Title: Seald-sweet chronicle
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075292/00021
 Material Information
Title: Seald-sweet chronicle
Alternate Title: Seald sweet chronicle
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Florida Citrus Exchange
Florida Citrus Exchange
Place of Publication: Tampa Fla
Publication Date: September 15, 1931
Frequency: semimonthly
Subject: Citrus fruit industry -- Newspapers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Tampa (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Hillsborough County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: newspaper   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Hillsborough -- Tampa
Coordinates: 27.970898 x -82.46464 ( Place of Publication )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased on Apr. 15, 1932.
General Note: "Florida's only citrus newspaper."
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 4, no. 24 (May 15, 1929).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075292
Volume ID: VID00021
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AJH6537
oclc - 31158390
alephbibnum - 001763371
lccn - sn 97027656

Full Text
POSTMASTER: If addressee has moved
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1934-: JACKSON j I

Seald-Sweet Chronicle

Vol. VII suscan-rnoNvI PRB 50 cmmE ran P TAMPA, FLORIDA, SEPTEMBER 15, 1931

Entered as Second Class Mall Matter
at the Post OMee at Tampa, Florida
Under the Aet of March S, 1879.

Lower Packing Costs

Mean Big Sum Extra

For Exchange Growers

Exchange growers will get around
$500,000 extra as compared with
last season regardless of the mar-
ket conditions and prices-this season.
Packing supplies are lower by four
cents.a box, reports J. D. Murdoch,
purchasing manager of the Ex-
change Supply Company. In the
Exchange lower costs are passed on
to the growers either in lower pack-
ing charges or savings in operating
costs. Several associations have al-
ready reduced their charges for this
season taking advantage of this
lower cost of supplies and the lower
labor cost anticipated.
Items Reduced
According to Mr. Murdoch, boxes
are 2% cents less and paper 1 cent
a box lower. The various other sup-
plies such as strap iron, nails, paste
car strips, labels, borax, wax, etc.,
have been reduced one-half cent a
The biggest reduction has come
with borax, the. price of which is
50 percent less due both to reduc-
tion in the base price and the big
quantity order the company was en-
abled to make this season through
orders placed by the associations.
Much of this reduction "in the
packing costs will be enjoyed by-all
-2the packers, though the initial credit
-i due the Exchange Supply Com-
ny. The news of, any favorable
deal quickly leaks out and gets
around and competition fojCggs~Sm-
ilar concessions.

The grapefruit crop will be
6,000,000 to 7,000,000 boxes
less than last season, E. E. Pat-
terson, grapefruit sales man-
ager, estimates. He believes
that the early shipments will
be of better quality and more
mature than ever before and
that the sizes of the early ship-
ments will range larger than
they were early last-season.
The first cars probably will be
heavy in 64s -and& 70s with a
good proportion of 80s and a
fair amount of 54s.
Mr. Patterson figures that
the first cars will move be-
tween the 15th and 20th or 10
Says later than last season.

Porto Rico Starts Big

Crop Into U. S. Markets

Porto Rico has started heavy
shipments of its record grapefruit
crop, moving 80,000 boxes into this
country the first week of the month;
125,000 boxes the second week and
40,000 and 20,000 boxes respect-
ively scheduled to come the third and
fourth weeks, E. E. Patterson, grape-
fruit sales manager, is informed. In
addition Porto Rico is sending 10,-
000 boxes monthly to England.
The grapefruit crop was esti-
mated around 1,700,000 boxes. The
cultivated orange crop is figured at
12,000 boxes to be moved by Jan 1.
It isimpossible to estimate the-wild;
orange crop an'd no estimates'have
been made on the movement of the

Holly Hill Growers Organize

New Davenport Association

Will Build Big Modern Packing House With Capacity
To Handle More Than 500,000 Boxes a Season;
Territory Has Future Prospects of 1,000,000 Boxes

Texas Permitted to Ship

Sept.10 Instead of Oct. 1

The Mexican fruit worm quaran-
tine against Texas has been modified
to allow shipments of citrus from
Sept. 10, instead of Oct. 1, as re-
quired for the past four years. Also
the required host free period during
which shipment was forbidden has
been terminated for this season and
fruit from the affected counties,
Cameron, Hidalgo and Willacy, will
be allowed to move under federal
Eradication Suicessful
The Mexican fruit worm was first
found in Texas in 1927, reaching the
state by spread from Mexico. The
eradication program conducted at
that time was apparently successful
but infested fruit from the interior
of Mexico repeatedly reached the
border and several infested fruit
were found in the Texas side of the,
boundi-y in the past two years. The
-fdaifs 'ap t -quaian rtle-and:-ct6rb
trol administi-tlon reports no in-
festations occur in Texas at present

cultivated oranges after Jan. 1. as far as is known.

r Starting with a volume of at i'st ''-
250,000 boxes, the Holly Hill Citrus.
Growers Association has been organ-
ized at Davenport and will start con-
struction of a 500,000 box plant.
The nucleus of the new associa-
tion is the Holly Hills Grove and
Fruit Company, which last season
shipped through Haines City asso-
ciation. Membership of the com-
pany assures a large volume which is
materially increased by other grow-
er membership. Around 250,000
boxes is .signed up at this time and
it is believed the total for the first
season will reach 300,000 boxes. '
Fine Future Crop Prospects '
The association has exceptional
prospects for the future in addition
to the assured large volume withi-
which it starts. There are around
5,000 acres of groves' in the Holly -
Hill development which will soon be
in very good bearing while addi-
tional new plantings are'being made
regularly. The groves are of ex-
cellent stock and receive the finest
of care. Bayard F. Floyd, one of the
best known horticulturists of the
state, is the supervising horticul-
tui g~elopm n:-7 -r
due'tFon'of~ ,0;0000;ot'b e ama-. .
expected-in the near future. .
(Continued on Page 2)

A View of Holly Hills Groves Spreading Over 5,000 Acres About Davenport

...* . .. .--I .,-. o- ,
7 1

--1' "k

* s. . .

No. 8.

SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE September 15,. 1931

Holly Hill Growers

Organize Association

And Build New Plant
(Continued from Page 1)
Officers for the new association
are Bayless W. Haynes, of Wilson-
Toomer Fertilizer company, presi-
dent; Mr. Floyd, vice-president, and
H .0. Estes, secretary and treasurer.
H. W. Noggle, formerly of Noggle,
Kirkpatrick Fruit Company and for
the past three years connected with
the Exchange, has been appointed
Be Ready in November
Construction of the building will
be started immediately on a site 200
by 700 feet near the north boundary
of the town. It is expected that it
will be ready for use early in No-
vember. The machinery contract,
calling for the latest in equipment,
has been awarded the Florida Citrus
Machinery Company.
One of the leaders in the organ-
ization of the association was Lor-
enzo A. Wilson, president of Wilson-
Toomer Fertilizer company, one of
the principals in the Holly Hills
Fruit and Grove Company. Mr. Wil-
son has given much time to it.
Mr. Noggle, the manager, has
been one of the dealer service staff
of the Exchange doing especially
valuable specialty work in service
and sales in the past season. He has
been connected with the citrus in-
dustry for more than 15 years.

Curry Impresses Clearwater
Clearwater businessmen land
bankers were deeply impressed by
the arguments in favor of control
of the crop by the Florida Citrus
Exchange presented by J. Reed
Curry, manager of the organization
department of the Exchange, who
spoke at the luncheon of the Clear-
water Rotary club, Sept. 9.
Such was the impression made
that several came to Mr. Curry fol-
lowing the luncheon and congratu-
lated him, while one of the leading
bankers of the city told him "much
good came from your talk; the Ex-
change will see results from it."

Commissionmen Coming
First hand views of the Florida
citrus industry will be gained by
hundreds of commissionmen this
winter with the fortieth annual con-
vention of the National League of
Commission Merchants to be held at
Miami, Jan. 13-15. A record break-
ing attendance is expected.
Through attendance at the con-
vention, hundreds of the commis-
sion men will be brought in direct
contact with the industry and its
growers and undoubtedly will gain
an insight into the industry which
will bring greater understanding.

Texas has again closed that
state to Florida citrus, accord-
ing to official notice received
by E. E. Patterson, grape-
fruit sales manager, from J.
M. Delcurto of the Texas De-
partment of Agriculture.
This move of Texas is sur-
prising in view of its action
last season allowing fruit into
all but the citrus and adjoin-
ing counties. A ban was placed
at first but its removal was ob-
tained through the efforts of
the Florida Citrus Exchange.

New Assn. Organized by
Broward Citrus Growers
Packing at Ft. Lauderdale
With production now in excess of
25,000 boxes and material increase
in prospect each succeeding year,
citrus growers of Broward county
have organized the Broward Citrus
Growers association, affiliated with
the Florida Citrus Exchange and
will operate their own house.
A building has been leased at Ft.
Lauderdale and will be equipped
with machinery obtained from the
old Chase house at Mims. This ar-
rangement will hold down capital in-
vestment to a minimum and will
allow very economical operations
with the small volume the associa-
tion has to start with.
Frank Stirling, prominent horti-
culturist of the section and long a
strong supporter of cooperation, is
president. Clyde L. Walsh, nephew
of C. A. Walsh, pioneer grower, and
manager of the Walsh properties, is
vice-president. 0. S. Vaniman is
secretary and director to the Sub-
Exchange. These and Bruno Reinsch
and C. E. Velie are the directors.
Best Hope for Summer Crops
From this section, it is believed,
comes Florida's best hope for sum-
mer production. Fruit in this area
matures late getting to the mar-
ket at the tailend of the season.
The principal plantings are in Lue
Gim Gong oranges, commonly
spoken of. as late Valencias and
virtually all of the new plantings
are in this variety. The soil is a
muck on marl and produces a rich,
heavy fruit that the markets have
been paying a premium for.
The area is in a well developed
drainage district. Ninety foot canals
fed by sizeable sub-canals give ade-
quate drainage enabling the grow-
ers to hold down the high water
table safely. On the other hand the
high water table permits about the
most thorough and cheapest irriga-
tion during the dry months.
Development of citrus is taking
place rapidly. There are several
large individual and commercial de-
velopments and many small plant-
ings. About 1,400 acres has been
planted and present plans call for a
total of 5,000 acres of groves, in
three- years.

Trip Through Markets

Leads Patterson to See

Fair Prospects Ahead
Just returned from a thorough
check-up of the Mid-West territory,
E. E. Patterson, grapefruit sales
manager, declares that he is not
pessimistic about this season or the
future with its prospective big crops.
"Grapefruit has won a permanent
place on the American table and I
believe prices will be very fair con-
sidering economic conditions," Mr.
Patterson said. "I do not look for
much higher prices, not with unem-
ployment probably to reach new
high levels and buying power no
better and in many cities worse,
but I do believe that we will fare
very well as compared to other pro-
Mr. Patterson visited the main
markets in Ohio, Illinois, Indiana,
Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska and part
of Kansas. He called on the whole-
sale and retail trade as well as the
Exchange representatives.
Low Package Cost
One point impressed upon him
was the desirability of getting the
fruit to the trade at the lowest rea-
sonable cost which in his opinion
means continuance of bulk ship-
ments to certain points. Shipment
in bulk, he said, enabled the jobbing
trade to sell the fruit at a very
reasonable price and allowed a much
wider distribution. However, Mr.
Patterson said, this does hot mean
substitution of bulk shipments for
packed but the supplemental use of
the bulk handling in certain sections
in which it will build up volume sales
and wide distribution.
The chain stores, he found, were
very favorable to the bag pack and
he believes use of a half-box bag
will have very good possibilities in
some territories.
More Favorably Received
Generally, he said, Florida citrus
is more favorably received in the
Mid-West than ever before. It has
gone into regular instead of occas-
ional use and this advantage that
has been gained can be maintained,
he believes, provided costs can be
held down.
"The sooner we realize we must
cut the cost of preparing the pack-
age for the markets the better off we
all will be, particularly on account
of the increased production that we
can expect. As we cut costs we
open a larger field for distribution
and we will need this more and more
in the future."

Growers and shippers of winter
pears from Washington and Oregon
have signed up 65 percent of the
tonnage behind an advertising cam-
paign. The advertising assessment
will be two cents a box.

Fruit Maturing Much Later
Last season during the first week
in September 20 packing houses be-
gan operations; by Sept. 15 the num-
ber had increased to 48 and by Oct.
1, there were 112 in operation, Com-
missioner of Agriculture Nathan
Mayo reports.
Such is the difference this season,
that at this time though it is not
known what plants are open, those
that are could be counted on the
fingers of one hand.
Commissioner Mayo believes that
the season naturally is later but
that part of the lateness in opening
is due to the confirmation of the
arsenic law. It is the general opin-
ion that fruit is maturing from two
to three weeks later this season.

Prospects First Citrus
W ill Be Best Florida
Has Ever Shipped Early
With inspectors guarding arsen-
ically treated groves, road patrols
guarding the highway arteries in the
north part of the state and packing
houses barely turning a wheel as
yet, it looks like Florida for one time
in her history will send only real
edible and enjoyable citrus into the
markets of the country during the
early part of the season.
Eleven guards are stationed at
key points at the northern gateways
of the state to check upon every
truck that passes with fruit. Ma-
turity certificates must accompany
each load.
Down in the citrus belt, inspectors
who combed the groves a few weeks
back for trace of arsenic now watch
the 80 groves found to have been
treated with the banned spray. Re-
moval of the fruit, estimated at be-
tween 500,000 and 600,000 boxes,
from these groves will result in con-
demnation and destruction of the
Prosecute Without Delay *
Commissioner o f Agriculture
Nathan Mayo recently announced
that prosecution of the alleged viola-
tors of the arsenic law will start
without delay. In answer to a direct
question he contradicted the belief
among many that legal action was
allowable only upon attempt to ship
or sell illegally treated fruit.
The law, declared the Commission-
er, prohibits the use of arsenic. In
his opinion the penalty applies
whether or not the'fruit is sold, is
used personally by the owner or
stays on the trees..
However, it is understood, that
later in the season the treated fruit
will be released from the ban against
its sale and use on the grounds that
it then will be fully mature, natur-
ally, and free from all undesirable
influences of arsenic. It is said on
authority that allowed to ripen fully,
the arsenic treated fruit is of bet-
ter flavor and texture


September 15,.1931

Septembe 15 191SADSEE HOIL

The following is a rather brief
summary of the results we have ob-
tained in some of our fertilizer ex-
periments up to this time. This is
not a final report by any means and
is simply given to keep the growers
acquainted with the experiments
and the results we are getting.
Potash Sources
Until this year we have had
two experiments with citrus where
we were comparing three sources
of potash, one at Vero Beach on the
East Coast, and the second at our
Citrus Experiment Station at Lake
Alfred. Unfortunately, the one at
Vero Beach had to be discontinued
this year as the cooperator was un-
willing to continue it. The sources
of potash compared are the high
grade sulfate of potash containing
48 percent-49 percent potash
(K20, the high grade muriate of
potash containing 50 percent pot-
(K20), the high grade muriate of
fate of potash, also known as potash
magnesium sulfate containing 25
percent of potash (K20). This last
source also contains magnesium sul-
fate about 34 percent. These three
sources were tried separately and
in combination, thus at Vero we had
seven plots as follows:
Plot 1, H. G. sulfate of potash,
three applications.
Plot 2, muriate of potash, three
Plot 3, potash-magnesium-sulfate,
three applications.
Plot 4, muriate of potash, Febru-
ary, and sulfate, June and Novem-
Plot 5, muriate of potash, Febru-
ary, and potash-magnesium-sulfate,
June and November.
Plot 6, muriate of potash, Febru-
ary and June, sulfate, November.
Plot 7, muriate of potash, Febru-
ary and June, potash-magnesium-
sulfate, November.
Each plot receives the same
amount and source of nitrogen and
phosphoric acid.
This experiment was begun in
October, 1923. Each plot contains
Dancy tangerines, pineapple and
Valencia oranges and Marsh seed-
less grapefruit. Growth measure-
ments were taken for several years
but no striking differences due to
the different potash sources were
found. The first crop was harvested
in 1925 and was rather light.
Observations from Data
In studying the yield data of the
various varieties we note some pe-
culiar differences. In the case of
the pineapple orange, Table 1, you
will note in comparing the first three
plots that in five out of the six
years the muriate plot has had the
highest yields. True, in only one
year, 1929, has the difference in
yield been large enough to be sig-
nificant. In all, the yields of the
first three plots have been about
Let us now turn to the last four

Recent Results of Fertilizer

Experiments With Citrus
R. W. Ruprecht, Chemist
Florida Agricultural Experiment

plots where muriate and the two oranges, Table 2. Here we find a
sulfates were used. Here we find different result. In the five years
that in four years the plots where for which we have a record the sul-
muriate was used twice a year had fate has given the larger yields than
a higher yield than when it was the muriate each year, and with two
used once. exceptions larger than the low grade
Let us now turn to the Valencia sulfate. The differences are also

Yields in pounds per tree
Plot Treatment 1925 1926 1927
1 H. G. Sulfate of Potash 9 156 98
2 H. G. Muriate of Potash 12 131 106
3 L. G. Sulfate of Potash 3 119 91
4 Same as 2, lx, Same as 1, 2x 12 164 94
5 Same as 2, lx, Same as 3, 2x 11 148 88
6 Same as 2, 2x, Same as 1, lx 25 133 167
7 Same as 2, 2x, Same as 3, lx 21 127 109


H. G. Sulfate o
H. G. Sulfate i
L. G. Sulfate o
Same as 2, lx,
Same as 2, lx,
Same as 2, 2x,
Same as 2, 2x,

Yields in pounds per tree
t 1925 1926 19
of Potash 24 61 1
of Potash 8 55 1
>f Potash 12 61 2
Same as 1, 2x 11 60 1
Same as 3, 2x 16 47 1
Same as 1, lx 15 58 1
Same as 3, lx 9 40







Yields in pounds per tree
Av. 9
Potash 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 yrs.
Plot 1. 3% 4 45 23 47 75 153 140 169
Plot 2. 10% 2.8 37 59 67 80 104 163 146 253 103
Plot 3. 3% 7 44 75 71 90 130 145 140 280 109
Plot 4. 10% 18 65 117 117 104 143 156 153 256 125
Plot 5. 5% 24 63 132 110 144 109 162 187 297 136
Plot 6.* 3-5-10 44 77 128 97 172 126 171 225 284 147
*3% Potash in spring, 5% in summer, 10% in fall.

Yields in pounds per tree
Av. 9
Potash 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 yrs.
Plot 1. 3% 231 171 394 120 772 126 277 288 833 350
Plot 2. 10% 220 28 379 48 631 50 220 133 300 247
Plot 3. 3% 205 101 415 145 618 141 217 216 614 297
Plot 4 10% 290 50 322 157 583 139 245 275 479 282
Plot 5 5% 296 93 356 64 730 74 208 176 623 291
Plot 6.* 3-5-10 440 3 429 4 664 12 282 251 548 293
*3% Potash in spring, 5% in summer, 10% in fall.

Yields in pounds per tree
Plot Treatment 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 age
1 Nitrate of Soda 82 95 110 113 168 100 260 132
2 Sulfate of Ammonia 123 129 184 94 160 113 293 157
3 Blood 123 123 132 80 65 122 131 111
4 Combination 1, 2, & 3 61 86 81 170 78 107 132 102
5 Manure 113 104 95 29 28 29 69 67
3 Same as 1 t 100 112 99 118 127 84 275 131
7 Same as 2 88 116 84 124 103 122 292 133
8 Same as 3 118 123 99 133 90 149 208 131
) Same as 4 103 105 69 187 95 147 198 127
.0 Same as 5 113 114 145 37 53 71 128 94
* Source of nitrogen changed 1929 to one-half nitrate of soda and one-
half sulphate of ammonia.
f Source of phosphoric acid-steamed bone meal.

Yields in pounds per tree
Plot Treatment 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 age
1 Nitrate of Soda 169 276 375 129 173 285 574 283
2 Sulfate of Ammonia 251 160 333 71 90 125 496 218
3 Dried Blood 158 74 220 67 50 20 282 124
4 Combination of 1, 2, 3 94 265 179 212 57 97 428 190

somewhat greater than in the case
of the pineapple oranges. Consid-
ering the last four plots where muri-
ate was used with the two sulfates,
we find a similar tendency, namely,
a falling off in yield where more
muriate is used, also the differences
are not as great.
Let us now look at the grapefruit
yields, Table 3. Here we find a
condition similar to that found with
the Valencias, larger yields with the
high grade sulfate. Studying the
yields from the last four plots we
find that there is no consistent dif-
ference between where muriate is
used once a year or twice a year.
Except for 1930 the yields from
these plots are lower than Plot No.
1, the sulfate plot. This past sea-
son we obtained about as good a
yield from Plots 5 and 6 as from
No. 1.
No results are given for the tan-
gerines for the following reasons:
First, there were only six tangerine
trees in each plot and, secondly, the
tangerine trees bordered a public
highway and a good proportion of
the crop was lost every year, espe-
cially from Plot No. 1, which was
nearest the gate.

Difficult to Judge Results
Taking the three tables together,
what should our conclusions be?
Can we say that different varieties
of oranges respond differently to
the same fertilizer despite the fact
that they have the same root stock?
If this is the case, our citrus fert'li-
zation is indeed complicated. It is
hardly fair to condemn the muriate
on the results of this one experi-
ment, especially in view of the fact
that on other crops where a preju-
dice against muriate had existed,
this source is proving to be as good,
and in some cases better, than the
high grade sulfate. It is to be re-
gretted that this experiment had to
be discontinued at this time. This
is one of the weak points in con-
ducting experiments on a coopcra'ive
basis instead of on our own prop-
erty. Our grove at Lake Alfred
duplicating these experiments has
just reached the bearing age, so no
conclusions can yet be drawn.

Experiments in Amounts
Next we will take up another pot-
ash experiment. This time instead
of comparing sources we are com-
paring the amounts of potash. This
experiment is located at our Citrus
Experiment Station at Lake Alfred,
and probably many of you have
seen it. This experiment was be-
gun in 1921 with trees about 5 years
old. All of the plots receive the
same amount and kind of phosphoric
acid and nitrogen. The nitrogen
being derived from nitrate of soda
and tankage, the phosphoric acid
from Superphosphate. Plots 1 and
3 receive 3 percent potash in the
(Continued on Page 10)

September 15, 1931



Seald- Sweet


Published twice a month in
the interest of cooperative
marketing and for the infor-
mation of the citrus growers
of Florida.

606 Citrus Exchange Bldg.
Publication Office:
Tampa, Florida
Postoffice Box 2349

Net Grower Circulation
over 12,500

Space Rates: $60.00 per page;
$35.00 half-page; $20.00 one-
quarter page; $2.00 per inch
all space under one-quarter
page. Minimum space: 1 inch.

Vol. VII SEPT. 15, 1931. No. 8

Cutting Costs
In this i-sue of the Chronicle is
a notice of a savings in packing
house supplies which will benefit the
Exchange growers around half a
million dollars.
This is one of the benefits of the
cooperative system which only the
members thereof enjoy. Growers
outside of the Exchange pay a set
charge for the packing of their fruit
and any saving in the packing costs
naturally goes to the packer.
The cooperative operates on a cost
basis and seeks continually to
lower costs. The private operator
works for a profit, naturally and
legitimately. His packing charge
is usually a set figure, maintained
season after season without change.
Exchange associations have cut
the operating charge materially in
past years, many of the associations
several times.

American civilization will be dealt
a death blow unless farming can be
made to pay, in the opinion of Sen-
ator Arthur Capper of Kansas, ex-
pressed during a radio address
broadcast over the nation during
the annual session of the American
Institute of Cooperation. Senator
Capper praised the cooperative
movement as one of the most im-
portantforces in the reconstruction
of farm life.
"I regard cooperation as the road
out for agriculture," he said. "It
is also a matter of pride that my
name has been attached as co-
author to national legislation that
has made it possible for cooperative
marketing to live and to grow into
the important factor it has become
in our national life.
"Congress, also," he said, "after
five years of hard fighting, enacted

the Agricultural Marketing Act.
This was not a compromise measure.
It was a measure that recognized
the value, the necessity of cooper-
ative marketing if the individual
farmer was not to be swallowed up
by organized finance, organized bus-
iness, organized industry, organized
transportation and organized labor.
"There is little place in the eco-
nomic scheme of things today for
the individual who cannot cooper-
ate, who refuses to organize.
"I believe there is a growing re-
alization in eastern industrial and
business circles that there can be no
permanent return of prosperity un-
less and until the farmers' purchas-
ing power returns. So if farmers
ioin the cooperative movement and
demonstrate they mean business,
the industrial East will be inclined
to acquiesce in that decision. Also
it is being generally recognized that
either the prices the farmer receives
must go up or the prices he pays
must come down. And that feeling
will work with the farmers if and
when they exercise the right to or-
ganize and the power to cooperate."

Bound To Come
Lakeland Ledger-If Merton L.
Corey is making the impression on
his audiences in other parts of the
fruit belt that he made here, he is
putting across the Exchange pro-
gram in good style.
There is nothing for fruit grow-
ers to do but to cooperate.
The industry, the most valuable
of any in Florida, will never become
a stabilized business until the men
who produce citrus can find a com-
mon ground for helping each other.
Cooperation is bound to come in
a large way at some time, and the
sooner the better for the entire

Only One Way
Punta Gorda Herald: This year
the Florida Citrus Exchange will
endeavor by every fair means to
induce a sufficient number of grow-
ers to affiliate with it to enable the
Exchange to control the marketing
of next year's citrus crop. In their
efforts they should have the active
support of every citizen and, busi-
ness man who is in any way inter-
ested in the state's prosperity.
Every business man, no matter what
he may be engaged in, is interested
in the citrus industry of the state,
for its condition will be reflected
more or less in his own business.
Some agency must be able to con-
trol the citrus market if the busi-
ness is to be stabilized. If this can
not be done through the Exchange,
we don't see how it can be done,
and it is.isn't done, the growers had
just as Well chop down their groves
and forget about them,

Increased R. R. Rates Will Impair Grower Credit

Increased freight rates not only
will decrease the returns to the cit-
rus grower but will have the effect
of further impairing his already de-
pressed credit standing, E. L. Wirt,
chairman of the board of the Flor-
ida Citrus Exchange, testified at the
hearing of the Interstate Commerce
Commission on the proposed rate in-
crease at Atlanta, August 17-20.
Mr. Wirt pointed out that the
financing of growers is largely
through crop loans and the basis
generally is the return per box that
can be safely expected. Anything
which will decrease that expectation
will decrease the amount of financial
assistance that can be given the
growers and all but few are seri-
ously in need of such assistance if
they are to be able to maintain their
groves and produce quality crops,
he said.
Railroads Better Off
"It is respectfully submitted that
the financial condition of the grow-
ers in this industry is fully as bad
and probably much worse than that
of the railroads who have appealed
for relief and who have enjoyed the
tonnage of these same growers at a
fair remuneration when the growers
were receiving for their product in
many cases less than the cost of
production," Mr. Wirt testified. "I
wonder who is going to furnish the
necessary tonnage to the railroads
if this industry is so throttled and
made so unprofitable that the grow-
ers are unable to finance their con-
tinued operations. Many of them
have been unable to pay their taxes
and their groves have been sold for
taxes where they have been unable
to secure loans to enable them to
make such payment."
Mr. Wirt outlined the history of
the industry, showing on one hand
how it had provided the railroads
with immense revenue and on the
other how the growers in recent
years have been affected by one dif-
ficulty after another. They have
continued on in the face of all these
handicaps but not even the citrus
industry can stand much more, he
He pointed out the effect of di-
minished returns this past season,
estimating that 1,500,000 boxes of
fruit were left on the trees. Had
the increased rates been in effect, it
is probable much more fruit than
this would not have been shipped,
he stated.
Big Crops Help Railroads
The maximum crop years, Mr.
Wirt said, brought the growers de-
creased returns, little more than the
cost of production, if that, while on
the contrary the profits of the rail-
roads from citrus were greater in
these years.
Asked his views as to the prob-
able effect if transportation costs
are increased 15 percent or more,
Mr. Wirt answered:

"The grower of horticultural and
agricultural products already is re-
ceiving a lower net return on his
investment and for his efforts than
those engaged in other industries or
those investing in other forms of in-
vestments. He personally pays a
higher rate of interest for his bor-
rowed capital, he is required to
pledge a much higher margin of col-
lateral or mortgage security (grove
loans are usually not made for more
than 33 percent of fair market
"He has difficulty in getting need-
ed financing even under those con-
ditions. He also has to sell in the
case of citrus growers a highly per-
ishable product as compared to cot-
ton, grains or manufactured prod-
ucts, and since he has to do this, he
frequently has to sell to his disad-
vantage on a buyers' market.

Growers' Many Difficulties
"At the present time the reduced
buying power of the consumer has
presented further difficulties and
has reduced the net cash returns to
the grower and his profit has neared
the vanishing point. The Medfly
infestation in our citrus groves put
an enormous additional burden on
our growers and the numerous bank
failures that resulted from a com-
bination of causes cut off his credit
and tied up his liquid capital. In
spite of all this he has attempted to
carry on and has produced large
crops, the movement of which to
market has provided a very profit-
able part of the business of our
southeastern railroads.
"The continued production of
agricultural products and the move-
ment of same by rail is necessary
for the continued prosperity of our
southern lines. It is my opinion
that the increase of freight rates as
requested by the railroads will re-
sult in decreased revenue from this
source for the reason that move-
ment of our products by truck and
boat will be increased materially
more than the percentage of differ-
ence in freight. Already, with pre-
vailing rates, there has been a con-
stantly increasing movement by
truck and boat and at the present
time increased facilities for water
movement are being made available
at a materially lower cost.
"The movement of both fresh and
canned fruit by boat and truck has
been greater this past season than
ever before. The imposition of this
additional freight and accessorial
charge on this traffic will, I am quite
sure, force much of it into these
other channels. If not, it will cer-
tainly add to the burdens of the
grower and result in still lower
profits when at present his net prof-
its are far lower than are those of
many of the railroads over whose
lines this traffic moves."


September 15, 1931


September 15, 1931 SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE 5


teleT R U TH

N ow-at the very beginning of a new season-you 0'1
can get at the TRUTH about the fertilizer that will
give you the best results. Do this: Buy enough Nitro- ,
phoska, Calcium Nitrate or Calurea for one-half of your
first fall application. Use another fertilizer for the other
half. Then compare the results-see the difference with
your own eyes. Crops tell the Truth! Don't put it
off. Act today. Write now for complete information. I ,
Use the coupon below. Synthetic Nitrogen Products s ..
Corp., New York, N. Y. and Plant City, Florida. ..

Distributors: JACKSON GRAIN CO., Tampa, Florida

Eight Grades of Concentrated Complete Fertilizer. .NITROPHOSKA (the high-analysis complete fertilizer, made
in eight different grades to meet practically every ratio requirement) feeds the crop from start to finish. It is an
even-feeding fertilizer-BOTH quick-acting and long-lasting.

15% Nitrogen; 18.2% Ammonia. CALCIUM NITRATE (nitrate nitrogen combined with lime) is quick-act-
ing and supplies the soluble lime so necessary to citrus and other crops-even in soils already rich in lime.

34% Nitrogen; 41.3% Ammonia. CALUREA (Calcium Nitrate combined with Urea) is a crop booster that
supplies both quick-acting and long-lasting nitrogen in one material.
Mail This Coupon Now
JACKSON GRAIN Co., Tampa, Florida, Dept. D: Please send me your free booklet "Better Crops at Lower Cost." This does not obligate me in any way.
I grow ......- acres of citrus ......-- acres of truck crops. Name P.O. State ----.---


Clermont association saved its
members 30 percent on the hauling
cost by providing its own equipment
and service instead of contracting
the hauling as formerly done, re-
ports Manager G. H. Williams. The
association recently refunded over
two cents a box from the hauling
A total of 108,000 boxes was
hauled at a cost of $7,312.34 or
.0676 a box. This includes an allow-
ance of 50 percent depreciation of
the equipment which consists of
three trucks costing $2,568. The
average haul was 4.2 miles.

Ultra-voilet rays are being ex-
perimented with as a possible solu-
tion to preserve fresh orange juice
and permit its shipment without
freezing. Experiments are being
made by one of the leading research
laboratories in the country which
hassuccessfully used the ultra-voilet
.ys on other products.
The rays have a two-fold value.
"'hey promote the formation of
-itamin D and they have the pro-
erty of killing certain barteria
sponsible for decay.
The rays are of various lengths
and it has been found possible to
screen out all but those which it is
desired to use. Different bacteria
are affected by different wave
lengths so by screening out certain
lengths of rays, bacteria which are
desired can be left unharmed while
otherss are killed.

Hunt Brothers, Inc., caretakers
for several thousand acres of groves
in Highland Park, and operators of
Highland Park Packing House, Inc.,
are thorough in their development
and use of cover crops. The crops
are mowed to allow greater produc-
tion of the grass and the occasional
"bald" spots are given special treat-
ment to make them good producers.
Mowing, Hunt Brothers believes,
makes double or more the cover crop
grown. The "bald" spots have grass
thrown on them to build them up
to where they will grow good crops
of grass.
Where there are trees growing in
such spots, it is the practice of the
company to haul in grass cut from
heavy growing sections and mulch
the three. -The company believes
that inclusion of oak leaves makes
the mulch better.

A meeting- of the Sub-Exchange
Managers Associat:on has been
called in Tampa, Tuesday, Sept. 15,
at which several important matters
will be considered. General Man-
ager Commander has requested that
each sub-exchange manager be sure
to. attend.

Leesburg as-
socation has ap-
po'nted as its
manager W. D.
Curd, one of the
Senior dealer
service chiefs of
the Florida Cit-
rus Exchange.
Frank Gillespie,
former manager,
at his own re-
quest was releas-
ed from the management and will
be house foreman.
Curd, for many years a resident
of Florida and a grove owner, joined
the Exchange dealer service staff
several years ago. He came to the
Exchange with wide experience in
the dealer service field and soon
proved himself one of the most
valuable men in that line of work
with the Exchange.
He was utilized frequently on im-
portant tasks as!de from dealer serv-
ice work. In the past two seasons,
he has been assigned to field work
within the state during the summer
and his service in this connection
brought him to the attention of the
directors of Leesburg association.

Clermont association has just re-
funded to its members $7,000 saved
out of the operating and hauling
charges. With the refund was sub-
mitted a concise report on the aver-
ages "on the tree" paid during the
season just closed. The report shows
that Clermont members fared very
well considering the conditions which
featured the past year.
Though the crop around Clermont
is 20 to 25 percent smaller than last
season, the association will handle
more fruit, Manager G. H. Williams
reports. Total handled last season
was 108,200 boxes.
The association plans to reduce its
packing charge.

Los Angeles-Within the past few
years it has been found that cull
oranges, dried and made into meal
yield a vitamin feed for baby chicks
as good as cod liver oil. Ch'cks grow
rapidly on it, fewer of them die, and
they can be raised without direct
sunshine or green feed.
Apparently Texas poultrymen
were first to discover the merits of
orange feed, but California was
prompt to meet the demand that
.prung up in the state, and now
.he dehydrating of oranges is a good
business around Los Angeles.
Cull oranges are used. Eight to
ten tons make one ton of a golden
meal resembling cornmeal. The
whole orange is used as the peel is
good food. The reduction in weight
makes it possible to ship the product

Highland Park Packing House,
Inc., member of Polk Sub-Exchange,
handled approximately 200,000
boxes the past season and with addi-
tional acreage signed up will handle
about 250,000 boxes this season.
The packing house has been put
into first class shape with new
brushes and all machinery over-
hauled. The plant has a capacity of
500,000 boxes a season. It is mod-
ern in every detail with the simpli-
fied type of construction and all-
steel machinery which makes for
efficiency and long-life.

W. H. Smith, manager at Elfers
association for five seasons, is now
manager of Arcadia association, ap-
pointed to the position the latter
part of August.
At Elfers, Smith made one of the
finest records in the state on build-
ing volume. The association volume
jumped from 25,000 boxes the first
season to approximately 300,000
boxes last season.
Arcadia territory has a large vol-
ume of fruit and gives Smith an
excellent opportunity to build up a
big volume for the association.
There are about 400,000 boxes of
fruit available to the association.
It handled around 200,000 boxes of
this last season.

T. N. Barnes, formerly manager
of the Lakeland association, has
been added to the staff of the Ex-
change Supply Company.
Directors of the company de-
cided that more efficient service
could be given the associations by
the employment of a man experi-
enced in all phases of packing house
operations who could call upon the
associations regularly. Mr. Barnes
has had wide experience as a man-
ager and is well known to all the
house managers.

M. B. Crum of Homeland has been
appointed manager of Vero-Indian
River Producers association at Vero.
Mr. Crum, a grower and the son of
a grower, has been connected with
the citrus industry in various capaci-
ties for several years. He gained
packing house experience at Win-
ter Haven association under George
Williams. He was the representative
of the Florida Citrus Machinery
Company in Palestine for a t:me.

O. H. Henry, last season with
Oak Hill association, will be house
foreman at Okahumpka association
the coming season, J. B. Richards,
manager, reports. Henry has the
reputation for putting up a fine
grade and pack and Okahumpka is
planning an extra fancy pack in
addition to the regular Seald-Sweet.

Arguments that natural nitrates
are superior to synthetic nitrates be-
cause of valuable impurities in the
former type are unfounded, accord-
ing to the Fertilizer Review, organ
of the National Fertilizer associa-
Analysis, stated the refutation, of
a new form of Chilean nitrate
showed a content of 98.56 percent
of actual nitrate of soda. Moisture
was allowed .82 percent, which
would leave .62 percent for impuri-
ties. These impurities and the con-
tent of each are: magnesium chlor-
ide, 0.36 percent; sodium sulphate,
0.09 percent; sodium iodate, 0.07
percent, equivalent to 0.045 percent
actual iodine; and minute quantities
of sodium carbonate, sodium bicar-
bonate and calcium sulphate.
The Review pointed out that on
the basis of 100 pounds of the ni-
trate per acre the total amount of
iodine applied would be 0.72 of an
ounce per acre. No field experi-
ments, it continued, indicate that
such a minute amount has any effect
on the iodine content of crops.

Dana C. King, orange sales man-
ager of the California Fruit Growers
Exchange, has resigned his posi-
tion. Mr. King was orange sales
manager for 20 years. He has been
with the Exchange 28 years. His
future plans are not known but it is
considered possible that he will de-
vote his entire time to his extensive
grove properties.

Ozone treatment as a substitute
for pre-cooling is being experi-
mented with in carlot shipments of
raspberries from the northwest. Two
cars have been shipped under the
test and are reported to have arrived
in better condition than pre-cooled
cars showing less mold, decay and

Vero-Indian River Producers as-
sociation has called in for redemp-
tion the 1924-25 series of retain
certificates and is only waiting for
the completion of its audit to make
a liberal refund from the packing



Fruit Auctioneers
Fruit Auction Terminal
Rutherford Avenue
Charleston District
Cutler B. Downer Fred'k L. Springford
Harold F. Miles
J. Oliver Daly Clifford E. Myers


September 15, 1931

September~~~~_ 15 93 EADSWE CRNIL

Hill Reports Trade
Favorable to F. C. E.
The trade as a whole is very fa-
vorable to the Florida Citrus Ex-
change and is very much interested
in the prospect of the Exchange get-
ting control of the Florida citrus
crop, according to Manager J. S.
Hill of the Clearwater Association,
reporting his observations in a recent
trip to the markets of the Northwest.
Mr. Hill visited Baltimore, New
York, Boston and Buffalo, calling
upon the trade as well as the Ex-
change representatives. In recent
years he has made such a trip each
summer in order to get the reac-
tions of the trade and learn what
they mose desire in the handling of
Florida citrus.
"My trips to the markets have
entirely changed my viewpoint as
to conditions as they exist there
and have caused me to make many
changes in the method of prepar-
ing fruit for the markets," he said.
"I believe that if all the association
managers could go and get a picture
of what happens to their fruit at
the other end, the Sales department
would be able to get much better
results from these managers."
Mr. Hill highly complimented the
northern force, stating that they im-
pressed him as "good business men,
good salesmen and loyal to the Ex-
change." He offered the suggestion
that the Exchange representatives
should have the opportunity to be-
come more acquainted with the
Florida conditions and problems, re-
marking that very few had ever
seen a citrus grove.

Bowling Green Hears Curry
Correction of the abuses in the
handling and marketing of Florida
citrus will add $300,000 annually
to the income of Bowling Green ter-
ritory, J. Reed Curry, manager of
the organization department of the
Exchange, told a luncheon meeting
of Bowling Green businessmen re-
cently. Much interest was shown in
Mr. Curry's talk and arguments for
control of the crop in the Exchange.


For mid- and late summer spray-
ing, when the natural decline of
insect life is well under way, a.
light application of VOLCK or
VOLCK JUNIOR has proven very
61WestJefferson Street
Orlando, Florida

California Threats W after
Shipment if Rates Raise
California will move the bulk of
its citrus crop to eastern markets by
water if the 15 percent increase re-
quested by the railroads is granted,
C. O. Carnwall, Los Angeles traffic
manager of the California Fruit
Growers Exchange, stated at the
San Francisco hearing of the Inter-
state Commerce Commission.
Mr. Carnwall testified that one
inter-coastal steamship line now is
negotiating with the citrus industry
and has made an offer to build a
fleet of fast ships, equipped with
refrigeration on the condition that a
minimum tonnage be guaranteed.
He said that the firm making the
offer was backed by one of the large
steel companies.
"We prefer to ship by rail, but
there is no question about the prac-
ticability of shipping by water," Mr
Cornwall said. "We have tried it
out and found it satisfactory. If this
increase is granted, there is no ques-
tion that the bulk of the shipments
of California to the east will go by
water through the Panama canal."

Judge Hunter Recovering
From Serious Operation
Judge William T. Hunter, for
many years attorney for the Florida
Citrus Exchange, underwent a seri-
ous major operation at General
Hospital, Boston, Aug. 27. Despite
his age and the use of local anes-
thetics only, Judge Hunter came
through the operation nicely and
from last information from him was
improving steadily.
Judge Hunter hoped to recover
sufficiently to allow him to attend
the national meeting of the Amer-
ican Bar association at Atlantic City,
Sept. 16-19, and maintain his record
of unbroken attendance for more
than a score of years. He is on
several of the important committees,
particularly active on those pertain-
ing to uniform laws.
It is expected that he will be back
in Florida about the first.

Auctions Merge
The Pennsylvania Terminal Auc-
tion Company has merged with the
Philadelphia Auction Company with
the amalgamation to operate under
the name of the Philadelphia Ter-
minal Auction Company. Sales will
be continued at the two terminals
alternating as at present.
The Pennsylvania Terminal Auc-
tion Company started with the open-
ing of the new Pennsylvania Pro-
duce Terminal four years ago. The
Philadelphia Auction Company is
located in the B. & O.-Reading ter-
minal. Shipments over the Pennsyl-
vania will be sold at the Pennsyl-
vania terminal and those over the
B. & O. at the B. & 0. terminal.

Market Buyers Say

Give us Brogdexed Fruit

A few weeks ago we sent a questionnaire to a number of buyers at
improtant markets asking for a frank expression of their opinion as
to the value of Brogdex at the market end. We have been amazed at
the response-61 replies in 10 days EVERY ONE ENDORSING
BROGDEX. Here are extracts from some of these letters:
P. B. DEXTER, Columbus, Ga.-"I am very much sold on the value of Brogdex and
sincerely hope that the Florida Citrus Exchange will use that treatment on all
their fruit."
W. C. NANCE BROKERAGE Co., Jackson, Miss.-"Our trade will take a car that is
Brogdexed much in preference to fruit that is not and our experience has been
that it holds up. We would like to see all Exchange packing houses use this
N. P. LAWRENCE Co., Johnson City, Tenn.-"All jobbers whom we sell have a
deference for Brogdexed fruit. When there is slight decay in early shipments
it does not seem to spread like an epidemic. Brogdex seems to protect the fruit
from contamination. We would like to see every car of Exchange fruit that
we sell have Brogdex protection."
W. O. BROWN, JR., Toledo, Ohio-"We prefer to have Brogdexed fruit because at
presents a much better appearance, holds up longer and keeps its shape better,
which are great factors in the selling it. We want Brogdexed fruit every time
we can get it and we hope it will be universally used this coming season by all
Florida Citrus Exchange Associations and Sub-Exchanges."
W. C. PITNER Co., Athens, Ga.-"Brogdexed fruit has a better appearance and
keeps better. We hope Exchanges will continue using Brogdex and especially
Florida Citrus Exchange which we represent."
SAMUEL GEORGE, Richmond, Va.-"All of my customers demand Brogdexed fruit.
Last season I sold as many cars of Florida citrus as all of my competitors com-
bined and had an unusual opportunity to check cars that had been treated and
those that were not. Am pleased to state that we were never called upon to
make an allowance for decay on fruit that had been Brogdexed. A great many
retailers are now calling for Brogdexed brands."
SAM'L J. SHALLOW Co., Boston-"Brogdexed fruit worth considerably more from
a selling standpoint."
ARISE-WATSON & GAULT, Seattle-"Trade prefers Brogdexed fruit and often will
not consider cars not Brogdexed."
M. M. NOTEWARE, Exchange Representative, Buffalo-"This market heartily sold
on Brogdex and show it preference in our offerings."
C. H. ROBINSON & Co., Omaha-"Brogdexed fruit arrives showing better appear-
ance and is easier to sell because trade knows it will stand up better. Cheap
insurance for any packer."
W. H. MOODY, Exchange Representative, Harrisburg, Penna.-"Sold on Brogdex.
Arrives better and easier to sell. Some of our jobbers want no other kind. It
will not be long before houses that want to establish a regular market for
their brands will be compelled to use Brogdex."
MONTREAL FRUIT EXCHANGE, Montreal-"Brogdexed fruit brings an average of
2 $ more a box. We are decidedly in favor of it."
DAVIS & DAVIS, Baltimore-"Our buyers always look for Brogdex stamps."
FRANK HEWITT & Co., New York-"The trade not only prefers Brogdexed fruit
but pays more money for it. We recommend that the shippers use it as a good
O'DONNELL-DUNN Co., Pittsburgh-"Brogdexed fruit arrives better and carrys
better. Our retailers better satisfied. If it were up to us to pay the small
cost of treatment we would gladly do so."
L. A. BOCKSTAHLER & CO., Cleveland-"Brogdexed fruit sells for better prices
because the trade knows it will stand up better."
W. J. WESTCOTT Co., Philadelphia-"Our retailers have constantly insisted upon
buying only fruits that were Brogdexed. Our opinion is that it can't
be beat."
LAGOMARCINO-GRUPE Co., Burlington, Iowa-"If we have a choice of two cars
with the same manifest, from the same district, one Brogdexed and one not,
we would take the Brogdexed car and if necessary pay more for it."
Supply and demand govern prices. Brogdexed fruit always is above
the market average. There is never enough to go around. As dealers
and consumers come to realize more fully the advantages of Brog-
dexed fruit the premium for these brands will reach still higher levels.
There is a Brogdex house near you-it will pay you to talk the
matter over with the manager. He has a proposition that will net you
more money for the same frut. See him.

Florida Brogdex Distributors, Inc.

B. C. Skinner, President

Dunedin, Florida


September 15, 1931

SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE September 15, 1931

Paul S. Armstrong
General Manager
California Exchange
The position of general manager
)f the California Fruit Growers Ex-
change ,made vacant by the regret-
table death of Earl G. Dezell, has
been filled by promotion of Paul S.
Armstrong, assistant to Mr. Dezell
for six years.
Mr. Armstrong joined the Cali-
fornia organization in the dealer
service department in 1916, follow-
ing his graduation from Michigan
State College, where he specialized
in horticulture and marketing. He
became assistant advertising man-
ager the year following in charge
of dealer service work.
Appointed advertising manager in
1921, he rose steadily in the regard
of the Exchange board and in 1925
was appointed assistant to Mr. De-
The death of Mr. Dezell, though
not unexpected due to his long ill
health, was a distinct shock to the
California organization and a deep
sorrow to many others, including
the Florida Citrus Exchange. Mr.
Dezell had grown up and developed
in the organization, rising from of-
fice boy to the commanding position
he held. His service dated from
March 19, 1881.
Though the two organizations
were keen competitors, the Cali-
fornia and Florida Exchanges
worked in close harmony and the
finest feeling existed between the
two for which Mr. Dezell had much
responsibility. He was held in the
highest regard by the Florida Citrus
Exchange. A resolution expressing
the deep regrets of the Exchange
was passed by the board at its last
meeting recently.

Find Pink Fruited Lemon
Washington, D. C.-Pink lemons
have been found growing on a tree
in California.
However, the tree is a rare speci-
men and the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture warns that
there is little chance of the pink
lemonade industry switching to the
new lemons for raw material.
Pink lemons were first exhibited
at the National Orange show this
year. They came from a tree in
Burbank and so far as known the
tree is a bud sport of the Varigated
Eureka lemon, which was developed
from a limb variation of the Eureka
lemon, discovered in 1911. The Vari-
gated Eureka lemon trees are not as
productive as the normal Eureka
lemon trees and they are grown
chiefly for ornamental purposes.
The pink fruited lemon tree is
identical in appearance to the Varie-
gated Eureka tree, but as the fruit
approaches ripeness it develops a
decidedly pink color in the rind,
flesh and juice.
Budwood from the pink lemon

Trucking Presents Big
Problems in Terminals
Experience with the trucking of
fruits and vegetables into the larger
markets shows several problems of
major importance such as inade-
quate and unsuited facilities, price-
cutting, disruption of standards and
inability to judge the volume of sup-
plies which must be solved or truck-
ing will be a serious evil.
Many authorities and specialists
have recognized these problems and
are giving serious thought to them,
but so far the natural complexities
of the situation have baffled them
and they admit they have no ideas
or plans which might contain the
solution. There is a growing alarm
over the situation as it is the general
belief that trucking is a permanent
feature of distribution and that
these problems are small in influ-
ence now to what they will be.
A report on trucking in the bigger
markets of New York state has been
received by the Florida Citrus Ex-
change from Prof. M. P. Rassmus-
sen, professor of marketing, N. Y.
State College of Agriculture, Ex-
periment Station, Cornell Univer-
The most vexing problem, he
stated, is the lack of facilities for
marketing the trucked produce. Rail-
road tracks and piers naturally are
not open to the trucks and the whole-
sale store facilities are inadequate
and streets are too narrow and con-
gested, he explained.
The truckers, he said, mix inferior
grades with good grades and at-
tempt to sell the whole as good.
This has brought a reaction which
increases the salability of the carlot
produce and makes it more difficult
to dispose of the trucked stuff.
No way has been found by which
trucked volume can be ascertained
speedily and the trade is becoming
very reluctant to buy of anything
that moves in or by truck as they
cannot tell whether the price they
paid early in the day is not cut ma-
terially by heavy truck receipts
Professor Rassnmssen expresses
the opinion that the movement of
the products from the farm to the
markets has been "over-emphasized"
and the movement from the markets
to the smaller towns and cities is
"under-emphasized." He believes
that the trucker who purchases sup-
plies in the large markets and dis-
tributes it in a radius of 150 miles
(Continued on Page 9)

tree has been inserted in sour or-
ange seedlings and the resulting
trees will be studied to see if the
pink lemon can be further propa-
gated. Department specialists de-
clare the pink lemon is another illus-
tration of the occurrence of striking
bud variations in this variety of
citrus fruit.

A Florida Heater

for Florida Conditions

Announcing a Wood Burning Grove Heater
Would California's Citrus Growers use oil
if they had Florida's wood and no oil?
Our answer is no! However, we do be-
lieve they would have a more efficient
method of burning the wood than in open
fires. With this in mind we have devel-
oped a very efficient and inexpensive wood
stove for grove and truck crop protection.

Low Initial Cost
1/2 to 1/3 of Standard Oil Heating.

Very Low Operating Cost
much less than open wood fires.
Write for detailed information before de-
ciding on your heater equipment.

Florida Grove Heater Corporation
J. E. PALMER, Manager
Mfg.'s and Distributors of Palmer Grove Heaters.
(Pat. Pending)
Van Buren Hotel, Haines City, Florida.
Special Proposition to Associations



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'"and see for yourself

Warehous-s: Winter Haven, Lake Wales Bradenttn. i ter Garden
^^a^^^r^^^^^)9l X I, "W


September 15, 1931

September 15, 1931 SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE

Lower Rio Grande Valley
Has 6,634,051 Citrus Trees
Harlingen, Tex. Assording to
the annual United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture citrus census,
the lower Rio Grande Valley now has
a total of 6,634,051 citrus trees
planted in the groves. This is an
increase of 632,950 trees over the
6,001,101 trees in the Valley at the
same time last year.
During the last year a total of
869,389 trees were planted in the
Valley. But there was a mortality of
approximately 200,000 trees-young
trees which died after the cold of
the spring of 1930-and this cut
down the total increase consider-
Plantings the previous season
were 9013,32.
Hidalgo county maintained its
lead in the citrus industry with a
total of 4,361,557 trees, of wl.ich
594,549 were planted during the past
Cameron county has a total of 2,-
167,692 trees, of which 249,604
v ere planted during the last year.
Willacy county shows 104,802 trees
planting 25,236 last year.
Grapefruit Gairs Most
Grapefruit gained a still larger
proportion of the total, as 4,898,-
934 of the Valley trees are grape-
fruit, 1,508,394 oranges and the re-
maining 226,723 miscellaneous cit-
rus. During the last year 763,371
grapefruit trees were planted, as
against only 100,833 oranges and
5,185 of other citrus fruit.
The trees four years old and ovei
will bear commercially this season,
which means that 2,194,118 trees
will bear this season. Next year
more than a million additional t:ees
will bear, and the following year the
record, 1,569,079 trees, planted two
years ago, will bear commercially.
The increase in the Valley total i
slightly under estimates, because of
the large loss in trees. However, the
plantings last year are a little more
than expected, in view of the short-
age of nursery stock and light p'ant-
ings last fall. The heaviest planting
was in the spring of this year
The citrus census is the work of,
thirty federal inspectors in the Val-
ley, who spend two months each
year counting the trees in the or-

Ford Workers Must Garden
Henry Ford has recently issued an
order that every married employee
of the Ford Motor Company must
have a vegetable garden next year
and supply his family with at least
part of their winter vegetable re-
quirements. No garden, no job, is:
Mr. Ford's ultimatum. Expert gar-
dening advice will be provided.
Those who do not have large enough
yard plots for the garden will be
provided with garden plots by the

Trucking Presents Problems
(Continued from Page 8)
is more important to the growers.
He cites that in Albany market, half
of the produce sold by the growers,
representing more than $2,000,000
worth, was purchased by the trucker
who supplied points as far distant

as 175 miles. He believes that the
important point is to get the product
to the large markets in first class
condition so that the trucker will
buy it and redistribute it.
These problems are very import-
ant to the Florida citrus grower,
who for years to come will ship the
greater part of his crop in the usual

manner even though trucking
doubles or trebles in volume. The
greater part of his crop wiuld feel
the weight of any unfortunate in-
fluences of the smaller trucked vol-
On the other hand, however, he
has the distribution to many points
not reached by the regular channels.

The NACO Plan for Fertilizing Citrus and Truck Crops

is producing better results than any other program

. now being offered in the state

Citrus Growers and Truck Growers who are using and enthusi-
astically recommending NACO Brand Fertilizers and NACO

PRICE It cannot be that they are influenced by the prices at
which these fertilizers are sold, for while they are in
no sense high priced or expensive to use, on a comparative basis,
NACO Brand Fertilizers often cost more per given analysis than
the products of other manufacturers . due to the more liberal
use of the higher priced organic, particularly those mixtures
which contain genuine Peruvian Guano.

SERV ICE Field representatives of the Nitrate Agencies Company
are doing a splendid job with the unselfish and intelli-
gent service they are rendering the growers of the state. You'll be
surprised by the enthusiasm with which they tackle your fertilizing
problems and you'll be impressed with the commonsense and
practical solutions that are offered by these men who dislike to be
classed as "experts."

RESULTS The final test of any fertilizer or fertilizing plan is:
Does it pay in improved quality, increased yield and
lower fertilizing cost per unit of crop? Talk with Grove Owners
and Truck Croppers who are now placing orders with NACO
for the new season.

This company is fortunate in having more truck fertilizer business
booked ahead than ever before . BUSINESS IS GOOD





September 15, 1931

SEAD-SEE CHONCL Septmbe 1513

Recent Results of Fertilizer Experiments

(Continued from Page 3)
fertilizer at each application. Plots
2 and 4-10 percent at each appli-
cation, while Plot 5 receives 5 per-
cent and Plot 6, 3 percent in the
spring, 5 percent in the summer, and
10 percent in the fall. All of the
potash is high grade sulfate. There
has been a very noticeable differ-
ence in the appearance of these
trees from time to time. The plots
receiving 10 percent potash have
not had as dark green foliage as the
balance of the plots. Many times
the foliage on these trees had a
bronze color.
In studying the yield data of the
oranges, Table 4, we find there is
no very consistent difference. Dur-
ing the nine years Plots 5 and 6
have most often been the heaviest
yielders. The 10 percent plots have
only had the highest yield once, and
second highest once.
Turning to the grapefruit yields,
Table 5, we find no outstanding dif-
ferences in yields. Even the 9-year
average shows no marked differ-
ence. Certainly we cannot say that
the 10 percent plots were superior.
From the general appearance we
could find no marked difference in
the quality of the fruit, either or-
anges or grapefruit, from the dif-
ferent plots. The packing house
manager, however, stated that he
could pick out the grapefruit from
the 3 percent plots as they were of
poorer quality than the balance of
the fruit. We made some cold stor-
age tests but the results were rather
inconclusive. Tests should be made
on the shipping quality of the fruit,
but this is rather an expensive ex-
periment and we have never had
sufficient funds to undertake it. I
believe that we are safe in assum-
ing from the above results that 5
percent of the potash three times a
year or a total of 15-18 percent dur-
ing the year will be sufficient for
this type of soil, unless we can show
that the higher amounts of potash
improve the keeping quality or eat-
ing quality of the fruit.

Nitrogen Source Experiment
Let us now take up the source of
nitrogen experiment. This, too, as
many of you know, is located at
Lake Alfred at the Citrus Experi-
ment Station. This experiment has
also been running since 1921. The
trees at that time were one year old.
The ten acres are divided into ten
plots. Plots 1 to 5, inclusive, con-
tain tangerines, oranges and grape-
fruit, while Plots 6 to 10, inclusive,
contain only oranges. All of these
plots received the same amount and
source of potash, Plots 1 to 5, in-
clusive, received the phosphoric acid
from Superphosphate, while Plots
0 to 10, inclusive, received steamed
bone meal as a source of phosphoric

acid. The sources of nitrogen va-
ried as follows:
Plots 1 and 6-Nitrate of Soda.
Plots 2 and 7-Sulfate of Am-
Plots 3 and 8-Dried Blood.
Plots 4 and 9-Combination of
1, 2 and 3.
Plots 5 and 10-Manure.
In the case of Plots 5 and 10 the
source of nitrogen was changed in
1929 to one-half nitrate of soda and
one-half sulfate of ammonia as the
trees were in very poor condition.
Incidentally I may say that seldom,
if ever, have I seen trees recover so
rapidly as did these trees Today
they are about the best in the ex-
The yield of pineapple oranges
is shown in Table 6. Considering the
first five plots which have had super-
phosphate as a source of phosphoric
acid, it is quite apparent that Plots
1 and 2 are producing the heaviest
crops, with little difference between
3 and 4. Plot 5 as was mentioned
above evidently was not getting
enough nitrogen as the trees grew
poorly, had a poor color and did not
bear to amount to anything.
Use of Steamed Bone Meal
Turning now to Plots 6-10 which
received the steamed bone meal as a
source of phosphoric acid, we find
that there is no outstanding dif-
ference between the different
sources of nitrogen with the excep-
tion of manure. This is more ap-
parent when we consider the aver-
age yields for the seven years. You
will note that the average yield for
these plots is the same as for Pot
No. 1 or the nitrate of soda plot.
The steamed bone meal was appar-
ently responsible for the increased
yield of the dried blood and com-
bination plots. Whether this is due
to the nitrogen in the bone meal or
to the form of phasphor'c acid or to
the organic matter is hard to state.
It is quite possible that had we
grown a heavy cover crop of legumes
in this grove the difference might
have been greater. The reason no
legume was grown was because we
did not want to add another source
of nitrogen which would complicate
interpreting the results.
You will note that these results
cover a ten year period. During the
ten years there has been no ap-
parent difference between the
growth and general appearance of
the trees growing on the plots with
steamed bone meal and superphos-
phate. This year for the first time
a difference is noticeable. The trees
in plots 6 and 7 have a better ap-
pearance than those in Plots 1 and 2
wh'ch have received the same source
of nitrogen. Whether or not this
difference is going to continue we
cannot predict. It does show the

danger of drawing conclusions too
'Let us now look at Table 7 giving
yields of Marsh Seedless grapefruit
Here we find a more pronounced dif-
ference between Plots 1 and 2 than
in the case of the oranges. While
the orange yields showed an in-
creased yield with sulfate of am-
monia, the grapefruit shows an in-
creased yield with nitrate of soda.
The dried blood evidently is not fur-
nishing enough soluble nitrogen
when the trees need it. The com-
bination of sources gives a yield
almost as good as the sulfate of am-
Inorganics Good Sources
From a study of these two tables
I do not believe anyone can deny
that the two inorganic sources of
nitrogen, nitrate of soda and sulfate
of ammonia are good sources of
nitrogen for citrus. As I stated
previously, I believe they will work
even better if used in connection
with a good heavy cover crop, or
with hay hauled into the grove. To
anyone wih has seen the above grove
there can be no question as to the
influence of these inorganic sources
on tree growth. The trees on Plots
1 and 2 are by far the largest in
the grove. One reason why the
yields have not been larger may be
because we have used insufficient
amounts of nitrogen. So far we have
given the larger trees just as the
smaller. While this man have
been enough for the smaller trees I
believe the larger trees can use
more to advantage.
There has been considerable criti-
cism about all of our fertilizer exper-
imental work. Some of this criticism
is not justified unless all of the
facts are known. The chief criticism
has been that we are drawing con-
clusions from a too limited number
of experiments. We have been very
careful in the past, and will continue
to be so so in the future, to call
attention to the fact that any
recommendations we may make are
based on experiments on one type
of soil and are strictly applicable to
that type only. We have stated, and
I state now that similar results can
probably be expected on other types
of soil, and we urge growers to try
out our recommendations, though
we will not guarantee that they will
get the same results if used in dif-
ferent soil types and root stocks.
Let me assure you and all others
who are interested in our work that
we fully realize that our experi-
ments are not as comprehensive as
they should be. No one is more
anxious to conduct these experi-
ments as they should be than I am.
'However, it costs money to conduct
experiments and few people seem to
realize how much it costs or how
little we have available with which
to conduct these experiments.

Costs In Experiments
The past year we had $1,200 avail-
able for the purchase of fertilizers.
The fertilizer for the three experi-
ments at the Citrus Experiment Sta-
tion alone last year cost $743.36 or
more than half of the total amount
we had available. Our experiment
in Lake county where we are com-
paring some of the newer sources
of nitrogen and determining whether
or not it is possible or best to apply
all the phosphoric acid and potash
in one application a year, costs us
$240.00 for the fertilizer. This left
us only $317.00 for fertilizer for
the balance of our experiments.
These experiments were as follows:
Source of nitrogen test, an en-
largement of the experiment under
way at Lake Alfred, and amount of
phosphoric acid test, five experi-
ments located at the following
places: Leesburg, Avon Park, Port
Mayaca, Homestead and Fort Pierce.
Satsuma fertilizer experiments at
Marianna and Penney Farms.
Citrus fertilizer experiments on
muck soils at Davie.
Potato experiments at Hastings.
Tomato experiments at Braden-
Cooperators Helped
You may very well ask the ques-
tion how could we buy enough fer-
tilizer with the money we had for
all of these experiments. The answer
;s that most of the groves are young
trees, one cooperator paid for all of
his fertilizer, and we obtained most
of the nitrogen materials free of
charge through the generosity of the
Barrett Co., Nitrate of Soda Educa-
tional Bureaus and the Syntheitc
Nitrogen cooperation. I take this op-
portunity to express our gratitude
to these companies for their aid
which made it possible for us to
conduct as many experiments as we
did. This year we may have to ask
some of our cooperators to buy
some of the fertilizer or discontinue
the experiments.
You can readily see that the citrus
growers are getting considerably
more than their share of the funds
available for fertilizer work, yet we
are not at all satisfied that we are
doing as much as ought to be done,
much as is possible with the limited
but we feel that we are doing as
funds at our disposal.
One of our greatest needs at the
present time is a citrus grading ma-
shine at our Citrus Experiment Sta-
tion. We feel that in order to get
a true picture of our fertilizer re-
ults we should know the effect of
the different fertilizers on the size
and quality of the fruit. Without a
grading machine this is impossible.
With our curtailed funds it will be
impossible to purchase a grader but
we would gratefully accept one as a
gift if anyone had one they wished
to dispose of in this manner.


September 15, 1931

Setmbr15 93 EADSWE CRNIL







can get

the best price in any market.

You can measureably control the
quality and quantity of your crop
by adequate and proper fertiliza-
will do the job better and cost less
because they produce more.

Plan now to make your fertilizer
pay by using Orange Belt Brands.


Lyons Fertilizer Company

807 Citrus Exc. Bldg.

A& $

4th Ave. & 35th St.


luzcw- 2~ C~N~ N~ C~ c~ v ,-


September 15, 1931


SEALD-SWEET CHRONkJLE September 15, 1931

Consider This ONE Fact

Concerning the difference between

co-operative and independent mar-

keting . . .

As a grower you naturally are interested entirely in the profit you
get out of the fruit you raise.
The Florida Citrus Exchange, owned and controlled by the grow-
ers, is operated on a non-profit basis. All of the profits accruing
from the sale of your fruit beyond the actual cost of operations,
comes back directly to you.
The independent shipper, simply because of the nature of his busi-
ness, is naturally interested only in the profit he can make for
himself from the fruit of the growers aligned with him.
The independent shipper is in direct competition with you, as a
grower, in the race for the profit from your crop.
As a member of the Exchange you are cooperating wtih growers
whose output represents 45 percent of the total citrus output
of the state, in getting the fullest possible measure of returns
for your crop.
Propaganda, illusion, hokum or anything else notwithstanding-
this one fact should be sufficient to enlist your membership in the
Exchange for your own protection.


: - t; 1

'September 15, 1931


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