Title: Seald-sweet chronicle
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075292/00013
 Material Information
Title: Seald-sweet chronicle
Alternate Title: Seald sweet chronicle
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Florida Citrus Exchange
Florida Citrus Exchange
Place of Publication: Tampa Fla
Publication Date: January 1, 1931
Frequency: semimonthly
Subject: Citrus fruit industry -- Newspapers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Tampa (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Hillsborough County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: newspaper   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Hillsborough -- Tampa
Coordinates: 27.970898 x -82.46464 ( Place of Publication )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased on Apr. 15, 1932.
General Note: "Florida's only citrus newspaper."
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 4, no. 24 (May 15, 1929).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075292
Volume ID: VID00013
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AJH6537
oclc - 31158390
alephbibnum - 001763371
lccn - sn 97027656

Full Text


Seald-Sweet Chronicle


Operators In

Overtures For

New Mergers

Open Negotiations Which
W ill Be Continued
S By Committeee -- - -.

Si Negotiations toward merging with
the Florida Citrus Exchange have
been, opened by several operators,
General Manager Commander in-
formed the Board of Directors at
its last meeting.
Mr. Commander told of being ap-
. preached by several operators and
requested the board to make ar-
rangements by which negotiations
could be continued and fostered. It
would be necessary, he said, to give
thorough study to all details before
final proposals could be drafted.
The operators had property inter-
ests which they would wish pro-
tected while it was to the interest
of the Exchange to be sure that
the volume of the operators was
sufficient and could be held for a
long enough term to warrant any
participation by the Exchange.
The directors authorized the
handling of these matters by Mr.
Commander and the Oranization
committee with any agreements
reached to be submitted to the di-
_~_L__ h ~_ 1_ ^-:i^-^:- -

, decision.


Several export shipments to
London and Liverpool were
forwarded by the Florida Cit-
rus Exchange during Decem-
ber and others are scheduled
this month with larger vol-
umes if the foreign market
for brands continues as
favroable as it has been.
The Exchange has been.
leading all competitors by
wide margins in the foreign-
markets. Even its "Mor-juce"
brand has brought more in
several instances that the first
grade of competitors. For-
eign market conditions are
even more depressed than the
market conditions of this
country, but net returns are
comparable with the returns
received from the domestic


Record Shows Who Overships
Some of the private operators to cover up their responsi-
bility continue to represent to growers that the Exchange has
broken the markets through excessive shipments. Here are
the figures which speak for themselves:
(Shipments of Dec. 23) Cars
Total for the state - --- 21,580
Private Operators 67.2% - - - 14,510
EXCHANGE 32.8% - - - 7,070
The Exchange has 50% or more of the crop. According to
the latest opinions, private operators in the Clearing House
have 25 percent and private operators not in the Clearing
House have 25 percent. Analyze the state shipments and you
find that the two groups of private operators, each with only
half the volume of the Exchange, have each shipped as much
as the Exchange.
EXCHANGE - - 7,070
Private Operators in Clearing House 7,465
Private Operators Outside Clearing House 7,045
If the Exchange had shipped its full share it would have
10,790 cars or 3,720 cars more. i

aEntred as Seemd Clua MalL Maute
at the Past Ofme at Taimp FlerUld
Under the Act at Marsh 8, 189.

No. 15


Program To Be

Started Soon

W ill Enlist Support Of
Business-Civic Bodies
i--. -ArrdState- Press --"

Detailed plans for a state-wide
movement, enlisting business in-
terests, civic groups and the press,
to speed grower control of Florida's
citrus industry will be submitted the
Board of Directors of the Florida
Citrus Exchange, January 2.
Conditions in the industry are
"intolerable" and each material
addition to the crop is costing the
growers an added $1 a box of loss,
a survey by the Organization Com-
mittee of the Exchange showed.
The committee submitted its report
of the survey to the Board at its
last meeting. The report is repro-
duced in full beginning on Page 7.
The decision of the Board to
launch the grower control move-
merit without delay was. actuated
by the proof that every means util-
ized todate has failed to relieve the
industry of its chaotic handling in
big crop years. The crop ..this,.
season is similar to those of the
previous big crop years, 1923-24.
and 1928-29. The disastrous re->< *
sults of-these previous seasons ar- '
repeated, though 80 percent of the
crop this season is in the hands of
operators organized to work in co-
ordination for the benefit of the
growers and the industry.
Results todate are considered
proof that operators, even as an
organized group, are unable to con-
trol the situation. Full trial has
been given their system, not only
here but elsewhere and is con-
sidered to have failed in' Florida as
(Continued on Page 2)

The larger volume in the
Florida Citrus Exchange al-
ready has been reflected in
lower operating costs, O. M.
Felix, secretary, reports to the
Board of Directors. Exchange
operating cost to Dec. 10 av-
eraged 8.8 cents a box, one
and a half cents a box less
than last season at this time,



Canning Deal

Looms As Big

Outlet Asset

1,000,000 Cases Canned
And Projects Total May
Reach 3,500,000

Florida canners will produce
between 2,800,000 and 3,500,000
cases of grapefruit, according to in-
formation received by General Man-
anger C. C. Commander of the
Florida Citrus Exchange.
Mr. Commander has been in-
formed that the lowest estimate of
the canners on their probable out-
put is' 2,800,000 cases, while some
canners estimate 3,500,000 cases
will be produced. Mr, Commander
was informed that output todate
approximates 1,000,000 cases most
of which has reached the shelves of
the retailers.
It is understood that the canning
situation is considerably confused
though outlook is bright if the can-
ners do not permit themselves to
be frightened into a price war.
The trade, it is reported, has
adopted the generally popular "hand
to mouth" buying policy, and is
holding down orders to current
needs instead of anticipating the fu-
This policy holds orders to the
canners to a minimum and puts
them in the position of carrying
on operations for the future demand
without future orders. It is re-
ported that some of the trade in-
terests are attempting to take ad-
vantage of the uncertainty to play
canners against each other on a
price basis.

Organization Program
To Be Started Soon
(Continued from Page 1)
it has everywhere else. This leaves
only grower control as the means
which has shown the only possibil-
ity of success in handling difficult
conditions in the citrus industry.
The survey lead the organization
committee to the conclusion that
talk of over-production is ridiculous
and only a subterfuge to cloud the
issues. The complaint that de-
pressed conditions are responsible
is not justified, it stated, as Cal-
ifornia maintained a profitable sales
level. Early shipment of inferior
fruit, while a contributing cause to
the present difficulties, cannot be
considered as a basic cause.
The survey places the annual
cost of the conditions which .exist
in the industry at $18,000,000 at
the least.

By FRED W. DAVIS, General Sales Manager
December 29, 1930
The most encouraging feature with which we enter the new period of
the season is .the more favorable reception Florida citrus is receiving.
Florida fruit is gaining preference and, with tree colored, fully matured
fruit from now on, this gain should be steadily increased. The price
differential with California fruit is very slight, indicating a decided turn-
of the trade to good Florida fruit. Considerable care should be taken
to maintain a high standard for Florida fruit in the markets.
The total movement -of citrus fruit from the state up to date shows
21,580 cars of which the Exchange shipped 7,070 cars or 32.8 percent.
Last season for the same period the Exchange percentage of the total
state shipment was 30.3 percent.
These figures clearly indicate :that the heavy overshipment to date
has been made by Independent shippers. They show a very conservative
shipping record for the'Exchange. This:'heavy shipment by outside
interests is inexcusable. Supplies going forward without regard to
market conditions have resulted in lo.w prices and in many cases nothing
net to the growers. Organized control by the growers in the sale of
their fruit is self-evidenit.
There was very little disposition on the part of the trade to pur-
chase ahead for holiday supplies, buyers purchased mostly for im-
mediate requirements. In view of this situation we anticipated a heavier
demand for late offerings just prior to Christmas and supplied the
markets accordingly. The latter.part of last week and the first of
this week a much better demand prevailed and prices were generally
higher. Our offerings for the balance of the week and next week will
be light, and indications point to a favorable situation when shipments
are resumed after the holiday period. Any tendency, however, to heavy

overshipment from the state should be discouraged if anything like satis-
factory prices are to be maintained.

Operators Organize
2d Group To Work
W ith Clearinghouse
Private operators not members
of the Clearing House are organ-
izing an incorporate body. which
they hope will be legallyr able to
work with the Clearing House and
permit the orderly movement of
nearly 100 percent of the fruit
within the state. They claim to
control 25 percent of the crop.
First overtures of the outside
group were rejected on the legal,
advice that- agreement 'arifage-
ments as proposed would be counter
to the anti-trust laws. The out-
side interests thereupon turned
their efforts to so organizing their
proposed membership as to come
under the protection of the Capper-
Volsted act. Several of these oper-
ators met in Orlando and took steps
to obtain a charter for the "Fruit-
men's Club" which they hoped to
put into such form that it could
work with the Clearing House.
In discussions on pro-rating, the
new group requested that they be
allowed membership on the,' pro-
rating committee in proportion to
their volume. It is understood,
they preferred a small committee
of three rather than the large one
now handling the matter. This
suggested committee would be com-
posed of one from the outside group
one from the Exchange and one
representing the private operator
members of the Clearing House.

Many.Operators Rely
Heavily On New York

To Sell Their ,Fruit
Many Florida citrus shippers are
selling the greatest part of their
volume in the New York auction,
pouring in the fruit despite the fact
that this market is the barometer for
all other, markets and its oversupply
is quickly reflected in lower prices
throughout the country.
The auction records show that
several operators ship 75 percent or
more of their volume to the New
York::. auction. Among these are
several of the most prominent ship-
pers, who loudly acclaim their
ability to sell fruit.
The.records of the Florida Citrus
Exchange up to the present show
that it has recognized the position
of the New York area as. a bar-
ometer and has restricted its ship-
ments according to the dictates of
good business. Only 19 percent of
the Exchange volume has been sold
in the New York City district, com-
pared with much heavier proportion
of shipments by practically all other
The New York Metropolitan Area
with its millions of persons to feed
is the greatest market in the world,
yet is staggering under the burden
which Florida citrus shippers impose
upon it. It cannot digest the sup-
plies of citrus poured into it and is
gorged with them. Unluckily for
Florida growers, practically every
other market follows the price .ex-
ample set by New York.

January 1, 1931

Bulk Volume

Growing To Big


Present Movement Indicates
Will Reach Total Of
3,500,000 Boxes .

More than 3,000,000 boxes of
bulk Florida citrus- will g .into ,the
markets this season-if the present
rate of the movement is maintained
This indicates -that approximately
15 percent of the fresh fruit volume
will be haudled in bulk ji competi-
tion with 85 percent of the packed
From the best information' avail-
able, it.is estimated that ,there are
at least. 1,000 trucks engaged in
hauling fruit out o'f the state. These
trucks carry on the average about
60 boxes of fruit each and average
two trips a week. This figures out
an average of 120,000 boxes a week
by truck or a total for the season,
if maintained, of 2,400,000 boxes.
It is estimated that mbre than
1,000 cars of bulk fruit have been
shipped todate. At this rate, -the
total for the season would reach
2,500 cars or the equivalent of
practically 1,000,000 boxes.
If the Florida crop is 25,000,000
boxes as the federal authorities es-
timate, the fresh fruit volume, after
allowance of cannery fruit, should
be approximately 21,500,000 boxes.
It is probable that canners will take
3,000,000 boxes of grapefruit and
1,000,000 boxes of oranges. These
estimates therefore show a bulk
percentage of approximately 15
Under such heavy bulk movement,
bulk fruit will go into every sec-
tion of the country in direct com-
petition with packed fruit. Packed
fruit, though more expensive to get
into the market from the grove.
must suffer heavy price cuts to sell
in competition with the cheaper
handled bulk' fruit.

Lue Gim Gong Home

Grove Changes Hands
The home property of Lou Gim
Gong, Chinese-American horticul-
turist who rose to prominence
through his work with citrus in
Florida, has been acquired by A. D.
Zpchary of Palatka. The property
consists of 20 acres of bearing grove
and 85 acres of pine timber land.
It was willed by Lue Gim Gong to
Mrs. Claudia P. Reed of Palatka,
who assisted him with .his corres-
pondence during his work in Florr
ida. Lue Gim Gong originated the
late Valencia variety which, bears
his name and made other valuable
contribution to the citrus industry.



Checks Record

Of Its Members

Also W ill Make New Sur-
vey Of Crop: To Check
Upon Excess Shipment
A survey of the crop to determine
the volume of fruit in the state as
of January 1 and an investigation
and audit of the operator members'
records to determine volume of
each under contract and the per-
formance of each on allotments is
underway by the Clearing House
at the request of the Polk County
Sub-Exchange submitted through
the Florida Citrus Exchange.
The Sub-Exchange and the Ex-
change asked that the remaining
Tolume be estimated; that volume
of fruit each member has under
contract be ascertained; that a
check be made on what excess of
shipments each member has made
over allotments; that a check of so-
called fob shipments be made to
determine how many of these were
genuine and what proportion was
really consignments or other forms
of shipments.
There has been a growing belief
that many operators list in their
volume estimated for the season
many crops which they do not have
under contracts but hope to handle
before the season is over. It is
understood that several operators
have confirmed this as regards their
own estimates. Under such a sit-
ration it would be possible and
under the present method allowable
for any operator to include in his
estimates crops which he, has only
the slightest hope of handling. It
is possible and very probable also
that several operators would include
the same crop or crops, which natur-
-- -l ly ioe would hnialed.
According to the estimates which
the individual operators have sub-
mitted to determine the allotments
of each, the crop is millions of
boxes in excess of the government
estimate of 25,000,000 boxes. This,
it is believed, clearly reveals that
operators' estimates contain many
duplications of crops. It is reported
that one prominent operator with
an estimate of nearly 2,000 cars
for the season, actually has only
200 cars or less under contract,
but hopes to get the balance as
the season progresses.
The Exchange lists in its esti-
mates only that fruit which its
associations report has been signed.
It could add several millions of
boxes did it adopt the same method
of estimating that the other oper-
ators have.
The contracts of the associations
of the Exchange show that it has

Recent meetings of the
Board of Directors of the
Florida Citrus Exchange have -
been attended by more grow-
ers and directors of affilia-
tions. At the last meeting,
Dec. 19, nearly every chair in
the meeting room was filled.
Several of the visitors asked
and were given the privilege
of speaking.
The next meeting of the
Board will be Friday, Jan. 2.
A meeting of the Sub-Ex-
change managers will take
place during the morning of
the same day.

Trade Incensed At Price
Cutting Tactics Of The
Florida Shippers
The price cutting tactics of many
Florida citrus shippers has demor-
alized the markets so jobbers and
wholesalers are handling the fruit
without profit or at a loss, reports
J. K. Wynn, manager of the South-
ern Division of the Florida Citrus
The trade is incensed at the Flor-
ida shippers and if it were possible
to do so legally would take retali-
atory and protective measures,
Wynn said. The feeling is so high
that in several trade centers, the
trade has gotten together informally
for the discussion of means to curb
the' price cutters.
There appears no limit to the
price cuts that many shippers are
indulging in, said Wynn. Fruit
is being offered the trade by some
at $2 a box delivered. No jobber
or wholesaler can buy a car even
at the lowest price recorded and
feel safe that a Florida shipper will
not offer fruit still lower. Accord-
ing to Wynn virtually every jobber
and wholesaler has been caught in
the price cutting chaos and are in
a similar situation as the citrus
growers forced to carry on without
profit or at a loss. It would appear,
he asserted, that only the retailers
and the Florida shippers are making
any money on the Florida citrus
The trade looks to the Florida
Citrus Exchange as the only hope
for a change for the better, Wynn
stated. They hope that control of
the crop will be gained by the Ex-
change. It is almost the only Flor-
ida factor which is not price cutting
though forced to take a lower price
than it would prefer, he said. It
is almost the only Florida shipper
which has the respect of the trade,
he declared.

control of 50 percent if not more
of the crop, yet it is allowed by the
Clearing House only the equivalent
of 40 percent of the state volume.
The Clearing House shipments for
last season showed the Exchange
with 40 percent of the state crop.

Juice Campaign

Starts In Eight

Cities February 1

Plan To Prepare 8,000,000
Consumer Packages For
Season's Test

An advertising campaign, involv-
ing the expenditure of $145,000,
will break simultaneously in eight
key cities, February 1, starting the
1,000,000 gallon test of the Na-
tional Juice Corporation to deter-
mine reception of the American
public to frozen Florida orange
juice delivered direct to the homes.
Two weeks later, distribution of
the first of the product will be
started simultaneously in the eight
cities. The plan calls for the dis-
tribution of 8,000,000 individual
containers for the home delivery
which will utilize 500,000 gallons
of the juice; 250,000 gallons in half
gallon containers and an equal vol-
ume in larger for the other trade.
The plans of the company were
explained to the Board of Directors
of the Exchange by D. Collins
Gillette of Tampa, vice president
and general manager of the corpor-
ation. The juice corporation is the
subsidiary of the National Dairy
Product, Inc., of New York, a $200,-
000,000 concern.
SThe eight key cities are Memphis
and Birmingham in the South; St.
Louis, Detroit, Pittsburgh, Erie,
Pa., Rochester, N. Y. and Hartford,
Conn. They were selected as re-
presentative of the nation. Opera-
tions in each city will be carefully
studied and analysed and used as
the basis for the large future oper-
ations planned by the corporation.
The supply for the home will be
put up in special parafine-coated
paper packages which will be in four
sizes, four, eight, sixteen and thir-
ty-two ounces, each, equivalent,
respectively, to quarter pint, half
and full pints and quarts. The
larger quantities from a half a gal-
lon and up will be put up in special
metal containers.
Considerable extra equipment
will be installed in the Tampa Union
Terminal plant which the corpora-
tion has leased. Orders for all this
machinery have been placed and
much is on its way to Tampa, Mr.
Gillette said. This extra equipment
will call for an outlay of $75,000.
Explaining briefly the mechan-
ical handling of the fruit and juice,
Mr. Gillette said all the fruit will
be peeled by mechanical peelers
before it is juiced. The juice, im-
mediately upon its extraction, will
be handled in a vacuum until pack-
aged. Batteries of peelers will be
used, each battery containing 26

Expect Keenest Competition
For Citrus Awards At The
Florida Orange Festival
Competition for the grand sweep-
stakes and class prizes of-the Flor-
ida Orange Festival, Winter Haven,
Jan. 27-31 will be the keenest in
the history of the citrus exposition.
Many Exchange houses have enter-
ed and have prepared elaborate
plans while rumor reports that sev-
eral private operators are making
their greatest effort to win over the
Exchange which has carried off the
major prizes heretofore.
Of the 46 booths available in the
Exchange building at the entrance
of the festival grounds, 39 have
keen contracted for already. The
seven booths now open are expected
to b contracted any day.
Florence association, three time
winner of the grand- wseepstakes
again is working for the major com-
petition. Winter Haven, second to
Florence in most festivals, also is
bending every effort to take. first
rank. Others ho have arranged ex-
hibits are" Chase Sub-Exchange,
Eagle Lake, Avon Park, Sebring,
Auburndale, Lake Alffred, Polk
Sub-Exchange, Lakeland-Highlands,
and the following in a group ex-
hibit: Haines City, Lake Hamilton,
Dundee, Waverly, Lake Wales,
Highland Park Packing House, Inc.,
Frostproof and Ridge Citrus Can-
ners. H. D. Uhlmer, Inc., of Pinellas
county, packer and canner, affiliated
with the Exchange, also will have an
exhibit. The National Juice Cor-
poration hopes to have an exhibit if
it is possible to have frozen juice
ready in time.
machines. The plant, Mr. Gillette
said, will be operated 24 hours a
day with a daily output of 10,000
gallons for the first 100 days.
In connection with its plant oper-
ations in Tampa, the company will
install a research laboratory and
conduct extensive research ~wo~rk
under the direction of M. A. Joslyn
of the University of California who
has been given a leave of absence,
from the university. He is regarded
as the leading authority on frozen
orange juice and directed the Cali-
fornia frozen juice program since
its inception.
The research program will include
study of commercial uses' of the
pulp. The corporation plans to re-
cover all waste in profitable byy-
products if possible, Mr. Gillette

Frost In California
California citrus was threatened
for a second time following Christ-
mas when temperature fell to 24
degrees and lower in some spots.
Most of the danger area is under
heat and California expects little if
any loss of fruit.


January 1, 1931


Seald- Sweet


Published twice a montf in
the interest of cooperative
marketing and for the infor-
mation of the citrus growers
of Florida.

Publication Office:
606 Citrus Exchange Bldg.
Tampa, Florida
Postoffice Box 1108

Net Grower Circulation
over 12,000

Space Rates: $60.00 per page;
$35.00 half-page; $20.00 one-
quarter page; $2.00 per inch
all space under one-quarter
page. Minimum space: 1 inch.

Vol. VI JAN.

1, 1931 No. 15

Bulk Citrus
Sale of citrus in bulk came in
for the most drastic criticism the
practice ever has received during
the meeting of the West Coast Sub-
Exchanges and the Exchange Sub-
Exchange managers at Tampa, Dec.
19. The most outspoken critic was
M. H. Colony, manager of Manatee
association, though opinion was un-
animous that bulk sales are costly
to the growers in the long run.
In the opinion of Mr. Colony, the
sale of fruit in bulk not only under-
mines the price for packed fruit, but
has a destructive influence on the
efforts which have been put into
building regard for standards and
grades. He declared that bulk sales
largely undue all the good work
done in building .up trade and con-
sumer good will for brands.
General Manager Commander
;.;I and, General Sales Manager Davis
concurred in the opinion that bulk
sales are to be deplored and some-
thing done to curb the practice, but
pointed out that unless the Ex-
change wants to sacrifice volume in
the South or to hold back fruit in
the state without cooperation in the
same from the other operators it
is impossible this season to avoid
bulk sales.
The Exchange opposed the pro-
posal to allow bulk sales when the
question was brought up weeks ago,
but was forced to bow to the prac-
tically unanimous wish of the other
operators in the Clearing House.
.Once started, the bulk .business
grew to huge proportions and the
South, except for the larger and
more northern cities was flooded
with bulk fruit. Soon, the condi-
tion was such that only bulk could
be sold in most sections of the
South, while carloads of bulk
moved in other sections.

Few sections in the country are
not receiving bulk fruit now so
that in practically every market
packed fruit-comes in competition
with the hulk and the- prices on
packed fruit must be reduced to
sell it, the managers were informed.
The Exchange has placed what bulk
carlots it has in the charge of one
salesman with whom Sales Manager
Davis works closely so that conflict
with packed fruit of the Exchange
is avoided if possible.
It has been recommended to the
Exchange by some members, that
bulk fruit for truckers be pooled and
also placed in the hands of one
salesman so that a uniform price
cohld be maintained. This is being
given study by a special committee.
Part of such a program would be
the concentration of the bulk fruit
at one point to which all truckers
could gather. A somewhat similar
plan has been adopted by the Cal-
ifornia Fruit Growers Exchange
which has a bulk fruit sales division
at one point ni the state to which
all customers of that class assemble
and get their supplies. A noticeable
price stabilization has resulted

Sub-Exchange managers of the
Florida Citrus Exchange have re-
commended that pro-rating of ship-
ments among the Clearing House
members shall be placed in a spe-
cial "public" committee, no member
of which be connected with a ship-
ping agency.
The recommendation suggests a
membership of three selected from
bankers or other business men in
whom there would be general con-
fidence and no personal influences
which might cloud judgment on the
specific volume to be allotted each
SSuch a committee served the Cal-
ifornia cling peach interests in
handling the record crop of the past
season. Through it operation grow-
ers, shippers and canners, each, had
profitable returns though the crop
size made prospects dark.
The profits of private operators
depend entirely on the volume they
move in a big crop season such as
this. Regardless of the sincere in-
tentions they may have toward the
industry and growers, this condition
is considered to make it practically
impossible for operators to deter-
mine allotments without some per-
sonal interest creeping into their
judgment. The depression, coupled
with the size of thfe crop, makes it
imperative that extreme caution be
exercised in the volume allowed to
be shipped. Yet, curtailing ship-
ments means that the private oper-
ators must sacrifice some profits.
Conditions of the season force the
operators to depend entirely upon

packing and sales profit for their
total profits from citrus as specula-
tion on crops is negligible or at a
minimum this season.
A disinterested committee of bus-
iness men would not be swayed by
personal interests and could prorate
cn the basis of the greatest benefit
to the growers and.the industry as
a while, it is believed.

Decay of packed citrus is reaching
alarming proportions and it is prob-
able that the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture will be re-
quested to send federal specialists
to Florida to make a study of the
fruit and its handling.
Much blame has been placed
upon coloring of fruit, but it is the
belief of General Manager Com-
mander and others that careless-
ness in handling from the grove
and through the packing houses is
the main cause. Mr. Commander
pointed out recently that California
found that handling was the cause
and by more careful handling prac-
tically has eliminated decay.
Florida citrus even more than the
California requires careful hand-
ling, he said. The skin is thinner
and more tender. The climate is
moister and more favorable to pro-
moting decay.
It is believed that the use of
Brogdex and other preservatives and
precooling has tended to make man-

agers careless. It is reported that
a large percentage of fruit is care-
lessly picked and carelessly handled
after picking. Stems.are cut long
and fruit is clipper'cat. Instead
of being placed in the picking bag
carefully it is dropped into, the bag
by the pickers in many instances.
Also, it is said, the fruit is dumped
into the field boxes nsitead of eb-
ng perniitted to- slide gently- into
the boxes.

Radio Interest
That the north is keenly
interested in Florida citrus is shown
by the exceptional reception which
has been given the radio programs
of the Lyons Fertilizer Company
over WFLA, Clearwater, each Wed-
nesday. Hundreds of letters are
received by thie company_, and the
station after each program.
Canadians are numerous among
the listeners, these letters show.
Every northern state, up to the
Far West, is represented in the
communications received.
A prize of a box of "Seald-Sweet"
fruit is given to the listener writing
in from the fartherest distance.
Canadians, todate, have captured
most of the prizes.
Included in the program are .in
teresting, short talks on Florida
citrus. They are of such nature
that the industry should derive con-
siderable value in trade stimulation.



January 1, 1931

Jaur ,13 EL-WE HOIL

Clzrmont Association
Signs NewMembers On
Three Year Basis Only
Clermont association now will
accept new members only on a
special contract to stay in the asso-
ciation three consecutive years.
There is a growing tendency of this
nature among Exchange associa-
tions, seeking protective measures
in handling growers who will only
join the Exchange in poor seasons
when they are unable to sell their
fruit on the trees.
Indian River Sub-Exchange has a
similar policy in mind and may re-
quest the Exchange to endorse it
and recommend it to associations.
Indian River associations this season
have practically all the membership
they can adequately take care of
with the present facilities. Several
of the associations are unable to
accept any more members and
thousands of boxes of fruit have
been turned down.
There is a considerable percent-
age of growers who prefer to sell
on the trees. If they cannot sell
their fruit, most of them prefer the
Exchange to any other agency and
usually seek membership after all
hope of selling on the trees is gone.
This class of growers is not cooper-
ative minded and such growers us-
ually withdraw at the end of the
season. Hundreds of this class
have .been seeking membership in
the Exchange in recent weeks and
many others will seek to join dur-
ing the next few weeks.
It is not considered fair to the
regular members who believe firmly
in cooperation to take in this un-
stable, rather desperate type of
grower. The regular members take
the poor seasons with the bad with
little complaint, constantly striving
to build up an organization which
can control and minimize the effects
of the poor season.
On the other hand, the growers
w-ho-come to the Exchange for only-
temporary help usually are its most
outspoken critics. They overlook
the fact that speculators will not
-buy their fruit at practically any
price and that they, themselves,
distrust the handling of their fruit
by'other operators. They do not
consider that the poor prospects of
the season forced them into the
Exchange in the first place. In
spite of conditions and their failure
elsewhere, they blame the Ex-
dhange. Least of all do they make
'an effort to learn how little other
growers received from private
: There has been an increasing de-
mand in the past that the Exchange
houses close their doors to addi-
tonal members after a certain date
such as September 15 or October 1.
This has been adopted by some
associations. It is becoming more
apparent that this transient mem-

Exchange Advertising
Program To Reach Many
Millions Of Housewives
Magazines- with a national
circulation in excess of 10,000,000
and huge posters in the principal
cities viewed by millions daily will
carry the appeal of Exchange
brands and stimulate the sale of
the fruit of Exchange growers.
The Exchange will have six, four
color pages in American Weekly
which has a circulation of more
than 5,000,000. It will have five
pages in four colors in Colliers with
a circulation of 2,257,290 and also
in Liberty, .whose circulation is
nearly 2,500,000. These advertise-
ments appear during January, Feb-
ruary, March and April. In addi-
tion the Exchange will have the
inside front cover in colors of
Physical Culture one month and the
inside back covers of two issues.
In 13 of the principal markets
from New York on the east to
Grand Rapids, Mich., on the west,
huge 24 sheet posters are attract-
ing attention to Exchange fruit 24
hours a day. More than 1,100 of
these are included in the contracts
of the Exchange which started this
form of advertising Nov. 24 and will
continue it to the middle of March.
These are placed in key spots in
the 13 cities and run in number
in each from 190 in New York and
160 in Chicago to 24 in Grand
Rapids. The other cities included
in these contracts are Washington,
Baltimore, Boston, Detroit, Newark,
Brooklyn, Cincinnati, Cleveland,
Dayton, and Philadelphia.
In addition to these big posters,
the Exchange is using on the plat-
forms of the subways and elevated
railways in New York, one and two
sheet posters placed to catch the
eye of the hustling New Yorker
boarding or leaving the cars. There
are hundreds of these smaller
posters. In Chicago, on the ele-
vated platforms the Exchange has
a fine showing of three sheet
A two month's special, campaign
to meet the Texas competition is
underway in Iowa and Illinois which
'includes 12 market-centers. The
big 24 sheet posters are used in this
special program.
Spot, local newspaper campaigns
will be available to the markets as
the need arises. No regular news-
paper schedules have been prepared
as their use will depend entirely
upon the call of the division man-
agers and will be used in close
coordination with the movement of
fruit and dealer service work in
the individual market as the urg-
ency arises.

bership is of little help to the Ex-
change and is a big burden. At
least it is unappreciative of the
Exchange's help.

Citrus Laboratory For
Florida Authorized By
The Federal Government
The federal government will
establish a citrus by-products labor-
atory in Florida after July 1. An
appropriation of $10,000 for its be-
ginning was authorized recently.
The laboratory has been sought
for several years to assist in the
development of the by-products in-
dustry of Florda. A similar labor-
atory in California has been of. in-
valuable assistance to the Pacific
Coast citrus industry.
A survey of Florida was made last
season by two of the government
specialists. They made a very
comprehensive report on the need
for the laboratory in this state.
The laboratory will be invaluable
in working out reactions of Florida
citrus to various processes which
will aid the canners materially. It
also should help immeasurable to
bring standardization and uniform-
ity of quality.

Association Houses
Avon Park Citrus Growers Assn.
Clearwater Growers' Assn.
DeLand Packing Assn.
Eagle Lake Fruit Growers Assn.
Elfers Citrus Growers Assn.
Ft. Pierce Growers Assn.
Highland Park Packing House, Inc.
International Fruit Corp.
Fullers Crossing
Fort Pierce
Lucerne Park
Lake Alfred Citrus Growers Assn
Lake Garfield Citrus Growers Assn.
Lakeland Citrus Growers Assn.
'Lake Hamilton Citrus Growers Assn.
Lake Placid Citrus Growers Assn.
Leesburg Citrus Growers Assn.
Manatee Citrus Growers Assn.
Mims Citrus Growers Assn.
Nocatee Citrus Growers Assn.
Ocala Fruit Packing Co., Inc.
Orlando Citrus Growers Assn.
L. B. Skinner
Umatilla Citrus Growers Assn
Waverly Citrus Growers Assn.
Winter Garden Citrus Growers Assn.
Ask the man who uses Brogdex and
you will get the low down on what
it will do for you.
Florida Brogdex Distributors, Inc.
Dunedin, Florida

Why Brogdex-

Controls Decay
Retards Shrinkage
Cuts Refrigeration Costs
In Consumer Demand

Brogdex houses report very satisfactory results from
Brogdex. Most houses have had no decay at all. A few
cases of decay have been reported the reason for which
was generally found in the coloring room. This has been
corrected since when control has been almost 100%.
Despite heavier shipments less Brogdexed fruit is going
into the auctions than last year. The big bulk is being
sold F.O.B. That is a very desirable situation and indi-
cates a decided market preference as well as a pretty
thorough knowledge of the way the buyer expects
Brogdexed fruit to open up upon arrival.
More Brogdexed fruit than ever before is being shipped
without ice both;by rail and by boat. With low mar-
ket levels this saving means a lot to the grower.
The value of citrus fruit in the well balanced family
diet is now being broadcast over the radio every week
to the northern buyer and consumer. We are urging
the purchase of Brogdexed fruit because of its keeping
qualities. This information we hope will increase the
per capital consumption as well as to stimulate the sale
of Brogdexed fruit.
Brogdex can be installed in your plant with little if any
interruption to normal packing operations. Already 26
Exchange houses are using it it their complete satisfac-
Time in Monday nights at 10:30 -Station WFLA



January 1, 1931



H. Harold Hume, Bayard F.
Floyd and Charles D. Kime will be
the judges of citrus at the Florida
Orange Festival, Winter Haven,
Jan. 27-31. Mr. Hume will be chair-
man of the judging committee.
Judging will begin Wednesday
morning, the second day of the
festival. Awards will be announced
Thursday morning.
Classes and prizes for the citrus
exhibit permit a wide range of com-
petition. They include some changes
over last year which allow com-
munities to enter in competitive ex-
In the division of packing house
exhibits into three classes, accord-
ing to average volume over three
years, small volume houses have
equal chance for a first prize with
the largest. Class A includes
houses which have had an annual
volume of 200,000 boxes or more
for three years; Class B, 100,000
to 200,000 boxes; Class C, less than
100,000 boxes. The prizes in each
class are $150, $75 and $50. The
three first prize winners will com-
pete for the grand sweepstakes with
the cup donated by the Commis-
sioner of Agriculture.
Prizes of $150, $75 and $50 also
will be awarded for commercial cit-
rus exhibits by shippers or sub-ex-
changes. These are not eligible for
competition in the packing house
Prizes of $75, $50 and $25 will
be awarded for community citrus
exhibits and prizes of $50, $30 and
$20 for the best commercial or in-
dustrial by-products exhibit.
Junior classes also have been pro-
vided with prizes for boys and girls
for citrus and by-products exhibits.
Prizes will be awarded boys for the
best exhibits of selected citrus or
citrus diseases and insects.
An interesting event will be the
packing contest divided into two
classes, one for women and one for
men. Prizes will be $25, $15 and
$10 in each, with a silver cup for
the packing house of each of the
first prize winners.
All exhibits are eligible for the
decoration prizes, of which there
are three, $50, $30 and $20. Com-
mercial exhibits also will compete
for prizes on educational value with
awards of $50, 30 and $20. Rib-
bons will be given all prize winners;
blue for first,-red for second, and
white for third.

Early and late grapefruit and or-
anges. Very thrifty in two sizes
%" to 1", 1" to 1%". Be safe.
Contract now for Winter planting.

Above is a view of the Exchange display in the Pennsylvania Terminal before one,
of the New York auction sales. Here the shipMients can be seen grouped by cars
with representative boxes open for inspection. All around are the offerings of
other Florida shippers. Buyers look over the displays noting down desired lots
on the sales catalog.

West Coast Sub-Exchanges, from
Lee to Hillsborough, with many of
their association managers in at-
tendance met with General Man-
ager Commander and General Sales
Manager Davis at Tampa, Dec. 18.
Full advantage was taken to discuss
local and industrial problems and
ideas and both Mr. Commander and
the managers expressed their appre-
ciation of the opportunity to get
together and exchange opinions.
Similar meetings have been held
in the other Sub-Exchanges, individ-
ually. The group meeting of the
West Coast was held to enable Mr.
Commander and Mr. Davis to meet
with these sub-exchanges before
Jan. 1. It wwas decided to continue
the group meetings of the West
Coast Sub-Exchanges in Tampa in-
stead of having individual meetings.
Discussion went fully into the
decay question, allotments, bulk
sales, organization and other mat-
ters of-interest to the industry and
the Exchange. Much information
was exchanged and a clearer view
gained by all. It also gave Mr.
Commander the opportunity to 'get
the individual opinions of the man-
agers on various propositions while
enabling him also to give them his

.Waverly association has selected
the name "The Orange Box" sub-
mitted among nearly 200 suggested
for the new citrus booth biult by
the association in Lake Wales. A
price of $10 went to the originator
of the name.

Emergency transportation rates
on Florida citrus with the sug-

gestion that the rates be cut 50
percent will be asked of the Flor-
ida railroads. The matter is being
handled by the Florida Growers and
Shippers League which is seeking
to arrange a conference of the ex-
ecutives of railroads operating in
Florida during January.
SEmergency rates were granted
by railroads to aid the grain grow-
ers. It is reported that it mater-
ially aided the producers to survive
the drastically depressed market.

Florida grapefruit contains prac-
tically as much sugar as the Texas
grapefruit, according to analyses
which have been made for the Flor-
ida Citrus Exchange. The analyses
were made in Chicago December 6.
Two tests were made of Florida
grapefruit and showed sugar con-
tents of 8.62 and 8.81 percent. Two
tests of Texas grapefruit gave re-
sults as follows: 8.95 and 8.73 per-
From this it is apparent that if
there is any difference in sugar
content in favor of the Texas fruit
it is so slight as to be negligable.

Brooksville association has fol-
lowed the policy of the Florida
Citrus Exchange in encouraging
members to attend meetings of the
Board of Directors. The Brooks-
ville board recently passed a reso-
lution extending a permanent
invitation to the grower members
to attend the board's meetings
which occur twice a month on the
second and fourth Mondays. Mem-
bers will be encouraged to express
their views and take an active in-
terest in the formation of policies.

Practically all Exchange
houses, were closed through
the holidays, giving the mar-
kets a chance to clean up ex-
cess of supplies moved for
the holiday trade. This has
become a regular custom in
the Exchange organization
and efforts the opportunity
for many of the managers to
make short visits to certain
markets to check up on trade
reception to their brands,
grades and pack and learn if
any improvements can be
made to conform more ot the
trade's preferences.

Dade County citrus growers have
organized a patrol to protect against
Fruit thefts. 'The Growers Pro-
tective League has taken the in-
itiative with the county commis-
sioners and the sheriff cooperating
The league has employed a spe-
cial officer and the county commis-
sioners have employed anothre also,
while the sheriff has assigned a
deputy to the patrol. Full coopera-
tion has been pledged by the Court
of Crimes and the county solicitor.
Funds are provided by dues of $1
yearly. It is hoped to sign up 400
members in the league. Growers
associations and packing houses
will contribute on the basis of vol-
The section has had a trouble-
some time with thieves. Besides
fruit, implements, fertilizer and
vegetables have been stolen.

Proposed reimbursement of the
Florida citrus growers for Medfly
losses has been placed before both
the House and the Senate but will
have to take its chances for con-
sideration. It has not been put on
the House calendar to come up in
its turn, but is subject to the con-
sideration of that body at the whim
of the members.
Congressmen Herbert J. Drane
and Mrs. Ruth Bryan Owens are
pushing the House measure. Sen-
ator Park Trammell has introduced
the Senate measure.
In the meantime Lee A. Strong,
chief of the Quarantine-and Con-
trol Administration, like his pre-
decessor, Dr. Marlatt, is minimizing
the amount of the damage the
growers suffered. The total of fruit
destroyed is reported at 600,000

Our pure strain rough lemon and
sour orange seed have .proven their
superior merits. Freedom from hy-
brids means greater uniformity.
Seedlings now ready or contracted
for Summer delivery.
Seed and Root specialists,





January 1, 1931


Purpose of This Report Bureau, the value of the whole cit- ticular season justifiable. True, the
The purpose of this report to rus crop at the state line has re- depression in some measure is
the Board of Directors of the Flor- mained practically stationary, re- affecting sales prices. Nevertheless,
ida Citrus Exchange is to place be- gardless of the size of the crop. California in spite of these condi-
fore that body (1) an outline of In fact, more actual money has come tions, has maintained a sales level
present conditions in the Florida into the state from several small throughout the season which re-
citrus industry, (2) an analysis of crops during this period than from turns a profit to its growers, even
the reasons or causes of those con- some larger ones. after those growers pay a much
editions, (3) the determination of Taking an average of the past ten higher production cost than main-
the position of the Florida Citrus years, the state values-including tains in Florida.
Exchange in this situation and the cost of picking, hauling, packing, Another reason advanced to this
determination of the extent of re- selling and freight to the state line committee during its investigation
sponsibility which the controlling -average about $4 per box on a 10 in an attempt to account for the
board of the Exchange has in the to 12 million box crop, $3 on an present depressed sales prices was
correction of such conditions, (4) 18 million box crop, and $2 per box the fact that too much green or im-
recommendations to the Board for on a 2 to 25 million box crop. mature fruit had been shipped early
action to be taken by it in the cor- In other words, the producer of in the season. Grant the fact that
reaction of this situation, fruit does not in any measure re- this is an attributing cause, never-
An attempt has been made in this ceive added revenue from added theless with the same regulations
report to avoid length, but sufficient volume. Instead since picking, the preceding season, price levels
detail is cited to clearly emphasize packing and sales costs increase pro- were untouched and the trade nd
every attributive factor to the above portionately with the volume and consumers r al e Fbought ad pa
mentioned objectives which, in the the sales prices decrease, net grow- good prices for the Florida citrus
opinion of this committee, deserves er returns are practically in inverse offered to hem after maturity. The
consideration by the Board. ratio to the size of the crop. This ruling factor to the resent diffi-
Existing Conditions is in spite of the fact that per box culties of merchandising Florida cit-
The Florida citrus industry is, packing and sales costs are de- rus, but they must never be con-
and for some time has been, in an creased by the larger volume han- sidered as a basic cause contributing
exceedingly dangerous position, died. to the critical situation of the in-
Three successive large crop years This condition is intolerable. dustry as described at the opening
-23-24, 28-29 and 30-31-each in The over-used argument that the of this report.
turn has found the industry so law of supply and demand is directly
poorly organized that it was un- responsible for this situation is a Basic Cause is Lack of Centralized
able to pack and sell the crop at a subterfuge advanced to cloud the Control
profit to its producers. The mere issue. True, an increased crop has The underlying cause for the lack
fact that the intervening years pro- a definite bearing on grower re- of stability and the constantly re-
duced a profit does not modify or turns, but with sufficient facilities curring profitless years may be sum-
change in any way the critical situa- to increase that demand in some med up by the one statement: lack
tion in the industry. No industry semblance of proportion to the in- of control. All other reasons are
as large or as important as this can creased crop, backed up by mer- attributive or are out-growths of
survive unless its basic handling chandising facilities which can con- this one basic fundamental cause of
methods are sound and are able to trol'the supply of that increased de- the situation described.
withstand the stress of adverse or mand, would make possible grower The concentration of crop con-
difficult marketing situations. This participation in the true value of trol in one marketing agency would.
is particularly true of the Florida the increased tonnage. make possible the operation of basic
citrus industry, as these large crop Such trite references to the law merchandising fundamentals in the
years are becoming more frequent of supply and demand infer over- packing and sale of every crop at a
and the crop is constantly increas- production and 'are inexcusable, profit to the producer. Experience
ing in average because of new plant- This committee believes that there indicates that the minimum per-
ings coming into bearing each suc- is no immediate possibility of over- centage of concentration by which
-cessive season. production in Florida citrus, given such control can be exercised is 75
For the last six years, according satisfactory control within the in- percent of the crop, regardless of
to reports 'of the State Marketing dustry so that the merchandising of its size.
the crap can be intelligently con- Such a situation of control has
[ summated. never existed even for one season in
Talk of over-production is ridic- the Florida citrus industry. It has
ulous. The largest crop of citrus existed over a period of years in the
fruit ever produced in the United industry nearest comparable with
States was during the season of our own-the California citrus in-
WE INVITE 1928-29. California and Florida to- dustry. The value of that control is
Wyou to wrie gether produced 62,351,065 boxes, readily demonstrated by a consid-
you to write or about one-half of a box per per- eration and comparison of the de-
to our Research Depart- son per year, if all of this fruit had gree of interest manifested and sup-
been consumed in the United States. port maintained for the individual
ment for help in meeting Considering the variety of uses for grower and his property by banking
any problem of pest con- oranges, grapefruit and lemons, and interests in California and Florida.
trol. o Our twenty-five translating this volume into terms of In Florida even large, well-financed
juice, the actual per capital con- organizations such as our own Grow-
years of experience are sumption of this, our largest crop, ers Loan and Guaranty Company,
always at your service, was a small percentage of what have difficulty securing ready credit
health authorities agree should and with which to finance the individual
CALIFORNIA SPRAY-CHEMICAL CO. can be consumed, grower.. Contrast this situation with
61 Wst Jefferson Street Orlando, Florida Nor is the common cry that the Mr. Teague's statement that the
1930 economic depression is respon- California Fruit Growers Exchange
sible for the low prices of this par- operates no financial company, that

the individual grower has no trouble
making adequate financial arrange-
ments to care for the seasonal opera-
tion of his properties from his local
With rare exceptions, there is no
bank in the state of Florida which
makes a general policy of grower
crop loans. And, considering the
(Continued on Page 8)



Fruit Auctioneers
Fruit Auction Terminal
Rutherford Avenue
Charleston District
Cutler B. Dwnr Fred'k L Sprivgord
Harold F. Miles

It paj s

big diAidends


"Black Leaf 40" is the
"Old Reliable" recognized
control forAphis and Thrips.

"Black Leaf 40" kills not only
by direct contact (hitting) but
in extra measure by.the nico-
tine fumes. This "extra measure"
of protection you cannot obtain
from the non-violative
Ask your Experiment Station.

Dealers Sell
in several package sizes


January 1, 1931


(Continued from Page 7)-
constant instability and shaky con-
dition in the industry, as has been
evidenced during the past ten years,
this committee can find no reason
for censure of that banking policy.
Operator Profits
The Florida grower is and always
has been furnishing his own compe-
tition-and it is destructive, cut
throat competition. It is the Flor-
ida grower who permits with his
fruit the existence and operation of
numerous private operators, who in
most instances are too small to have
any cognizance of market conditions
or who in no way can contribute to
the organized distribution, sale and
advertising of Florida's citrus crop.
Quite on the contrary, most of these
operators live on the profit derived
by them by the packing and so-
called selling of the fruit of which
they have obtained control, with
little or no regard for the grower's
equity in the fruit. Their profit is
usually the same whether the sales
price is high or low. During a sea-
son such as the present, it is cus-
tonary to base it on the flat packing
and selling charge. During other
seasons, when fruit can profitably
be purchased and'is for the" smart
and wellfinanced operator a good
speculation, such an operator makes
in addition:-a considerable propor-
tion of the high fruit 'return, which
normally "should go-to the .grower.
During any season the desire of
this type of distributor is to in-
sure his profit, make his turn-over
anid get his capital returned .by ac-
complishing a sale at a fair price
if possible, but at any price regard-
less of conditions. This practice in-
variably results 'in indiscriminate
price-cutting, as is evidenced by
numerous reports of our sales rep-
resentatives season after season.
The failure of the Exchange to
Control or maintain prices has been
Mentioned as a criticism by many.
-The -ninform'ed oi superficially-
thinking person might. this season
think that he had just cause for this
However, this fact cannot be dis-
regarded. The Florida Citrus Ex-'
change has never claimed to be able
to stiibstantially influence the inar-
ket with only 50 percent of the'
fruit in the Exchange. The men on
the outside with a substantial vol-
ume to offer can very nearly set the:
price in a buyer's market, such as;
this season has been, 'if he starts'
price cutting. One car under-quoted
in a dozen markets-often without-
a buyer in any-can affect adverse-'
ly the sale of many cars in .those!
same markets. -
This distributive and sales condi-
tion will 'maintain as long. as 'Flor-
,ida growers continue to mnke it pos-
sible :for shippers who- ard at all
ittmes interested primarily in their
.wn. packing, selling or speculative
profit to cut prices uader those

maintained by the growers' coopera-
tive, whose purpose is to maintain
prices commensurate with he full
value of the fruit and to return to
growers a fair margin of profit.
Mr. Teague, in his informal dis-
cussion of the situation before this
Board of Directors on November
18th, aptly summarized this situa-
tion, "You gentlemen have a good
organization. It is soundly organ-
ized. It has advantages over our
own organization in California, after
which yours was patterned. Yet,
without control, you are merely an-
other merchandising or sales organ-
ization in the state. It is control
which you lack and which we on
the Farm Board hoped to help you
obtain, that is essential to the future
stabilization of your industry and
the consistent sharing of profits in
that industry by its producers."
Organization Capable
There can be no question as to
the soundness of the cooperative
operating plan, which is the Florid'a
Citrus Exchange. It is modeled
after the most successful coopera-
tive organizations in the world. It
goes further than these, however, in
that it has improved in several in-
stances upon certain factors of or-.
ganization which experience in their
operation has indicated as being
An analysis of the packing facil-
ities affiliated with the Exchange in-
dicates that we have under coopera-
tive control adequate service in all
strategic points throughout the
state's citrus belt. In such few in-
stances in the lesser important sec-
tions where no Exchange associa-
tion is operating, our organization
department has contracts which
would permit the immediate instal-
lation and operation of a. coopera-
tive association in a packing house.
already in existence which could be
acquired for cooperative use.'-
The sales organization of the'
Florida Citrus Exchange has been
the subject of a considerable an-
alysis on the part of our general
manager. Various changes and
additions have been made in the
Florida end of the organization. The
personnel is ample, experienced and
capable. With the possible addition
of clerical help, it is prepared to
handle the volume necessary for.
Our sales organization in the
North is just as well organized and
capable of expansion. The Florida
Citrus Exchange has competent
salaried representatives in all im-
portant car lot markets. Several
o these men--whose bread and but-
ter depends upon the satisfactory
performance of their duties-are
responsible, not for ane market or
one individual territory, but as di-
vision managers for many districts
of car lot markets. It is also imn-

portant in this connection to ob-
serve that the Florida Citrus Ex-
change, because of its present com-
paratively large individual volume,
has the choice of the most desirable
brokers throughout the country, as
every broker logically desires the
account with greatest volume.
An appreciation of the scope and
value of our sales organization may
readily be realized by the fact that
it is sought by large deciduous ac-
counts during the Florida off season
for the sale and distribution of their
product. This is not only com-
mendation of our sales organization,
but is in itself an added asset in
that it keeps our men busy and in
contact with the trade 12 months of
the year.
Exchange Facilities
The Florida Citrus Exchange has-
built up and maintained facilities
for advertising which are adequate,
with the addition of subordinate and
clerical help, to handle many times
the volume of funds now appropri-
ated for the exploitation of its
brands. The dealer contact or serv-
ice organization operated by this
department is already subject to
seasonal expansion and could readily
be developed to accomplish satis-
facto'rily its designated task in the
general merchandising plan of a
controlling volume.

;Orgaiization Committee Report



The Florida

Orange Festival



January 27-28-29-30-31, 1931

will again offer a wonderful exhibition of Or-
anges and Grapefruit and the man: allied in-
dustries ... a beautiful display of color,. lights
and golden fruit, arranged with full expression
to the various educational and commercial fea-

Here, annually, fruit growers, packers and ship-
pers; merchants, manufacturers, federal, state,
municipal and civic interests combine in arrang-
ing a gorgeous spectacle and a mammoth cele-




4! '




-4. *
* 4.


No'rdoes the 'committee overlook
in this connection the fact that the
present careful maintenance of
grading standards, fair sales con-
tracts and brand advertising have
obtained for Florida Citrus Ex-
change brands a considerable and
enviable good will among the trade
and.consumers throughout the coun-
try. This good will factor is an
added value in making practical the
handling of a control-volume by the
Florida Citrus Exchange.
In addition to these well organ-
ized facilities, the Florida Citrus
Exchange has a financial subsidiary
which is among the leaders, of its
type of organization in the country.
It commands the good will and re-
spect of credit contacts everywhere.
Its operation since its organization
has been conducted in a consistent,
safe manner for the benefit of Ex-
change grower members.
We find throughout the organiza-
tion a steady growth and improve-
ment. Changes hase been made
during th past five years which
have put the organization in a posi-
tion where it has shown results in
comparison with competing organ-
izations. We find that constant
planning for continued improve-
ment is being made also.
Finally, this committee wishes to
emphasize the fact that the Florida
Citrus Exchange as an organization
(Continued on Page 9)



January 1,. 1931


Organization Committee Report

(Continued from Page 8)
and in its relation to the industry,
has been investigated by competent
authorities at the instigation of the
Federal Farm Board. Such detailed,
critical examination resulted in the
definite recognition of the Florida
Citrus Exchange by the Federal
Government, through its agents the
Federal Farm Board, which ap-
proved large loans to the Florida
Citrus Exchange. These loans were
made with the statement that the
Florida Citrus change is the only
logical and existing medium into
which the necessary control of the
industry could be built, with due re-
gard for the interests of the pro-
To summarize, this committee has
yet to find one factor advanced as
a cause of the conditions existing
in the industry which could not be
corrected by the vestment of a min-
imum of 75 percent control in the
Florida Citrus Exchange. Given
that control, the Florida Citrus Ex-
change could operate satisfactorily
the basic merchandising funda-
mentals necessary for the sale of
each succeeding crop at a profit to
the producer.
It could regulate shipments, both
geographically and periodically, in
accordance with definitely recog'-
nizable demand. It could standard-
ize grades and packs. It could put
into operation and maintain proper
methods of price quotations. It
could control prices and maintain
them at a level consistent with the
market value of the fruit. With its
solidified grower support, it could
obtain enactment and enforcement
of proper green fruit legislation.
All of these factors, however,
obviously depend upon the concen-
tration of a minimum of 75 percent
control of the fruit volume year
after year in the organization. The
Accomplishments attributed by this
S-committee to control are not fan-
Stasrical-re-o-ry'T, ei6f'cacy of that
control is adequately illustrated in
the California lemon situation
described by Mr. Teague, which is
common knowledge since his visit.
Further evidence of the practical
nature of this emphasis on control
is available from an analysis of the
'returns made by the California Cit-
rus Growers Exchange to its grow-
California admits that it costs
them more to produce citrus than
it does Florida. Yet, by adequate
control, their growers are paid a
price consistently which nets a profit
to th egrower over cost of produc-
tion. Florida uses the same methods
of merchandising, but without the
same percentage of control. It re-
peatedly pays the penalty. The Cali-
fornia Fruit Growers Exchange paid
its members $105,000,000 last sea-

son. It gives the credit to coopera-
tive control.
Since 75 percent cooperative con-
trol is the underlying factor neces-
sary to create a stabilized and con-
sistently profitable industry, this
committee feels that it is the
responsibility of this Board to de-
velop and operate plans and meth-
ods which will make possible that
control. This is a growers' organ-
ization. The responsibility for the
successful operation of it is vested
in this Board of Directors-repre-
sentatives of the growers. The
responsibility for securing adequate
control is a grower responsibility,
as, without that control, the per-
sonnel employed by this Board in
the sale of your and your growers'
fruit cannot successfully carry out
their plans for organization im-
Recognizing that responsibility,
this committee wishes to recommend
to the Board for definite action the
following plan:
1. An intensive organization
campaign to be initiated early this
coming spring. The objective of
this campaign would be' to obtain
increased- individual grower mem-
bership and to prevent as far as
possible, withdrawals during the
period when such are permitted.
This committee realizes that
many growers can not be reached
by a campaign of this kind because
of financial obligations made in var-
ious ways on their properties or on
their crops, binding them to in-
dependent operators. We believe,
however, that-every grower insofar
as is possible should be reached per-
sonally and, wherever arrangements
can be made, should be influenced
to transfer those obligations to the
Florida Citrus Exchange.
The physical accomplishments of
such a task is not easy. It is a
matter primarily for grower work.
We recommend that committees-
committees which will function-
be formed in each association to
perform the actual personal sales
contact necessary with each indi-
vidual grower. The work of these
committees should be coordinated
and directed by a committee from
the Board of Directors.
Supplementing the work of these
committees, we believe that suffi-
cient men from the dealer service
organization and from the Tampa
office can be placed in the field to
coordinate the efforts of the' indi-
vidual growers serving on these
2. Any campaign involving the
action of thousands of individual
growers necessitates the moulding
of the mass opinion of that group
of growers. Three agencies are ne-
cessary to mould favorably that
(Continued on Page 10)

Rendering One and All

A Sincere Auction Service

Pennsylvania Terminal

Auction Company


Use the "PENNSY to PHILLY"

Route Your Perishable Traffic








Youngstown .


Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Baltimore, Maryland



January 1, 1931



(Continued from Page 9)
opinion: the press, the bankers and
the business men.
It was these factors of public
influence which were vital in the
final construction of control in the
California industry. They can and
should be made just as important
in our own problem.
This committee recommends,
therefore, that the Board of Di-
rectors take steps to formulate a
plan which will obtain the active
cooperation and endorsement of the
state press, the State Bankers Asso-
ciation and business in the state
as represented by the State Cham-
ber of Commerce, the stronger
luncheon clubs and individual busi-
ness leaders. Such a plan, in pur
opinion, should go beyond a mere
series of addresses made by em-
ployees of this organization to the
various groups soliciting their sup-
port. This continues to be a
growers' problem and it is growers
themselves who should carry the
message to these people sufficiently
strong to stimulate them into action.
3. No plan of grower solicitation
alone can be successful in gaining
the necessary control for the Florida
Citrus Exchange. Recognizing this
fact, this committee further re-
commends that the Board take de-
finite and immediate steps to bring
independent operators into the
Florida Citrus Exchange.
We recognize in making this
recommendation that these men are
in an honest, legitimate business,
but that their continued operations,
while profitable to themselves, de
prive the producers of stability in
their citrus investments and con-
sistent profits.
Any merger plan contemplating
the affiliation of these outside ship-
pers with the Florida Citrus Ex-
change must, therefore, be accom-
pulished in a manner which will
protect their investments in pack-
ing house facilities. It is the com-
mittee's thought in this respect to
provide for their continued opera-
tion as special shippers, if satis-
factory contracts extending over a
period of years compelling their
cooperation could be obtained. In
this manner, the Exchange would
be obligated little or none financi-
ally in securing their tonnage.
Should these shippers not desire
to continue their business as ship-
pers, subordinating themselves and
their marketing to the Exchange
sales and distribution requirements,
then his assets should be taken over
by the Exchange on a plan which
would fully protect both parties. In
any consideration of such action
by the Exchange, there should be in-
cluded in the contractual relation a
very definite assurance that the
shipper thus bought out would not
immediately set up or cause to be
set up another operating agency
with the funds derived from the sale

Organization Committee Report

to the Exchange of his present more
or less obsolete equipment and
buildings. This committee recom-
mends in these cases that a market-
ing contract be signed at least for
five years that would tie an actual
grove controlled or operated by
these shippers, evne though the
ownership of these groves might
It is impossible in this report to
cover, or even consider, the variety
of detail which this recommendation
with respect to the merger of indi-
vidual operators with the Exchange
involves. There are no details,
however, in this connection which
cannot and should not be worked
out by this Board.
Undoubtedly it would be ne-
cessary to arrange satisfactory
terms of settlement and issue bonds
or debentures against such prop-
erties, either in payment of them
or for public sale, the proceeds of
which to be used in the settlement
of that purchase. This committee
believes that such a plan worked
out in complete detail would meet
the approval of business interests
and growers alike, and that this
definite plan would be a large
factor ni securing the approval and
cooperation of the state press, the
bankers and business interests. We
are also assured of the cooperation
of the Federal Government through
the Department of Agriculture and
the Federal Farm Board.
Such definite plans should obtain
for the Exchange the active help
and cooperation of all state officials.
There is every reason why we might
expect cooperation from prominent
banking leaders throughout the
state. The sound economics of such
a plan should appeal to all Florida
business leaders.
In our opinion, such a plan should
be carefully worked out and com-
pleted in detail by this Board and
adopted for immediate action.
4. We recommend further that
the committee on cooperative can-
ning continue and intensify its
consideration to the canning and by-
products industry as a whole.
Marketing experts agree that the
canning or freezing of citrus fruits
and juices will be come as important
a factor in our industry as the same
operation has already become in
the pineapple industry, where well
over 60 percent of the total crop
is canned and sold in a stable mar-
ket as a staple commodity.
This committee believes that
definite action should be taken by
this Board, possibly through the
above mentioned committee, to
obtain definitely some control of
the preserving operations so that
the producers of the raw product
can be guaranteed consistent, year
after year profits. It is important
that these developments which are

bound to come and which will
unavoidably be a tremendous factor
in the financial welfare off the pro-
ducers, be held under control whih
will assure their operation in a
satisfactory manner to the pro-
In concluding this report and in
making these recommendations, this
committee respectfully submits that
now is the time for sane thinking
and for sound action.. Naturally,
many growers are dissatisfied.
Many, uniformed, under the press
of circumstances will too quickly
jump to conclusions.

January 1, 1931

which should be met fully and im-
The completion and operation of
the organization plan recommended
by this committee undoubtedly will
require considerable money. In
considering this cost, however, it
is well to remember that the Florida
grower today is being penalized at
least one dollar per box because of
his failure to organize. This means
an annual cost of disorganization
to the industry averaging $18,000,-
000. Florida is paying that tre-
mendous sum annually because her
growers fail to do what California's
growers have shown us can be done.
They are showing that much diff-

The unrest on the part of a few erence in sales regularly.
under existing conditions in the This bill for disorganization
industry may quickly spread to the many times the total amount wh
many and create a situation which would be required at the outs
can be met only by definite, pur- to put this industry together. 1
poseful accomplishment on the part growers are paying the bill n
of this Board. Such action is de- disorganized. They can mi
filitely the responsibility of the better afford to pay a small fracti
controlling body of this growers' of the bill and obtain the benel
cooperative. It is a responsibility of adequate, centralized control.


Forget it if a

Minimum of 100% Profit

Is Not Obtained

If the new and patented IACO process of
Cleansing, Polishing and Preserving Citrus
Fruits against molds, does not return over
100% on the investment, we want you to
forget it!
On account of the low cost of the.IACO
process, there is a great opportunity to make
at least 100% on your investment-
First, by increase of grade.
Second, by increase of sale price.
Third, by protection against blue mold.
Fourth, by decrease cost over other processes.
Fifth, the profits from the use of the IACO
process have ranged from 400% to over 1,000%
on the investment, but even 100% profit counts
in times as these.
If the IACO process cannot make at least
100% on its investment, we congratulate.you
on the grade of your fruit, your methods of
packing, and the low costs of the process you
are using.
-'If a 100% investment appeals to you, we
would appreciate the opportunity to tell of
the IACO process, show you the process of
operation in packing houses, and let you talk
directly to users who are glad there is such
a process and at such a low cost.

Patent Owners and Distributors
of the "I A C 0" Process
for Cleaning, Polishing and Protecting Citrus Fruits

Jacksonville, Fla. Winter Haven, Fla
208 St. James Bldg.


No Caiker l n Florida

For Over Three Years
More than three years have
passed since an infection of citrus
canker has been reported in Flor-
ida, reports ,Williar.. A. .,Taylor,
chief of the Bureau of Plant Indus-
try; in hi4 annual report ta: the
Secretary of Agriculture.
contrary to what is probably the
general belief among Florida citrus
/ -growers, this state is 'only 'oe f
several which has suffered froii the
disease, characterized as one of
bacterial nature. Alabama, Miss-
issippi, Texas and Louisiana have
been similarly affected.
Conditions seem to indicate that
compete eradication will be ac-
complished although several years
of close inspection will be required
further, reported M. Taylor. Each
state, he said, is maintaining close
reinspection of all citrus properties
and this will be continued because
of the extreme infectiousness- of
citrus canker.
Alabama and Mississippi rank
with Florida in having no new in-
fections reported during the past
few years. Florida and Alabama
apparently have been free of in-
fection for more than three years;
while Mississippi has had none re-
ported in eight years.
Texas has had no new infection
reported in the citrus belt for near-
ly two years. One was reported last:
summer in a nursery outside the
citrus belt. Louisiana, though com-
mercial citrus regions are reported
free, is still reporting many scat-
tered infections in dooryard. plant-

Few Major Pests Have

Come In Recent Years
-With the exception of the Med-
i'6anean fru _fly_ the Mexican
fruit fly and the pink bollworm, no
major pest has entered the United
States since the passage of the
quarantnie act 20 years ago, ac-
cording to Lee A. Strong, chief of
the Plant Quarantine and Control
The other major pests, such as
the European corn borer, the Jap-
anese bettle, the gypsy moth, the
chestnut blight and others now pre-
valent, got into this country before
the plant quarantine act was'passed
in 1912, he asserts. They were'here-
in advance, but had not multiplied
and extended their range to become
important economically until after
the act came into affect, he said.
The quarantine act is not a mere
autheization--- -to --e~feree--ertain-
regulations, but-a-mandate by Con--.

The coloring of citrus fruit is
the first and possibly the most im-
portant preparation that citrus
fruit gets. Proper coloring will
give the fruit uniform color. If
the fruit-is mature it will bring out
the true orange,'grapefriit or tan-
gerine color, while if the fruit is not
mature it will bring out the, best
dolor possible without bleaching.
Too little thought is .given to
coloring practices in many houses.
Some managers believe that the new
method of circulating air and the
trickle "sy-steiln of applying the ',gas
rewioved' the necessity of giving.the
plant close '~ttentiofn. This is not
true, though 'the trickle system is
far superior to any other method.
One of the best men should be in
charge of the coloring and be held
:responsible and allowed tob give: al-,
most all his attention to it.
SThe modern room, equipped with
a steam radiator, should be main-
tained in temperature between 85
to 88 degrees. If the fruit has a
very thin peel it is best not to allow
the temperature to go above 85 de-
grees, while if the peel is thick and
the texture good, better results can
be obtained with a temperature of
88 degrees. :.
Much of the coloring problem and
troubles is due to the himidity. The
best range is 70 to 80 relative hum-
idity, with 76 preferable. If atnmbs
pheric humidity is below 76 it is
an easy matter to maintain a rela-
tive humidity of 76 in the rooms
by ue, of the steam jet installed
for that purpose.'" However, if
atmospheric humidity is above that
point, there is little that can be
done, unfortunately. If the hum-
idity in -the coloring rooms stays
above 85 for as much as 12 hours,
all forms of-fungus, growth are in-
vited by the cnditin.
I frequently find that the' hum-
idify jet is :turned on when steam
is turned on in the radiators be-
fore any attention is given to what
the coloring room humidity is. This
is a wrong practice. At least 15
minutes should elapse after circu-
lation is started before attention
is given to the humidity and the
humidity should be added only if
there is a need. The hydrometer
will show. If there is a spread be-
tween the wet and dry bulbs of

gress to the Commissioner of Agri-
culture to impose quarantines and
regulations and to prohibit impor-
tations of plants when the Secre-
tary believes such is necessary, Mr.
Strong said. The Secretary, of
necessity, is given certain discretion
but responsibility is placed upon
-him-which cannot- be--invaded,- -- he
-stated.- -. -

more than eight, more humidity is
needed. As soon as the humidity
in the room comes to the proper
point, it should be regulated and
held to this amount.
SThe fresh air control should not
be changed, once it is set properly.
Two square inches of fresh air is
all that is needed for a one car
room. More diluted the gas and
'.retards the coloring. I have found
rooms with as much as 30 square
inches of fresh air which quickly
reduce and explain why to the man
in charge.
Next to the air circulation, I
consider the trickle system the most
important discovery that has been
made in years in connection with
the coloring of citrus. Statistics
show that it results in less decay,
shortens the 'coloring time and is
more' economical and produces
better color. One drum of gas will

Factors In Operating Coloring Room
By M. C. Williford, Consulting Expert


of Fertilizers Follows a Basic

Policy of SERVICE

THIS is the original purpose of the In-
ternational Agricultural Corporation:
"Any new development in an old indus-
try must, in order to be successful, do
something different, do something better,
supply some actual need."

No pressing need of greater profits; no
distress of tight money; no emergency of
bluest prospects changed the original course
of this company's policy.
Hence, thousands of farmers in Florida,
who used or now use Osceola and Interna-
tional Crop Producing Fertilizers, have been
able to make more money through these fer-
tilizers which represented "something differ-
ent," "something better" and "supply some
actual need."
If in the analysis of your fertilizer prob-
lem, you felt you needed something different
and something better, then give us the oppor-
tunity to explain our brands.


208 St. James Bldg. Jacksonville, Fla.


-I'~~~"`~-~~" ~~-- ~~---~~~~-~' ~

color from 25 to 40.cars pf fruit.
W stereh: :trie-I le- .isused- there- is
-no taste-of-gas-in- the-fruit nor
does the fruit or the packing house
have an objectionable odor due to
Ethelene will color fruit when in
-a mixtue as, weak as one part of
gas to 50,000 parts of air. It is
not the amount, of .gas 'used but
the way it is applied that colors
fruit. A small amount of gas all
the timd of coloring is better than
large quantities at intervals.
I am now adjusting the trickle
systems for 16 pounds by pressure
per 24 hours. At the first of the
season we used 28 pounds by pres-
sure but this amount is not neces-
sary at this time of the year. Large
amounts of gas will not speed up
If the gas is giving slow results,
it should be examined. I have
found some lots of gas which was
not up to standard. It does not
hurt the fruit, but it does put the
house to extra time and expense.


January 1, 1931


Let's Quit Sobbing About

Prices and Organize

This Industry

Action at the wailing wall never got anybody anything but red
eyes. Complaints, accusations and a sore head will never raise the
price levels of fruit or stabilize the industry.
There is only one solution. It is cooperative control of the crop.
Study the report of the organization committee of the Board of
Directors of the Florida Citrus Exchange as reproduced in this
issue. If you have not seen it, we will be glad to send you
a copy direct. If you are interested in the facts of the situation,
you have them in that report.
Get into the Exchange, or get somebody else in. Put your shoulder
to the wheel and build that cooperative control.
Then you will have earned your right to complain-but, for-
tunately, there won't be anything left to complain about.
75 % cooperative control of the crop will make the industry con-
sistently profitable to the producers and keep general business good
throughout the state.



January 1, 1931

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