Title: Seald-sweet chronicle
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075292/00020
 Material Information
Title: Seald-sweet chronicle
Alternate Title: Seald sweet chronicle
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Florida Citrus Exchange
Florida Citrus Exchange
Place of Publication: Tampa Fla
Publication Date: September 1, 1931
Frequency: semimonthly
Subject: Citrus fruit industry -- Newspapers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Tampa (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Hillsborough County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: newspaper   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Hillsborough -- Tampa
Coordinates: 27.970898 x -82.46464 ( Place of Publication )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased on Apr. 15, 1932.
General Note: "Florida's only citrus newspaper."
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 4, no. 24 (May 15, 1929).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075292
Volume ID: VID00020
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AJH6537
oclc - 31158390
alephbibnum - 001763371
lccn - sn 97027656

Full Text


1924 E. JACKSON ST.,

Seald-Sweet Chronicle

Entered as Second Class Mail Matter
Vol. VII SUBSCRIPTION PBICE 50 CENTS PER YEAB TAMPA, FLORIDA, SEPTEMBER 1, 1931 at the Post Ofee at Tampa. Florida NO. 7
Under the Act of March 3, 1879.

Southern Shippers Attack

Rate Raise at I. C. C. Hearing

Predict Will Decrease Railroad Revenues and Force
Shippers to Larger Use of Truck and Water
Transportation and May Tend to Curtail Production

Will Vigorously Prosecute

Violation of The Arsenic Law

Federal Court Decision Stops Marketing of Between
500,000 and 600,000 Boxes of Fruit Charged to
Have Been Treated With The Arsenical Spray

A gloomy picture of the future
for both the Southeastern railroads
and their patrons if the requested
15 percent rate increase is granted
was painted by witnesses for the
shippers throughout the four days
of the hearing at Atlanta before
Commissioner Joseph B. Eastman
of the Interstate Commerce Com-
mission, August 17-20.
Particularly strong cases were
made for the citrus growers by E.
L. Wirt, chairman of the board of
the Florida Citrus Exchange, and
E. D. Dow, traffic manager, both of
whom testified at length the third
day. Mr. Wirt stressed the effect
of increased rates on the already
depressed financial condition of the
growers, pointing out the tremen-
dous and profitable business that
the citrus industry was giving the
railroads though it often returned
the growers little more than cost of
production. Mr. Dow emphasized
the probability of decreased rev-
enue to the railroads through diver-
sion of tonnage to other methods of
transportation and to the limitation
of distribution.

Good Citrus Crop

In the Isle oF Pines
A large citrus crop, estimated at
more than 200,000 boxes, is indi-
cated for the Isle of Pines, accord-
ing to the Isle of Pines Post.
- Groves have been well cared for
and growing conditions have been
Unusually good with the probability
that a good volume will be moved
before October 1.
This will be the third consecu-
tive year the island has had a large
crop. The past season it exported
240,000 boxes, of which the most
was moved by October 1. The pre-
vious year the shipments totaled
205,000 boxes, of which more than
half was moved by October 1.

Record for "Seald-Sweet" Canned Citrus

Above is the display in the "Stop & Shop" store in which more "Seald-Sweet" canned
grapefruit was sold in four days than of any other brand in a whole year. The insert
in the upper right corner is of the demonstration booth where samples were given cus-
tomers. "Stop. & Shop" is one of the largest quality grocery stores in the country.

In the first four days of the dem-
onstration and sale of "Seald-
Sweet" canned grapefruit and
grapefruit juice, "Stop & Shop,"
quality retail store of Chicago, sold
more of the brand than it had of
any other in a whole year. This
record was reported to C. P. Fish,
sales manager of the canning di-
vision of the Florida Citrus Ex-
change, by R. J. Robinson, man-
ager of the store.
"Stop & Shop" is nationally rec-
ognized as one of the largest quality
retail grocery stores in America. It
is located on State and Washington
streets, just a block from what is
considered the busiest pedestrian
corner in the world.
For the introduction of "Seald-
Sweet" canned grapefruit and
grapefruit juice, a special window
display was arranged for the store.
Inside was placed a demonstration
booth at which sections of the

canned grapef it' Ahd drinks of the
juice were served patrons of the
The "Stop & Shop" store is the
criterion for the leading retail
stores in a radius of 50 miles or
more., As a result of this sale, the
largest stores in the larger cities of
this territory took on the "Seald-
Sweet" brand. It attracted the at-
tention of three of the largest res-
taurant chains of the city and they
arranged to supply "Seald-Sweet"
to their patrons.
The "Stop & Shop" account alone
would mean much to the Exchange.
Its business is so large that 38 per-
sons are employed at telephone so-
licitation alone. Each has a private
wire over which all day long he
takes orders from the select trade
of the territory. More than 40 floor
clerks are required to take care of
the direct customer trade.
(Continued on Page 2)

S-Vigorous prosecution of the viola-
tors of the "arsenical" law will fol-
low immediately, Commissioner ,of
Agriculture Nathan Mayo pledged,
following the announcement by the
federal court that the law had been
There are 15 cases, involving be-
tween 500,000 and 600,000 boxes of
fruit, most or all of which have been
filed. It is understood, however, that
for the time being, no effort will be
made by the state authorities to de-
stroy the arsenically affected fruit
unless an attempt is made to remove
it from the trees.
All of the arsenical spray inspec-
tors will be recalled and assigned in
pairs to guard the banned fruit to
prevent it from being picked, Com-
missioner Mayo said. Each pair will
be assigned certain of the groves
and made responsible for them.
According to the Commissioner,
extreme vigilance will be exercised
to prevent any of the arsenical fruit
from slipping through the packing
houses. As maturity inspection also
is under the jurisdiction of the Com-
missioner, it should be a simple_mat-
ter to detect such fruit in the pack-
ing houses if it should elude the field
The striking features of the situa-
tion are that so few alleged violators
of the law were found and that six
of these account for more than 95
percent of the fruit charged to have
been affected. This shows clearly
that practically all of the growers
and the industry are opposed to the
practice and such general opinion,
except for very rare exceptions, is
adequate proof that the practice is
unwarranted and contrary to the
general good.
The enforcement of the law was
materially aided this season by the
development of tests which would
prove conclusively the illegal use of
the chemical. These tests, it was
said, could show within a reasonable
length of time when the arsenical
(Continued on Page 2.)

-s-- ~

J.C. YONtiE,

SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE 'jeptc'fllber 1, l9~

To Prosecute Violators

OF The Arsenic Law
"(Continued from Page -1)
spray had been applied and were
so definite as to forestall any attack
upon the test itself
The inspection was in charge of
Gray Singleton of Ft. Meade who
has spent several years in the study
of arsenical reactions. According to
Mr. Singleton, every care was ob-
served to do a thorough job with
repeated inspections of many of the
It is considered that the case is
settled with the decision of the fed-
eral judges at Jacksonville. Two of
the judges sitting in the case were
from the Court of Appeals to which
the case would have to be carried on
The decision sustained the law,
particularly the right of inspectors
to seize and destroy condemned
fruit, holding that the four days
allowed the accused to contest the
case was sufficient time to protect
their interests.
Samples of fruit in the inspector's
office at Winter Haven clearly show-
ed the effects of arsenic where used.
Arsenic fruit even this early showed
a pronounced whitish tinge and the
juice cells appeared more prominent
individually than in normal fruit.
Arsenic and lime treated fruit
showed a peculiar contrast. The
arsenic fruit in the samples passed
the acid test but not the juice test.
The lime sprayed fruit passed the
juice test but not the acid test.

Dr. Macklin in High Office
Dr. Theodore Macklin, who made
valuable economic surveys of the
Florida citrus industry for the Flor-
ida Citrus Exchange the winter of
1929-30, has been appointed chief
of th6edivisidniof markets, State De-
partment of Agriculture of Cali-
fornia. Dr. Macklin was named for
the position by the new director of
the department, Dudley Moulton.
Dr. Macklin has been engaged in
cooperative promotion in California
since the hurried call for his serv-
ices in February, 1930, to help the
California grape growers out of a
situation which threatened ruin. It
was thought at the time that he
would return shortly to Florida, but
the work in California prevented
He has been working incessantly
on the Pacific Coast and is credited
with material, accomplishments.
Dr. Macklin came to Florida
through the Federal Farm Board,
who obtained his services from the
University of Wisconsin. Dr. Mack-
lin in hlis survey brought to light
many facts which at best had only
been dimly seen before.

Directing Fight Against Arsenic Users

Lower Rates W ill Raise Rail Road Revenue-Dow
Railroads will increase their rev- Perishables are subject to violent
enues through a reduction of rates fluctuations of many factors which
rather than by an increase, as con- cannot be controlled, such as vol-
cerns perishables, Traffic Manager ume, demand and price, he ex-
E. D. Dow of the Florida Citrus Ex- plained. They must be moved re-
change, testified at the I. C. C. hear- gardless of unfavorable factors and
ing on the 15 percent rate increase under such conditinos "the amount
at Atlanta, August 17-20. of the transportation cost frequent-
"The lower the transportation ly determines whether the grower
costs are the more the producers' will have a profit or whether he will
risks are diminished; the greater incur a deficit," he said.
the opportunity he has of enlarging Using Lake Wales as a represen-
his markets and the more potential tative point in Florida, Mr. Dow
traffic there is for the carrier," Mr. showed that the proposed increase
Dow explained. He pointed to the would add from $45 to $87 a car,
history of the California perishable making the transportation charge
production to support his point, on a minimum car range from $356
"The history of the California to $670.
perishables production illustrates The increase would burden per-
very clearly that low freight rates ishables out of proportion to other
are a necessity when undertaking to commodities as perishables must
develop perishable industries and have special equipment and refrig-
perishable tonnage for carriers," he eration to which the increase would
continued. "Had it not been for apply also, penalizing the perish-
the favorable rates provided by the ables with an additional increase,
originating lines in California and Mr. D-ow testified. .. -
the participatnig carriers through- The perishable movement from
out the journey to the Eastern Florida is unusually valuable to the
markets, the production of Cali- Florida railroads as these lines en-
fprnia perishables never would have joy a haul over the entire length of
reached its present proportions." their lines on 55 to 60 percent of
Mr. Dow expressed the opinion this traffic which moves to the east-
that increased rates would turn.the ern markets, Mr. Dow pointed out.
citrus industry largely to canning Though the volume of perishables
the fruit. He pointed out that this from Florida has increased enor-
is much more easily handled, loads mously, rates have been materially
the equivalent of double the amount increased, Mr. Dow testified. Rates
of fresh fruit to a car can be moved in effect now to the principal mar-
very readily by water and carries a kets in the north and east are nearly
much lower rate. It would cause 150 percent of the rates which were
a severe loss of revenue to the rail- in effect before June, 1918. It
roads should such a development would surprise him, he said, if this
take place, he said. percentage of increase is not higher
Increase Will Boost Canning than the increase on similar prod-
Mr. Dow stated that the freight ucts in other producing territories.
rates on perishables are an impor- Summarizing his opinion on the
tant factor, "a bigger factor in the proposed increase in answer to the
successful production and market- question of the.jprobable effect of
ing of such cbmmodities than they the increase, Mr. Dow said:
are in other groups of commodities." (Continued on Page 7)

Shippers Attack Rate Raise
I. C. C. at Atlanta Hearing
(Continued from Page 1)
Wide Representation
The witnesses represented indus-
tries and businesses of all kinds as
well as agriculture and generally
the opinion appeared to be that the
railroads' financial difficulties were
due not to inadequate rates but to
decreased business. All were agreed
that the increase of rates would
inevitably decrease the revenues of
the railroads and in addition would
be a serious blow to industry and
One of the strongest critics of
the proposed rate hike was W. D.
Anderson of Macon, a director in
the Central of Georgia Railroad,
who stated that he could see further
disaster for the railroads from a
rate increase and that in the long
run the railroads would suffer the
One of the most striking bits of
testimony was given by Fred Petti-
john, accountant for the Florida
Railroad Commission, who stated
that the drastic decrease in the rail
passenger traffic to Florida last year
caused a far greater loss of profit
to the railroads than the general
business depression and all other
factors combined. He presented
many exhibits from the Florida
Railroad Commission to support his
Railroads Fared Well
The railroads have fared much
better than the shippers in the
changes of rates both voluntary and
by order of the I. C. C. during the
past 10 years, H. T. Moore, rate ex-
pert of the Atlanta Freight Buerau,
testified in a resume of freight tar-
iff changes. The net result, he
said, on the whole has been sub-
stantial increase in the revenue of
the Southern carriers.
A particularly dark picture was
growers by William C. Bewley, gen-
eral manager of the GeorgiaPeach
Growers Exchange, who said that
increased rates would force nlany
of the growers out of business and
that those who could not get out
would seek ways and means of
avoiding rail shipment. He said the
transportation rates are so high
(Continued on Page 7)

"Seald Sweet" Record
(Continued from Page 1)
The Chicago experience is similar
to that occurring in every section
in which "Seald-Sweet" canned fruit
has been introduced, reported Mr.
Fish on his return from a visit to
the principal points. The product
has won the fancy of the trade al-
ready attracted by the wide ac-
quaintance of consumers with the
brand name and both these factors
coupled with Exchange merchandis-
ing indicate a very successful future
for Exchange growers on their
canned fruit,: he declared.

-Septenibeir 1, 19311


Here are the directing heads and their chief aides in the fight to rid Florida of its old
arsenical fruit evil that disrupted the early market year after year. Left to right, Gray
Singleton, chief inspector upon whom the principal work fell; Commissioner of Agricul-
ture Nathan A. Mayo, the authority behind enforcement; lr. L. Longfellow-Smith and
E. D. Raasch, chemists.

Septmbe 1,18 EL-WE HOIL

Palmer Corporation Groves Show Fine Promise

Within the next few seasons there
will be a big boost in the volume of
citrus from the Sarasota section as
the more than 1,000 acres of groves
of the Palmer Corporation come into
real bearing, at last showing prom-
ise after years of unfortunate set-
backs. Estimates for this season
range from 35,000 to 50,000 boxes,
all of which will be handled through
Sarasota association, of which the
corporation has been a member for
several years.
The Palmer groves consist alto-
gether of about 1,200 acres, of
which 160 acres is of recent plant-
ing. The latter is in grapefruit, of
which there is very little in the older
acreage. The older groves, how-
ever, are well balanced in orange
varieties, including Parson Browns,
Pineapples and Valencias.
The groves stretch along the
Tamiami Trail about two miles south
of Sarasota. They have long front-
age on the Trail and will present an
attractive view as their growth con-
tinues. The groves stretch back
from the Trail several miles.
The present grove property does
not lie in an unbroken block, though
it consists generally of large con-
necting tracts. Originally, the cor-
poration planted 1,800 acres in
groves in a development allowing
eight acres of groves and two acres
of homesite. Practically all was
sold, but during the well-known re-
cession in development throughout
the state, much of it came back into
the possession of the company. It
bought back many of the tracts to
round out its reacquired groves.

Upper: A view in one of the groves of the Palmer Corporation. These trees just a few
seasons back appeared almost hopeless from cold damage. Note the heavy cover crop
which is seen in all the Palmer groves.
Lower: Part of a stretch of grove along three mile front.

two-thirds of the groves were ridged
high for the tree rows.
The cold of five years ago hit the
groves a serious blow, setting them
back so far that it has taken these
intervening years to get them on to
normal. Irrigation presented a
problem also and still is unsolved
in the high ridged sections, accord-
ing to Prince Cantacuzene, in
charge of the corporation activities
in Florida. This problem is being

quarters of Ringling's circus, largest
in the world. This 20 acres was on
what was found to be the poorest
land. Though the trees were eight
years or more old, they appeared
more like three years old.
Everything tried had failed when
attention was directed to some
plants of the Ringling estate fer-
tilized from the circus stables. In-
vestigation disclosed that elephant
manure had been used and analysis

California Bulk Auction
The home "loose fruit" auction
at Los Angeles, operated by the
California Fruit Growers Exchange,
sold 1,352,000 boxes of oranges,
lemons and grapefruit for $1,868,-
000 during the season of 1930-31.
This is the low grade fruit not suit-
ed for packing yet as good for eat-
ing as the high grades.
California Exchange devised this
method of disposal to control the
home sales to truckers who distrib-
uted the fruit about the state.
California, itself, is one of the best
markets for the Californ~j citrus
growers and the indiscrmiinate sales
to the peddlers seriously threatened
to take away the profitableness of
thi some statemarket.
To save the situation, the Ex-
change worked out the plan of a
central sales for all such loose fruit
of its.associations. An auction was
set- p at Los Angeles, the logical
center for such a trade. The plan
met with the favor of the peddlers,
who gather in large crowds at the
auctions to which each association
forwards fruit.
The Exchange considers that the
plan has been highly successful,
bringing a much better return for
the class of fruit than had been re-
ceived and protecting its high
grade outlets.

tions are well organized. In charge
of the whole citrus activity is R. K.
Thompson. Mr. Thompson is presi-
dent of Sarasota association and is
the representative of Manatee Sub-
Exchange on the Exchange board.
Harry Gocio is grove manager.
The corporation maintains a per-


A beautiful view of the main 60-foot canal which runs through the Palmer properties.

The groves were planted eight
to 10 years ago. The corporation
had its own citrus nursery, started
with rootstocks purchased from sev-
eral of the commercial nurseries.
The rootstock was orange and rough
lemon. The latest plantings use the
The land is low, flat, white sand,
formerly heavily water-soaked part
of the year and very dry other
months. Sixty-foot drainage canals
with smaller connecting canals have
solved the drainage problem. About

worked upon now with the view of
having a complete irrigation to co-
ordinate with complete drainage.
No set plan of fertilization is fol-
lowed and both inorganics and or-
ganics are used. The kind of fer-
tilizer applied is-determined by the
conditions at the time and, accord-
ing to the appearance of the trees,
good judgment has been exercised.
One 20-acre tract stands unique.
It could be saidqtorhave the circus
atmosphere in keeping with the chief
attraction of Sarasota, winter head-

A graphic illustration of the soil building power in elephant manure. The two trees are
from adjoining groves with only a narrow road between. The one to the left is in the
grove fertilized with the circus product.

showed that this had double the con-
tent of ammonia over the average
manure. It was used for this par-
ticular tract, about 200 to 250
pounds per tree being applied over
two years. The trees now are grow-
ing vigorously, though further use
of the elephant manure has been
stopped. Light applications also
were given some sickly orange trees
with very good -results.
The corporation's citrus opera-

manent force of 15 white men and
12 negroes. At times the grove
force totals 60 or more. A regular
settlement has been provided for
the grove workers with cottages,
barns, machine shop and other build-
ings. It is located back about a
mile or two from Tamiami Trail on
a hard-surfaced road. The houses
are surrounded by nice lawns and
shrubbery and very closely resemble
a small village.

September 1, 1931



Seald Sweet


Published twice a month in
the interest of cooperative
marketing and for the infor-
mation of the citrus growers
of Florida.

606 Citrus Exchange Bldg.
Publication Office:
Tampa, Florida
Postoffice Box 2349

Net Grower Circulation
over 12,500

Space Rates: $60.00 per page;
$35.00 half-page; $20.00 one-
quarter page; $2.00 per inch
all space under one-quarter
page. Minimum space: 1 inch.

Vol. VII SEPT. 1, 1931. No. 7

The general experience with
canned citrus this season undoubt-
edly has shaken the confidence of
many that this outlet will be so
promising a means of protecting the
future of the citrus industry and
the citrus growers. There was such
high expectation that extra profits
would be made and the demand for
the product had grown by such
leaps and bounds, it naturally was
a heavy shock to see the industry
flounder around in such sorrowful,
profitless manner.
Fears for the future as it con-
cerns the canning field should be
dispelled. The future holds greater
promise than ever. The real de-
mand for the canned product has
not even been scratched. All that
has happened is that a sad. and cost-
ly lesson has been taught almost
everybody connected with it, grow-
ers, canners and the trade. The in-
dustry once more has been shown
that price-cutting competition, fail-
ure to merchandise, failure to let
the public know what you have and
total disregard of.the grower inter-
est are not the means by which you
can build an industry on a firm

Experience of Season
The specific experiences of this
past season ought to show everyone
clearly that the canning industry
has great promise and should show
with equal plainness how that prom-
ise can be realized.
If the Florida Citrus Exchange
with only minor effort can "sell out"
and at a premium, then all that
Florida may properly put up in tin
can be disposed of to the advantage
of everyone concerned. The Ex-
change did not perform a miracle-
it exercised just plain common sense
coupled with business methods.
True, it had an advantage of a

well-known and accepted brand
name without which possibly the
job might not have been easily ac-
complished with the short time and
the limited means at its disposal.
The experience of the Exchange
indicates what can be accomplished
in the canning field with volume of
supplies, control of manufacture
and sensible and indispensable mer-
chandising. The trade everywhere,
wherever it may, is connecting with
the Exchange for its canned citrus.
The trade is pushing the Exchange
product and in many instances is
selling it faster than it can get it.
If the trade will snap up one
brand of the goods with hundreds
of thousands of cases floating in the
market seeking a home, it proves
that the goods will move provided
there are certain factors support-
ing those goods. The trade does
not take up a brand without rea-
sons. They do not add that brand
to shelves already well stocked with
a similar product without seeing a
profit for themselves and public
preference. This is what has oc-
curred and to protect their future
many of the wholesalers and re-
tailers, particularly the large ones,
are making contracts to handle
"Seald-Sweet" exclusively.
Why "Seald-Sweet" Sells
The reasons why are also the an-
swer to the future for the industry.
The answer is control of supply,
control of quality and merchandis-
ing. Control of 40 percent or more
of the crop may appear to some
growers as failure, but to the trade
dependent upon a steady flow of an
accepted brand it means ability to
fulfill contracts season after sea-
son. The trade is willing to pay a
premium and grant exclusive atten-
tion for that. The Exchange is the
only organization in the state able
to fulfill that requirement.
Think of your own experience in
the purchase of goods at different
times-what a satisfaction to know
that each purchase of the same ar-
ticle brought the same degree of
quality whether bought today or
six months from today. Only di-
rect supervision over manufactur-
ing and steady supplies of the fresh
fruit in quantity permits such uni-
formity. The Exchange is the only
organization assured of this feature,
any time in the season, year after
Why the millions of dollars spent
by all of the successful companies
in advertising, window displays,
dealer service, education of con-
sumers? Only because this has been
necessary to move their products at
a profit and in volume. Only this
has built up a demand and allowed
greater and greater production to
bring dependable profits. Only the
Exchange in Florida gives this con-
centrated service to its citrus fruits
-and, incidentally, at less cost to
the growers than the "telegraph-
commission firm" sales service

which many non-member growers
Big Floating Supply
When "Seald-Sweet" c a n ned
grapefruit was introduced to the
public a few months ago, more than
1,000,000 cases of other brands
were floating in the market seeking
a buyer at any price. Other brands
had been in the field since the first
of the season. Some had been in
the markets for several seasons.
Not a grower in the state but knows
what happened to price.
Yet today, "Seald-Sweet" canned
citrus is eagerly sought by the trade
and by the consumer. When the
coming season's pack of "Seald-
Sweet" canned grapefruit reaches
the shelves of the stores, it will find
those shelves bare of the "Seald-
Sweet" brand-the consumer will
have taken every last can of the
past season's pack. While all those
hundreds of thousands of cases of
other branded goods are seeking a
customer, the Exchange will have
disposed of ist pack of 175,000 cases
at a premium.
"Seald-Sweet" canned grapefruit
has gone over. It has gone over
at prices which will make it worth
while to the growers. With the vol-
ume which it controls, with uniform
quality upon which it insists and
merchandising which is its funda-
mental reason for existence, the
Florida Citrus Exchange, and it
alone, will make it more worth while
for the growers selling under its

Increase of the freight rates by
15 percent "would be relatively in-
significant" in their effect on retail
prices, states the Security Owners
association in a news release to
the press. The association repre-
sents the large owners of stocks
and bnods, including ni particular
railroad securities.
Unfortunately the grower does
not pay freight by pound or by
dozen, but by carloads. An in-
crease of 15 percent ni the rates
certainly is not "insignificant" to
the citrus grower. It means around
$50 a car, $2,500,000 or more a
Even though it is "relatively in-
significant" to the consumers, they
do not have their all or a big share
of it invested in the products that
the railroads seek to tax extra for
their own benefit. The railroad rate
increase will hit directly at the in-
vestment of hundreds of millions of
dollars that citrus growers and
others have put into their commodi-
The Security Owners association
and the railroad companies seek the
petitioned increase for their own
protection. Is the protection of
the producers' investments any less
important? If history is any criter-
ion, protection of the producers is

more important to the country as a
whole, for history invariably shows
that when agriculture is depressed
the whole country is in the 'slough
of despond." Why then push agri-
culture down further?

The Trucker
The development of truck thans-
portation in the distribution of per-
ishables, including 'citrus, makes it
all the more imperative to put con-
trol of the citrus industry in one
marketing agency, grower-owned
and controlled.
Unless there is such control of
the crop, there is no way in which
to keep the truckers from control
and when the truckers come into
domination the past troubles of the
growers will be nothing as compared
to the future.
This was demonstrated this past
season when truckers did almost as
they pleased in dickering with grow-
ers and with houses. Truckers dic-
tated the price, virtually, and
played house against house and
grower against grower.
So intensively was this carried on
that house managers became bitter
against other managers and grow-
ers likewise with packing house and
other growers. Yet there was no in-
tentional price-cutting and more
often the manager or grower most
bitter against another for such sup-
posed- tactics was the most guilty,
unknowingly, himself.
Truck distribution undoubtedly
will continue and will grow to
greater and greater proportions. It
may seem an easy way out for many
growers for it is apparently a simple
thing to sell the fruit at the grove
and get the cash then and there. To
managers it seems so much simpler
than the usual method if they do
not look carefully into the matter.
But what will happen if growers
or packing house men encourage
such direct, individual dealing?
This past season gives the answer.
The truckers went to one house or
one grove and in dickering on the
price invariably told that they could
get it cheaper at another house or
grove, naming those with whom
they claimed they could deal. To
one grower or manager after an-
other they told the same until they
had all believing someone was will-
ing to sell lower and the trucker
virtually had his own way.
In some cases, this past season,
the prices which truckers paid dif-
fered nearly $1 a box as the result
of such tactics and several man-
agers and growers were so embitter-
ed against each other that business
and personal friendships of long
standing were destroyed.
The truck development can be
turned to advantage but only if it
is controlled and this control only
can come from the same source as
the fruit-the growers.
(Continued on p. 5)

IL. *".JA^- -- :. .. .


September 1, 1931

Septmbe 1,1931SEAD-SEET HROICL

The Trucker
(Continued from Page 4)
Control of the crop through one
agency will control the trucker and
utilize him to advantage. Develop-
ment of the truck transportation
can mean much for the growers
under such control.
It is either control the trucker
or he will control the industry.

The Growers Speak
In the last issue the Seald-Sweet
Chronicle carried a number of let-
ters from growers to various mem-
bers of the state press on the Flor-
ida Citrus Exchange and the value
these growers saw in the organiza-
tion both to themselves and to the
industry. Following are additional
letters gleaned from the press which
indicate what the main body of the
membership of the Exchange thinks
of the organization:
Tampa Tribune-Will Stay in Ex-
change Oakland After hearing
and reading many discussions for
and against the Florida Citrus Ex-
change I wish to express my views
on the subject after being an Ex-
change member for nine years. If
it is possible for the Exchange to
make such gains in stabilizing the
fruit industry with little more than
45 percent of the volume of the
state, think what the result would
be were it possible for them to con-
trol 75 percent of the volume.
It is my honest opinion that any
grower joining the Exchange and
remaining with them for at least
three years, will without a doubt be
ahead of the game, not only from
the standpoint of actual returns re-
ceived for his fruit but also better
satisfied in his own mind that he is
doing his bit toward helping organ-
ize one of the greatest needs of all
the growers of the state, that is, one
cooperative marketing organization.
The Florida Citrus Exchange is
the only grower-owned and con-
trolled citrus organization in Florida
today and I expect to continue to
be a member thereof so long as it
exists. J. E. SADLER.

Tampa Times-Favors Citrus Ex-
change. To the Editor of The
Times: I have been in the state of
Florida for 13 years, owning a
grove, and have been a member of
the Florida Citrus Exchange for 10
years. The other three years I
joined an independent company, but
always was glad to go back to the
Exchange, and furthermore I have
made up my mind to stay with the
I am, and always have been, a be-
liever in cooperative marketing, and
I firmly believe that if the Exchange
would have at least 75 percent of
the fruit the grower would receive
better prices and the state of Flor-

ida would be more prosperous and
we growers be more contented.
Odessa, August 7, 1931.

Tampa Tribune-Benefits of Ex-
change-City Point-During the
past 30 days I have become aware
of considerable unjust criticism of
the Citrus Exchange.
I feel that in many instances this
is due to misinformation and lack of
knowledge. In other instances, how-
ever, it is solely propaganda of self-
ish interests seeking to disrupt the
I sincerely believe the Exchange
has performed an outstanding serv-
ice for every citrus grower of this
state whether he be a member of
the Exchange or not.
What has the Exchange done to
increase consumption and demand
for Florida citrus?
It has advertised effectively and
on a large scale.
It is constantly developing new
car lot markets in the United States
and Canada.
Its efficient dealer service depart-
ment is doing great work in lining
up new merchants to handle Flor-
ida fruit.
It has been fully alive to the
possibilities of citrus by-products
and has encouraged and aided de-
It is making strenuous efforts to
stabilize the price of cannery grade!
It is creating a demand for Flor-
ida grapefruit in European markets.

Orlando Sentinel-To the Ed-
itor: Even though it was not my
good fortune to own a citrus grove
until about four years ago I have
been in the citrus game all of my
life. My first act after becoming a
grove owner was to become a mem-
ber of the Florida Citrus Exchange,
through our local association. We
have our own packing house and
pack our own fruit at a minimum
cost. Since becoming a member in
the only cooperating citrus shipping
organization in the state, I have
made money on my fruit every year,
even this past season.
It is the growers' job, and job it
is, to produce first class fruit at a
low cost. If he gives his grove
proper attention he has not time to
market his fruit properly, he there-
fore depends on some organization
to handle it for him. I know a large
percentage have not had time to
study the marketing of their fruit
or they would not be shipping
through an independent. I hope
more of them will take time now and
study the independents working in
their locality and also the method
used by the Exchange and I feel
sure that if they will give it proper
thought they will see the advantages
of a grower-owned and controlled

organization. We have marketing
agencies because the grower re-
quires this service, but why pay
some individual to handle your fruit
when you can use this grower-
owned and controlled citrus organi-
zation and thereby receive more
for your product?
Each year the Exchange spends
a certain amount of money in the
markets advertising Florida citrus
fruit, which we know to be the best
in the world, to increase the de-
mand for our product. When you
compare the amount spent for ad-
vertising our fruit with its market
value, it seems very small, I wish
it were more.
Yours for larger control and a
better organization,

Tampa Tribune-Sticks to Ex-
change-Montverde-The season of
1930-1931 citrus crop is in the past
and now we are interested in 1931
and 1932 and we are naturally won-
dering what it will bring and what
shipping agency is best for the
grower. I have been with the Flor-
ida Citrus Exchange for a number
of years and I find my returns com-
pare favorably with other shipping
agencies. I was bitterly opposed to
the Exchange's withdrawal from
Clearing House. I believed it a
backward step and still believe it.
But for the small grower (I am in
this class) it is our one hope, so it
behooves us to get behind the Ex-
change and put it over and when we
reach the 75 percent or 80 percent
our problems are solved and I hope
others may see it in this light and all
get together and put it across.

Citrus For "Flu"
Why citrus juice is a preventive
of colds and "flu" is explained by
Carl J. Klemme, assistant professor,
School of Pharmacy, Purdue Uni-
versity, Ind., writing in the Amer-
ican Druggist.
"The answer to the question re-
garding the use of citrus fruits as

a preventive of colds and influenza
is simple enough in the light of
physiological chemistry. The citric
acid of the fruit is present largely
in the form of its salts. The free
acid is changed to the sodium salt
in the small intestines and then ab-
sorbed. In the process the sodium
citrate is oxidized ,the carbon thus
forming sodium bicarbonate (com-
mon soda) in the blood stream, this,
of course, increases the alkali re-
serve of the body. Sodium bicar-
bonate is one of the important
buffers of the blood. As long as the
alkalinity of the blood is maintained
the chances of infection are greatly



Fruit Auctioneers
Fruit Auction Terminal
Rutherford Avenue
Charleston District
Cutler B. Downer Fred'k L. Springford
Harold F. Miles
J. Oliver Dal Clifford E. Myers


Combined with the natural de-
cline ofinsect life in mid- or late
summer, a light application of
proven sufficient for satisfactory
citrus scale control .......
61West Jefferson Streer .
Orlando, Florida

For Perfect Picking of Oranges, Lemons and Grapefruit

Made of Special Chrome
&Nickel Tool Steel Tempered
and Hardened by our own
Secret Process.
Designed, Manufactured
and Guaranteed by
12 20 L A. CAL
Pioneer Tool Maker to the
Citrus Industry

September 1, 1931



Lakeland Highlands association
has refunded approximately $50,000
to its members as operating savings
of the past season and distributed
an additional $7,000 in the redemp-
tion of a series of retain certificates,
Manager R. S. Boulware reports.
The association reduced its
charges last season to 65 cents a
box and plans a further reduction
this season in view of lower costs
of supplies and labor. Its actual
operating charge averaged 47.3
cents a box the past season, includ-
ing in the average bulk and cannery
except that of the latter hauled di-
rect from the groves to the canning
plant near the packing house.
The total of fruit handled was
400,000. boxes. Boulware expects
the volume this season to approxi-
mate 275,000 boxes plus additions
from gains in membership which
probably will be around 50,000
boxes. Out of a membership of
175, the association lost by with-
drawal only seven, most of whom
have indicated they will rejoin.
The association is installing a
large Skinner washer and polisher
to replace smaller equipment and
increase the capacity of one unit by
25 percent or more. The second
unit of the house already has the
larger machinery, installed when the
house was rebuilt and modernized
three years ago.

Though other sections of the cit-
rus belt will show decreased pro-
duction compared with last season,
Lee county has prospects of a rec-
ord yield, according to reports. Lee
county groves are in excellent con-
dition and are fully recovered from
the setbacks of several years ago
which severely cut production.
Movement .of the early fruit to mar-
ket is expecte6daroiund the 10th.


Maturity inspection service started Sept. 1 with the assignment of 15 men to the field.
The force will be expanded as the need requires and probably will reach 150. O. G.
Strauss again is loaned by the U. S. Department of Agriculture to supervise field in-
spection in cooperation with the state. Above, shown just after a conference on plans
for the season, are: A. N. Turnbull, office assistant; J. K. Lawton, assistant state chem-
ist; O G. Strauss, supervisor; R. D. Troxler, chemist; Commissioner of Agriculture
Nathan A. Mayo and J. J. Taylor, state chemist.

Persistent efforts to win the at-
tention of citrus growers of Pasco
county to cooperative marketing are
bearing fruit and many new mem-
bers, including some of the most
prominent growers and business
men of the county, have signed with
Dade City association. It will pack
this season the record volume of its
history and gain several steps to-
ward large volume operation.
Much of the past summer has
been given to the Dade City terri-
tory by W. B. Coursey, prominent
Tampan and large grove owner, and
W. C. Crews, manager of Hillsboro
Sub-Exchange. Mr. Coursey, well
known and respected in that section,
has been unusually valuable in build-
ing up the cooperative viewpoint.
The efforts of the two have awak-
ened the leaders in the community
and they have-become ready to as-


A very interesting spraying combination, shown above, has been developed in working
out grove operations problems at the Palmer groves, Sarasota. The machine is the first
of two which have been manufactured following ideas of the Palmer Corporation execu-
tives and Engineer Marden of Orlando. As can be seen, the front wheel assembly of a
light tractor has beeu removed and a special chassis has been made to carry the power
p'ant, transmission and rear-end assembly. The spray pump is mounted to the rear of
the driver on the tractor chassis and is powered from the tractor engine by a side shaft.
Pinion and chain belt take off the power from a pinion at the front end of the crank-
The connection of the tractor unit with the spray tank is by means of a channel steel
arc. The machine is unusually flexible and handles easily in the hundreds of acres of
high-ridged groves of the corporation without stalling. It carries 300 gallons of spray

sume responsibility. The growers
also have shown a renewed interest
in quality production and it is re-
ported that the coming crop is run-
ning high in quality.
Among the leaders who have
joined and are taking an active
part is E. D. Covington, auto dealer,
with between 8,000 and 9,000 boxes
of fruit this season, who is the new
president. Another new supporter
is B. E. Smith, prominent grower
and farmer. The several groves of
the Coleman estate have been signed
and Miss S. E. Coleman has accept-
ed a place on the board as did Mr.
Smith. Miss Coleman was elected
Slough and his son, S. O., have
signed all their various citrus hold-
ings with the association and the
latter will serve on the board.
Continuing his active support of
22 years is W. J. Ellsworth, whose
Jessamine grove is one of the largest
producers of the section. Mr. Ells-
worth was one of the charter mem-
bers of the Florida Citrus Exchange
and has held continuous member-
Others prominently carrying on
from past years are H. G. Bachelor
and J. S. Burks, who is vice-presi-
Mr. Crews, who has supervised
the organization work, is enthusi-
astic over the new outlook. Present
signed volume is almost double the
largest that has been handled be-
fore and more than double that of
the past season. He expects that
several thousand boxes more will be
added before the house opens for
the season. B. H. Martin, manager
for several years:'is now getting the
plant in readiness for the larger op-

Lake Carroll association of Hills-
boro Sub-Exchange is making steady
progress and will have a big in-
crease in volume this season, re-
ports Manager W. C. Crews of the
Sub-Exchange. Several of the larg-
er and prominent grove owners of
Tampa have signed recently. Mr.
Crews hopes for a volume of 175,-
000 to 200,000 boxes.
W. R. Wadford, formerly the key
man for R. W. Burch & Company
at the Sulphur Springs house and
territory, was recently made man-
ager of the association. He has
been in the field for several weeks
with marked success.
A new lease has been arranged
for packing in the plant of the Tam-
pa Union Terminal which will en-
able the association to handle the
fruit at a lower cost.
Much credit for the association's
progress is given W. B. Coursey,
prominent Tampa business man,
who helped organize the association.
Mr. Coursey is one of the big grow-
ers of the.county with 300 acres or
more in groves. He has been giv-
ing full time to the Sub-Exchange
and has done exceptional work in
building confidence in the Exchange
and its system.

Out of a packing charge of 65
cents a box, Haines City associa-
tion has refunded 10 cents a box
for a total of $60,000 to its mem-
bers as savings in operations.
The association received nearly
700,000 boxes of fruit this past sea-
son, a volume believed to be a
world's record. In spite of the ter-
mendous volume, the fruit was put
through the plant in a steady man-
ner without crowding the plant ca-
pacity, reported Manager G. W.
Bailey, who said that only during
a period-of two ;or.three weeks was
it necessary to work nights and
Sunday to get out the fruit-when
the members wanted it picked.

Approximately a 20 percent de-
crease in the citrus production of
St. Lucie county, of which Ft. Pierce
is the principal shipping point, is
estimated by J, W. Corbett of the
Florida East Coast Railroad. His
estimate is 380,000 boxes, which is
more than 112,000 boxes less than
the past season's crop. In varieties
his estimate is: Grapefruit, 356,000
boxes; oranges, 130,000 boxes; tan-
gerines, 35,500 boxes.

The Volusia County Fair associa-
tion has added a commercial citrus
exhibit as one of the departments of
the next fair. The exhibit will be
open to all commercial growers and
shippers of the county.


September 1, 1931

Septmbe 1,1931SEAD-SEET HROICL

Lake Wales Asscoiation Growing to Top Rank

Anticipating in the near future a
volume of between 600,000 and
750.000 boxes, Lake Wales associa-
tion is building a new 20-car plant
and has reorganized as a stock co-
operative under the new law recent-
ly passed by the legislature. The
new plant will be one of the largest
in the state and the expected volume
will put the association among the
biggest in that phase.
This unusually promising future
was assured with the recent conclu-
sion of arrangements with W. S.
Pilling of Philadelphia and Lake
Wales and associate who have 1,500
acres or more, mainly in the High-
land Park section.
With the new plant and larger
volume, the association expects to
handle the fruit at a very low rate.
Its present charge is 60 cents a box
on grapefruit and 65 for oranges
on which some operating saving
was made this past season.
Contract for the new plant was
let recently to G. A. Miller of Lake
Wales and Tampa, who started work
within an hour after the award. F.
J. Kennard and Son of Tampa pre-
pared the plans. The old house will
be used until the new plant is ready.
The new house will be built on a

tract adjoining the old house. It
will be 204 by 305 feet with plat-
forms on all sides. It will have
trackage on both the Seaboard and
the Coast Line railroads.
In general arrangement there will
be one high story in the center
spanned by steel bow string trusses
116 feet long. In this space will
be the packing machinery. On one
side will be eight double and nine
single coloring rooms. A mezza-
nine floor above will carry the; col-
oring machinery and the offices.
On the other side will be the pre-
cooling rooms and refrigeration ma-
chinery. The box making depart-
ment will be on the mezzanine floor
above the pre-cooling rooms. The
mezzanine floors will be connected
at each end of the building by
Lake Wales handled 339,000 boxes
the past season. While the produc-
tion is lighter, increased bearing
ability of the groves is expected to
give it 400,000 boxes this season.
Officers and directors are: J. M.
Tillman, president; W. A. Varn,
vice-president; W. J. Frink, secre-
tary; M. C. Dopler, J. K. Stuart, E.
D. Ellis, J. W. Tracy, R. E. Lassiter
and D. R. Ropler. Buford Gum is

Rate Reduction Will Shippers Attack Rate

Increase R. R. Revenue Raise at I. C. C. Hearing
(Continued from Page 2) (Continued from Page 2)
Heavy Blow to Industry that the growers could not realize
"As T h, .I ,,A ..A dA:,s.. n a profit even when the-fruit sold for

e a rea y n cated

think it would be an unwise move
for the railroads, and, until growers
and shippers could contrive to meet
the situation, I think it would be a
heavy blow to the industry.
"When we consider the generally
depressed state of the industry; the
prospect of a heavy citrus crop this
year; the slender margin of profit,
or perhaps no profit at all; the pos-
sible non-shipment-of-a considerable
quantity of fruit and vegetables if
market prices are too low to pro-
duce a net return to the shipper;
the possible and even probable ex-
pansion of the canning industry in
Florida, which in the 1930-31 sea-
son more than doubled the produc-
tion of output of 1929-30; the cer-
tainty that a greater volume of traf-
fic will be diverted to other forms of
transportation-it seems to me ex-
tremely doubtful whether an in-
crease in rates .on Florida perish-
able products will result in an in-
crease of revenues to the Florida
lines. There are many shippers in
Florida who firmly believe that a
substantial cut in freight rates
would enlarge their marketing ter-
ritory, encourage consumption, and
probably produce more revenue for
the carriers than the proposed in-
crease of 15 percent which they

$500 to $550 a car in the markets.
The thought that the railroads
may have deliberately caused oper-
ating losses to influence their case
with the I. C. C. was implied in the
examination of W. R. Cole, presi-
dent of the Louisville and Nashville
Railroad and spokesman for the
Southern carriers, by C. E. Cotterill,
attorney for the Southern Traffic
League. Mr. Cole denied that the
railroads had "thrown-inoney away
foolishly" but admitted that opera-
tions were "far from perfect."

Look to Water Service
Removal of the laws setting up
minimum income standards and al-
lowing the railroads to go out and
compete for business as other busi-
nesses do, was suggested by Mr.
Moore of the Atlanta Freight Bu-
Growers' organizations and steam-
ship officials are now in conference
on refrigeration service to move the
agricultural production of South
Florida to points in the north as far
as Pittsburgh, Pa., W. T. Bennett,
secretary-treasurer of the Manatee
County Growers, testified. Mr. Ben-
nett stated that rates now are too
high and that they discriminate in
favor of far western shippers over
Florida shippers.

Market Buyers Say

Give us Brogdexed Fruit

A few weeks ago we sent a questionnaire to a number of buyers at
improtant markets asking for a frank expression of their opinion as
to the value of Brogdex at the market end. We have been amazed at
the response-61 replies in 10 days EVERY ONE ENDORSING
BROGDEX. Here are extracts from some of these letters:
P. B. DEXTER, Columbus, Ga.-"I am very much sold on the value of Brogdex and
sincerely hope that the Florida Citrus Exchange will use that treatment on all
their fruit."
W. C. NANCE BROKERAGE CO., Jackson, Miss.-"Our trade will take a car that is
Brogdexed much in preference to fruit that is not and our experience has been
that it holds up. We would like to see all Exchange packing houses use this
N. P. LAWRENCE Co., Johnson City, Tenn.-"All jobbers whom we sell have a
deference for Brogdexed fruit. When there is slight decay in early shipments
it does not seem to spread like an epidemic. Brogdex seems to protect the fruit
from contamination. We would like to see every car of Exchange fruit that
we sell have Brogdex protection."
W. O. BROWN, JR., Toledo, Ohio-"We prefer to have Brogdexed fruit because it
presents a much better appearance, holds up longer and keeps its shape better,
which are great factors in the selling it. We want Brogdexed fruit every time
we can get it and we hope it will be universally used this coming season by all
Florida Citrus Exchange Associations and Sub-Exchanges."
W. C. PITNER Co., Athens, Ga.-"Brogdexed fruit has a better appearance and
keeps better. We hope Exchanges will continue using Brogdex and especially
Florida Citrus Exchange which we represent."
SAMUEL GEORGE, Richmond, Va.-"All of my customers demand Brogdexed fruit.
Last season I sold as many cars of Florida citrus as all of my competitors com-
bined and had an unusual opportunity to check cars that had been treated and
those that were not. Am pleased to state that we were never called upon to
make an allowance for decay on fruit that had been Brogdexed. A great many
retailers are now calling for Brogdexed brands."
SAM'L J. SHALLOW Co., Boston-"Brogdexed fruit worth considerably more from
a selling standpoint."
ARISE-WATsON & GAULT, Seattle-"Trade prefers Brogdexed fruit and often will
not consider cars not Brogdexed."
M. M. NOTEWARE, Exchange Representative, Buffalo-"This market heartily sold
on Brogdex and show it preference in our offerings."
C. H. ROBINSON & Co., Omaha-"Brogdexed fruit arrives showing better appear-
ance and is easier to sell because trade knows it will stand up better. Cheap
insurance for any packer."
W. H. MOODY, Exchange Representative, Harrisburg, Penna.-"Sold on Brogdex.
Arrives better and easier to sell. Some of our jobbers want no other kind. It
will not be long before houses that want to establish a regular market for
their brands will be compelled to use Brogdex."
MONTREAL FRUIT EXCHANGE, Montreal-"Brogdexed fruit brings an average of
25 more a box. We are decidedly in favor of it."
DAvis & DAVIS, Baltimore-"Our buyers always look for Brogdex stamps."
FRANK HEWITT & Co., New York-"The trade not only prefers Brogdexed fruit
but pays more money for it. We recommend that the shippers use it as a good
- .O'DoN .ELL-DUN-N- CorP-ittsburgh---Brogdexed-fruitarrives-better and carry.
better. Our retailers better satisfied. If it were up to us to pay the small
cost of treatment we would gladly do so."
L. A. BOCKSTAHLER & Co., Cleveland-"Brogdexed fruit sells for better prices
because the trade knows it will stand up better."
W. J. WESTCOTT Co., Philadelphia-"Our retailers have constantly insisted upon
buying only fruits that were Brogdexed. Our opinion is that it can't
be beat."
LAGOMARCINO-GRUPE Co., Burlington, Iowa--"If we have a choice of two cars
*ith the same manifest, from the same district, one Brogdexed and one not,
w)e would take the Brogdexed car and if necessary pay more for it." -
Supply and demand govern prices. Brogdexed fruit always is above
the market average. There is never enough to go around. As dealers
and consumers come to realize more fully the advantages of Brog-
dexed fruit the premium for these brands will reach still higher levels.
There is a Brogdex house near you-it will pay you to talk the
matter over with the manager. He has a proposition that will net you
more money for the same frut. See him.

Florida Brogdex Distributors, Inc.

B. C. Skinner, President Dunedin, Florida
,t -<

September 1, 1931


Profits From Plant Operation

Since the close of the season, Associations of the Florida Citrus
Exchange have paid their growers thousands upon thousands of
dollars in savings from the packing charge. Also, additional thou-
sands of dollars has been paid in the redemption of the house retains.
These items are real profit.
The saving is the difference between the actual cost of packing
and the packing charge and is additional to the net return paid the
growers for their fruit. The redemption of the house retain is the
income on the growers' investment in the packing house. It is profit
because the growers still own the equity in the packing house that
their certificates represented.
Private operators also have a margin between the actual cost of
packing the growers' fruit and the charge they assess the growers.
Their actual cost also includes good allowance for the capital in-
vestment in the packing plant.
The big point is-the cooperative pays this profit from the oper-
ating charge to its growers; the private operators pocket theirs.
Which do you prefer-
1. To get the packing profit and own the plant?
2. To give another both the profit and the plant?
Only grower-ownership and operation (cooperative marketing)
will give you the first. Your local association is the only instru-
ment through which you can obtain it.
6,000 growers of the Florida Citrus Exchange are ready to help you.


September 1, 1931


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