Title: Seald-sweet chronicle
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075292/00014
 Material Information
Title: Seald-sweet chronicle
Alternate Title: Seald sweet chronicle
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Florida Citrus Exchange
Florida Citrus Exchange
Place of Publication: Tampa Fla
Publication Date: January 15, 1931
Frequency: semimonthly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Citrus fruit industry -- Newspapers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Tampa (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Hillsborough County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: newspaper   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Hillsborough -- Tampa
Coordinates: 27.970898 x -82.46464 ( Place of Publication )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased on Apr. 15, 1932.
General Note: "Florida's only citrus newspaper."
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 4, no. 24 (May 15, 1929).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075292
Volume ID: VID00014
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AJH6537
oclc - 31158390
alephbibnum - 001763371
lccn - sn 97027656

Full Text
IB`


:- 1924 E. JACKSON ST.,
:, PENSACOLA, FLA.




SealdSw et Chronicle

"FLORIDA'S ONLY CITRUS NEWSPAPER"


SVol.'VI


SUBSCRIPTION PRICE 50 CENTS PER YEAR


Clearinghouse

And Exchange

In Joint Meet

Exchange Told Legal Bar To
Put Pro-ration In Hands
.: C H. Officers
The Board of Directors of the
Clearing House is sympathetic to
the complaints of the Florida Citrus
Exchange, but it is not legally able
to comply with the Exchange re-
quest to place the President and
*Manager of the Clearing House in
charge of pro-ration, Judge Holland,
attorney for the Clearing House,
speaking for its board advised the
Board of the Exchange at the joint
meeting in Tampa, Jan. 16.
Under the present method many
private operators are working their
plants day and night and Sundays,
while Exchange houses are on part
time operation, General Manager
SCommander informed the Clearing
House Board. This is conclusive
proof that the Exchange is being
forced to hold back fruit all out of
proportion to other operators, he
said. Allowing f.o.b. shipments to
be made in excess of allotments,
only results in price cutting to move
volume, he said, condemning this
'concession. It is foolish to set a
volume that the market will absorb
and then tell operators that they
can ship in excess of that all that
they have orders for, he added.
The Exchange request was pre-
sented in a formal resolution, ac-
companied by a report which ques-
tioned the shipper estimates upon
which pro-ration is based. The re-
S(Continued on Page 3)
* I.,--.. L -- -.


SPECULATORS
Speculators are becoming
active, taking advantage of
the better market prospects in
view of the California frost
loss. Most growers still are
not aware of the heavy dam-
age California suffered and
speculators believe the grow-
ers will be easy prey.
Offerings will be made
which are slightly higher than
what many growers have been
getting. But the market gives
prospects of paying more so it
would be foolish for the grow-
ers to accept the lure. Spec-
ulators refused to buy while
the market was "shot" but are
quick to tell the growers how
good they will be to them
when the market and .the
_growers' frame of mind offers
speculative profits.


New Winter Haven Home for Exchange


- L


Architect's drawing of the Realty Commerce building, gift of 1,500 Polk county growers


Consignment Fruit Rules Markets

Demoralizing Trade--Slows Sales


Conditions of 20 years ago which
forced the growers in desperation to
organize the Florida Citrus Ex-
change are being repeated'this sea-
son, according to the report of the
conditions in the markets brought
back by W. D. Curd, one of the
senior dealer service chiefs of the
Exchange.
The private markets are being
flooded with consignment citrus, Mr.
Curd informed. The situation is
such that-the' trade-doesa Binslaaa
which way to-turn and is both damn-
ing and praying for the Florida
"crowd" in the same breath, he said.
The trade must carry some sup-
ply of fruit to meet the needs of its
retail customers. It is afraid to buy
f.o.b. because of consignments. It
fears to take a consignment car be-
cause so many are loose in each
market that no one knows what
price to set and be safe from loss.
It has become a scramble, explained
Mr. Curd, of dealers trying to get
rid of cars at any price.
In his experience of several years
with Florida citrus, said Mr. Curd,
he has never seen so much consign-
ment fruit or such complete de-
moralization of the trade. It ap-
pears as though most private opera-
tors have dropped the private sale
for consignment. He estimates that


half of the independent operators'
offerings outside the auction are
consignments.
Cheap fruit is another woe of the
trade, stated Mr. Curd. It has at-
tracted the transcient dealer and the
peddler. Cars are taken up as a
gamble by irresponsible persons who
have only money enough to buy
fruit when it is far below market
levels and they, he explained, hawk
it about to whoever will buy and.
j t-upttheregular channels upon,
which growers depend for profits.
The trade, Mr. Curd said, cannot
understand why Florida shippers
force down prices so deliberately.
The trade does not prefer it, for,
odd though it may seem here in
Florida, cheap fruit actually result
in decreased sales and smaller profits
to the trade. In periods such as this
no one .dares to push sales for no
buyer dares to risk taking on sup-
plies to back up sales pressure.


Associations of Indian River Sub-
Exchange have approved the im-
mediate construction of the pro-
posed Sub-Exchange canning plant
at Fort Pierce. The plant will be a
unit of the proposed terminal if the
plans for the terminal receive the
approval of the Farm Board.


Entered as Second Class Mail Matter
at the Post Office at Tampa, Florida
Under the Act of March 3, 1879.


No. 16


r -&Cs. "0j~
I. .1


TAMPA, FLORIDA, JAN. 15, 1931


Exchange Picks

Winter Haven

For New Home


Four Story Modern Building
Gift Of PolkGrowers To
geNexti-idqiaferters

Winter Haven will be the new
home of the Florida Citrus Ex-
change, according to decision of the
Board of Directors meeting in
Tampa, Jan. 16.
The new offices will be in the
Realty Commerce building on Sixth
avenue, close to the City Hall. The
building is a four story, concrete
structure, incomplete. It has been
acquired by Polk county growers,
including several independent er-
ganizations, and will be finished at
their expense and given to the Ex-
change. The building fronts 60 feet
on Sixth avenue and has a depth of
:100 feet.
The Board sustained its previous
decision to move from Tampa. Win-
ter Haven was selected over Or-
lando on a vote of 13 to 10, after h
vote which eliminated Lakeland.
Orlando presented several proposi-
tions and had ready a gift building
to the Exchange if the city was
selected and the Exchange wished
to consider such an offer. Lake-
land presented the Marble Arcade
building, a ten .story structure,
- ^(Cniftii'fea dn*Page ) 2 -


CALIFORNIA
Estimates and information
of the damage to California
citrus from the prolonged cold
indicate that the damage will
reach and probably exceed 20
percent of the crop. Official
and semi-official reports were
very confusing, but reading
between the lines, one is
forced to the conclusion that
the damage was great.
The cold spell was of the
longest duration of any in
nearly 50 years. For 12 con-
secutive nights the groves
were threatened with damage.
The temperature at times
reached points which threat-
ened damage to trees as well
as the crop, though California
citrus trees are able to resist
very low temperatures.


J. C. YONIQE.


r





January 15, 1931


SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE


Exchange Picks

Winter Haven

For New Home

Four Story Modern Building
Gift Of Polk Growers To
Be Next Headquarters

(Continued from Page 1)
For the first time in the history
of the Exchange, the Board of Rep-
resentatives was called into exist-
ance to give an advisory vote on the
basis of boxes. This showed pro-
ponents for removal represented
3,682,630 boxes against 1,731,872
boxes for continuance of headquar-
ters in Tampa. The box vote was on
the basis of last season's shipments.
The Board stood evenly divided
on both the first presentation of
the motion to reconsider the prev-
ious vote to remove from Tampa
and also on the direct consideration
of the motion. Chairman E. L.
Wirt, by the rules, was compelled to
vote. He voted in the affirmative on
the motion to bring reconsidera-
tion before the Board, but on the
tie on reconsideration Mr. Wirt
voted to reject. Voting was as fol-
lows:
For removal (12) J. C. Chase,
Sanford; John Snively, Winter
Haven; C. B. Treadway, Tavares;
J. G. Grossenbacher, Apopka; R.
O. Philpot, Haines City; C. A. Gar-
rett, Kissimmee; Vet L. Brown,
Bartow; J. D. Clark, Waverly; A.
W. Hurley, Winter Garden; R. J.
Kepler, DeLand; H. E. Cornell, Win-
ter Haven and D. A. Hunt, Lake
Wales.
Against removal (12) J. O. Carr,
Fort Ogden; W. O. Talbott, Goulds;
Rupert Smith, Arcadia; Marvin H.
Walker, Tampa; Homer Needles,
Fort Pierce; D. Collins Gillett, Tam-
pa; R. K. Thompson, Sarasota;
Walter R. Lee, Ocala; John S.
Taylor, Largo; C. H. Walker, Bar-
tow; L. B. Skinner, Tampa and
Clinton Bolick, Fort Myers.
At its previous meeting the Board
voted for ownership of new head-
quarters rather than lease. This was
done in the belief that ownership
would eliminate the vexing question
of a change in location for many
years to come.
The question of location is one
which has agitated the minds of
grower members and directors al-
most since the Exchange was or-
ganized. It rose and ebbed in prom-
inence on several occasions, notably
last year when the Farm Board uni-
fication program was underway. It
was put into the background by the
Board to allow full attention to be
given to the organization problem.
The expiration of the lease on the
present quarters in the Citrus Ex-
change Building at Tampa, this


Orange juice has been cred-
ited with many kinds of ac-
tion, including laxative, but
here is a new one to add to
the record taken from the Cir-
cuit Court at Detroit, Mich.
In this case orange juice was
the cause for an action in
diverse.
As the Detroit Free Press
relates it, orange juice as a
drink is not to be regarded
lightly, but as a shower it is
another thing. A Detroit wife
described to the court how she
received a shower of orange
juice in the face from the
hands of her husband at the
breakfast table. She was
granted the divorce on the
grounds of extreme cruelty.



Urge Congressmen To

Fight For Federal

Experimental Funds

Florida's senators and congress-
men have been requested by the
Florida Citrus Exchange to use
every effort to get adequate provis-
ion for citrus experimental work
in Florida in the regular appropria-
tions bill. No provision is now in-
cluded though similar work for
California is allowed $100,000.
Pending availability of the regu-
lar appropriation funds, the Ex-
change requested the Florida repre-
sentation to seek to obtain $7,500
in the Emergency Appropriation bill
now before Congress. The Ex-
change contends that continuation
of the experimental work in Flor-
ida is of vital importance and will
be entirely stopped if adequate ap-
propriation is mot made for it.

summer, brought about its reoccur-
ance.
Many attractive offers were made
the Exchange. Months of study was
given by the locations committee
which selected six for the final con-
sideration of the Exchange after
the elimination of Tampa. These
included one each from Lakeland
and Winter Haven and four from
Orlando.
Three independent organizations
and seven Exchange affiliations back
the gift to the Exchange. The inde-
pendents are W. R. Roe and Com-
pany, Adams Packing Company and
Winter Haven Growers, Inc. The
others are, Winter Haven Imperial
Fruit Company, Auburndale, Flor-
ence, Winter Haven, Dundee, Lake
Alfred, Lake Hamilton and Eagle
Lake associations.
It was announced that directors
of a Winter Haven independent or-
ganization with 250,000 boxes of
fruit had voted to merge with the
Exchange. These directors, though
controlling 80 percent of the fruit
in the organization, are awaiting
the formal vote of the stockholders.


Exchange Rises

To Emergency In

Marketing Crop

Seeks ToAvoid Leaving Big
Part Of Crop OnTheTree
To Heavy Grower Loss

With growers faced with the pos-
sibility of leaving millions of boxes
of fruit on the trees for lack of a
market, the directors of the Flor-
ida Citrus Exchange have taken an
emergency action and authorized an
emergency campaign. An additional
advertising retain of three cents a
box has been voted, all the funds of
which will be used in direct activi-
ties.
Many markets under conditions
which have showed change for the
better recently show prospects of
excellent business if the trade and
consumers are awakened to the ad-
vantages of Florida citrus. Cali-
fornia's freeze has cost that state
heavily. More than the actual loss
of ruined fruit is involved. The
freeze is believed to have lowered
the quality and the trade is quick
to sense that possibility and be re-
luctant to purchase California fruit
heavily. Texas is practically through
for the season which opens a big
opportunity in the Mid-West.
Only markets which show an op-
portunity will be used in the cam-
paign but in these it will be in-
tensive. Newspapers will be used
with force. A considerable force of
dealer service men of sales experi-
ence will be thrown in contact with
trade and consumers. A few min-
utes daily may be taken in national
broadcast. Poster campaigns now
on in all the principal markets will
be continued beyond the present
closing date in March.
California Record


If every family in the
United States ate Florida or-
anges as the Mdldux family
of Atlanta-the Florida crop
of 14,000,000 boxes this sea-
son would last just one week.
Here are the facts and figures
from Henry T. Moddux, con-
nected with the Agricultural
and Scientific Bureau of the
N. V. Potash Export.
The Moddux family of Mr.
and Mrs. and three youngsters
average a dozen and a half
Florida oranges a day, about
176s or 200s in size. Mr. Mod-
dux figures there are 24,000,-
000 families in this country.
At the Moddux rate of con-
sumption, these would require
360,000,000 oranges or about
2,000,000 boxes a day. A 14,-
000,000 box crop of oranges
would melt away in a week's
time.


Satsuma Cooperative

Seeks Sales Alliance

With Citrus Exchange
The Gulf Coast Citrus Exchange,
cooperative of the Satsuma growers
of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama
and Northern Florida, has opened
negotiations with the Florida Citrus
Exchange to handle the sales of Sat-
sumas for the cooperative. Pres. J.
C. Chase and General Manager Com-
mander have been authorized to
confer with Dr. O. F. E. Winberg,
president of the Satsuma coopera-
tive.
According to a recent report, the
Satsuma industry, while not large,
has grossd more than $5,000,000 in
the past nine years. It has returned
the growers an average of $200 an


That the markets will pay better acre net on the 2,000 acres of bear-
returns under special effort is ing grove towhich ithas developed.
shown conclusively by the Cali-e towhich it has developed.
fornia returns. Navels have outsold The Satsuma is a late summer and
Florida fruit to date $1.95 a box, early fall fruit which is not con-
according to the California Ex- sidered to come into competition
change of the present gen-rds with Florida's main citrus crop. It
Continuance of the present gen-
eral sales situation will mean that is marketed from late in September
much fruit cannot be moved from to early in November and would fit
the state. Directors and executives in nicely with the citrus marketing
of the Exchange and practically all
private operators are agreed upon season.
this. The present method of allot-
ments .of the Clearing House is
forcing the Exchange growers to Canning Companies To
carry the heavy burden of holding
fruit. The Exchange is seeking Compete at S. F. Fair
to readjust this through correction
of the faults in the present method Florida canning companies, spon-
of the Clearing House to pro-rate
shipments among its members, but scoring a program to herald to the
this correction still leaves un- world the superior quality of canned
touched the problem of selling a big Florida citrus products, will parti-
part of the crop which the present cipate in the South Florida Fair, at
demand apparently will not absorb.
The present campaign of the Ex- Tampa, Feb. 3 to 14, competing for
change, while it reaches 15,000,- prizes.
000 families in the country, cannot Samples of the canned products
take care of the special opportunity will be selected from each exhibit
which has opened. It was the opin-
ion of the directors that it is better made by a canning company at the
to spend a few cents a box in an Fair, labels and all identifying
effort to save millions of boxes and marks will be removed and com-
raise the price level of all than to
sit down and quit petent experts will determine the
quality of each. To the canner pro-
Ninety day sentences were given during the best canned fruit will
by Judge W. F. Brown of Miami to be awarded the blue ribbon while
three men charged with stealing second and third prizes will also be
fruit from groves in the Miami area. presented to the contestants.






January 15, 1931 SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE


Clearinghouse

And Exchange

In Joint Meet

Exchange Told Legal Bar To
Put Pro-ration In Hands
Of C. H. Officers

(Continued from Page 1)
port pointed out that these esti-
mates in the aggregate exceed all
known estimates of the crop by
many millions of boxes. They would
indicate, stated the report, that the
crop exceeds 30,000,000 boxes.
It was informally agreed to have
a small joint committee of the two
boards seek to work out a practical,
equitable plan. The Clearing House
Board has a meeting of all operator
members, Jan. 20, to give full con-
sideration to the situation and its
possible improvement. It was
pointed out by Judge Holland that
it would not be proper to act upon
the Exchange 'request until that
time.
"There is a place for the Clear-
ing House provided it works for the
good of the growers," General Man-
ager Commander told the Board, ex-
plaining the Exchange attitude.
"Under the existing conditions, its
method is not fair and it is not pro-
ducing results."
"If we are not right we want to
get right; if it is not possible, there
is no reason for our existence,"
answered President A. M. Tilden of
the Clearing House. "I believe that
with the experience and ability that
we have in the members of the
Clearing House that it is possible."


Frozen Juice Plant At

Winter Haven Planned

By Three Associations

Auburndale, Florence and Win-
ter Haven associations plan a jointly
owned frozen juice plant with a
minimum capacity of 4,000 gallons
daily. The preliminary plans have
been approved by the directors of
the Florida Citrus Exchange.
The three associations propose to
furnish the facilities for the plant,
estimated to cost $20,000. The Ex-
change Juice Company would pro-
vide the operating capital and have
exclusive sale of the product. The
associations offer to the Juice com-
pany supervision of the manufac-
turing to any extent the company
wishes. It would be allowed a rea-
sonable selling charge.
A minimum volume for the sea-
son will be agreed upon before op-
erations start. This is tentatively
placed at 400,000 gallons. The
product will be manufactured under
the Walker-Hale process.

Five packing houses at Cocoa give
the city a weekly payroll of $15,000,
according to the Cocoa Tribune.
Production of the section will total
close to 500,000 boxes.


Citrus King At Florida Orange Festival
Marking another milestone on the road toward-an all-state citrus ex-
position, the fourth annual Florida Orange Festival opens at Winter
Haven, January 27, continuing through the 31st.
Special events have been planned for each day, but the biggest fea-
ture of all is the intense competition between citrus exhibitors for the
grand sweepstakes which in the past always has received the honor of
providing fruit for the President of the United States. Competition
both in and outside of the Exchange is more intense than ever before
and thousands of dollars has been spent upon arrangement and decora-
tion. The first building of the festival, as usual, will be filled by Exchange
exhibitors.
"School Day," with admission without charge for all pupils and
students, will open the festival. Special arrangements have been made
to allow the money of the school children to go farther.
Governor Doyle E. Carlton is guest of honor the second day, "Gov-
ernor's Day" on which will come the official inspection of the festival, a
fanciful pageant and an ornate parade with floats.
The third day will be for the tourists of the state and will be in charge
of the State Federation of Tourist's Clubs which will hold an official
session. It has arranged an interesting program of speaking.
The fourth day, "Growers Day," is expected to attract thousands of
growers. The citrus awards will have been made so growers can compare
their judgment with that of the judges, H. Harold Hume, Bayard F.
Floyd and Charles D. Kime. The Committee of 50 will have its monthly
meeting at the Williamson theatre in the morning and a special program
for the growers is being arranged by a committee of eight in addition.
The festival, itself, will receive exclusive attention the final day,
Saturday. No special program has been arranged other than the con-
clusion of the festival in a grand burst of fireworks. The festival offers
many interesting things for the entertainment of the visitors. Citrus
exhibits occupy two buildings, exclusively. Then there are state and
federal education exhibits of varied kinds. Other entertainment includes
a water rodeo on Lake Silver, band concerts several times daily, free
acts with a change of program daily and the Johnny J. Jones Exposition
Shows.


Study Plan To Assist
Growers Kept Out By
Financial Obligation
The program of the organization
committee of the Florida Citrus Ex-
change will include a plan to aid
non-member growers who are bound
to their present affiliations because
of financial obligations. The com-
mittee will ask the assistance of the
Federal Farm Board to work out the
plan.
A survey of the non-member
growers is being made at the pres-
ent time by the committee. It seeks
to learn the number of these grow-
ers, the amount of fruit that they
have and the amount of their obliga-
tion. With these figures at hand, the
committee will take the situation up
with the Farm Board and ask it to
work out with the Exchange some,
method of financing which will make
funds available for the release of
these growers.
In its report to the Board of Di-
rectors, the Committee said:
"This committee appreciates
fully the fact that, regardless of
how thoroughly growers may be sold
on the necessity of joining the Ex-
change, many of them are not in a
financial position to join. A large
percentage of them are purposely
over-financed by independent oper-
ators so that they may be tied to
the operator in a manner that
money alone can relieve. This com-
mittee believes that this class of
non-member growers represents the
majority of growers not now affili-
ated with the Exchange and should


Endorse Pooling Bulki-J
Fruit If 65 Percent
OF Associations Join
Pooling of bulk fruit of Exchange
associations has been approved by
the Board of Directors and will be
put into effect if 65 percent of the
associations will participate. The
proposition was recommended by
the Sub-Exchange managers and has
the backing of many of the associa-
tion managers.
Truck trade has grown to big
proportions since the bulk sale has
taken control of the South. The
truckers have been quick to take ad-
vantage of the unregulated and dis-
organized sale of the fruit at the
packing houses. Packing houses un-
knowingly have been played against
each other and some feeling is likely
-to creep in between managers who
are being misrepresented to each
other by unscrupulous truckers.
Truckers represent at one house
that they can get fruit at a lower
price at another. They often rep-
resent to houses of one section that
they can get the fruit cheaper from
another section. As a result there is
no more stability of price in fruit
sold direct from the packing houses
than there is in the markets with
115 operators shooting at each
other's quotations or consignments.
It is the pool plan to place the
sale of bulk fruit to truckers in the
hands of one person. A definite
urice level would be established.
Truckers would be benefited as well
as associations. They could get their
requirements from one source and


be a first consideration in any grow- could have confidence no other
er membership organization action." trucker was getting fruit cheaper.


Canning Chaos

Turns Exchange

To Co-op Idea


Committee Instructed To
Prepare Plans For A
Canning Subsidiary

Chaotic conditions prevail in the
canning industry and have forced
the Exchange to consider coopera-
tive canning as the only hope of
developing the canning industry to
its highest possibilities.
The special committee on coop-
erative canning of the Board of
Directors has recommended that the
Exchange go into the business. It
was instructed at the Jan. 16th
meeting to prepare definite plans
for the undertaking through a sub-
sidiary cooperative and to submit
these to the Board.
Price cutting broke out during
the holidays and apparently stam-
peded all of the canners, though
only one firm announced the reduc-
tions out of the 30 canners. Prices
of the finished goods were reduced
60 cents a case which is equivalent
to 60 cents a field box. The main
body of canners followed the re-
ductions instead of battling the sit-
uation by lining up all against the
one.
The situation came when the mar-
ket appeared very firm and at least
1,000,000 cases had been put up,
virtually all delivered. Such was the
prospect that the lowest estimate of
the canners on the season's output
exceeded 3,000,000 cases with other
estimates ranging hundreds of thou-
sands of boxes upwards. The trade
and its journals were expressing
high satisfaction with conditions and
were looking forward to a promis-
ing business.
The reaction completely upset the
calculations of the disruptive can-
ner if he expected to draw business
as result of price reductions. The
immediate hysteria of the other
canners scared the trade which has
refused to buy in any appreciable
volume and such orders were placed
only under strict guaranty of pro-
tection against further reduction.
The canners failed to build up
a stabilizing spirit in meetings
called and called upon the shippers
and growers to rescue them. Those
under contracts with the Exchange
and others with contracts with other
shippers asked for reductions of the
contract price. Suggestions on the
price to the growers fell as low as
25 cents a box.
At a joint meeting of shippers
and canners, agreement was reached
not to take less than 50 cents a field
box of 85 pounds for any fruit ac-
cepted by canners. It is hoped
that this will prevent further price
cuts and bring stabilization. It re-
quires the acqiesence of 85 percent
of the canners. The Exchange, the
Clearing House and the Fruitman's
association of shippers not in the
Clearing House, agreed through rep-
resentatives, to this. This agree-
ment does not interfere with the
paying of a higher price though
canners are reluctant to pay more
than the minimum.


January 15, 1931


SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE






SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE January 15, 1931


Seald Sweet

Chronicle


Published twice a month in
the interest of cooperative
marketing and for the infor-
mation of the citrus growers
of Florida.

Publication Office:
606 Citrus Exchange Bldg.
Tampa, Florida
Postoffice Box 1108

Net Grower Circulation
over 12,000

Space Rates: $60.00 per page;
$35.00 half-page; $20.00 one-
quarter page; $2.00 per inch
all space under one-quarter
page. Minimum space: 1 inch.

Vol. VI JAN. 15, 1931 No. 16



Give Cooperation A
Real Trial
Winter Haven Chief: It is sel-
dom, if ever, that this newspaper
comments editorially upon a paid
advertisement run in its columns.
We desire to make an exception,
however, in the case of the recently
published advertisement of the Flor-
ida Citrus Exchange reproducing in
detail the organization committee's
report to its board of directors.
That document is worthy of the seri-
ous consideration and study of every
citrus grower and every business
man in the state.
The "constantly recurring profit-
less years" referred to in the report
place the "Florida citrus industry
in an exceedingly dangerous posi-
tion." After an analysis of the con-
ditions causing those profitless
years, the reasoning of the com-
mittee points to a minimum of 75
percent grower cooperative control
of the crop as the only solution to
the problem. To build that control
is everybody's job.
Truly, "now is the time for sane
thinking and sound action," not only
on the part of those controlling the
destiny of the Florida Citrus Ex-
change but also those who are too
prone to criticise in a stand-offish
manner without first doing their
share to remedy the situation.
Everything but 75 percent cooper-
ative control has been tried in an
effort to stabilize the industry. All
have failed. If this is true, now is
certainly the time to bury the
hatchet on any petty differences,
private squabbles and personal likes
and dislikes. Now is the time to
get behind the cooperative market-
ing movement and give it a thor-
ough, exhaustive trial.
We hope that every reader of this
paper will take the 25 or 30 min-


utes necessary to study that page
advertisement and absorb the in-
formation contained in it.



A Grower Speaks

Editor's Note: Following is a let-
ter from J. A. Allan of Union, New
Jersey, owner of a grove near
Lakeland, which is worthy of every
grower's consideration. Mr. Allan
has owned a grove for 10 years and
has been an Exchange grower for
10 years. The letter follows:
"Gentlemen:
"Re Over-production and our
Present Situation.
"We wait until an over-produc-
tion year is on us before we try to
provide for same and the conse-
quences are that we lose this crop's
profit, and very little beyond talk-
ing is done.
"This season is on the last half
and nothing that is formulated now
can be promoted in time to make a
real difference for us this season;
unless, immediately you stop all
shipments at once for a period of
two weeks or more, until these
northern "glutted" markets can re-
cover and find out just what we
mean. People never want anything
very badly' until the supply is ap-
parently cut off, then they get
anxious and scramble for it. Sec-
ondly, the bulk fruit must be held
in the state and used as "cannery
grade" as the Exchange suggested,
and then it cannot compete with
the box grades as it does now, dam-
aging our pocket-books to the ex-
tent of a dollar per box or more.
"The independent operator is go-
ing to bring calamity on his head
and he will be legislated out of busi-
ness finally; but, before that hap-
pens the pity is that he will do
irreparable harm to the grower and
the industry and many of us grow-
ers are going to find the gonig so
hard that we cannot survive, as it
is now, there is no apparent hope
in sight except the Exchange. But
for some reason the growers of
Florida are not like the California
brand who seem to be much more
alive and clever and who do not
wait for the house to fall on them
before they put a prop under it to
hold it up. This is the price Florida
growers pay for their (seeming) in-
dependence and a few pats on the
back from somebody who is making
$$$ out of their utter stupidity.
I for one will consider myself the
(independent) grower when I co-
operate with an organization that
will get me money for my fruit
that will pay off my many bills and
give me real independence.
"Ask the Rancher of Rancho Glen
Haven if these are not true state-
ments.
"Fortunately or not, I am up here
in the north looking on and seeing
the mistakes being made down


where my fruit is growing and be-
ing unable to do anything to hinder
terrible mistakes that make for ruin
of Flordia's first industry. I wish
I might say something that might
make every grower in the state mad,
fighting mad,-with himself-to see
what a d- fool he is to be com-
mitting financial suicide when he
might be really independent and pay
off his debt of loans, machinery or
fertilizer or any other old thing it
may be, if he would sell only his
good fruit, and actually bury the
low grade if he can't sell it at a
profit, and ship only through an
organization that can guarantee him
profits not red ink.
Gentlemen, it can be done! Join
the Florda Citrus Exchange and
stick to it through thick and thin!
I have for over 10 years. Never
grew a single box of fruit that did
not go through the Exchange and 1
am an outsider but used common
sense and knowing that cooperation
is the only thing that really can do
anything for Florida growers. Yes,
I've been told I'm wrong and I have
had bids, plenty of them from inde-
pendent buyers who are friends and
acquaintances, but I'm here to say
that I am still a member of the
Exchange, for why? Just this, if
there can be a dollar made for the
grower at all, this year, the Ex-


change will get it. Why? Just this,
the Independent shipper is out for
a profit for himself or he would not
be in the game at all, so he has to
get his part which you get if you
are a member of the Exchange
which is a non-profit organization.
Too bad I can't hit some of you
fellowws, for it might make you
wake up, and then I would get a few
more dollars in my Christmas stock-
ing next Christmas. Now fellows,
you know what I think of you!
Thank you!

Nothing but the best is served on
the S.S. "Leviathan" so it's "Seald-
Sweet" grapefruit the voyagers
on the famous liner enjoy, writes
H. C. Alexander of Clarksburg, W.
Va.

Up in British Columbia, $1,000
silver foxes are kept in prime condi-
tion by the use of orange juice. No
matter how high the price of the
fruit, the foxes still are fed their
ration of oranges.

Two young men charged with
theft of tangerines from a grove
south of Ft. Pierce, were fined $75
each in County Court. They were
given the alternative of serving
three months in jail.


Shall the Florida Citrus Industry suffer the same fate as the Bibical "Tower of Babel",
only half builded because the citrus growers do not have or have lost the facility
to understand one another and work together to a common purpose. Such is the
situation of the industry today-half built and its progress halted until the growers
learn to speak as with one voice and reason as with one mind.


SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE


January 15, 1931






January 15, 1931 SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE


Start Drive To

Sell Mid-West

Florida Citrus

Plan to Establish Brands
And Reap Benefit W hen
Texas Fruit Is Gone
The best men that the Florida
Citrus Exchange has available are
hastening to the West to launch a
drive for both grapefruit and or-
anges. Though this territory is the
stronghold of both Texas and Cali-
fornia, the Exchange is in hopes
of developing a demand for its
brands that will move a consider-
able volume of the fruit and relieve
overloaded Central and Eastern
markets and afford additional out-
lets which will prevent holding some
of the fruit of its growers in the
state.
Texas will practically be through
by the end of February, but the Ex-
change does not believe it can afford
to wait until then. It has felt out
the competition of Texas Marsh
Seedless in recent weeks and has
high hopes that with similar fruit
and special sales effort it will be
able to find a profitable outlet for a
fair volume before Texas is through.
Then, having won over some prefer-
ence while Texas competition is on,
it will be in the finest position to
gain the full benefits of an open
field when Texas is through.
It faces a somewhat different con-
dition with oranges. California will
be in the field long after the Florida
season is over. But the Exchange
believes that the Westerner, once
he has gotten a good taste of Flor-
ida oranges ard has steady supplies
before him, will turn from Cali-
fornia's variety to Florida's.


Texas Passing Florida
In Grapefruit Planting
Texas expects to pass Florida in
the number of grapefruit trees in
groves by the end of this year. It
is within 100,000 trees of equaling
the Florida plantings now.
According to figures of the Flor-
ida Plant Board, the state had a
total of 5,592,187 grapefruit trees,
bearing and non-bearing, two sea-
sons ago. Little planting has been
done since.
Texas planted 1,250,000 grape-
fruit trees this past season bringing
that state's total to 5,451,650 trees.
Its plans call for the planting of
650,000 more this year which would
give it a total of 6,101,650 trees,
which undoubtedly would be several
hundred thousand more than the
number in Florida.
The prospects for the future can
be seen by checking production in


Dealer Service Increases Business 500%
The value of dealer service work not cost a cent and brought in a
in increasing sale of citrus and nice profit."


I.M
... _s


building good will for the Florida
Citrus Exchange has been highly
stressed in recent years by the Ex-
change. Following is a letter from
a grocer to F. M. Reutter, dealer
chief, Midwest division, which is
representative of the experience of
hundreds of retailers who have had
the Exchange dealer service. The
letter is from the Fifth Avenue
Market and Grocery, Cedar Rapids,
Iowa, a market in which Texas com-
petition is severe. The letter fol-
lows:
"We are so pleased with the re-
sults in handling the "Seald-Sweet"
grapefruit that we must pass the
good word along to you as to our
accomplishment.
"We always bought grapefruit
from hand to mouth or one box at
a time. After your suggestion and
artistic window display we gave the
C. R. Commission an order for ten
boxes and put them out on the floor.
Our supply was exhausted in three
days time and we ordered 15 more
boxes. Five have since elapsed and
we are just about in the market
for 15 more.
"We suggested half-box and box
quantities to our customers and it
surprised us how many bought and
were so pleased with the saving.
"We must say that it does pay
to push a quality product. We have
increased our sales better than 500
percent on grapefruit, created a lot
of good will and, more than that,
plenty of good advertising that did
Florida with producing trees. The
state should have approximately
5,300,000 producing trees which
this season are producing a crop
of 14,500,000 boxes, according to
government estimate. Many of these
trees are in full bearing age. Great-
er production, however, can be ex-
pected as the younger trees come
into full bearing.


BROGDEX
Equipped
Association Houses
Avon Park Citrus Growers Assn.
Clearwater Growers' Assn.
DeLand Packing Assn.
Eagle Lake Fruit Growers Assn.,
Elfers Citrus Growers Assn.
Ft. Pierce Growers Assn.
Highland Park Packing House, Inc.
International Fruit Corp.
Lynchburg
Fullers Crossing
Fort Pierce
Lucerne Park
Arcadia
Lake Alfred Citrus Growers Assn
Lake Garfield Citrus Growers Assn.
Lakeland Citrus Growers Assn.
Lake Hamilton Citrus Growers Assn.
Lake Placid Citrus Growers Assn.
Leesburg Citrus Growers Assn.
Manatee Citrus Growers Assn.
Mims Citrus Growers Assn.
,Nocatee Citrus Growers Assn.
Ocala Fruit Packing Co., Inc.
Orlando Citrus Growers Assn.
L. B. Skinner
Umatilla Citrus Growers Assn
Waverly Citrus Growers Assn.
Winter Garden Citrus Growers Assn.
Ask the man who uses Brogdex and
you will get the low down on what
it will do for you.
FloridaBrogdexDistributors,Inc.
Dunedin, Florida


More money for the same fruit means-



BROGDEX


Fifty Florida houses are shipping this better looking,
better keeping fruit. A third of this year's crop will go
to market under the protection of Brogdex. The mar-
ket is pretty well informed of its advantages. Many
buyers are specifying Brogdexed fruit and many auc-
tion sales show Brogdexed fruit getting a premium,
frequently topping the market for similar sizes and like
quality. The advantages you may reasonably expect
from Brogdex are-

Control of decay
Less shrinkage, withering and wilt
Less refrigeration
An improved appearance
A decided market preference
More money for the same fruit

The satisfactory experience of 50 houses will justify
a careful check up of these advantages, any one of which
will more than repay you for the small service charge
per packed box for the Brogdex treatment. Brogdex
can be installed in your plant iwth little, if any, inter-
ruption to normal packing operations. Let our Brogdex
man submit a proposal without obligating you in any
way.
Tune in Monday nights at 10:30 Station WFLA

FLORIDA BROGDEX DISTRIBUTORS, Inc.
B. C. SKINNER ,Pres. DUNEDIN, FLORIDA


January 15, 1931


SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE










GROVE, CROP AND PACKING-HOUSE NOTES


Careless picking and handling of
fruit will average a loss of 61 cents
a box through decay, according to
studies which have been made by
Prof. E. F. DeBusk of the Exten-
sion Service. In some instances the
decay loss through defects has run
as high as $2.30 a box, according
to Professor DeBusk.
In an examination of representa-
tive boxes of fruit selected from
three houses, long stems, clipper
cuts, pulled fruit and bruises were
checked. The defects ranged from
four to eight percent. A check was
made on a picking crew of nine men
and disclosed an average of 15 per-
cent of defective fruit as picked
by them. Instructions were given
the crew and defects were cut to
four percent.
Dropping of fruit into the boxes
and excessive loading of boxes
augment decay, according to Prof.
DeBusk. Coloring, if properly han-
dled, has little danger for the fruit,
but fruit which has been bruised or
clipper cut will not stand up under
coloring, he said.
Professor DeBusk advises the use
of only the bull-nose clippers. His
study showed only one percent de-
fective fruit in the average box cut
with this type of clipper, while with
the use of the longer, sharp pointed
blade type the defects ran decay
as high as 30 percent.
Professor DeBusk does not be-
lieve that decay is more common
this season than last. Because of
the market conditions, dealers are
more critical and complain of decay
which they would pass by in other
seasons, he said.


Winter Park association invited
J. Reed Curry, head of Exchange
organization work, to attend the
last monthly meeting and discuss
conditions in the industry. A large
number of members were present
nad entered actively into the discus-
sion.
The main topic of interest was
the Clearing House brought up re-
peatedly by different members who
asked about its performance. Mem-
bers said that Clearing House opera-
tion and increase of Exchange con-
trol of the crop were topics rivaling
the market situation in the discus-
sions of growers in the Winter Park
section.

D. E. Timmons, graduate of the
University of Florida in 1927 with
the degree M.S.A., has been ap-
pointed extension economist in mar-
keting with the Extension Service.
He has been an instructor in farm
records and accounts at the Uni-
versity.


JANUARY SUGGESTIONS FOR GROVE CARE
Prepared for the Seald-Sweet Chronicle by
Horticultural Department, Lyons Fertilizer Company
PEST CONTROL
Watch out for rust mites particularly on Valencia oranges.
Spray with lime-sulphur or dust with sulphur if control
is necessary.
FERTILIZER
Arrange now for spring application of fertilizer. From
three to four per cent ammonia, six to eight per cent
available phosphoric acid and three to five per cent potash
should be used. On bearing trees that did not have regu-
lar fall application, potash should be increased to eight
per cent.
PLANTING
Trees may be transplanted from nursery to grove during
this month. Do not set with crown roots lower than sur-
face of ground. Head back to twelve of fourteen inches.
Water thoroughly and bank.
PRUNING
Prune dead wood and water sprouts from all trees not
carrying fruit.
COVER CROP
Arrange now for seed for cover crop, as this will be worth
many dollars to you in soil improvement.
GENERAL
Plow or disc a strip around grove where adjacent to un-
cultivated land to reduce fire hazard. Remove all dead
wood, clean up fence rows and ditches, and clean all rub-
bish and grass from around the trunks of trees to elim-
inate danger from wood lice and ants during the winter.


Harvesting of crotalaria seed by
means of a combine was demon-
strated recently at the Experiment
station farm under the direction of
W. E. Stokes, agronomist. The
combine headed, threshed and sack-
ed the seed in one operation.
The machine requires the services
of four men, replacing 100 hand
laborers. It is capable' of covering
25 acres in a day.
Crotalaria spectibilis is adaptable
to the use of the combine as it ma-
tures its seed at one time, contrary
to striata variety habit. Striata has
been the most popular in Florida in
recent years, though there are many
growers who have always preferred
spectibilis, including L. B. Skinner
of Dunedin, who has one of the
finest stands of the variety in the
state.
Most of the crotalaria seed has
been imported from Porto Rico
where cheap labor has permitted the
production of the seed at lower cost
than could be achieved here. The
combine may make it possible to re-
duce the. cost to a level allowing
competition with Porto Rico.

Larger volume this season will
enable Kissimmee association to
operate at considerably lower cost
over former years, members were
informed by Manager Harry C.
Plano. The regular December meet-
ing was attended by a large number
of the membership.
Conditions and problems of this
season were explained by Mr. Plano.
Short talks were made by several,
stressing particular phases of con-
ditions.


Detroit is spending more money
to create a better consumer demand
in fresh fruits and vegetables than
all other markets in the country
combined, is the representation of
the Detroit Union Produce Termi-
nal, just received by the Chronicle.
Daily broadcasts to the house-
wives over two Detroit stations, a
daily column in the leading Detroit
paper with articles of similar na-
ture appearing in other papers of
the section, a dealer service depart-
ment, and an advertising depart-
ment of thorough fruit and vegeta-
ble knowledge are the mediums the
city is using.
Of direct interest to Florida cit-
rus growers is the daily broadcast
and the daily news column. Citrus
is given prominent mention in each
and of special value to the growers
is the attention given the off sizes.
The copy of the daily column re-
ceived gives an excellent summary
of the health value of oranges fol-
lowed by valuable reference to Flor-
ida. Mention is made of California
navels, but the main attention is
given to Florida citrus.


Domino Stores, Inc., owned
by Bradenton association, re-
cently sent a fancy box of cit-
rus to Amos 'N' Andy on the
order of a friend of the radio
funmakers. Probably Madame
Queen and Ruby will have a
citrus feast if Brother Craw-
ford or Brother Kingfish
doesn't talk Amos 'N' Andy
out of the fruit. Who can tell
the box of fruit might inspire
Brother Kingfish to talk Andy
in a citrus grove promotion.


Domina Stores, Inc., subsidiary
of the Bradenton association, plans
to open its fourth fruit and juice
store in Jacksonville. The Board
of Directors of the Florida Citrus
Exchange has approved the proposal
and a request of the association to
assist it.
The three stores now in operation
are doing a good business, with the
Bradenton store in the lead in the
matter of profits, reports Manager
Kirkhuff. There is intense compe-
tition in St. Petersburg, where the
last store was opened, and in Sara-
sota, where a store was opened two
seasons ago. Private capital has
been attracted to the juice and fruit
store as a business venture to the
greatest extent in the history of the
state, Mr. Kirkhuff said. However,
the Domino stores are more than
holding their own.

Approximately one-fifth of all
the productive acreage of Florida is
in citrus groves, according to data
presented by the Associated Boards
of Trade of the Florida Scenic High-
lnads. Citrus production utilizes
333,000 of the 1,696,140 acres cred-
ited with producing.
The low proportion of productive
acreage in the state has moved the
Associated Boards to prepare a pro-
gram on "Making Unproductive
Acres Produce" as the general sub-
ject for its meeting at Haines City
January 19. The program has been
divided into five sections, each re-
lated to a specific means of profit-
able production. Each' will be led
by men-experienced in the subject.
Perry G. Wall of Tampa, chairman
of the governor's special committee
on taxation relief, will speak in
the evening on the effect of tax-
ation of unproductive lands.
The five topics are: cattle and
grasses; reforestation; quick grow-
ing trees for wood pulp; game as
an inducement for the leasing of
large unburned areas; fibers, veg-
etable oils and products of sugar.
Staple crops lead in acres under
cultivation with 1,221,300. Truck
crops utilize 141,840. These and
citrus comprise a total of 1,696,140
acres. Florida has a total area of
33,000,000 acres, indicating that
little more than two percent is
under cultivation.

Texas is understood to have had
only 1,000 to 1,200 cars of grape-
fruit left to move after Jant1l,
which it is believed would be cleared
up durnig February, leaving the
entire market open to Florida.

Silver Palm association has open-
ed a Seald-Sweet store in Miami.


SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE


January 15, 1931





January 15, 1931


Skinner Heads

League For His

Eighth Term

Rate Savings Thru League
Average Higher Than
$3,000,000 a Year
L. B. Skinner, pioneer grower of
Dunedin, has again been honored
by the growers and shippers of the
state, by re-election to the presi-
dency of the Florida Growers and
Shippers League for his eighth con-
secutive term. The annual meeting
was held in Orlando, Dec. 23.
The League membership now rep-
resents 90 percent of the citrus and
50 percent of the vegetable ship-
ments from the state. It has been
in existence seven years.
Savings in transportation rates
and special charges in which the
League took a leading part to ob-
tain now aggregate more than $3,-
000,000 annually. Approximately
$1,000,000 a year is saved the citrus
growers in reductions to citrus rates
which became effective last season.
The reduction in the refrigeration
charges saves approximately $500,-
000 a year for citrus and vegetable
growers.
Other savings effected were:
$900,000 a year through the pre-
vention of a special charge for the
use of refrigeration equipment;
$250,000 through averting a charge
for diversions in Southern territory;
$300,000 to vegetable shippers
through preventing a restriction of
routings on class rates which would
have made a higher commodity
schedule applicable; $100,000
through suspension of tariffs pro-
posed increases under certain rules.
The annual cost of maintaining
the League has been $23,810. One
year's saving alone is figured out as
1,800 percent return on the invest-
ment in the League since it was or-
ganized seven years ago.


VOLCK and
KLEENUP, the
Ortho sprays for citrus pests,
are proven in the orchard and
tested in the laboratory-the
world's mostwidely used citrus
sprays. Write for new folders. 1


*ALIFORNIA SPRAY-
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61 W. Jefferson St.,
Orlando, Florida


SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE 7


Co-op Council

Warns Enemies

Of Farm Board

Gives Notice Will Resent
All But Farmers' Effort
To Amend Farm Act
Private interests that have been
making attacks upon the Federal
Farm Board and the Agricultural
marketing act have been warned
that any attempt of interests other
than agricultural to seek amend-
ments of the Agricultural Market-
ing Act will be considered as an un-
friendly act by the National Co-
operative Council and its coopera-
tive membership doing a business of
more than one billion dollars an-
nually for more than 1,000,000
members.
The Council was organized two
years ago to serve as a conference
body through which farm coopera-
tives could express themselves on
national policies. It maintains
offices in Washington. The Florida
Citrus Exchange is a member.
At its semi-annual meeting last
month, the Council went on record
as opposed to any amendment of the
marketing act until adequate oppor-
tunity has been afforded to show
how existing legislation can be
strengthened or improved. It took
notice of the organized attacks be-
ing made by private interests and
instructed the secretary of the
Council to keep member associations
thoroughly informed about them.
The Federal Farm Board was
highly commended and given the
assurance of the cooperation and
assistance of the Council.

Others elected by the League
were:
Vice-presidents, E. L. Wirt, Bab-
son Park, R .B. Woolfolk, Orlando;
treasurer, S. 0. Chase, Sanford;
assistant treasurer, Randall Chase,
Sanford; executive committee, J. C.
Chase, Winter Park, W. H. Mouser,
Orlando, B. L. Abbeger, Orlando, E.
D. Dow, Tampa, and Lawrence
Gentile, Orlando.
J. Curtis Robinson was re-elected
executive vice-president and secre-
tary for the eighth consecutive year.
Jane B. Hunter was re-employed as
assistant secretary.
Committees appointed included:
traffic, E. D. Dow, Tampa, chair-
man; W. C. Hutchinson, J. R. Cren-
shaw, L. D. Aulls, H. C. Gettier,
R. A. Cobb and J. M. Campbell;
finance, S. 0. Chase, Sanford, chair-
man; W. H. Mouser, L. D. Aulls,
Lawrence Gentile, E. L. Wirt and
R. B. Woolfolk; membership, M. L.
Cullum, Sanford, chairman; Geo.
Fletcher, J. M. Campbell, M. C.
Britt, H. T. Bennett.


The Florida Orange Festival

January 27-28-29-30-31

Winter Haven, Florida

JANUARY 27
SCHOOL DAY-devoted to the entertainment and
education of students who will be admitted free.
JANUARY 28
GOVERNOR'S DAY-reception to the Honorable
Doyle E. Carlton, Governor of Florida, and the
official inspection of exhibits.
JANUARY 29
TOURIST DAY-second annual gathering of Tour-
ists and Tourist Club members throughout the state.
JANUARY 30
GROWER'S DAY-fourth annual meeting of Flor-
ida Citrus Growers; monthly meeting of Committee
of Fifty.
JANUARY 31 GRAND FINALE
Citrus Exhibits Gigantic Fire Works Display
From All Florida Float Parade
Float Parade
Citrus Pageant, featuring
Coronation of Queen of Thrilling Free Acts
the Citrus Empire Band Concerts
State and Federal
Educational Exhibits Five Big Days
Championship Packing Contest Program Changed Daily
Water Rodeo Johnny J. Jones Exposition


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SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE January 15, 1931


Association Decay Record
Favors Use of Ethelene

If coloring is a factor in the decay
of fruit, ethelene gas is much less
damaging to citrus than kerosene
gas, according to the statement of
decay by associations prepared Dec.
12 by the statistical department of
the Florida Citrus Exchange from
the individual car records.
The statement includes 72 houses
affiliated with the Exchange. Twen-
ty-one of these used the gas from
kerosene as the coloring agent and
51 used ethelene gas. The state-
ment shows the average percentage
of decay for each house listed.
The statement shows that of the
21 using kerosene gas, 10 had an
average decay rate of more than
one percent, while of the 51 using
ethelene only five had an average
of more than one percent.
The average of decay for the 21
houses using ethelene gas was .44
percent or less than half of one
percent.


Adding the decay percentage of
all the 21 houses using kerosene
gas, the total is 23.69, while the total
for the 51 using ethelene is 22.77.
Selecting the houses which have
the highest decay rate, a house us-
ing kerosene leads .with 4.17 per-
cent; another house using kerosene
is second with 3.11 percent and
three houses using kerosene are
third, fourth and fifth, respectively,
with 2.41, 2.33 and 2.29 percent.
The highest decay rate shown in any
house using ethelene gas is 1.62
percent. There are six houses using
kerosene gas with rates in excess
of this.

Here is a tip for the owner of a
young grove troubled by rabbits. It
comes from Elmer Vandivier, sup-
erintendent of the Volusia county
fair grounds. Mr. Vandivier scares
the rabbits away.
It is simple, according to his form-
ula. All that is needed is blood.
Any blood will do, chicken, pig or
cow. Spray it or sprinkle it on the
ground, he advises.


STAYING POWER too I

PLENTY of quick-acting Nitrogen that gives the maxi-
mum new lush to citrus trees, and plenty of the lasting
kind that insures uninterrupted and vigorous growth ...
PERUVIANITE gets half of its ammonia from Genuine
Peruvian Guano, most available of all organic ..
the other half from NitraPo.
The genuine PERUVIANITE Formula can now be had
in three different analyses ... 9-9-9, 6-12-6, 6-12-12.

for a FULL FLUSH
-- -- and a BLOOM that sticks...
MANY of the largest citrus developments
in Florida are using NitraPo exclusively as
their spring fertilizer. The big difference be-
tween NitraPo and its many substitutes is,
that where NitraPo is used, the bloom sticks... the fruit sticks
... and the grove pays off on its crop. The supply of NitraPo
is none too large... order ear1.


Above is a window display for the Exchange that is luring customers away from Texas
grapefruit. Note the attractive appearance of the fruit and the special appeal to
women. Dusters Grocery used three boxes of fruit for the display and carries a
stock of eight boxes.




Route Your Perishable Traffic

to

Boston
Philadelphia
Baltimore
Washington
Dayton
Detroit
Cleveland
Youngstown
via

BALTIMORE & OHIO RAILROAD
NORTH OF POTOMAC YARDS OR CINCINNATI

PHILADELPHIA AUCTION COMPANY
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania


BALTIMORE FRUIT EXCHANGE(Auction), .
Baltimore, Maryland


JACKSONVILLE
FLORIDA


OPERATE AT BALTIMORE & OHIO TERMINALS


1401-1407
LYNCH BUILDING


i..


SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE


January 15, 1931





January 15, 1931 SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE


Flour Company Boosts Citrus By
Radio and Offers Tasty Recipe
For Oran3e Upside Down Cake

A big tribute and generous adver-
tising was given oranges in a radio
broadcast over the National Broad-
casting chain Jan. 16 by Betty
Crocker, director of the Home Serv-
ice department of General Mills,
Inc., millers of "Gold Medal" flours.
Betty Crocker was the first woman
to broadcast a morning service to
housewives and this is her seventh
year in radio service.
The recent program was given
exclusively to oranges and was
titled "Oranges for Originality."
The talk was packed with informa-
tion on the health value of oranges.
Miss Crocker offered a recipe for
"orange up-side down cake" which
sounds very tempting. Her recipe
tested in the Gold Medal kitchen is
as follows:
% cup shortening
1 cup sugar
3 eggs
2 cups Gold Medal "Kitchen-test-
ed" Flour or 2% cups Gold
Medal "Special" Cake Flour
3 teaspoons baking powder
% teaspoon salt
% cup milk
1 teaspoon grated orange rind
Butter for pan
% cup medium brown sugar
2 or 3 oranges (peeled)
% cup cocoanut
Cream shortening, add sugar
gradually, and cream well.
Add well beaten eggs.
Sift flour once before measuring
and sift flour, baking powder and
salt together. Add alternately with
the milk.
Add the vanilla, and mix well.
Grease a round pudding pan, or
deep skillet 10 inches in diameter,
liberally with butter-and line with
brown sugar.
On top of this, lay slices of or-
anges-cut in circles / inch thick
-and sprinkle cocoanut between
slices.
Pour cake batter over all-and
bake 40 to 50 minutes-in a mod-
erate oven, 350 degrees.
When cake is done, turn pan up-
side down. Do not remove pan for
a minute so as to allow butterscotch
mixture to run down over cake in-
stead of clinging to pan.
Serve with whipped cream.

Crotalaria Seed Available
0 --
County Agent Louis Alsmeyer of
Highlands county is offering crota-
laria seed at 17 cents a pound in 300
pound lots with an increase of one-
half to one cent a pound for smaller
quantities. Orders are being taken
now though the seed will not arrive
until about February.. The variety
is striata.


-m
J00





SEALD-SWEET


JUICE EXTRACTOR


NON- BREAKABLE
ALUMINUM
4FN


PERFECTED
HANDLE
POSITION
\,


BRONZE GEAR



3 INCH GRIP


Seald-Sweet Juice Extractor Features:
1. A non-breakable cone so shaped that all' surfaces are
readily washed and dried.
2. A bronze gearing arrangement, eliminating noise, wear
and slack play in operation.
3. A wide base providing a firm grip on any surface.
4. Perfected handle attachment, shaped to provide easy oprea-
tion with minimum wear.
5. This Seald-Sweet Juice Extractor is delivered to you fully
assembled, tested and ready for operation.


As special inducement to get
more orange and grapefruit
juice into consumption we
are, for a limited time only,
making this Extra Special
Offer.

These machines unquestion-
ably are the out-standing
hand extractor on the mar-
ket, (regular price $2.50).

And to think, ,, only $1.00
delivered right to your home.

We pay all the shipping
charges.

EASY TO CLEAN
It's really no trouble to clean the Seald-Sweet
Juice Extractor. The only parts soiled in opera-
tion-the aluminum bowl and cone-merely lift
off for rinsing. This is just another time-saving
feature for the housewife.


Gets That "1-4 More Juice" in Less Than Half the Time


SEND YOUR DOLLAR TO

Florida Citrus Exchange, Tampa, Florida


January 15, 1931


SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE






SEAL-SWET CHONILE Jnuar 15,193


Experience And Experiments

By W. C. WILLIFORD, Supervisor of Coloring


When a survey was begun of the
coloring facilities in the state dur-
ing the season 1929-30, it was found
that the industry used the same type
of room that had been in use for
15 years.
In the past they had less diffi-
culty in coloring than at present.
New conditions, however, have
arisen which the past methods could
not handle.
It appears that the packers have
given very little time or study to the
coloring problems. Yet the rush
of the shippers to get the first fruit
on the market, the desire of the
growers to use more fertilizer and
on the part of some growers to use
considerable quantities of ammon-
iated fertilizers, made the old type
of rooms and the method used a
failure under the present day de-
mand for perfectly colored fruit.
The old type and method could not
be rushed.
Under the old method with the
old type of room or a tent in which
a kerosene stove was used to pro-
vide both heat and gas, there was
inadequate heat and no way to
maintain even temperature. The
temperature varied between top and
bottom of the room or tent as much
as 40 degrees. The top air often
was as high as 112 degrees, while
the bottom temperature might be
lower than it was when the fruit was
put into the room or tent. This
condition was unavoidable in these
rooms or tents as there was no pro-
vision for the circulation of air and
the mixing of top and bottom air
to give an even temperature. The
fruit was subjected to gas under this
condition for as long as 120 hours
without fresh air or humidity regu-
lation. As the heat went up the
humidity went lower causing a large
shrinkage.
The amount of gas used was too
large. It was never less than 30
pounds of ethelyene by pressure
every 24 hours. Some, trying to
speed coloring, use as much as 240
pounds by pressure every 24 hours
without any fresh air. Check of the
fruit that had been under this last
condition showed 53 percent of de-
cay and 97 percent of stem drop-
page.
The amount of monoxide gas in
rooms using kerosene varied from
12 to 19 percent. No one appeared
to know how much to use, but tried
to determine the amount by the ex-
tent the eyes smarted while one was
in the room. Fruit colored with
kerosene gas would taste as dis-
tinctively of kerosene as if it had
been sprayed with kerosene.
This type of room had very poor
heating facilities. It was practically
impossible to keep the temperature
as high as 75 degrees on cool morn-


ings and nights. Under a tempera-
ture this low, the gas would have
little if any effect as the best tem-
perature for maximum speed and re-
sults is from 85 to 88 degrees. This
temperature is not injurious to
keeping quality or flavor of the
fruit.
This method not only was not
equal to the task, but it was not
proper to subject the fruit to the
punishment it received. Citrus should
not be permitted to remain in the
coloring room longer than 72 hours
and then only under the most fav-
orable conditions.
After these findings, work was
started to find a way, if there should
be one, to color citrus quicker, with
less decay, better color and no im-
pairment of the true fruit flavor.
Circulation of air, on the same
principal of the circulation of blood
through the body, would give the
coloring room uniform temperature,
with a spread of seldom more than
three degrees between top and bot-
tom temperatures. Heat was ob-
tained from a low pressure boiler
and a radiator placed where the air
as it returns to the room will pass.
A thermostat could control the de-
sired temperature automatically.
Humidity could be regulated with
a small steam jet, permitting steam
to enter the circulating stream of
air directly through the fans.
With these ideas formulated, a
way had to be found to supply the
room with the desired amount of
fresh air. Fruit, like a person, can-
not go long without injurious effect
unless supplied with fresh air. With-
out the fresh air, carbon dioxide,
which is very injurious to fruit,
will replace the oxygen. A vent was
placed near the fan and controlled
to allow from nothing to four
square inches of air to enter the
room. Tests disclosed that two
square inches of air continuously
durnig the period of coloring was
sufficient for a one car room.
With circulating air, fresh air and
humidity available, a series of tests
was run. The first test was a com-
parison of kerosene gas with ethel-
ene. Exactly the same conditions
prevailed for each. The fruit wos
from the same grove. Temperature,
fresh air and humidity were alike.
A box of untreated fruit and a box
of fruit from each of the rooms were
held to check for color, preserva-
tion of flavor and keeping quality.
Twenty tests of this kind were run.
The fruit was held in the laboratory
'of the United States Department of
Agriculture at Orlando for 36 days.
It was found that the keeping
quality of the fruit colored with
ethelene was considerably the best
and kept practically as well as the


In Coloring B & O Provides Fine
s Baltimore Facilities
Operations
fruit which had not been colored. Since Oct. 1, the sale of citrus
Both ethelene and kerosene gas col- and deciduous fruit previously sold
ored fruit showed a bleached or lem- at the Baltimore Fruit Exchange
on color. The amount of ethelene was transferred to the fine new
used in these tests was 30 pounds by terminal plant constructed by the
pressure every 24 hours in shots. Baltimore and Ohio close to the
There is no way to determine or to wholesale produce trade. The fa-
regulate the amount of kerosene cilities provided consist of auction
gas. sales building, auction display plat-
In this series of tests of ethelene form, private sales platform and
against kerosene, the time for color- team track delivery yard.
ing was cut considerably. Now, a The auction sales building is of
way for a continuous flow of ethel- reinforced concrete, steel and brick,
ene was sought for it was believed 90 feet wide and 565 feet long with
the bleached color was due to the an eight foot platform along one
shots of ethelene gas. It was be- side. It provides display space for
lived, too, that the continuous more than 90 carloads and with
presence of ethelene in the room thermostatic control of heat per-
would speed the coloring process. mits proper handling of fruit re-
Speed is important for the speed gardless of the weather. The build-
with which fruit gets to market ing is served by four house tracks
after it is taken from the tree plays accommodating 48 cars at one time.
a great part as to the condition of A concrete driveway 74 feet wide
the fruit on arrival, provides for city deliveries, while
Trickling of ethelene gas was un- the tracks on the opposite side,
known and had to be studied out. A where the paved surface extends for
trickle was worked out by attaching 83 feet in width, can be used for
a gage directly to the gas drum and deliveries in the day time for cars
the full pressure of the drum was usually are unloaded at night.
turned on this gage. To this high At one end, the terminal is two
pressure gage was connected an- stories high to allow adequate
other to which pressure of from office and auction room space. There
five to 20 pounds could be turned is one large auction room with seat-
on. To this low pressure gage was ing capacity of 200 with space
connected a diaphram which is so allowed for another of equal size
small that the amount of gas pass- later as needed.
ing through it is determined by a A portion of the auction plat-
monometer, read according to the form has been set aside for private
water pressure in a "U" tube meas- sales while an extension of this
ured by inches. The amount of gas platform with separate unloading
flow was increased or decreased by tracks accommodating 30 cars is
a valve in the diaphram. allowed the express company until
With this was started the so-called such time as it is needed for the
trickle system which I believe to trade.
be the greatest discovery in the
coloring of citrus, excepting possi- Sears, Roebuck Sells Citrus
bly the circulation of air. Fruit in
a trickle equipped room colored 100 The Miami store of Sears Roe-
The Miami store of Sears Roe-
percent in two-thirds of the time buck & Company has added citrus
over fruit given ethelene shots, us- to its stock and will fill mail orders.
ing 30 pounds by pressure every 24
ing 30 pounds by pressure every 24 It is possible that the company may
hours. Only 23.4 pounds by pres- extend the plan to enter citrus on
sure of ethylene was used in the extend the plan to enter citrus on
sure of ethylene was used in the its regular stock list and take mail
trickle system. orders from all parts of the country.
Over 200 tests were run and The Miami store has contracted for
showed that the trickle system saved 10,000 boxes of oranges, tangerines
from one-third to one-half the time and grapefruit, though his volume
and colored any fruit used. I have may be decreased or increased ac-
yet to find fruit that could not be cording to the demand.
colored with the trickle system.
Fruit so colored kept in the labora- two square inches of fresh air per
tory longer than the same fruit not car.
colored and stem droppage was re- The trickle is more economical
duced to a minimum. The trickle than ethelene shots o kerosene.
method gave the true fruit color One drum, costing $12, will color
which no other system had done. from 30 to 40 cars of fruit. It is
During these tests, there were ex- not the amount of gas but its ap-
periments on the best humidity for plication that colors. Fruit colored
coloring and the fresh air necessary. by the trickle system showed nearly
The tests favored the figure of 70 to two-thirds less decay than fruit col-
80 percent preferably 76 percent ored with kerosene gas, according to
humidity for the temperature of 85 the statistical department of the
to 88 degrees and the amount of Florida Citrus Exchange.


January 15, 1931


SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE





January 15, 1931 SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE


What of


The Future?


In the near future citrus growers' problems will be solved, citrus
marketing problems will be solved-they must be-to a point
where the individual grower will reap a gratifying profit on his
monetary and physical investment. As a matter of absolute truth
-the Citrus Industry will BE JUST EXACTLY WHAT THE
INDIVIDUAL GROWERS MAKE IT.

Only three points in the United States-Florida, California and
Texas raise citrus fruits in commercial quantities. This means
that the fruit growers of these states hold a virtual monopoly on
citrus fruit-and properly distributed, the citrus growers will reap
their full measure of profit from this monopoly just as surely as
do the shareholders in steel, oil, or radio or the owner of a patented
article for which there is a popular demand.

So we repeat that the future of the Citrus Industry will be just
what the growers make of it-and it is our sincere belief that the
year 1931 will see much more made of his opportunities than
the grower has ever made of them before.



Lyons Fertilizer Company
OFFICES: PLANT:
807 Citrus Exc. Bldg. 4th Ave. & 35th St.
TAMPA, FLA. O N TAMPA, FLA.
BE LT
QUALITY FERTILIZER TUNE IN ON WFLA 9:30 P.M.
FOR o AND EVERY WEDNESDAY FOR
QUALITY FRUIT *J ORANGE BELT PROGRAM


This is one of a series of articles on the Citrus Industry in Florida.


K~~~~~- ~ -W~M~MHMN ~ M CCM ~ *5


January 15, 1931


SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE






SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE January 15, 1931


Things Sometimes Overlooked In Management

By Prof. E. F. DeBusk, over WRUF


During the last fifteen years my
work has permitted me to make
many citrus grove observations and
note the effect that soil conditions
and cultural practices have on the
development and control of many of
our citrus diseases and insects and
on the profits from the grove as a
business enterprise.
In the first place, many of our
tree troubles are due directly or in-
directly to soil conditions unfavor-
able to normal tree growth and fruit
production. With this handicap the
grower usually proceeds to try to
correct the many abnormal condi-
tions showing up in his trees by
spraying or otherwise treating his
trees, or by applying some special
commercial fertilizer mixture, in-
stead of going back to the soil and
making an effort to bring about a
soil condition favorable to the nor-
mal growth of plant. With most of
our Florida citrus soils this is
brought about by supplying the
needed organic matter through the
growth of cover-crop and by prop-
erly regulating the supply of soil
moisture. When these conditions
are met and trees are given an
ample supply of any of the forms of
plant food commonly used in citrus
fertilization, and proper cultivation
is practiced, many of our tree
troubles either disappear or become
of little importance.
What I am trying to say is that
we should begin at the foot of the
ladder-get down to sound funda-
mentals in plant growth-instead of
going to the top of the tree to try
to correct a trouble that originates
at the other extremity.
If the unshaded soil of a citrus
grove will not produce at least a
ton per acre per annum of some kind
of a cover-crop its period of satis-
factory tree growth and fruit pro-
duction will surely be of short dura-
tion, unless the unfavorable soil con-
dition is corrected by bringing in
coarse organic matter from the out-
side.
The growth of a luxuriant cover-
crop in the unshaded portion of a
well-drained grove insures the grow-
er of a soil condition favorable for
the satisfactory growth of citrus
trees and fruit production and for
the greatest results from commer-
cial fertilizers applied.
After a heavy cover-crop is pro-
duced trees are sometimes butcher-
ed unmercifully by severe root-prun-
ing with a big plow, in an effort to
bury the cover-crop. The greatest
benefit from a cover-crop is obtained
by leaving it as near the surface as
a safe practice in fire protection
will permit. The effect of severe
root-pruning of citrus trees is often
very evident either in the amount
of dead twigs and the melanose and


stem-end rot infection that usually
follows or in dieback and ammonia-
tion.
In hoeing bearing trees the slight
beneficial effect of stirring the soil
under the trees may be more than
offset by the damage resulting from
the dissemination of such disease as
foot rot, mushroom root rot and
possibly gummosis and psorosis, and
even stem-end rot and melanose
where the limbs are hanging low and
are broken and bruised by the hoe.
Extreme care should be exercised in
preventing the spread of disease
through wounds inflicted by the im-
proper use of any cultivating imple-
ments.
Citrus trees are often pruned at
the wrong time. I do not have ref-
erence to the time of year but to
the condition of the tree. In the
first place very little, if any, prun-
ing should be done except in remov-
ing watersprouts and dead wood.
I doubt if tree decline or dying back
is checked by pruning out the weak
and dead branches. In severe prun-
ing, in removing dead wood, many
wounds are made by cutting back
into the live part of the limbs, and
the tree is thereby weakened.
Through these wounds diseases are
introduced and a still further dying
back may result. Run down trees
should be well fertilized and every
effort should be made to build up
their vitality before severe pruning
is done.
I am afraid a good many growers
have overlooked the matter of ap-
plying a sufficient amount of quickly
available nitrogen to take care of
the needs of the bacteria in decom-
posing the crop of grass mowed or
worked into the soil this fall and at
the same time supply the tree's
needs. The bacteria will use an
amount of nitrogen equivalent to
100 pounds of nitrate of soda or 75
pounds of sulphate of ammonia to
each ton of grass. If this is not
supplied it will be taken from the
soil, and may result in a deficiency
to the trees and consequent yellow-
ing of foliage. Bear in mind that
a tree showing a deficiency of nitro-
gen is more susceptible to cold in-
jury, insect attacks and disease in-
fection.
The theory of starving trees to
make them "hard" and "more cold
resistant" is not born out in actual
experience. The well-fed tree is
the best risk as- well as the most
profitable one.


China, January 1, increased the
tariff on oranges to slightly more
than three-quarters of a cent a
pound and raised the duty too on
canned fruit to 2.31 cents a pound.


Summarizing the Florida citrus
outlook, the Department of Econom-
ics, Extension Service, University
of Florida, states:
"With the world situation that
exists relative to citrus production,
the Florida citrus growers are prob-
ably in as favorable a position with
respect to the future as growers in
any citrus producing area. Prog-
ress in marketing, the growing
strength of the cooperative move-
ment in citrus marketing, the ex-
pansion in recent years in the use
of cover crops, changing practices
relative to cultural and fertilizer
practices all point to some reduc-
tion in production costs, improve-
ment in quality and better market-
ing. The expansion of the citrus
canning industry has been of ma-
terial value to the citrus grower.
This does not appear to be the time
for any great acreage expansion,
but a time to devote all energy to
careful handling and development
of the present acreage. The release
from quarantine restrictions should
prove a helpful factor and be of
material assistance in the market-
ing situation."
The federal bureau reports that
bearing acreages of oranges and


grapefruit are being steadily in-
creased and that adequate returns
to the growers will depend upon
increase of the per capital demand.
Most of the Florida acreage of or-
anges is bearing, but many of the
trees are small and production from
these should increase about 4 per
cent a year, it states. Texas has
only one-quarter of its 20,000 acres
of oranges in bearing, and while
California navels are about the
peak of production a big increase
of production of Valencias can be
expected as 19 per cent of the acre-
age was classed as non-bearing last
year.
Concerning grapefruit, the fed-
eral bureau reports that the trend
of production is sharply upward.
Florida production is increasing at
the rate of 5 per cent a year. Only
17 per cent of the 60,000 acres in
Texas is producing, and Arizona
production is increasing rapidly, it
reports.
The export outlook is similar, the
report infers. It states:
"Increasing consumption of grape-
fruit in foreign countries may be
expected to continue. Foreign
grapefruit production, however, is
also increasing."


Above are two views of the Orange Juice Dairy at Buffalo located in the shopping
district. Above the window display utilizing Exchange materialsJ Below, the interior
of. the store gives a striking impression of cleanliness.


Summary OF Florida Citrus Outlook


SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE


January 15, 1931






J SEWPI


453%


in


INCREASE
LORIDA GROWERS are using 453% more
Nitrophoska, Calcium Nitrate and Calurea this
season than last.


Florida's use


of


NITROPHOSKA


CALCIUM

NITRATE

and SYNTI
ATLA


JACKSC
Tampa,
Please se
Cost."


What does this astounding record mean?.... Why
has Florida accepted these fertilizers with such
amazing readiness?
Here are fertilizers-practically unknown to Florida
only a few years ago-whose popularity, whose use,
is increasing at the tremendous rate of 453%.
There must be a reason-simple and obvious. And
there is a reason-RESULTS.
Nitrophoska (the high-analysis complete fertilizer)
feeds the crop from start to finish. Florida growers
have been surprised to observe that Nitrophoska is
BOTH quick-acting and long-lasting-even-feeding.
Calcium Nitrate (nitrate nitrogen combined with
lime) is quick-acting and supplies the soluble lime
so necessary to citrus and other crops--even on soils
already rich in lime. It produces outstanding re-
sults.
Calurea (Calcium Nitrate combined with Urea)
supplies both quick-acting and long-lasting nitrogen
in one material. Growers marvel at the way it
boosts a crop.
Write today for our free booklet, "Better Crops at
Lower Cost." Just use the coupon at lower left.
IETIC NITROGEN PRODUCTS CORPORATION, NEW YORK, N.Y.
NTA, GEORGIA PLANT CITY, FLORIDA
nDirihutors, ACKSON GRAIN COMPANY, Tampa. Florida


I grow......--..........acres of citrus..........._.acres of truck crops.
Name
P.O. County -State
rf',


BETTER CROPS at LOWER.COST


CALUREA
cN ITROPIOSKA

Eight Grades of Concentrated Complete Fertilizer

Calcium Nitrate
15% Nitrogen; 18.2% Ammonia
)N GRAIN COMPANY (Distributors)
Florida,. Dept. D.
nd me a copy of your free booklet, "Better.Crops at Lower CR
This does not obligate me in any way. 34% Nitrogen; 41.3% Ammonia


January 15, 1931


SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE






SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE January 15, 1931


It is time for the citrus grower
to begin to take measures to insure
his grove against a possible out-
break of the "green citrus aphid",
cr, as we have been calling it, the
"new citrus aphid", in the spring.
Since the insect has been with us
at least seven years, perhaps it
is time to drop the name of new
citrus aphid and call it the green
citrus aphid.
As to whether or not we have a
heavy outbreak in the spring will
depend upon the weather between
now and the time the trees blossom.
If the weather conditions are such
as to cause more or less growth on
young citrus trees during the
winter, and we do not have severe
freezes to nip the tender growth,
we may expect more or less trouble
from aphids in the spring. Al-
though they have not been so
troublesome in the last few years
as they were in the spring of 1924
and 1925, this is very evidently due
to the character of the weather we
have had since then, and if the
coming winter should be as favor-
able for the growth of citrus as
that of 1923-24 and 1924-25, we
will very probably have as severe
an outbreak as then unless the
growers take measures to combat
the aphids.
January Important
Judging from our studies of this
aphid, the weather during January
is the factor which determines
whether we will have a heavy out-
break of aphids in the spring. If
the mean temperature is above 60
and we have sufficient rain to keep
the soil moist, but at the same time
no heavy dashing rains to destroy
the aphids, and no freezes, con-
ditions will be entirely favorable for
a heavy outbreak of aphids.
There are very few aphids in the
groves at the present time, but this
means but little, for next spring,
because of the rapidity with which
they breed, when weather condi-
tions are at their best, an aphid can
begin to bring forth young when
.she is only six days old, and she
can average six a day. In other
words, an aphid only 18 days old can
be a great grandmother with 50
sturdy daughters and over 700
granddaughters, but no sons or
grandsons. Of course, in the winter
time breeding is not as rapid as
this. In January, an aphid is us-'
ually sixteen days old before she
begins to have young, and she does
not produce as many per day. But
in February she begins to have
young when she in only seven days
old on the average. Even at this
slower rate, an aphid born on the
1st of December would have on
February 15th a million descend-
ents, not counting those that had
died of old age, providing they could
find suitable food. This number
is not a mere guess but the results
of an actual computation based on


the rate of development and the
number of young per day for the
months of December and January
and the first half of February.
Time at Hand
It is difficult for a grower to be-
come interested in aphids when he
sees very few about, but this is
the very time when he should fight
them. To wait until they become
abundant is an expensive proposi-
tion. By all means the most econ-
cmical and effective method of com-
bating aphids is to keep the groves
clean of aphids during the winter.
Pounce on every aphid found be-
tween this and the middle of Feb-
ruary as if it were a rattlesnake
because it may mean hundreds of
thousands of aphids by the middle
February. We may not have a bad
outbreak of aphids in the spring
but the destruction of aphids dur-
ing the winter should be regraded
in the nature of insurance, and
very cheap insurance at that. It is
not the direct effect of the cold
which kills them. They will stand
more cold than the citrus tree. The
comparatively light damage from
aphids during the last few springs
has been entirely due to the weather
conditions which have prevented
them from having an abundant food
supply during the winter. The
point I want to make today is that
the citrus grower can himself do
just exactly what nature has been
doing with the same happy results,
namely, to keep down the aphids
during the winter. Nature has been
starving them out-we can kill
them. It is estimated that during
the spring of 1924-25 the aphids
did damage to the amount of
$4,000,000 in our citrus groves.
Practically all of this damage could
have been prevented had our grow-
ers known at that time how to
fight them and been willing to have
done so.
Hosts
In order to obtain a better un-
derstanding of the efficiency of the
winter clean-up, it is important for
us to know where the aphids spend
the winter. They have a number of
other hosts besides citrus, such as
"fire weed", cudweedd", pears
apples, and many. other plants, in-
cluding their native host plant, the
Spiraea, but none of these are of
any importance except the Spiraea,
from the standpoint of breeding
aphids during the winter, which we
will take up later. Practically all
the aphids you have in your citrus
groves in the spring up until the
middle of March have been raised
in your grove on tender growth of
citrus. This is almost entirely on
young trees and water sprouts, as
the large bearing trees seldom put
on any new growth suitable for


aphids in the early part of the
winter.
The Spiraea, of which the most
common species in Florida is Bridal
wreath, is a host of some import-
ance, especially in the northern
part of the citrus belt and including
Satsuma belt. Aphids will breed
all winter on the Spiraea and if the
weather gets cold they will lay eggs
on the Spiraea which will carry
them until the winter. This is the
way they spend the winter in the
northern states, in the egg state.
But no eggs have been observed on
citrus. No males have ever been
observed on Citrus. Every aphid
born is a female and capable of
giving birth to other females with-
cut a male, but on Spiraea, crab
apples, pears, and Japanese flower-
ing quince, in the northern part of
the state, eggs are usually produced
each fall. Mr. Tissot of the Depart-
ment of Entomology of the Agri-
cultural Experiment Station first
noticed the sexual forms of this
year on November 5th. On Novem-
ber 19th he observed the first eggs.
Usually eggs produced at Gaines-
ville have failed to hatch, probably
killed by warm spells of weather
during the winter, but last winter
some did hatch. In the Satsuma
belt the Satsumas are dormant for
so long during winter that they do
not carry aphids over the winter.
In that part of the state the aphids
are carried through either as fe-
males on the Spiraea or in the egg
stage on the Spiraea, crab apple,
etc. The Spiraea bush should not
be allowed to grow near a citrus
grove, or else it should receive the
same attention that the citrus tree
receives during the winter, namely,
the destruction of all aphids on it.
Another important factor in this
winter clean-up is that of the mi-
gration of aphids from one grove to
another. The viviparous females,
that is, those that bring forth their
young alive and never lay eggs,
are of two forms, winged and wing-
less. During the winter time and
in the early spring when new growth
is coming out on the trees, not many
winged forms are produced, us-
ually- not 10 percent are winged.
This means that there is practically
no migration of aphids from one
grove to another until about the
middle of March. At that time the
growth begins to harden in some
groves and becomes unsuitable for
aphids and nine-tenths of the aphids
may produce wings and fly away.
This means that practically all
aphids you see in your grove up
unt lithe middle of March have been


Winter Clean-Up For Citrus Aphid

By J. R. Watson, over WRUF


rom otner sections of the state.
raised in your grove and on citrus The county exhibit competitions,
trees.
open to every county in the state,
Clean-up Method will continue as in the past in a
r Now as to the method of con- separate classification.


I ducting this winter clean-up. At
this time of the year when ever you
find an infested twig it will usually
be sufficient simply to pinch it off,
throwing it on the ground or crush-
ing the aphid. One grower told
me that while working in a grove
from now on he will carry in his
pocket a little paper bag contain-
ing a little nicotine sulphate lime
dust, and whenever he sees an in-
fested twig he pushes it into this
Lag, closes the bag tightly around
the twig, gives it a shake, and goes
on his way, confident that he has
mare a 100 percent kill. A little
later when the aphids are too num-
erous for this treatment, the follow-
ing method is perhaps the best:
Make up a little solution of Black
Leaf 40 or other nicotine sulphate
in a bucket by dissolving two ounces
of soap in a gallon of water, then
add a tablespoonful of Black Leaf
40, or use an equal amount of
"Derrisol", or "Nicotrol", and dip
into this bucket every infested twig.
At this time of the year practically
all new growth will be out on the
ends of twigs, where it is easily to
bend them over into a bucket. Later
in the winter when growth starts
more generally over the young
trees, it will be necessary to resort
to spraying or dusting, but that is
another story which I will take up
later.
One other point, that is this, that
aphid injury has always been less
on trees set out in December than
on those set out later in the season,
January or February. Usually
aphids do not attack at all trees that
have been transplanted in Decem-
ber. Aphids are practically injur-
ious to newly transplanted trees,
and if you will avoid trouble from
aphids in the spring, set them out
early.


New Grouping In
Community Exhibits
At S. Florida Fair

Revision of competitive groups
and an added classification among
county, community and municipal-
ity exhibitors at the South Florida
Fair at Tampa has been made neces-
sary by the increased number of ex-
hibitors for the coming exposition,
February 3 to 14, General Manager
P. T. Streider has notified the board
of directors.
Instead of all communities and
municipalities competing in one
group as in the past, Mr. Strieder
announced that in the future there
will be one competition for munici-
palities, another for communities
within the borders of Hillsborough
county and a third for communities


SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE


January 15, 1931




Jnrn 15 1931E,


Reproductions of the January 24-sheet posters appearing
in large markets throughout the North.


To Move Your Fruit


The Florida Citrus Exchange advertising campaign climbs to its
peak of action this month.
Color pages in the American Weekly, Collier's, Liberty and Physical
Culture are carrying the story of Exchange fruit into millions of
homes. Radio stations are broadcasting the healthfulness of the
fruit and the quality of the brands to thousands of homes in many
markets.
Huge, well placed posters, such as are reproduced above, are an
added medium used to repeat the message in most metropolitan
centers day and night with all the eye appeal of color. Smaller
posters in full color on subway and elevated platforms in New
York and Chicago add to the total of consumers reached.
Newspaper advertising swells the total.
And, in addition, dealer service men throughout all sales divisions
are constantly at work with the trade selling Exchange brands,
decorating windows---helping the retailer move your fruit into
consumption.
And this is just a fraction of the "plus" value of the service you
obtain through your organization, the grower's cooperative oper-
ated at cost for your benefit.


FLORIDA CITRUS EXCHANGE
TAMPA, FLORIDA


SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE


January 15 1931





SEDSWE CHOIL Jaur 15 198


THE SPRING APPLICATION


""~~"I~~N~orl
U.~ -


CONTROLS

FULL FRUITING


Write for this free booklet by Bayard F.
Floyd, noted authority on citrus culture.
It contains valuable information concern-
ing Spring citrus fertilizing.


PUWtK
6bynyardF.oyd


POWER
V IGR for quick, luxuri-
ant growth and bloom
S. strength to set and
start the crop you'll harvest in
the Fall-these must come from
your Spring application of citrus
fertilizer.
Trees emerging from their
winter sleep need food to re-
energize them to full fruiting
power. The Spring application
supplies it, controlling the new
growth, the bloom and the set-
ting of the crop.
The Spring application starts
the job that you expect the all-


important Summer application
to finish ... the start that must
be made if later cultivation and
care are to yield full returns.
The Spring application is "Go"
to your citrus trees. And use of
IDEAL FERTILIZERS means a
head start toward a profit-win-
ning finish.
For 38 years IDEAL FERTI-
LIZERS have maintained Florida
leadership because'of their proved-.,.
excellence. Naturally you want
time-tested worth in fertilizer
for your Spring application.
Naturally, then, you'll use
IDEAL BRANDS. If you want
help in solving your grove prob-
lems, write. We'll be glad to send
a field expert without cost to you.


FERTILIZERS


MANUFACTURED EXCLUSIVELY BY
WILSON & TOOMER FERTILIZER COMPANY
JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA.


SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE


January 15, 1981


S9 31




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