and small
operations, as well as spraying acces-
The bulletin gives information on
standard spray materials and their
combinations. A spray dilution table
for ready reference will prove valu-
able to the fruit grower. Some of
the more important fruit insects and
suggested control treatments are
also discussed in the bulletin.
Copies of Farmers' Bulletin
1666-F may be obtained free by
writing to tlie flce of'InEormation,
U.. Department of- Agriculture,
Washington, D. C.

Lake Carroll association of Hills-
boro Sub-Exchange has made a ma-
terial increase in membership, giv-
ing it prospects of handling almost
double the tonnage it had last sea-
son. It is estimated that the present
signed volume will exceed 150,000
boxes and that the association prob-
ably will have a total of 200,000
boxes. Last season it had 110,000.
Two units of the Tampa Union
Terminal plant are operated by the
association under lease. New terms
were made for this season which
allowed for a reduction in the pack-
ing charge. The association started
Oct. 23 for the season, moving a car
of oranges. W. R. Wadford, former-
ly with R. W. Burch & Co., in this
territory, is the manager and has
been very effective in signing up
new growers.
Officers of the association are B.
E. Stall, president; W. B. Coarsey,
vice-president; C. C. Pippman, sec-
retary-treasurer. On the board are
Mr. Stall, Mr. Coarsey, Robert Dekle,
T. B. Sherrill, Dr. T. W. Raymond,
T. C. Bottom, C. C. Jay.
Mr. Corsey, prominent business-
man of Tampa and a large grove
owner, has been giving much per-
sonal time to organizationn work.
With his wide acquaintance among
been unusually valuable in building
Hillsboro and Pasco growers, he has
up the Sub-Exchange as well as Lake
Carroll association, materially aid-
ing W. C. Crews, Sub-Exchange

Lake Wales association, building
a new plant, has given the Florida
Citrus Machinery Company an order
for $38,000 worth of equipment.
The order includes an eight roll 18
foot washer, a 64 foot Duplex dryer,
a nine roll spiral polisher and an
eight roll Skinner polisher and six
45 foot Parker quick change double
sizers. The order consists of an eight
car unit.
Holly Hill association recently or-
ganized, has ordered $35,000 worth
of equipment for its plant now under



Fruit Auctioneers
Fruit Auction Terminal
Rutherford Avenue
Charleston District
Culer B. Downer Fred'k L. Sprinlord
Haro ldiF.or Ed
J. Olir Dab Clifford E. Mett


November 1, 1931

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