Title: Seald-sweet chronicle
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075292/00005
 Material Information
Title: Seald-sweet chronicle
Alternate Title: Seald sweet chronicle
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Florida Citrus Exchange
Florida Citrus Exchange
Place of Publication: Tampa Fla
Publication Date: September 1, 1930
Frequency: semimonthly
Subject: Citrus fruit industry -- Newspapers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Tampa (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Hillsborough County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: newspaper   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Hillsborough -- Tampa
Coordinates: 27.970898 x -82.46464 ( Place of Publication )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased on Apr. 15, 1932.
General Note: "Florida's only citrus newspaper."
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 4, no. 24 (May 15, 1929).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075292
Volume ID: VID00005
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AJH6537
oclc - 31158390
alephbibnum - 001763371
lccn - sn 97027656

Full Text
,.../ 1924'E. JACKSON ST. .

Seald- r

Vol. VI suBsCBIPTION aPBIB 5s C=sN rPu YEa~ TAMPA, FLORIDA, SEPT. 1, 1930 Nt A No. 7

Urge Elimination OF FIRS SHIPMENTS Large Vo e nd
Term "Cull" Grade A five corn d race to get Gr uit C rcted
out the first carei regular
bloom fruit is
Claim "Cull" Misrepresents The Dade, Lee, Sarasou i r timate Cannes Haw ccepte
Quality OF Fruit Used By and Manatee counties. Ship- Orders For AboutiO00,j000
pers from each of these sec- ses s Te
Canners OF Citrus tions have requested that' Cases AtThis Time
I green fruit" inspectors 'be
ith so mchatento sho sent to their plants, Monday, Contracts for approximately
With so much attention shown September 1. 1,000,000t cases of canied,.grape-.
from all parts of the state in the s, his indicate s Ptai he fru it heeen ac Flor
r.IH s S st....~ Hdiscussion to eliminate the term might be quite a number of i annes, rd rto e t
"cull" for the cannery grade of cit- cars rolling the first week of id canners, accord to report
rus, it will be of special interest to the month. It will probably all from authentic sources:
be grapefruit, with the first This is a sur, ising)V'olume when
know that the Florida Citrus Ex- Parson Browns rolling about it is conid'eshat o past seasons,
change in all, of its contracts with two weeks later, o did n.gn t
canners does ot use the term "cull" Dade and Lee counties re- e i t n to o th
but always refers to such fruit as port fruit of very good qual- canners until around Aug. 1st. Yet
SCannery grade"t ity and size. to those acquainted with the turn
S in the situation this summer it is
Undoubtedly the term "cull" mis- not unexpected and it is the con-
represents the quality of the fruit eviction of these, including some of
J. Reed Curry, head of the newly in the minds of those unacquainted IsleC OF Pines Has the canners, that this volume re-
created Organization department. with the special terms of the citrus presents only about 40 percent of
Mr. Curry is working actively help- industry. "Cull" to the industry Good Citrus Year the total pack for this season
ing to sign up new members and does not mean fruit of inferior If it is true that this volume of
at the same time is developing basic eating quality. It designates that The Isle of Pines received canned fruit has been contracted,
plans for maintaining an extensive fruit which is misshapen or so blem- $1,200,000 for its last citrus crop, these contracts taken before the
and efficient organization program. ished and uneven in color and sim- a return which gave the growers volume of the crop actually is
ilar exterior defect as to make it around $2 a box, according to a known represents two-thirds of the
unsuited in appearance for the first summary in the Isle of Pines Post, entire citrus canned pack for last
Clearing House Starts two grades. Grade mainly is deter- edited by W. Ekin Birch, formerly season, the record year todate. It
mined by appearance, for it is by editor of the Seald-Sweet Chron- is certain that the public favor feor
Survey OF Crop Size appearance that the public pur- icle. o the product has increased to a.re-
chases. Eating quality and juice pa-e h e d ree to -
The Clearing House starts Mon- cnotent of the so-called "cull" is The Pines citrus crop totaled markable degree, but without
b day, Sept. 1st, on its crop estimate, just as good as the finest. 236,707 boxes of which 220,116 steady supplies on the market this
summer, no one can guage at this
utilizing both packing house man- Use of the term "cull" has be- were grape fruit. Half the crop time the redl extent of this increase
agers and special men taken from come general among those. not moved during August and Septem- and it is highly possible thatit may
the inspection force. It is hoped directly connected with the indus- ber and brought in the market from go beyond the bounds seen at pre-
to have the survey completed by try. Everyone in Florida- has an $5 to :$12 a box.,. T.he remainder sent. If- sh; it is ths' W a iffe-"
Sept. 15. indirect interest in the industry and was shipped only as the market only the size of the crop will limit
Each packing house manager will this has become appreciated in the stiffened, says the Post, and re- the pack.
be asked to estimate the fruit in past few years. Nearly everybody turned very good prices. Some canners have already taken
his territory on the basis of its vol- in the state talks citrus fluently, Half of the grapefruit was sold steps to protect their contracts. It
ume compared with last year. Six particularly when discussing the in England. is known that some canners have
key groves will be selected by each win England. Havana, chief city of is known that some canners have
key groves will be selected by each welfare of the state or its resources Cuba of which the Island is a pos purchased whole crops, expecting to
manager and the volume carefully and its opportunities. oo 0 boe o ship the No. 1 fruit as fresh frit
estimated, in number bf boxes as With general use of citrus terms, session, and utilize the profit to even up the
well as percentage compared with fruit. Much of the crop was sent the
it undoubtedly would be a wise the crop was sent margin between the cost of
last year. Each manager has been move to eliminate the word "cull" to this country where it got very other grades for canning and the
requested to give also the yearly ot designate the low grade, mer- good prices during the Florida sales price of the cannde product.
production from these groves for chantable fruit and to replace it season due to conditions which This would indicate that some of the
the past five years. with a name which will more truely hampered the sale of Florida fruit, canners are not so optimistic as to
The inspectors will check over represent it. The Tampa Morning Some grapefruit was sent to ChiliL the supply.of fruit available. Early
the territories also. They, too, will Tribune has given much space and Practically all of the orange crop in the summer, the canners are un-
use key groves in each. The key effort along this line and has was sold in Havana. derstood. to have believed a good
groves will be from 20 to 40 acres aroused much of the interest shown The Isle has bloom starting volume of fruit would be available
each, and each will have oranges, in the discussion. in November which gives it earlier and the cannery grade could. be
grapefruit and tangerines, if pos- It suggests "odds", wihle others maturity than Florida. It expects, obtained at relatively low cost.
sible." have suggested a number of terms however, that this season the Flor- The canning outlook is so differ-
The estimate will be compiled in among them "Sealdgrade", capital- ida crop will mature earlier and ent from what many expected.that
varieties as follows: early and izing upon the widely known and Island fruit is being shipped as fast it is reported some of the stronger
midseason oranges, Valencias, early accepted brand name "Seald- as feasible to get as much in the canners, particularly- those from
bloom grapefruit, Marsh Seedless Sweet" of the Florida Citrus Ex- markets ahead of the Florida move- outside of Florida, are considering
and tangerines. change. ment as possible. (Continued on Page 2)'


N.Y. Service Chief

Visiting Florida
Edward B. Fallon, dealer service
crew chief of the Eastern division
with headquarters in New York
City, is in Florida for a few weeks
getting acquainted with conditions
in the industry and the Exchange
organization in the state.
Mr. Fallon has the most im-
portant territory in the country-
from the viewpoint of concentrated
distribution and competition. This
territory takes approximately one-
fourth of all the Florida citrus and
because of its large number of con-
sumers and simplicity of terminal
marketing is used by the greatest
number of operators.
Mr. Fallon's work is largely with
the retailers of whom there are
thousands in New York City alone.
He and his crew make contact with
practically every retailer stocking
Exchange fruit and work with them
to increase business and profits.
'They also visit other retailers to
interest them in taking Exchange
The Eastern crew last season
made up approximately 10,000 win-
dow displays and in addition dis-
tributed thousands of pieces of dis-
play materials.

Canner Enlarges Plant
Tugewell and Wiseman company,
grapefruit canner affiliated with the
Exchange, is enlarging plant capac-
ity to pack 100,000 or more cases
of fruit this season. New machinery
is being installed now at the plant
which is located at Tarpon Springs.
The.company expects to use a force
of 200 and plans to start opreations
the latter part of September.
The company will put up four
sizes; No. 10, about one gallon;
No. 5, about half a gallon; the reg-
ular No. 2, popular in the past for
home use, and a No. 55, a small
individual size offered last year with

Piano Sees Texas A Big

Rival To Florida Soon

Estimate Canners Have Accepted
Orders For About 1,000,000
Cases At This Time

Texas is coming ahead rapidly
with her iitrus industry and should
in a very few years, barring set-
backs, rival Florida materially in
the production of grapefruit, re-
ports Harry C. Piano, manager of
Kissimmee association.
Mr. Piano has just returned from
a three months auto tour through
the South, West and North. He
gave several day's time to the citrus
section of Texas.
Texas, he said, has a remarkable
citrus area with rich soil and fine
stock upon which to build excellent
groves. It is a beautiful country,
he said.
Mr. Piano characterized the pro-
duction of today in Texas as merely
experimental. He explained that
most of the present bearing groves
are small units. Coming into bear-
ing in the next few years will be
groves planted in blocks of many
thousand acres each.
The crop this season will be
below normal, due to the cold dam-
age of last year, but Texas citrus
appears better able to stand low
temperatures than most, Mr. Piano
said. Trees of a bearing age last
year show no trace of cold dam-
age now and younger trees show
very little.
Txeas citrus trees have a very
rapid growth, Mr. Piano said. Trees
reported to be three years old
looked like six year old trees of
other citrus sections, he said.

Believe Refrigeration

Rate Reduction Lasting
Report of examiners for the
Interstate Commerce Commission
affirms the findings of the commis-
sion on which it ordered a reduction
in the refrigeration charges on
citrus and other Florida products.
This reduction saved Florida grow-
ers around $500,000 annually.
The railroads contested the find-
ings on some of the items which
make up the refrigeration charge,
claiming the Commission had not
given due consideration to some of
the costs to the railroads. Though
the reduction was ordered by the
Commission and put into effect, a
rehearing was allowed.
The report of the examiners, W.
P. Bartel and John L. Rogers, finds
that the carriers have wholly failed
to sustain their criticisms and ex-
ceptions. If it is adopted by the
Comnision, which is expected, it
will make permanent the reductions
previously ordered. .

The employee of Mammoth
Groves who estimates closest
company's groves will receive
the volume of the crop on the
a prize of $100 in gold.
All estimates are to be sub-
mitted by Sept. 1 and no em-
ployee above the rank of field
foreman is allowed to com-
The contest is becoming
warm. Some employees are
reported to be making a tree
to tree count and some are
reported to be taking ad-
vantage of the sleeping hours
of the others and are check-
ing in the moonlight.

Surprising Development

One of the most surprising and
probably far-reaching developments
in the citrus canning industry is
understood to be linked with the
purchase of a large tract in Tampa
by interests whoe identity has been
very carefully concealed.
Several concerns of national re-
putation have been reported to be
hte purchasers of the tract upon
which will be erected a canning
plant costing approximately $100,-
000. Tom Huston, Inc., peanut
product manufacturer and distri-
butor of the South, and Libby,
McNeil and Libby, food products
manufacturers and distributors, are
most prominent among those men-
tioned. It is understood that neither
of these is the purchasers, though
it is known that Tom Huston, Inc.,
is interested in a Florida citrus by-
products deal.
Agents of the purchasers have
been free to admit that a canning
proposition is the reason for the
purchase of the property, but have
declined to name the interests in-
volved. It is understood that these
interests represent capital and ter-
ritory which previously had not
been considered in the cannery deal
and that they will inject an entirely
new angle to the development of
the canning industry in Florida.

Florida has made fine progress
in the development of cooperative
marketing and indications are that
this progress will be continued in
the future, declared A. W. McKay,
chief of the division of cooperative
marketing. Federal Farm Board, on
his recent visit to Florida. Mr.
McKay and his staff are assisting
state officials in working out a co-
operative agency for the vegetable
growers of the state.
"Florida is going ahead with this
idea to a marked degree," Mr.
McKay said, "and now stands well
out to the front among the states
actively embracing this modern
mehtod of marketing. Citrus is
being handled more effectively."

Large Volume of Canned

GrapeFruit Contracted

Big Blocks Of Acreage Coming
Into Bearing In The Next Few
Years Boosting Volume

(Continued from Page 1)
plans to buy groves outright and
protect their supply for the future.
They, it is said, forsee an increase
in demand which will require Irager
crops to supply the canning needs.
Entry of canners into citrus
production could only have a bene-
ficial effect upon the whole industry.
They would experience the difficul-
ties and expense, season in and out,
that the growers have had-for many
years. The canners then would
appreciate the Exchange viewpoint
that a good price for cannery grade
is warranted, and undoubtedly
would work with the growers to
maintain and stabilize prices for all
grades, including cannery fruit.

New Ridge Canning Plant
Four Ridge affiliations of the
Florida Citrus Exchange and two
other Ridge groups have combined
to organize a $100,000 canning com-
pany to put up their cannery grade
grapefruit. The associated groups,
of which five are packing organiza-
tions and one a producing company,
have a total volume of about 700,-
000 boxes of citrus this season out
of which they expect to put up 100,-
000 to 150,000 cases of canned
Associated in the project are
Waverly and Lake Wales associa-
tions, Mountain Lake Corporation
and Highland Park Packing Com-
pany, all affiliated with the Ex-
change; the Babson Park Citrus
Growers Association and Alcoma
Corporation. The canning corpora-
tion they have incorporated is
named the Ridge Citrus Canners,
Inc. Its paid in capital of $100,000
was contributed equally by the asso-
ciated groups,
A site has been leased from Lake
Wales and a $60,000 plant will be
erected in time to begin operations
early in the season. It will have a
capacity of 1,000 to 1,200 cases a
Sales of the product will be
handled by C. S. Crary of Streator,
Ill. Mr. Crary has 40 years experi-
ence in the canning business and
was president of the American Can-
ners Association at one time. He
ownes a grove at Lake of the Hills
and is a member of Waverly asso-
H. S. Norman of Waverly asso-
ciation is president of the canning
company. F. M. Campbell of
Mountain Lake Corporation is vice-
president, and Roy Craig of Alcoma
Corporation is secretary-treasurer.


September 1, 1930


Some form of cover cropping has
been practiced by some of our Flor-
ida growers for many years. Some
use a natural cover crop, others
use such crops as cowpeas, velvet
beans and beggarweed which with
the exception of beggarweed have
to be planted each year. Of recent
years Crotalaria, a plant not unlike
beggarweed in general character-
istics including reseeding habit, has
come in to rather extensive use.
Why Use Cover Crops
In considering cover crops for
citrus groves the following ques-
tions quite naturally come up: Why
use cover crops at all? What good
will a cover crop do? Does a cover
crop warrant the expense of grow-
ing it? What effect does a cover
crop have on tree growth? What
effect does a cover crop have on
fruit quality and yield? Does a
cover crop effect insect control?
Does a cover crop have any effect
on citrus fruit diseases or their con-
trol? Will a cover crop reduce the
fertilizer bill?
Some growers evidently must
think that cover crops grown and
turned under exert a favorable in-
fluence on the citrus tree and citrus
fruit else there would hardly be as
many using cover crops of various
kinds I imagine if a vote.were taken
the majority of growers would vote
in favor of a cover crop of some
kind for groves. Therefore, it is
taken for granted that a cover crop
is a profitable thing to grow in a
citrus grove. That being the case
we can proceed with our theoretical
reason for the use of cover crops
ni a citrus grove.
A cover crop is supposed theor-
etically to do the following things:
1. Prevent washing of land.
2. Prevent leaching of soluble
plant food.
3. Add nitrogen to the soil if a
4. Stimulate bacterial activity.
5. Render plant food more avail-
6. Add organic matter to the soil.
7. Not to deplete phosphate and
potash supply.
8. Increase tree growth.

9. Increase, eventually, fruit
10. Decrease fertilizer nitrogen
costs (if legume).
The question is quite naturally
asked, does a cover crop in the aver-
age Florida citrus grove do all of
the above- things or maybe does
it do enough of a part of the above
things to make it a profitable prac-
tice? I repeat does a cover crop do
enough of the things it is theoreti-
cally supposed to do to make the
growing of the cover crop profit-
If we are dealing today with
annual plants such as corn or cotton
I could tell you that we have some
pretty definite answers to the ques-
tions asked because it has been
demonstrated experimentally and
under actual farm practice in a
number of Southeastern states that
a cover crop of vetch or Austrian
peas for instance will on the aver-
age double the yield of corn the
first time you grow a crop of corn
after turning under a good crop of
vetch or Austrian peas. It has also
been found that a good crop of
vetch or peas turned under will
supply all the nitrogen needed by a
corn crop and the yield is only
limited then by the available mois-
ture at the critical period of growth
of the corn. Added amounts of
nitrogen to a corn crop under the
above conditions has not been found
But how about the cover crop
when it comes to the perennial
plant known as citrus? Unfortun-
ately Florida does not have any de-
finite experimental data of long
time accumulation to go to.
The only other state in the union
growing citrus on a scale compar-
able to Florida is California. They
use winter crops, manure and coarse
straws such as from beans, peas
and alfalfa. Their soils and their
distribution of rainfall are not like
ours. Maybe the underlying prin-
ciples however are the same. In

1925 a communication from a mem-
ber of the California Experiment
Station staff to the writer was as
follows: "The winter cover crop
has a pronounced fertilizer value
in the young citrus orchard and in
the older orchard, a replacement
value of three to five tons of man-
"So far as the value of the cover
crop is concerned, the principal
data available has to do with the
leguminous winter cover crop. Un-
der favorable conditions the late
summer cover crop may have a
positive fertilizer value, especially
in the young grove, but in the bear-
ing grove the factors entering into
its management are so complex that
it is doubtful whether they can be
satisfactorily controlled. Experi-
ence and observation have indicated
that, under many conditions at-
least, the growing of a summer
cover crop in the citrus orchard is
a practice of doubtful value.
"In the young orchard the fer-
tilizer value of the winter cover
crop is unquestionably high as has
been brought out strikingly in work
done at the Citrus Experiment Sta-
tion and reported on in 1918 in
California Experiment Station Bul-
letin 292. This work indicates con-
clusively that in the young orchard
the cover crop is a means of greatly
stimulating growth and production.
The pronounced value of cover crops
has also been demonstrated in the
young orchards at the new Exper-
iment Station site. The trees were
set in 1917 and at the present time
(1925) seven years later, this or-
chard is gneerally regarded as one
of the best in both appearance and
production for its age in Southern
California. No fertilizers what-
soever have been applied and its
present condition- is altogether the
result of winter and summer cover
crops grown.
"In the bearing citrus orchard
the cover crop is unquestionably
of considerable value where a reas-


By W. E. STOKES, Agronomist, Florida Experiment Station

Table I-Yield of Cover Crops Grown at Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred, Florida.
(Soil-Norfolk sand cleared 1923) Agronomy Department Soil Fertility Investigations.
Pounds Nitro-
Pounds per acre top growth-air dried gen in aerg Nitrate of soda
CROP Percent Nitro- cover crops air or calcium ni-
195 5 year gen 8 % moist- dried (8% moist- trate equivalent-
1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 average ure basis ure basis) pounds
Crotalaria striata 7656 4835 2401 4080 5750 4944 2.177 107 713
Velvet beans 2212 2526 2295 2380 1873 2257 1.998 45 300
Beggarweed 3062 2178 failure 3400 3308 2407 1.207 29 193
Cowpeas 2211 1350 1147 3400 1001 1821 1.662 30 200
Natal grass ,No record 3060 4292 3400 3398 3537* 1.081 38 253
: Natal grass Cowpeas Vel. Beans Beg. Weed
Rotation of above crops 3400 1360 2040 3703 2625*
Crotalaria-mulched 3703
*4 year average

enable tonnage can be grown with-
out competition with' the trees.
The data from the tests. on older
orchards, however, are conflicting.
the probable explanation of which
is competition with the trees either
for nitrogen or water."
"The orchard practice survey
(see Cal. Exp. Sta. Bul. 374) brings
out clearly the fact that in the bear-
ing orchard the cover crop has a de-.
finite organic matter replacement
value. Where the smallest amounts
of manure were used, it was shown
that the cover crop gave the most
striking results, with an average in-
crease in yield of about 20 percent.
Where the largest amounts of man-
ure were used, the least effect from
the cover crop was noted in an
increased yield of 6 percent. A
good cover crop consisting of 12
to 15 tons of green material should
furnish approximately two tons of
dry matter, each of which is equiv-
alent in fertilizer value (nitrogen
and organic matter) to two tons of
ordinary manure.-It is believed
that there is justification for esti-
mating the cover crop replacement
value at from three to five tons of
So much for California. What
does Florida have to offer as a re-
sult of citrus cover crop experi-
mental work? In 1925 a citrus
cover crop experiment was laid out
at the Citrus Experiment Station
at Lake Alfred. How many of you
have visited the Station and seen
this experiment? In brief this ex-
periment shows that where cover
crops were used tree growth and
fruit production has been a great
deal better than where no cover
crop was used. The experiment
has not progressed far enough to
show the exact value of the dif-
ferent cover crops being used
neither has it been run long enough
to tell how much if any fertilizer
can be dispensed with in connection
with the use of cover crops.
The cover crop experiment at
Lake Alfred started in a newly set
grove, hence what effect cover crop
growing in a full bearing grove may
(Continued on Page 5)


September 1, 1930

SEL-WE CHOIL etebr1 13

Seald Sweet


Published twice a month in
the interest of cooperative
marketing and for the infor-
mation of the citrus growers
of Florida.

Publication Office:
6.06 Citrus Exchange Bldg.
Tampa, Florida
Postoffice Box 1108

Net Grower Circulation
over 11,000

Space Rates: $60.00 per page;
$35,00 half-page; $20.00 one-
quarter page; $2.00 per inch
all space under one-quarter
page. Minimum space: 1 inch.

Vol. VI SEPT. 1, 1930 No. 7

"In Dependence"
The present depressed
throughout the country

brings a

lesson of dependence of one upon
Farmers have considered them-
selves the most independent class.
Men of business and industry in
recent years have stridden forward
so invincibly and impressively that
they too came to conclude they were
independent. They have been so
well compensated by their efforts
that they. looked down upon the
Today, neither the farmers nor
the business men fell so independ-
ent. Both are hurt equally by the
trend of the time. Each blames his
situation upon the other. The
farmer believes he could do better
if only business conditions improved
and he scores the business men for
permitting such conditions to exit.
SThe business man blames agricul-
Independence has become "in
dependence". So it is with any
group. Each member is dependent
upon the others. In the citrus in-
dustry each grower is dependent
upon the other growers. The only
growers who are actually independ-
ent are dead.

Cooperation is not a species of
philanthropy but a means of bring-
ing the farmer into line with mod-
ern industry, according to the defi-
nition of the term offered by C. R.
Fay, professor of economic history
at the University of Toronto, Can-
Agricultural cooperation, he de-
clared, is "not a means of rescuing
the unfortunate. It may do this
incidentally, but its big achieve-
ment is to bring the farmer into
line.with modern industry as an

expert marketing authority. A suc-
cessful factory is a network of co-
operation, but the distinguishing
fact of agricultural cooperation is
that it assumes the existence of a
family farm as a unit of production.
Cooperation is not a growth which
can stop short at its own locality.
To obtain full success it must fre-
quently develop a national market."
Denmark may be called the
mother country of commodity mar-
keting. Danes take to cooperation
as a duck takes to water for three
reasons; for uniformity of rural
habits, advantages in education in
agricultural schools, and the fact
that cooperatives provide an export
market which has to be organized on
an equality basis.
The New World is scarcely out-
done by Denmark in the field of
cooperation, Mr. Fay stated. "Each
country has its own notable achieve-
ment: Canada with its wheat pools;
the United States with its California
Fruit Growers. Land O' Lakes
Creameries; its terminal associa-
tions for the cooperative marketing
of live stock, and in this territory a
very fertile new development, the
National Order Buying Company

Above is shown a modern, automatically controlled,
steam heated coloring room with a portion of the side'
wall cut away to show our method of forced circula-
tion and the steam heating coils and steam jet line
built right inj the wall. Control instruments and
blowers are mounted, in this case, on the end of the
room which leaves the floor space above clear of all
equipment for storage or other purposes.
This type of coloring room has the advantage of very
high efficiency, low first cost and low operating cost.
Our circulating system provides a large volume of air,
uniform circulation and constant temperature control.
Rooms are brought up to temperature quickly and
maintained at any pre-determined point with only
slight variation. A spread of not more than two de-
grees is the usual condition.

Division Food Machinery Corporation

These rooms can be equipped and installed as indi-
cated for less than competitive equipment. Tempera-
ture control is more uniform, with a recording ther-
mometer to indicate fluctuations over a 72-hour period;
volume of air in circulation is larger and more evenly
distributed; a better trickle system, more accurate
humidity control-these better features shorten color-
ing time and increase capacities.
.May be installed in existing rooms at small cost.
Rooms may be later converted into sterilizing rooms
at no extra cost. Can be used for "kerosene gas" if
Estimates furnished without obligation.



Automatically Controlled


which takes adequate care of a new
growth, the direct to packer move-
ment of hogs in particular."
That the government nowadays
is friendly to cooperation the speak-
er assigned as all the more need
for insisting that cooperation's
prime, work is in the sphere of vol-
untary action. Otherwise, it will
lose its inspiration and become
synanymous in the public mind with
an expensive variety of farm relief.
The farmer today is not self-
sufficient. "He is now in a market
economy and exposed to the fluctua-
tions of price. The act of specializ-
ingto a distant market increases his
indebtedness on the town for his
supplies. If he relapses into a state
of barter, trading his produce to
those from whom he purchases his
supplies, he loses twice over. Co-
operation by separating sale from
purchase and making sale an expert
affair, opens to the farmer the
chance of economic freedom. It does
not insure a remunerative price, but
it removes unnecessary waste, and
any measure of farm relief which
calls for a reorganization of pro-
duction has far more chance of suc-
cess if the selling end of the farm-


September 1, 1930

her's activities is in efficient hands.
"By owning cooperative busi-
nesses connected with agriculture
the farmer gains two advantages:
he secured a channel for the grad-
ual accumulation of invested wealth
made out of farming and he secures
colleagues in industry, who, though
primarily business men or technical
experts, work for associated farm-
ers. As the cooperative movement
grows, cooperation will build up its
own personnel and it will always be
to its health that some portion of
this personnel should graduate on
the farms.
Cooperation is a counterpoise to
industralism and may ward off the
dangers of twentieth century in-
dustrialism. "Its purposes," he
claimed, "are not to resist the town,
but to maintain a healthy balance
between town and country. It is, as
it were, a compensation for the in-
spiration of a pioneer's frontier,
which has now in a geographical
sense, come to an end. Its purpose
is not to overthrow the capitalistic
order but to prove that the share-
holding corporation is not the only
way in which material resources can
be assembled.


(Continued from Page 3)
have on the grove is just now begin-
ing to be answered. Therefore to
get more information we have to
extend the cover crop experimental
work to bearing groves in the citrus
belt and in order to do this seven
bearing groves, two on the East
Coast, two on the West Coast and
three in the Ridge have been
selected by county agents, citrus
specialists and district agents. In
these groves the following cover
cropping scheme is being tried:
One acre to a natural cover crop,
one acre to Crotalaria striata, one
acre to Crotalaria striata plus Cro-
talaria striata grown elsewhere and
hauled in for mulching and one acre
grown to any one of the following
cover crops; Cowpeas, velvet beans,
beggarweed or crotalaria sericea.
All cooperators chose Crotalaria
sericea. A record is to be kept of
the tonnage of cover crops pro-
duced, fertilizer used, and fruit pro-
duced. The main idea in this work
is to find out how valuable a cover
crop is.
Referring again to the cover crop
experiment at the Citrus Station at
Lake Alfred it will be noted from
Table I that Crotalaria striata has
yielded the greatest quantity of
material to turn back to the soli
while Natal grass ranks second and

the rotation of cover crops third
in this respect. It must be recalled
that seeding costs are usually nil
with Natal grass in this part of the
state, while cowpeas and velvet
beans have to be seeded each year.
Beggarweed has failed one year out
of five and looks like a failure in
1930 while Crotalaria has' given
good yields each year. Seed of
Crotalaria and beggarweed have
been planted three years out of the
five. This probably was not neces-
sary but we were anxious to have
a stand each year. Other areas at
the Citrus Station seeded to Cro-
talaria striata in 1924 have given
a good volunteer growth ech year
up to and including the 1930 season.
Table 2 shows the growth of trees
under various cover crops. It is
noted that the trees on the Crota-
laria cover crop area have made the
greatest growth while the trees un-
der clean cultivation have made the
least growth. All trees being cul-
tivated and fertilized alike.
Table II- Effect of Coves on
Growth of Citrus Trees
Agronomy Department, Soil Fertility In-
vestigations, Lake Alfred, Florida. Citrus
Experiment Station.
Cross Increase
Sectin area sq. in.
sq. in; 1925-
Cover Crop .1925 1930 1930 Rank
Natal Grass .587 18.70 13.11 2
Cowpeas .590 13.13 12.54 4
Beggarweed .579 13.13 12.55 3
Velvet Baens .584 12.78 12.19 5
Crotalaria Striata.593 14.94 14.34 1
Clean ,cultivation .638 9.55 8.91 6


Fruit records have been kept thus
far the yields have been too small
and irregular to be considered in
relation to the cover cropping
scheme. The crop of fruit now on
the trees is very promising and the
next few seasons fruit yields should
begin to tell us something as to
the value of cover crops in fruit

Elfers association has completed
the construction of a 100 foot addi-
tion and is now buildnig five, 800
box coloring rooms of the new type.
The addition was so placed that
very little alteration of the pre-
sent equipment arrangement was
required. Two years ago, the equip-
ment was completely rearranged to
allow maximum efficiency and econ-
Many new members have signed
and the association appears assured
of a volume of 225,000 boxes which
will be 60,000 boxes more than has
ever been handled before.



Delivery in Sound Condition
An Improved Appearance
Longer Keeping Time
Less Refrigeration Expense
Trade Preference

Any one of these advantages means a larger net return. Any
one well justifies the 64 a box service charge for Brogdex. All
of them mean many thousands of dollars earned and saved.
These are statements of fact as well as matters of record.
So general is the belief that the Brogdex treatment is of very
vital importance to the citrus industry that the State of Florida
and the Clearing House Association are reported to have appro-
priated money to contest the Brogdex patents on the ground
that they constitute a COMMON BENEFIT TO ALL.
Brogdex packers in Florida will ship this season over one-third
of this year's crop, California about one-third and Texas 900.
There will be more Brogdexed fruit in terminal markets than
ever before. Buyers will have even greater opportunity to make
comparisons and take their choice.
A questionnaire recently sent out to the wholesale and retail
fruit trade in New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Cincinnati,
Detroit, and Chicago shows almost an universal endorsement of
Brogdex. Many of these buyers state that. their trade DEMANDS
Brogdexed fruit.
That being the case, Brogdex will be first choice and will rule
the market.
The packing season is only a few weeks away. Brogdex can be
quickly installed-probably in time for the opening if you act
quickly. Wire or phone and a Brogdex man will see you.



Association Houses
Clearwater Growers' Assn.
DeLand Packing Assn.
Eagle Lake Fruit Growers Assn.
Elfers Citrus Growers Assn.
International Fruit Corp.
Fullers Crossing
Fort Pierce
Lucerne Park
Lake Alfred Citrus Growers Assn
Lake Hamilton Citrus Growers Assn.
Lake Placid Citrus Growers Assn.
Leesburg Citrus Growers Assn.
Manatee Citrus Growers Assn.
Minis Citrus Growers Assn.
Nocatee Citrus Growers Assn.
Ocala Fruit Packing Co., Inc.
Orlando Citrus Growers Assn.
L. B. Skinner
Tampa Citrus Growers Assn.
Umatilla Citrus Growers Assn
Waverly Citrus Growers Assn.
Winter Garden Citrus Growers Assn.
Ask the man who uses Brogdex and
you will get the low down on what
it will do for you.
Dunedin, Florida

Rendering One and All

A Sincere Auction Service

Pennsylvania Terminal

Auction Company


Use the "PENNSY to PHILLY"


September 1, 1930


B. C. SKINNER, Pres.



The Tampa Citrus Growers
association is still in existence, will
operate this season and its contracts
with growers remain in full force.
This is the answer of W. C. Crew,
manager of Hillsboro Sub-Ex-
change, to rumors circulated that
the association is going out of bus-
iness and members are free from
their contracts.
The association will not operate
its plant, due to the opportunity
to pack with the newly organized
Lake Carroll association. The com-
bined volume will allow of extra
economies and efficiency and a bet-
ter opportunity in the markets,
giving the Tampa association grow-
ers one of the finest services in
the state.
The rumors in part are believed
to "have been maliciously inspired
for the sole purpose of misleading"
the grower members, Mr. Crews
stated in a letter recently sent to
the members. Also, that "some of
the misunderstanding concerning
the affairs of the Tampa Citrus
Growers association has resulted
from the recent announcement of
the organization of the Lake Carroll
Citrus Growers association.
"This new association will in-
clude in its membership many of
the largest growers in Hillsborough
county. It will pack its fruit under
its own management in the plant
of the Tampa Union Terminals,
which is possibly the finest citrus
packing plant in the state. It will
market its fruit through the Florida
Citrus Exchange. It will be splen-
didly financed, efficiently managed,
and with a large volume of fruit it
will operate economically and save
growers much money.
"Because of the advantages of
low packing costs, water transpor-
tation rates and large volume which
will enable the new Lake Carroll
association to operate economically
and establish brands which will com-
mand market premiums, it has been
proposed that the Tampa Citrus
Growers Association, during the
coming season, handle the fruit of
its members under the same new
set-up, so that its growers may profit



Fruit Auctioneers
Fruit Auction Terminal
Rutherford Avenue
Charleston District
Cutler B. Dower Fred'k L. Springlord
Harold F. Miles

Plymouth association in Orange
Sub-Exchange is making improve-
ments and enlargements to its plant
which will make it one of the best
equipped in the state.
The association has more than
5,000 acres signed with it which
have an estimated production of
more than 300,000 boxes this sea-
son. It has made material gains
during the past few years. It gives
its members spray and dust service
which has been taken advantage of
to a record extent this season. Qual-
ity of the fruit is reported to be
unusually good.
The plant with the improvements
completed will have a value of
about $175,000. Additional color-
ing rooms are being constructed
which will give the plant a coloring
capacity of 18 cars. Precooling
facilities will be increased to a
capacity of 10 cars a day.
Included in the new machinery
ordered are full and half sizers, two
six-roll polishers, two six-roll wash-
ers, a new drier and two stamping

The United States Civil Service
Commission announces the follow-
ing competitive examinations:
Physiologist (fruit and not in-
vestigations), $3,800 to $4,400 a
year; Associate Physiologist (fruit
and nut investigations), $3,200 to
$3,700 a year.
Applications for the above named
positions must be on file with the
Civil Service Commission at Wash-
ington, D. C., not later than Septem-
ber 17, 1930.
The examinations are to fill va-
cancies in the Bureau of Plant In-
dustry, Department of Agriculture.

Kissimmee association probably
will handle a record volume this
season, according to Harry C. Plano,
manager, who estimates the plant
will have 250,000 to 300,000 boxes
of fruit. The biggest volume pre-
viously was approximately 200,000
The association will have an
annually large volume of tanger-
ines, he reports. He estimates the
volume at 20,000 straps, practically
a 30 days' run on tangerines alone
Groves in the Kissimmee section
have a big crop, which would be a
normal followup of the extremely
light crop of last season, when
groves carried only one-third of an
average volume. Contrary to the
usual condition of a big crop, the
fruit is sizing up fine and will run
to very good sizes instead of the
small line expected with big pro-
The association plant needs very
little to adapt it to the larger vol-

ume. The plant was built only a few
yaers ago and at that time was one
of the finest in the state. It will
hank high today. A few coloring
rooms will be added and with com-
plete overhauling of the equipment
will be sufficient. The plant al-
ready includes pre-cooling rooms.

Oak Hill association has com-
pleted its reorganization plans
necessitated through the merger of
the Shiloh Packing Company. The
Shiloh packing house, built two
years ago, will be operated this sea-
son in conjunction with the associa-
tion house and at the close of the
season will be moved to Oak Hill
and made part of the main plant.
H. G. Putnam was re-elected
president, with James A. Taylor,
former head of the Shiloh Packing
Company, as vice-president. W. A.
Robinson, secretary-manager for
several years, was re-elected. The
board of directors was increased
from nine to 12. Members of the
board are: Mr. Putnam, Mr. Taylor,
George I. Fullerton, M. W. Ashton,
L. L. Mosby, A. A. Taylor, George
Kuhl, R. M. Hatch, G. G. Muersch,
George C. Beck, M. B. Howton and
C. E. Earnhart. Mr. Fullerton was
elected to represent the association

on the sub-exchange board.
The Oak. Hill plant will be en-
larged to a capacity of six cars a
day. Precooling facilities also will
be increased.

Representative for Counties South
of Polk in Sale of Insecticedes
and Machines.
Previous sales experience and knowledge
of citrus, vegetable industry necessary.
State experience, references, salary ex-
pected, etc., to Box 1537, Orlando, Florida.

61 W. Jefferson Street Orlando, Florida

Route Your Perishable Traffic












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September 1, 1930




the emulsion with

highest oil content


Culls don't count. It is the number
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There is no speculation in Floridoil.
It has the highest possible percentage
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it is sold under a guaranteed analysis.
Floridoil gives your fruit the best
protection-controls Scale and White
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highest percentage of SHERWIN
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In addition to Flor- at your I1
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Your local Sherwin-Williams dealer
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ulfur at all times.
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World's largest Manufacturers and Distributors
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September 1, 1930


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September 1, 1930


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