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 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Foreword
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Introduction
 Part I
 Part II
 Appendix














Florida statewide assessment of trainable mentally retarded technical report
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 Material Information
Title: Florida statewide assessment of trainable mentally retarded technical report
Series Title: Statistical report - Division of Public Schools' MIS
Physical Description: v. : ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Division of Public Schools. -- Assessment Section
Florida -- Bureau of Education for Exceptional Students
Florida State University -- Division of Sponsored Research
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Education
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Creation Date: 1975
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Students -- Rating of -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Children with mental disabilities -- Education -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Children with mental disabilities -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1975/76-
Issuing Body: Vols. for 1975/76- jointly issued by Florida Dept. of Education Assessment Section, and Bureau of Education for Exceptional Students and Florida State University Division of Sponsored Research.
General Note: At head of title, 1975/76- Florida statewide assessment program.
Funding: Statistical report (Florida. Division of Public Schools. Management Information Services)
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000087417
oclc - 05505247
notis - AAK2784
System ID: UF00075021:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Front Matter
        Bookplate
    Foreword
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    List of Tables
        Page iv
    Introduction
        Page v
    Part I
        Page 1
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Part II
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Appendix
        Page 44-a
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
Full Text
STATISTICAL REPORT
December 1975 Series 77-06


0





AS
Ga


Florida Statewide B
Assessment of E
TRAINABLE
MENTALLY
RETARDED

technical report
1975-1976


.FU2
F56
-561


















UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES












FOREWORD



The Trainable Mentally Retarded (TMR) students in Florida were

assessed for the first time as a part of the Florida Statewide Assess-

ment Program in 1976.

The TMR assessment was a joint effort among the Florida Department

of Education, Assessment Section and Bureau of Education for Exceptional

Students; and Florida State University, Division of Sponsored Research.

The authors of this report were from Florida State University and

included Dr. Jacob G. Beard and Mr. Stephen J. Zammit. The project

director for developing the TMR assessment instrument at Florida State

University was Dr. Jacob G. Beard and the project directors for the

Department of Education were Mrs. Virginia Cellon, Assessment Section,

and Mrs. Virginia Eaton, Bureau of Education for Exceptional Students.

Questions or comments about this report and requests for additional

information should be directed to the Florida Department of Education,

Division of Public Schools, Assessment Section, Tallahassee, Florida

32304, or by calling 904/488-8198.





















I '











TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page


FOREWORD . . . . ..
List of Tables . . . .
Introduction . . . . .


Part I


Background . . . . .
Description of the Instrument . . .
Reliability . . . . .
Description of the Intermediate TMR Population.
Results . . . . .
Audit . . . . . .


Part II


Student Performance by Sex . . .
Student Performance by Age . . .
Student Performance by Level of Retardation .
Student Performance by Race . . .
Type of School . . . .
Duration of TMR Enrollment . . .
Omitted Items . . . . .


. . 13
. . 15
. . 23
. . 31
. . 39
. . 41
. . 43


APPENDIX
Frequencies in Percent with Which Each of the Six Scale
Values Were Used for Each Item . . . .


. . iv
v
. . v


. 45









LIST OF TABLES


Page

1 Demographic Classifications of Students. . . 6

2 Summary of Student Performance by Item . . 9

3 Proportion of Agreement Between Teacher Ratings and Audit
Ratings. . . . . ... . 11

4 Level of Item Mastery by Sex . . . .. 13

5 Percentage Mastery for Items Where Results Differed by
Students' Sex. . . . . ... . 14

6 Level of Item Mastery by Age. . . . .. 16

7 Percentage Mastery for Items Where Results Differed by Age. 17

8 Level of Item Mastery by Degree of Retardation. . .. 24

9 Percentage of Students Mastering Each Item by Level of
Retardation . . . . ... .. .... .25

10 Level of Item Mastery by Race . . . .... .32

11 Percentage Mastering Each Item Where One Race Outperformed
Another . . . . ... . . 34

12 Percentage of Students at Each Retardation Level by Race. 38

13 Percentage of Students at Each Age by Race. . ... 39

14 Level of Item Mastery by Type of TMR School . ... 40

15 Level of Item Mastery by Length of Time in Program. ... 42

16 Frequency With Which Items Were Omitted . .... .44










FLORIDA STATE-WIDE ASSESSMENT OF

TRAINABLE MENTALLY RETARDED:

REPORT OF 1976 RESULTS


The purpose of this report is to describe the 1976 Assessment of

Trainable Mentally Retarded (TMR) Students. The instrument used in

the assessment was developed in 1975 and is based on 99 state-approved

objectives. The 1976 assessment program included TMR students who were

10-14 years of age, and enrolled in a Florida public school. The stu-

dents were observed and rated by their teachers on a six-category scale

assessing their performance on the 99 objective tasks. A small propor-

tion of the participating TMR school centers were the subject of a

follow-up audit study to determine the validity of the assessment

results.

This report will be divided into two parts. Part I will describe:

the development of the TMR assessment instrument, some characteristics

of the instrument, and of the tested population, some general results

obtained from the testing and implications of the audit results. Part

II will investigate student performance on the test by sex, age, level

of retardation, race and duration of enrollment in a TMR program, as

well as look at the frequency with which items were omitted from the

test.




v









PART I


Background

The Florida Legislature has expressed, in recent years, an increas-

ing interest in systematically measuring the achievement of Florida pub-

lic school students. The TMR assessment is a result of that concern and

an equally great concern on the part of the Department of Education (DOE).

The TMR assessment program is administered by the DOE's Assessment Section

in cooperation with the Bureau of Education for Exceptional Students.

The instrument used in the statewide assessment of TMR students is

based on the Catalog of Behavioral Objectives for Trainable Mentally

Retarded Students (1974) developed by the Duval County School Board under

a USOE-DHEW Title V1-B grant awarded through the Bureau of Education for

Exceptional Students, Florida Department of Education.

The Catalog was developed with the understanding that, upon approval,

it would be adopted for use throughout the state. Because it was to be

a state-wide program, major emphasis was placed on the broad-based vali-

dation of the objectives and the criteria associated with mastery of each

objective. The Catalog was produced with the cooperation of a large num-

ber of parents, teachers, and other professionals. The final product,

consisting of 869 objectives, covers three competency areas: social,

academic, and vocational. These three areas are subdivided into 33

skill areas or clusters. This catalog was designed to provide a frame-

work which would be the basis for Florida's TMR instructional program.








3

The objectives included in the Catalog were rated by a large num-

ber of parents, teachers, and community agency personnel, and ranked

in order of importance for the TMR student. They included objectives

for the whole spectrum of chronological and mental age range of the

TMR population. However, from an assessment standpoint, it is more

feasible to measure a narrower spectrum of the population. Thus, it

was decided to limit the target population for the initial assessment

to those TMR students who were 10-14 years old (intermediate) and to

those objectives identified as appropriate for TMR students at this

age level.

One hundred objectives were chosen from the total ranked set on

the basis of their importance ranking, their appropriateness for inter-

mediate level students, and their comprehensive but non-redundant

coverage of the competencies included in the Catalog. This list of

100 objectives, subsequently reduced to 99, was the basis for the TMR

assessment instrument.

Description of the Instrument

The TMR assessment instrument is a behavioral observation and

rating scale. A sample item is shown below:

11. USES KNIFE: Uses a fork 1 2 3 4 5 6
and knife to cut solid food.] l I -l ]1

All items contain a general statement of the behavior in capital

letters. The expanded statements in small letters have been devised

to either: (1) show the components of behavior that should be present

in order to mark one of the "completes" categories of the scale, or

(2) provide an example of the behavior.










Each of the six response categories is defined as follows:

1. COMPLETES INDEPENDENTLY: The student will initiate and com-
plete the behavior independently (i.e., without being asked or told)
in circumstances appropriate for the behavior.

2. COMPLETES WHEN ASKED: When asked, the student correctly per-
forms the complete behavior without cues or prompts during the perform-
ance.

3. COMPLETES WHEN PROMPTED OR CUED: The student performs the com-
plete behavior only if cued or prompted during the performance.

4. PARTIALLY COMPLETES: The student can only partially complete
behavior even if prompted or cued during the performance. This response
option includes those behaviors which are not whole and those which are
whole but not presented frequently enough or at the right times.

5. NO: The student cannot perform any part of the behavior even
if prompted or cued.

6. PHYSICALLY UNABLE: The student has a physical handicap that
completely rules out even attempting to perform the behavior.

Due to the wide range of behaviors on the TMR assessment instru-

ment, some response categories are inappropriate for some items. For

instance, many items require that the student be asked to perform a

task such as repeating words after the teacher. For such items, COM-

PLETES WHEN ASKED is appropriate, but the COMPLETES INDEPENDENTLY cate-

gory is inappropriate. Many of the inappropriate response options were

deleted by removing the corresponding "f from the scale.

Reliability

In order for a rating and observation scale such as the TMR assess-

ment instrument to be useful, the ratings of TMR students using it should

be reliable. That is, we should expect that assessments made of a par-

ticular student would not be substantially different if they were made

by another teacher or observer (inter-teacher reliability) or if they

were made at a different time (test-retest reliability).










A measure of inter-teacher reliability was obtained during a

field test of the instrument. Fifty-eight students were rated on

two different occasions by two teachers. In addition, twelve more

students were rated on one occasion by two teachers. Thus, 128 cases

were obtained where students were rated by two different teachers.

It was found that using the complete six-category scale the pairs of

teachers agreed with each other an average of 78% of the time. If

the first three categories were collapsed to give a general "com-

pletes" category, the four-category scale resulted in the pairs of

teachers agreeing an average of 89% of the time.

Test-retest reliability was measured by examining the 58 students

who were rated on two different occasions by two teachers. This pro-

cedure yielded 116 pairs of ratings. Utilizing the six-category scale,

a given teacher gave the same rating on two different occasions, an

average of 79% of the time. The average agreement increased to 89%

of the time when the collapsed four-category scale was used.

The foregoing findings indicate that the results of the instrument

were substantially the same when the instrument was administered by dif-

ferent persons and on different occasions.

Description of the Intermediate TMR Population

The 1976 administration of the TMR assessment instrument included

1742 students. These students were categorized by degree of retarda-

tion, chronological age, sex, racial origin, type of school attended,

duration of enrollment in a TMR program, and by the nature of other

physical disabilities which they might have. A breakdown of how many









6

students were classified into each level of each category is given

in Table 1.

Table 1

Demographic Classifications of Students


Classification Category

Degree of Retardation

Mild (69-55)

Moderate (54-40)

Severe (39-25)

Profound (24-0)

Information Not Given

Chronological Age

10 Years

11 Years

12 Years

13 Years

14 Years

Sex

Male

Female

Racial Origin

American Indian or Alaskan Native

Asian or Pacific Islander

Black, Not of Hispanic Origin


Number of
Students


116

938

503

65

120


256

326

382

401

377



975

767


1

4

659


Percent of the
Population


6.7

53.8

28.9

3.7

6.9



14.7

18.7

21.9

23.0

21.6


56

44


.1

.2

37.8


(Cont'd next page)









Table 1 (Cont'd)


Classification Category

White, Not of Hispanic Origin

Hispanic

Information Not Given

Type of School Attended

Regular

Special TMR Centers

Contractual

Information Not Given

Duration of Enrollment

Less than 4 Months

4 Months to 1 Year

1 Year to 4 Years

4 Years or More

Information Not Given

Other Disabilities

Impaired Hearing

Partially Sighted

Speech Disorder

Convulsive Disorder

Physical Disorder

Emotional Disorder


Number of Percent of the


Number of
Students

921

129

28



696

1,003

16

27



31

163

667

846

35



50

98

511

142

138

127


Percent of the
Population

52.9

7.4

1.6



40

57.6

.9

1.5



1.8

9.4

38.3

48.6

2



2.9

5.6

29.3

8.2

7.9

7.3










Results

Appendix A of this report contains a listing of each item of the

instrument. Next to each item the percent of students categorized in

each of the possible six response categories is given. In addition the

percent of students omitting the item is included. These are the basic

data from the assessment and will be of most importance and use to the

reader. Additional interpretative analyses are presented in the fol-

lowing pages and in Part II of this report.

A major function of the TMR assessment instrument is to identify

how many of the students can successfully perform each of the 99 given

tasks. In order to examine this question "mastery" of a task will be

defined as being able to complete the task independently, when asked,

or when cued or prompted; i.e., students who are rated in response

categories 1, 2, or 3 will be said to have mastered the task. The

following example shows the division of the scale into "mastery" and

"non-mastery" categories.

^~ J



A- P.


11. USES KNIFE: Uses a fork
and knife to cut solid 1 2 3 4 5 6 Omitted
food. O O O 0 0 I
"Mastery" "Non-Mastery"







9

Table 2 illustrates which items were mastered by 75% to 100% of the

students, 50% to 64% of the students, 25% to 50% of the students and 0%

to 25% of the students.1

Table 2

Summary of Student Performance by Item


Percentage Total Number
Mastering Items of Items

75 100 1-10, 12-19, 21-23, 25, 26, 29, 31, 38,
44-51, 53-59, 65, 66, 72-74, 79, 80 48

50 75 11, 27, 28, 30, 33-35, 37, 39-43, 52, 64,
67-71, 75-77, 88-90, 93 27

25 50 20, 32, 36, 60, 61, 78, 81, 91, 92, 94-96 12

0 25 24, 62, 63, 82-87, 97-99 12


Approximately half of the tasks were completed by 75% or more of

the students while 12, or eight percent, of the tasks were completed by

25% or fewer. By relating the item numbers of Table 2 to the item state-

ments in Appendix A, it is apparent that, with exceptions, the students

performed best on personal and social tasks, and least well on more ver-

bal tasks; for example, those requiring the comprehension of written

words. Mathematical concepts such as: selecting designated numbers



It is important to note that mastery levels indicated in Table 2
were based upon the entire population of students who were assessed with
the instrument, while mastery levels in all remaining tables will be based
only upon students for which responses were obtained. Students for which
an item was omitted or who were classified physically unable to achieve
a particular item, were omitted from the population when the percent of
students mastering the item was computed.







10

of objects, differentiating between more or less, telling time on the

hour, identifying coins, and naming coins were mastered by from 25%

to 50% of the students.

Audit

An audit procedure was designed to validate the teacher observa-

tions. The purpose of this procedure was to determine the relationship

between the teachers' assessments and those of a trained observer having

no prior knowledge of the children.

Seventeen TMR sites in twelve school districts were audited. These

sites were chosen to represent the major geographic locales in the state,

and to include various sizes of TMR facilities. The auditors were direc-

tors of TMR programs from adjacent districts.

Twenty items were used in the auditing procedure. A decision was

made to maximize the number of students used in the audit, hence only

four or five objectives were readministered to each student.

In the audit procedure one of the student's teachers administered the

items or set up the observation situation. The auditors observed and

evaluated the response but did not elicit the behavior themselves.

Table 3 indicates the proportion of agreement between the auditor

and the teacher for each of the 20 objectives using the "collapsed"

scale. Among students whose teachers rated them as masters of the

objective, there were 11 items where 90% or more of the auditors'

ratings agreed with the teachers' ratings, five items where 85% to

89% of the auditors' and teachers' ratings agreed; and one item each

where 77%, 72%, 65% and 44% of the ratings were in agreement.













Table 3

Proportion of Agreement Between Teacher Ratings and Audit Ratings

Number of Students Percentage Number of Students Percentage Number of Physically
Mastering Agreement Not Mastering Agreement Unable Students Overall
Teacher Audit Between the Teacher Audit Between the Teacher Audit Total No. Percentage
Objective Rating Rating Two Ratings Rating Rating Two Ratings Rating Rating of Ratings Agreement


38 Identifies own
clothing
40 Identifies objects
to avoid
42 Identifies objects
harmful if swallowed
57 Catches
58 Opens, closes doors
59 Grasps, picks up
an object
61 Writes name legibly
68 Produces three-word
phrase/sentence
71 Follows three-step
directions
73 Names body parts
76 Differentiates Between
Over & Under
78 Differentiates Between
Left & Right
80 States Whole Name
82 States Telephone
Number
88 Counts Orally (1-10)
90 Names Flashcard
Numerals (0-10)
92 Differentiates Between
More or Less
94 Tells Time on the
Hour
95 Identifies Coins
96 Names Coins


39 36


1 0
21 19






12

The proportion of agreement between teacher and auditor ratings was

less for students who were rated as non-masters by their teacher. There

was one item each where 90%, 87%, and 80% of the auditors' and teachers'

ratings agreed, three items where 72% to 78% agreed, five items where

63% to 68% agreed, three items where 50% to 58% and six items where

less than 50% agreed. The direction of these differences generally

indicates that auditors more often rated the tasks as being completed

than teachers.

There was little agreement between the teacher and the auditor when

the teacher rated a student physically unable. In almost every case,

the auditor rating failed to agree with the teacher rating. A further

examination of this discrepancy could be made by checking the identifi-

cation portion of the answer sheet to determine the "additional handi-

caps" for those students rated "physically unable" on one or more items.

Examining the consistency for the mastery, non-mastery, and physi-

cally unable categories of the scale, total agreement between teachers'

and auditors' ratings is generally high; 90% or greater for four items,

81% to 88% for five items, 73% to 78% for six items, and 60% to 69% for

five items. On the average, teachers' and auditors' ratings agreed

79% of the time over all categories for the 20 items.








PART II


Student Performance by Sex

An indication of which items were most frequently completed by

male and by female students can be obtained by examining Table 4.

Student proficiency is highest for those items at the 75% to 100%

mastery level and lowest for those at the 0% to 25% mastery level.

Table 4

Level of Item Mastery by Sex


MALE

Item Numbers

1-10, 12-19, 21-
23, 25, 26, 29,
31, 38, 44-46,
48-51, 53-59, 65,
66, 72-74, 79-80


Total No.
of Items


50 75 11, 27, 28, 30,
33-37, 39-43, 47,
52, 64, 67-71,
75-77, 88-90, 93


25 50 20, 32, 60, 61,
78, 81, 91, 92,
94-96

0 25 24, 62, 63,
82-87, 97-99


FEMALE

Item Numbers

1-10, 12-19, 21-
23, 25, 26, 29,
31, 38, 44-51,
53-59, 65, 66,
72-74, 76, 79,
80, 88

11, 20, 24, 27,
28, 30, 33-37,
39-43, 52, 61,
64, 67-71, 75,
77, 89-91, 93

32, 60, 62, 78,
81, 82, 92,
94-96

63, 83-87,
97-99


Table 5 contains a listing of all items for which the percentage

of male students mastering an item differed from the percentage of fe-

male students mastering the item by at least 5%. Female students out-


Percentage
Mastering
Each Item

75 100


Total No.
of Items









performed male students on 14 out of the 15 items listed. It is

interesting to note that seven of the items where females demon-

strated superior performance to males were related to the child's

aggressive tendencies, and three measured writing skills. These

results indicate that the female students tended to be less aggres-

sive than the male students and that the females tended to have

better handwriting skills than the males.

Table 5

Percentage Mastery for Items

Where Results Differed by Students' Sex


tem
nber


Item


20 Ties shoes

24 Demonstrates Menstrual Care

35 Grooms Hair

37 Hangs clothes on Hanger

45 Behaves in Safe Manner on
Playground

46 Pays Attention in Group
Situation

47 Avoids Physical Abuse of
Others

48 Avoids Verbal Abuse of
Others

49 Cooperates with Class Members

50 Obeys Explicit Rules

51 Respects, Cares for Property


Percent Mastering


Percent Mastering
Males Females

42.6 52.0 *

Not Appropriate 54.8

70.5 61.0

66.0 71.4 *


88.6


78.2


74.5


75.6

79.3

77.8

75.9


95.0 *


84.9 *


84.9 *


83.1

85.1

84.5

82.9


(Cont'd next page)


I
Nu


It
Nun









Table 5 (Cont'd)


Item Percent Mastering
Number Item Males Females

61 Writes Name Legibly 43.9 51.1 *

62 Writes Own Telephone Number
Legibly 19.2 27.4 *

63 Writes Own Street Address
Legibly 15.5 20.6 *

82 States Telephone Number 22.8 28.9 *


Indicates which sex demonstrated superior performance.

Student Performance by Age

Older students were able to satisfactorily complete more items than

younger students. Table 6 illustrates which tasks were most frequently

completed successfully by students in each age group tested. Proficiency

was demonstrated on 55 items by at least 75% of the 14-year-old students,

while between 75% 100% of 10-year-old students were proficient on only

37 items. The greatest increase in number of items mastered between two

successive ages occurred between 10 and 11-year-old students.














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17

Table 7 contains a listing of all items where at least one age

group outperformed at least one other age group; i.e., the percentage

of students mastering the item in one age group was at least 5%

greater than the percentage of students mastering the item in one

other age group. The 89 items included in the Table clearly show

the trend for older students to outperform younger students. Older

students tended to perform better on the remaining ten items also,

though differences in performance between age groups were small. The

small differences are caused mainly by the high degree of mastery

(75% 100% proficiency) in these tasks by even the younger students.
Table 7

Percentage Mastery for Items Where Results

Differed by Age


Item Percentage Mastering
Number Item 10 Years 11 Years 12 Years 13 Years 14 Years

1 Wipes food from
hands 80.9 88.9 88.9 91.9 92.0 *

2 Wipes food from
face 81.3 86.8 87.9 91.2 89.9

3 Blows nose 73.6 82.9 85.2 88.9 89.6 *

5 Washes, Dries face 71.5 78.0 81.8 83.3 86.3 *

6 Brushes teeth 74.7 83.2 81.6 84.6 86.6 *

8 Drinks from glass 92.5 95.7 97.6 95.7 98.7 *

9 Uses spoon 87.8 90.5 93.9 92.9 94.4 *

10 Uses fork 82.5 87.7 91.0 90.4 91.2 *

11 Uses knife 32.8 48.9 55.2 59.9 68.7 *

(Cont'd next page)









Table 7 (Cont'd)


Item Percentage Mastering
Number Item 10 Years 11 Years 12 Years 13 Years 14 Years


Uses napkin

Uses proper table
manners

Pulls up clothes

Puts on socks

Uses snaps


18 Uses buttons

19 Uses zipper

20 Ties shoes

21 Urinates appro-
priately

22 Reports sickness
or injury

23 Defecates appro-
priately

24 Demonstrates
menstrual care

26 Empties trash

27 Sweeps floor

28 Cleans sink

29 Opens container

30 Opens bottles

31 Open jars

32 Opens cans


84.6 88.6


75.4

86.0

72.4

71.3

70.9

76.2

26.0


81.3

90.5

79.8

85.0

83.8

87.0

32.3


85.7 91.0


76.5 82.9


81.8 90.1

Not
Appropriate

77.9 84.8

55.6 67.3

55.6 64.9

81.1 89.6*

38.4 46.8

73.2 85.5

21.3 27.9


(Cont'd next page)


89.4


83.9

91.5

84.0

83.7

84.8

88.0

49.7


93.1


84.7


91.3


50.8

88.2

69.3

64.6

89.4

54.6

82.7

35.0


90.5


85.3

94.6

87.2

87.0

87.4

94.7*

54.5


91.1


85.4


89.6


50.5

90.3

73.7

69.6

89.0

65.8*

86.1*

40.8


92.0*


88.2*

94.9*

88.2*

88.0*

87.8*

90.9

61.5*


95.2*


86.2*


93.9*


65.5*

89.5*

75.9*

74.2*

88.6

64.8

82.5

46.3*









Table 7 (Cont'd)


Item Percentage Mastering
Number Item 10 Years 11 Years 12 Years 13 Years 14 Years


33 Washes dishes


Hangs clothes

Grooms hair

Applies deodorant

Hangs clothes on
hanger

Identifies cloth-
ing appropriate
for weather
conditions

Identifies objects
to avoid

Identifies objects
harmful to eyes

Identifies objects
harmful if
swallowed

Passes sharp objects
safely

Behaves in safe man-
ner on playground

Pays attention in
group situations

Avoids physical
abuse of others

Cooperates with
class members


50 Obeys explicit
rules


43.5

55.4

53.6

46.8


56.6



42.2


38.8


54.0



45.6


63.9


84.0


82.0


75.8


82.0


72.6


54.2

60.5

65.0

52.9


63.1




56.1


57.5


67.8



58.7


74.5


91.3


78.5


76.6


81.2


79.3


56.9

61.0

66.8

62.7


70.7




56.3


59.8


69.8


65.3


67.9

69.2

74.1


73.0




61.4 *


68.4 *


72.2 *


63.0 68.7 *


72.8 74.6


92.0 94.2 *


79.2 82.5


78.2 80.7


79.6 84.7 *


81.0 84.2 *


(Cont'd next page)


70.8 *

71.8 *

72.4 *

77.6 *


73.8 *




59.1


65.1


68.8



66.0


78.7 *


92.8


83.7 *


82.7 *


81.6


83.5









Table 7 (Cont'd)


Item Percentage Mastering
Number Item 10 Years 11 Years 12 Years 13 Years 14 Years


51 Respects, cares
for property

52 Begins and contin-
ues work with a
minimum of super-
vision

55 Climbs stairs

56 Throws underhand

57 Catches

58 Opens, closes
doors

60 Dials Private Dial
Telephone

61 Writes Name Legibly

62 Writes Own Tele-
phone Number
Legibly

63 Writes Own Street
Address Legibly

64 Produces Ten Food
Words

65 Repeats five food
words after teacher

66 Identifies Ten
Food Words

67 Comprehends ten
food words

68 Produces Three
Word Phrase/
Sentences


73.2




60.2

78.3

83.7

81.1


92.8


15.5

26.0



8.4


6.0


58.6


81.3


67.5


50.2



42.3


77.3




64.2

83.0

89.0

83.8


94.8


23.3

36.8



15.0


11.6


71.0


85.7


73.7


64.1



50.8


78.4




64.6

87.5

90.7

85.9


96.8


35.0

49.1



20.4


16.5


73.9


90.4


78.3


66.2



54.7


81.5


73.6

86.8

92.2

88.9


97.0


41.7

52.3


27.9


20.9


79.7 *


92.6 *


84.8 *


72.8 *


82.1 *


73.9 *

89.6 *

90.5

86.5


98.1 *


46.4 *

62.5 *



36.5 *


28.7 *


75.3


87.7


82.1


72.3


57.7 57.0


(Cont'd next page)








Table 7 (Cont'd)


Item
Number Item

69 Repeats three word
phrase/sentences

70 Discriminates loud,
soft sounds

71 Follows three step
directions

72 Identifies major
body parts

73 Names body parts

74 Differentiates
between up & down

75 Differentiates
between front &
back

76 Differentiates be-
tween over & under

77 Differentiates be-
tween around &
through

78 Differentiates be-
tween left & right

79 Knows own sex

80 States whole name

81 States address

82 States telephone
numbers

83 Names ten flashcard
safety words

84 Comprehends ten
written safety words


Percentage Mastering
10 Years 11 Years 12 Years 13 Years 14 Years


51.8


55.5


55.8


85.5

76.3


69.3



64.3


63.6



57.0


38.7

82.3

76.9

18.4


9.7


3.3


6.0


64.3


67.7


66.4


91.0

80.7


81.2



72.5


71.2



72.8


47.2

92.0

84.4

23.7


17.8


7.1


11.1


64.4


69.6


68.8


89.9

83.6


79.2



72.6


70.7 68.9


78.1 74.1


74.4 69.2


93.9 *

87.2 *


90.4

84.3


83.6 81.7



77.8 77.4


78.5 76.2



75.5 74.1


52.7

90.1

83.6

39.3 *


23.9


8.6


13.3


52.9

92.7 *

87.0 *

37.4


32.3


11.3


21.5


77.2



74.3


53.5 *

87.5

85.6

45.1


37.7 *


14.5 *


25.0 *


(Cont'd next page)









Table 7 (Cont'd)


Item


Ite


Percentage Mastering
ars 11 Years 12 Years 13 Years 14 Years


Number Item 10 Ye

85 Names ten flashcard
public sign words 2.4

86 Comprehends ten
written public
sign words 3.2

87 Names five flash-
card public building
title words 1.6

88 Counts orally 59.5

89 Counts objects 48.4

90 Names flashcard
numerals 44.4

91 Selects designated
number of objects
from group 32.0

92 Differentiates be-
tween more or less 22.4

93 Differentiates be-
tween all-some-none 38.5

94 Tells time on hour 15.7

95 Identifies coins 25.6

96 Names coins 20.9

97 Reads five prices
under $1.00 6.4

98 Differentiates worth
of coins, currency 10.0

99 Makes change up to
50 cents .4


4.5


6.7


4.2

69.8

61.9


51.6


43.0


29.1


50.2

23.9

34.1

32.3


11.5


15.2


.9 2.4


9.2


12.9


8.1

81.4 *

74.0 *


12.4 *


17.6 *


11.3 *

76.4

70.9


6.9


8.4


5.8

73.6

65.0


61.6


51.4


34.7


57.4

35.4

43.9

41.3


19.7


21.8


56.8


42.2


66.3 *

37.3 *

48.7

44.1


23.5


26.0


4.2


60.3 *


45.0 *


63.2

37.2

50.8 *

50.8 *


30.5 *


33.2 *


7.7 *


* Indicates which age group demonstrated superior performance.


66.5 66.4









Student Performance by Level of'Retardation

The discrepancy between the number of items mastered is much

greater between students classified at different levels of retardation

than it was for students of different ages. Seventy-six items were

mastered by at least 75% of the students classified mildly retarded,

while 67, 30, and 4 items were mastered by at least 75% of the students

respectively classified at a moderate, severe and profound level of

retardation. Table 8 identifies the items on which a student at a

specific level of retardation is most likely to succeed. Table 9

indicates the frequencies with which items were mastered at each of

the four levels of retardation.
















Table 8


Level of Item Mastery by Degree of Retardation


Percentage MILD MODERATE SEVERE PROFOUND
Mastering Total No. Total No. Total No. Total No.
Each Item Item Number of Items Item Number of Items Item Number of Items Item Number of Items

75 100 1-19, 21-23, 25- 1-10, 12-19, 21-23, 1, 2, 4, 7-10, 12, 7, 8, 58, 59 4
31, 33-38, 40-59, 25-29, 31, 35-38, 14, 15, 19, 21, 23,
64-77, 79, 80, 41-59, 64-67, 69- 25, 26, 29, 38, 44,
88-91, 93 76 77, 79, 80, 88, 89 67 45, 47, 53-59, 65,
72, 79 30


50 75 20, 24, 32, 11, 20, 24, 30, 3, 5, 6, 13, 16-18, 9, 10, 12, 14,
39, 60, 61, 78, 33, 34, 39, 40, 22, 27, 31, 37, 43, 15, 25, 44-49 15
81, 92, 94-96 12 61, 68, 78, 90, 46, 48-51, 64, 66, 53-55
91, 93, 95, 96 16 69, 73, 74, 76, 77,
80, 88 26


25 50 62, 63, 82, 84, 32, 60, 62, 81, 11, 24, 28, 30, 33- 1-6, 13, 16-19,
86, 97, 98 7 82, 92, 94, 97, 36, 39-42, 52, 67, 21-23, 26, 29,
98 9 68, 70, 71, 75, 78, 31, 38, 43, 50-52,
89, 90, 93 22 56, 57, 65, 72, 79 27


0 25 83, 85, 87, 99 4 63, 83-87, 99 7 20, 32, 60-63, 81- 11, 20, 24, 27, 28,
87, 91, 92, 94-99 21 30, 32-37, 39-42,
60-64, 66-71, 73-
78, 80-99 53









Table 9

Percentage of Students Mastering

Each Item by Level of Retardation


Item Percentage Mastering
Number Item Mild Moderate Severe Profound

1 Wipes food from hands 98.3* 94.9 82.3 49.2

2 Wipes food from face 96.6* 94.1 79.9 45.3

3 Blows nose 95.7* 93.0 74.2 40.3

4 Washes, dries hands 99.1* 95.2 83.9 46.0

5 Washes, dries face 96.5* 89.0 69.0 27.0

6 Brushes teeth 94.0* 91.5 71.1 33.3

7 Eats solid finger food 100.0* 98.4 96.4 92.2

8 Drinks from glass 100.0* 97.9 94.4 82.8

9 Uses spoon 97.4* 96.0 86.9 67.2

10 Uses fork 94.0 95.3* 80.0 54.7

11 Uses knife 76.6* 67.5 30.7 19.3

12 Uses napkin 98.3* 95.1 81.6 56.3

13 Uses proper table manners 91.3* 90.5 74.8 39.1

14 Pulls down clothes 97.3 98.4* 88.4 66.1

15 Pulls up clothes 96.5 97.1* 84.3 63.9

16 Puts on socks 95.6* 91.9 70.3 35.1

17 Uses snaps 93.1 93.9* 69.7 39.7

18 Uses buttons 95.7* 93.4 70.0 37.9

19 Uses zipper 95.7* 94.4 80.8 43.3

20 Ties shoes 70.3* 62.1 20.2 1.8

(Cont'd next page)










Table 9 (Cont'd)


Item Percentage Mastering
Number Item Mild Moderate Severe Profound


(Cont'd next page)


21 Urinates appropriately 99.1* 96.7 86.1 48.4

22 Reports sickness or
injury 96.6* 93.0 71.6 29.5

23 Defecates appropri-
ately 98.2* 96.2 82.9 47.5

24 Demonstrates menstrual
care 69.6* 63.1 39.8 6.7

25 Picks up things, puts
them away 94.8 96.0* 87.1 61.9

26 Empties trash 93.8* 93.7 76.9 48.1

27 Sweeps floor 91.0* 80.4 50.7 21.2

28 Cleans sink 87.4* 79.2 46.6 20.3

29 Opens container 99.1* 94.9 77.5 38.2

30 Opens bottles 84.1* 65.6 34.8 17.3

31 Opens jars 94.3* 90.0 70.5 40.4

32 Opens cans 62.7* 44.5 17.2 5.6

33 Washes dishes 79.6* 71.8 38.5 14.0

34 Hangs clothes 81.1* 74.7 47.2 17.3

35 Grooms hair 80.0 80.2* 44.3 21.1

36 Applies deodorant 79.5* 77.4 45.4 15.2

37 Hangs clothes on
hanger 85.0* 78.9 50.7 21.1

38 Identifies own clothing 99.1* 98.2 84.5 40.6

39 Identifies clothing
appropriate for
weather conditions 73.9* 67.1 39.4 11.3








Table 9 (Cont'd)


Item Percentage Mastering
Number Item Mild Moderate Severe Profound

40 Identifies Objects to
avoid 80.9* 73.4 35.7 9.8

41 Identifies Objects
Harmful to Eyes 87.0* 83.5 41.6 13.1

42 Identifies Objects
harmful if swallowed 89.5* 77.6 33.3 8.2

43 Passes sharp objects
safely 88.8* 82.7 59.6 32.3

44 Gets on and off
school bus safely 97.3 98.3* 91.4 73.2

45 Behaves in safe manner
on playground 95.6* 94.7 86.3 73.8

46 Pays attention in
group situations 86.1 89.2* 69.5 53.8

47 Avoids physical abuse
of others 75.0 82.5* 75.7 62.5

48 Avoids verbal abuse
of others 78.4 82.3* 74.8 63.8

49 Cooperates with class
members 87.1 88.3* 73.9 55.4
50 Obeys explicit rules 88.6* 87.8 71.6 43.8

51 Respects, cares for
property 88.8* 87.6 67.1 37.1

52 Begins and continues
work with a minimum
of supervision 76.7 78.9* 50.3 29.7
53 Walks 94.7* 92.7 81.3 61.1

54 Runs 92.8* 91.9 80.8 54.7


(Cont'd next page)








Table 9 (Cont'd)


Item Percentage Mastering
Number Item Mild Moderate Severe Profound

55 Climbs stairs 90.1 91.8* 76.7 50.9

56 Throws underhand 92.8 95.7* 83.3 45.8

57 Catches 87.8 91.7* 77.6 48.3

58 Opens, closes doors 95.7 98.3* 95.2 75.0

59 Grasps, picks up an
object 99.1* 98.6 97.4 87.5

60 Dials private-dial
telephone 70.0* 44.7 10.2 0.0

61 Writes name legibly 74.8* 63.3 17.5 0.0

62 Writes own telephone
number legibly 43.6* 31.4 5.2 0.0

63 Writes own street
address legibly 30.1* 24.6 3.9 0.0

64 Produces ten food
words 89.7* 85.5 52.9 11.3

65 Repeats five food
words after teacher 96.6* 96.3 78.1 32.1

66 Identifies ten
food words 87.9 91.8* 60.0 21.7

67 Comprehends ten
food words 89.5 81.4 41.6 14.8

68 Produces three-word
phrase/sentences 83.3* 66.9 27.7 4.0

69 Repeats three-word
phrase/sentences 90.4* 77.4 40.3 9.8

70 Discriminates loud,
soft sounds 88.7* 85.7 45.0 13.1

(Cont'd next page)









Table 9 (Cont'd)


Item Percentage Mastering
Number Item Mild Moderate Severe Profound

71 Follows three-step
directions 90.5* 79.6 46.1 16.1

72 Identifies major
body parts 98.3* 96.7 83.3 46.8

73 Names body parts 98.3* 93.5 67.4 23.2

74 Differentiates between
up and down 98.3* 92.0 60.3 21.9

75 Differentiates between
front and back 93.1* 88.3 50.4 18.8

76 Differentiates between
over and under 95.7* 85.7 54.6 18.0

77 Differentiates between
around and through 88.7* 83.5 52.6 15.9

78 Differentiates between
left and right 69.3* 60.4 33.6 11.1

79 Knows own sex 98.3* 97.4 80.5 33.3

80 States whole name 96.6* 94.8 69.6 23.6

81 States address 52.6* 45.9 10.3 0.0

82 States telephone
numbers 45.9* 35.1 5.8 0.0

83 Names ten flashcard
safety words 22.8* 12.0 2.2 2.0

84 Comprehends ten
written safety words 35.1* 20.8 5.1 0.0

85 Names ten flashcard
public sign words 16.8* 9.8 1.9 0.0

86 Comprehends ten
written public sign
words 26.5* 12.9 3_2 n n


--~-


S.VV









Table 9 (Cont'd)


Item Percentage Mastering
Number Item Mild Moderate Severe Profound

87 Names five flashcard
public building title
words 13.5* 8.1 2.2 0.0

88 Counts orally 92.2* 86.3 52.3 13.5

89 Counts objects 89.6* 79.9 39.9 7.7

90 Names flashcard numerals 84.5* 72.9 34.6 2.0

91 Selects designated num-
ber of objects from
group 80.2* 65.4 21.7 1.7

92 Differentiates between
more or less 56.5* 46.8 15.7 1.7

93 Differentiates between
all-some-none 82.3* 73.0 27.7 5.1

94 Tells time on hour 57.5* 41.3 11.6 0.0

95 Identifies coins 68.7* 55.7 16.9 3.4

96 Names coins 64.3* 52.2 14.6 3.7

97 Reads five prices
under $1.00 46.0* 25.4 3.8 0.0

98 Differentiates worth
of coins, currency 48.7* 30.7 4.2 0.0

99 Makes change up to
50 cents 9.9* 3.9 .6 0.0


* Indicates which group demonstrated superior performance.








Student Performance by Race

Table 10 illustrates which items were mastered most frequently by

students from each of the three major race classifications which were

tested. Since only five students were classified in a race other than

Black, Hispanic or White, they were omitted from discussion in this

section. The results indicate a change from what would be expected.

On most achievement tests, where race is investigated, whites out-

perform Blacks consistently. Examination of the 75% to 100% mastery

level in Table 10 reveals 43 items were mastered at this level by

Hispanic students, 49 items by White students and 52 items were mas-

tered by Blacks; hence, Blacks outperformed Hispanic and White students.
















Table 10


Level of Item Mastery by Race


Percentage BLACK HISPANIC WHITE
Mastering Total No. Total No. Total No.
Each Item Item Numbers of Items Item Numbers of Items Item Numbers of Items

75 100 1-10, 12-19, 21-23, 1-5, 7-10, 12-15, 17-19, 1-10, 12-19, 21-23, 25,
25-27, 29, 31, 38, 21, 23, 25, 26, 29, 31, 26, 29, 31, 38, 44-51,
43-51, 53-59, 65, 38, 44-51, 53-59, 65, 53-59, 65, 66, 72-74,
66, 72-74, 76, 79, 72, 79, 80 42 76, 79, 80 49
80, 88 52

50 75 11, 20, 24, 28, 30, 6, 16, 22, 27, 28, 35- 11, 24, 27, 28, 30, 33-
33-37, 39-42, 52, 37, 39, 43, 52, 64, 37, 39-43, 52, 64, 67-
61, 64, 67-71, 75, 66, 70, 71, 73-77, 71, 75, 77, 78, 88-90,
77, 89-91, 93, 95, 88-90 23 93 29
96 30

25 50 32, 60, 78, 81, 92, 11, 20, 24, 30, 32-34, 20, 32, 60, 61, 81, 82,
94, 98 7 40-42, 61, 67-69, 78, 91, 92, 94-96 11
81, 91-93, 95 20

0 25 62, 63, 82-87, 97, 60, 62, 63, 82-87,
99 10 94, 96-99 14 62, 63, 83-87, 97-99 10









Table 11 examines the percentage of students that successively

completed an item, by race. Items were included in Table 11 only if

the percentage of students mastering the item was at least 5% more for

one race than it was for one or both of the other two races. Hispanic

students performed less well than Blacks and Whites on all 72 items

listed. White students performed best on 18 items, while Black students

performed best on 54 items. There are 25 items in Table 11 where Black

and White students differed by at least 5 percentage points. Black

students outperformed White students on 22 out of the 25 items.








Table 11

Percentage Mastering Each Item

Where One Race Outperformed Another


Item Percentage Mastering
Number Item Black Hispanic White

1 Wipes food from hands 92.4* 88.9 87.3

2 Wipes food from face 91.8* 83.3 86.2

5 Washes, dries face 84.6* 81.1 78.5

11 Uses knife 58.2* 38.5 53.8

12 Uses napkin 91.0* 84.3 89.0

13 Uses proper table manners 86.2* 79.7 82.2

14 Pulls down clothes 94.6* 88.9 94.4

15 Pulls up clothes 93.1* 84.9 92.4

16 Puts on socks 86.2* 71.0 83.0

17 Uses snaps 86.0* 80.5 82.9

18 Uses buttons 87.2* 79.2 82.0

19 Uses zipper 92.0* 78.4 87.0

20 Ties shoes 58.2* 35.0 40.8

22 Reports sickness or injury 84.5 74.2 84.6*

23 Defecates appropriately 91.9* 86.5 89.3

24 Demonstrates menstrual care 53.8* 48.3 52.0

26 Empties trash 88.9* 83.7 86.1

27 Sweeps floor 77.0* 65.6 64.9

28 Cleans sink 72.2* 57.5 64.5

(Cont'd next page)








Table 11 (Cont'd)


Item Percentage Mastering
Number Item Black Hispanic White

29 Opens container 89.6* 82.8 87.9

30 Opens bottles 63.7* 42.3 50.5

31 Opens jars 87.1* 75.2 80.3

32 Opens cans 44.4* 31.3 28.6

33 Washes dishes 67.0* 34.7 57.9

34 Hangs clothes 70.3* 50.0 60.9

35 Grooms Hair 64.1 60.5 69.3*

36 Applies deodorant 70.3* 51.2 65.0

37 Hangs clothes on hanger 74.7* 58.1 65.2

38 Identifies own clothing 92.0 84.9 92.6*

39 Identifies clothing appro-
priate for weather conditions 56.0 50.4 57.3*
40 Identifies objects to avoid 62.4* 48.4 59.3

41 Identifies objects harmful
to eyes 70.6* 44.3 68.6

42 Identifies objects harmful
if swallowed 63.6* 40.8 63.3

43 Passes sharp objects safely 76.2* 70.2 72.4

48 Avoid verbal abuse of others 76.5* 75.2 80.8

53 Walks 89.7* 83.2 87.1

54 Runs 90.1* 77.6 85.7

55 Climbs stairs 88.6* 81.0 84.0

56 Throws underhand 91.9* 86.3 89.1

(Cont'd next page)









Table 11 (Cont'd)


Item Percentage Mastering
Number Item Black Hispanic White

57 Catches 89.9* 80.6 83.6

60 Dials private-dial telephone 35.3* 20.5 35.0

61 Writes name legibly 50.7* 29.8 47.2

62 Writes own telephone number
legibly 21.6 17.4 24.3*

63 Writes own street address
legibly 17.1 10.7 18.8*
64 Produces ten food words 73.5 60.5 74.4*

65 Repeats five food words
after teacher 89.9* 83.7 87.9

66 Identifies ten food words 76.9 59.5 81.9*

67 Comprehends ten food words 67.0 46.8 69.0*

68 Produces three word phrase/
sentences 57.9* 33.9 52.9

69 Repeats three word phrase/,
sentences 72.6* 47.5 61.9

70 Discriminates loud, soft
sounds 72.9* 56.3 70.5

71 Follows three-step directions 69.2* 54.2 68.8

72 Identifies major body parts 90.4 79.4 92.8*

73 Names body parts 84.4* 68.5 84.2

74 Differentiates between up
and down 80.4 70.9 80.5*

75 Differentiates between
front and back 74.5 58.3 75.4*

76 Differentiates between
over and under 75.7 54.8 75.9*

(Cont'd next page)








Table 11 (Cont'd)


Item_ Percentage Mastering
Number Item Black Hispanic White

77 Differentiates between
around and through 72.9 53.6 73.9*

78 Differentiates between
left and right 49.8 44.0 51.2*

79 Knows own sex 89.5 81.6 90.5*

81 States address 35.7* 26.9 34.2

82 States telephone numbers 22.6 19.7 28.6*

88 Counts orally 75.9* 69.0 72.6

91 Selects designated number
of objects from group 52.0* 42.6 50.3

92 Differentiates between
more or less 38.7* 29.3 35.0

93 Differentiates between
all-some-none 61.0* 39.8 56.1

94 Tells time on hour 30.5 16.1 34.2*

95 Identifies coins 55.7* 26.9 34.7

96 Names coins 54.0* 22.7 31.1

97 Reads five prices under
$1.00 20.4* 7.6 20.3

98 Differentiates worth of
coins, currency 31.0* 11.8 17.8
99 Makes change up to 50 cents 6.9* 0 1.2


Indicates which group demonstrated superior performance
on the item.








Two possible explanations-seem feasible for the better performance

by Black students: (1) the distribution of Black students over levels of

retardation is such that a disproportionate number of Blacks is classi-

fied at one of the milder retardation levels, and/or (2) the distribution of

Black students over age is such that a disproportionate number of Blacks

fall in the older age groups. It is important to investigate these dis-

tributions, since it has been shown that students suffering from milder

retardation handicaps tend to perform better than students who are more

severely retarded, and that older students perform better than younger

students.

Table 12 gives the percentage of students at each retardation

level by race. Hispanic students were more frequently classified

severely or profoundly retarded, White students were more frequently

classified mildly retarded, but Black students maintained an almost

constant percentage through the four retardation levels.

Table 12

Percentage of Students at Each

Retardation Level by Race


Level of Retardation
Race Mild Moderate Severe Profound

Hispanic 2.6 5.6 10.3 12.5

White 62.1 54.8 52.5 51.6

Black 35.3 39.6 37.2 35.9








Table 13 gives the percentage of students at each age by race.

It is clear that the proportion of students from each race varies

very little for the five age groups.

Table 13

Percentage of Students at Each Age by Race

AGE
Race 10 Years 11 Years 12 Years 13 Years 14 Years

Hispanic 7.2 7.9 7.4 8.4 6.7

White 57.4 53.3 53.8 52.9 53.1

Black 35.5 38.7 38.8 38.7 40.2


The results indicate neither level of retardation nor age seem to

be the reason Black students outperformed White students.

Type of School

The frequencies with which each of the items were successfully com-

pleted by students attending each one of the three types of TMR programs

are given in Table 14. A comparison between the contractual schools and

regular or special schools is not appropriate since only 16 of the state's

TMR students were enrolled in contractual schools. However, examination

of the items mastered in regular schools and those mastered in special

TMR schools indicates almost identical performance by the students.















Table 14


Level of Item Mastery by Type of TMR School


Percentage REGULAR SCHOOL SPECIAL SCHOOL CONTRACTUAL SCHOOL
Mastering Total No. Total No. Total No.
Each Item Item Numbers of Items Item Numbers of Items Item Numbers of Items

75 100 1-10, 12-19, 21-23, 25, 1-10, 12-19, 21-23, 25, 4, 5, 7-10, 14-19, 21,
26, 29, 31, 38, 43-51, 26, 29, 31, 38, 44-51, 23, 29, 31, 44, 53, 55,
53-59, 65, 66, 72-74, 53-59, 65, 66, 72-74, 56, 58, 59, 72, 74, 79 25
79, 80, 88 50 76, 79, 80 49

50 75 11, 27, 28, 30, 33-37, 11, 24, 27, 28, 30, 33-37, 1-3, 6, 11-13, 22, 25-27,
39-42, 52, 64, 67-71, 39-43, 52, 64, 67-71, 35, 38-40, 45-52, 54, 57,
75-77, 89, 90, 93 26 75,77, 88-91, 93 29 65, 66, 73, 28

25 50 20, 24, 32, 60, 61, 20, 32, 60, 61, 78, 81, 20, 28, 33, 34, 36, 37,
78, 81, 82, 91, 92, 82, 92, 94-96 11 41-43, 61, 64, 67-71, 75,
94-96 13 77, 78, 80, 88-93, 94, 95 28

0 25 62, 63, 83-87, 97-99 10 62, 63, 83-87, 97-99 10 24, 30, 32, 60, 62, 63,
76, 81-87, 96-99 18








Duration of TMR Enrollment

Table 15 presents the frequency with which items were mastered by

students who had been in a TMR program for different lengths of time.

Examination of the total number of items mastered at the 75% to 100%

level reveals students enrolled less than four months mastered 65

items, and as duration of enrollment increased to the one to four

year ranges the number of items mastered decreased to 47. For stu-

dents enrolled longer than four years, 52 items were mastered at the

75% to 100% level. The reason for this initially unexpected phenome-

nom can be seen by examining the nature of students in each duration-

of-enrollmeht range. Only 31 students had been enrolled less than

four months, 163 had been enrolled four months to one year, 667 had

been enrolled one year to four years, and 846 had been enrolled more

than four years. Further analyses of the 31 students in the less

than four month enrollment period indicates 20 were classified in

the moderately retarded group, four in the severely retarded group

and four were not classified on level of retardation. Students who

had been enrolled for longer periods of time tended to be more

heavily concentrated under the moderate and severe retardation cate-

gories. Hence, it appears the 31 students who were enrolled for less

than four months were retarded less than the group as a whole. It is

possible that many of these students had been functioning at a mar-

ginal EMR level and had been only recently identified as a TMR

student.














Table 15

Level of Item Mastery by Length of Time in Program


Percentage Less Than 4 Months 4 Months to 1 Year 1 Year to 4 Years 4 Years or More
Mastering Total No. Total No. Total No. Total No.
Each Item Item Numbers of Items Item Numbers of Items Item Numbers of Items Item Numbers of Items


75 100 1-10, 12-19, 21-23, 1-10, 12-19, 21-23, 1-10, 12-19, 21-23, 1-10, 12-19, 21-23,
25-31, 33-39, 41, 25, 26, 29, 31, 36, 25, 26, 29, 31, 38, 25, 26, 29, 31, 38,
42, 44-46, 53-59, 38, 41, 43-51, 53- 44-51, 53-59, 65, 44-51, 53-59, 64-66,
64-67, 69-73, 74- 59, 64-66, 70, 71- 72-74, 79, 80 47 72-76, 79, 80, 88 52
77, 79, 80, 88, 77, 79, 80, 88, 89 59
89, 90 65

50 75 11, 20, 32, 40, 43, 11, 20, 24, 27, 28, 27, 28, 33-37, 39- 11, 24, 27, 28, 30,
47-52, 61, 68, 78, 30, 33-35, 37, 39, 43, 52, 64, 66-71, 33-37, 39-43, 52,
91-93, 95, 96 19 40, 42, 52, 61, 67- 75-77, 88, 89, 90 26 67-71, 77, 78, 89-
69, 78, 90, 91, 93, 91, 93 27
95, 96 24

25 50 24, 60, 62, 63, 81, 32, 60, 62, 81, 82, 11, 20, 24, 30, 32, 20, 32, 60, 61, 81,
82, 94, 97, 98 9 92, 94, 97, 98 9 60, 61, 78, 81, 82, 92, 94-96 10
91-96 15

0 25 83-87, 99 6 63, 83-87, 99 7 62, 63, 82-87,
97-99 11 62, 63, 83-87, 97-99 10








A comparison between students enrolled in a TMR program from one

year to four years with those enrolled for four years or more could

also be misleading. The students enrolled from one year to four years

naturally tended to be younger than the students who had been enrolled

four years or more. Looking at Table 15, one might observe that 52

items were mastered by 75% to 100% of the students enrolled four years

or more while 47 items were mastered by 75% to 100% of the students
enrolled from one year to four years. It is unclear whether this

difference in number of items mastered is related to the age of the

student or the length of time the student had been in the program.

In summary, if Table 15 is used to compare item mastery between

the four durations of time in a TMR program, then misleading conclu-

sions will result. Future comparisons of this nature should control
for the students age and level of retardation.

Omitted Items

Table 16 illustrates how many students were not rated on each item.

The results are encouraging in that 84 of the 99 items were omitted for
less than 26 of the 1742 students. The items omitted by 26 to 43 people,

include such tasks as cleans sink, opens container, washes dishes, dials

private telephone number, writes own telephone number legibly, states

telephone number, selects designated number of objects and tells time

on the hour. Items 34 and 93 were omitted by 57 and 47 people, respec-
tively. They required the student to hang clothes and to differentiate

between all, some and none. Items requiring the use of a knife and

fork, which are not commonly used in TMR lunchrooms, and the opening
of cans (11 and 32) were omitted by 65 and 67 students, respectively.











Frequency


Percentage
of Students
Omitting
the Item

0



1



2


3

4

5 or more


Table 16

With Which Items Were Omitted


Number of
Students
Omitting
the Item

0 8



9 25



26 43


The three most frequently omitted items; 24, 30, and 36 were omitted

by 502, 99 and 509 students, respectively. Item 24 demonstrates menstrual

care was omitted heavily for males. These omissions were caused by a

failure to properly follow the test administration procedures. Male

students were supposed to be coded physically unable for item 24.

Many females were omitted for this item also. In many instances,

this was probably due to the female not being mature enough for the

item to be appropriate; these students should also have been coded

physically unable. Item 30 requires the student to open bottles and

item 36 requires the application of deodorant.


Total
Number
of Items


Item

1, 2, 4, 7-10, 12, 15, 21-23,
25, 26, 40, 41, 43-49, 52-54,
58, 59, 61, 63-69, 72-74, 88

3, 5, 6, 13, 14, 16-20, 27,
31, 35, 37-39, 42, 50, 51,
55-57, 70, 71, 75-81, 83-87,
89, 90, 92, 95-99

28, 29, 33, 60, 62, 82, 91,
94

93, 34

11, 32

24, 30, 36


- 60

- 78

or more



























APPENDIX


Frequencies in Percent with Which Each

of the Six Scale Values were Used for Each Item








Appendix


Frequencies in Percent with Which Each of
Each Item.


Completes Independently
Completes When Asked
Completes When Cued
or Prompted


1. WIPES FOOD FROM HANDS:
Uses a paper towel or napkin
to wipe all food from hands.

2. WIPES FOOD FROM FACE:
Uses a paper towel or napkin
to wipe all food from face.

3. BLOWS NOSE: Takes a tissue,
blows nose, wipes nose clean.

4. WASHES, DRIES HANDS: Turns
on water, works soap over
hands, rinses all soap from
hands, turns off water, dries
hands completely with towel.

5. WASHES, DRIES FACE: Turns on
water, applies water to face,
works soap over face, rinses
face and hands with water,
turns off water, dries face
and hands completely with
towel.

6. BRUSHES TEETH: Places tooth-
paste on brush, brushes teeth,
rinses and dries mouth.

7. EATS SOLID FINGER FOODS: Uses
fingers to pick up solid food
from plate, places it in mouth,
chews, swallows.

8. DRINKS FROM GLASS: Drinks
liquid from a glass at least
half full without dribbling
or spilling.

9. USES SPOON: Uses a spoon to
scoop up liquid and/or soft
food, puts it into mouth with-
out spilling or dropping.


the Six Scale Values Were Used for


4. Partially Completes
5. No
6. Physically Unable
7. The item was omitted
1 2 3 4 5 6 7


59 20 10 9 1 0 0



51 25 11 11 1 0 0


53 20 11 11 4 0 1




61 17 11 9 1 1 0






44 20 16 15 3 0 1


45 24 13 12 5 1 1



92 4 2 2 0 0 0



90 4 2 3 1 1 0


82 6 4 7 1 0 0








1 2 3 4 5 6 7


10. USES FORK. Uses a fork to
separate, spear, or scoop an
appropriate amount of solid
or semi-solid food, puts it
in mouth without spilling or
dropping.

11. USES KNIFE: Uses a fork and
knife to cut solid food.

12. USES NAPKIN: Opens a napkin
and either places it in lap
or under chin before starting
to eat or drink.

13. USES PROPER TABLE MANNERS.

14. PULLS DOWN CLOTHES: Pulls
down and completely and cor-
rectly removes garment.

15. PULLS UP CLOTHES: Pulls up
and completely and correctly
removes garment.

16. PUTS ON SOCKS: Puts on and
adjusts sock on each foot so
that they fit smoothly.


73 9 6 9 2 1 0


23 13 15 16 26 3 4



38 37 14 4 7 0 0
40 25 18 12 5 0 1



80 7 5 5 1 1 1


78 8 5 6 1 1 0


61 11 10 12 4 2 1


17. USES SNAPS:
completely
on clothes


Snaps and unsnaps
and correctly snaps
while wearing.


67 10 5 8 8 2 1


18. USES BUTTONS: Buttons and
unbuttons clothing while
wearing.

19. USES ZIPPER: Zips and unzips
an undetachable zipper on
clothing while wearing.

20. TIES SHOES: Ties laces se-
curely with a bow knot on
shoes while wearing.

21. URINATES APPROPRIATELY:
Closes door of bathroom,
unzips or pulls down clothing,
urinates into toilet bowl,
uses appropriate amount of
tissue, flushes toilet,
adjusts clothing, washes
and dries hands.


68 9 5 8 8 1 1


73 9 5 6 5 1 1


39 4 3 12 40 3 1


73 11 7 7 1 1 0








1 ,... ... ... 64


22. REPORTS SICKNESS OR INJURY
TO PERSON IN AUTHORITY:
Communicates that he/she is
sick or hurt and indicates
the location of illness or
injury.

23. DEFECATES APPROPRIATELY:
Closes door of bathroom,
unzips or pulls down cloth-
ing, defecates into toilet
bowl, uses appropriate
amount of tissue, flushes
toilet, adjusts clothing,
washes and dries hands.

24. DEMONSTRATES MENSTRUAL CARE:
Removes soiled sanitary
napkin when necessary, wraps
it in paper, disposes of it,
puts on clean napkin correctly.

25. PICKS UP THINGS, PUTS THEM
AWAY: Picks up scattered
objects, places in desig-
nated spots.

26. EMPTIES TRASH: Empties con-
tents of wastebasket into
central receptacle without
spilling trash on ground or
floor.

27. SWEEPS FLOOR: Sweeps floor
with broom, sweeps dirt into
dustpan, empties into waste
container.

28. CLEANS SINK: Applies cleanser,
scrubs with sponges rinses un-
til all cleanser and dirt are
gone.

29. OPENS CONTAINER


30. OPENS BOTTLES. Uses a bottle
opener to remove top from
bottle without spilling 6cn-
tents.


66 12 5


6 10


1 0


72 10 7 8 2 1 0




8 1 2 2 8 50 29


36 37 1


5 3 1 0


33 39 13 8 5 3 0


21 27


19 20


9 3 1


16 22 26 22 11 2 2

70 10 5 6 6 2 2


25 14 12 12


. 5 6. 7


28 3 6










31. OPENS JARS: Removes lid from
jar without spilling contents.

32. OPENS CANS: Uses a manual can
opener to remove lid without
spilling contents.

33. WASHES DISHES: Prepares water,
washes, rinses, and places
dishes in drainer without
breaking.

34. HANGS CLOTHES: Hangs clothes
on clothesline, pins garments
securely with clothespins.

35. GROOMS HAIR: Uses hair care
tools appropriately.

36. APPLIES DEODORANT: Applies
deodorant to underarm,
restricting coverage to
underarm.

37. HANGS CLOTHES ON HANGER:
Places clothes on hanger
right side out, straightens
and fastens clothes on hanger,
hangs hanger on clothesrack.

38 IDENTIFIES OWN CLOTHING.

39. IDENTIFIES CLOTHING APPRO-
PRIATE FOR WEATHER CON-
DITIONS.

40. IDENTIFIES OBJECTS TO AVOID

41. IDENTIFIES OBJECTS HARMFUL
TO EYES.

42. IDENTIFIES OBJECTS HARMFUL
IF SWALLOWED.

43. PASSES SHARP OBJECTS SAFELY:
Passes blunt end to another
person without injury to
self or person receiving
object.


1 2 3 4 5 6 7


50 22 8 7 10 2 1



13 7 13 17 43 4 4



17 18 22 20 19 2 2



24 22 15 15 18 2 3


31 19 15 18 15 1 1



17 19 11 7 16 1 29




31 19 17 19 12 1 1

75 11 5 5 4 0 1


* 42 13 26 17 1 1

* 44 14 20 20 1 0


* 56 10 15 17 1 0


* 49 11 16 22 2 1




30 21 22 7 19 1 0


* This response was not appropriate for the item.









44. GETS ON AND OFF SCHOOL BUS
SAFELY: Uses hand rail and
does not fall.

45. BEHAVES IN SAFE MANNER ON
PLAYGROUND: Stays within
boundaries and safely uses
equipment.

46. PAYS ATTENTION IN GROUP SITU-
ATIONS: Pays attention while
participating in a group.

47. AVOIDS PHYSICAL ABUSE OF
OTHERS: e.g., avoids with-
drawing, hitting, pushing,
spitting, obscene gestures,
frowning.

48. AVOIDS VERBAL ABUSE OF OTHERS:
e.g., apologizes, avoids
swearing, ridicule, strange
noises, screaming.

49. COOPERATES WITH CLASS MEMBERS:
Participates positively in
group activities.

50. OBEYS EXPLICIT RULES.

51. RESPECTS, CARES FOR PROPERTY:
e.g., asks before using prop-
erty, returns borrowed items
in good condition, picks up
litter, cleans work area.

52. BEGINS AND CONTINUES WORK
WITH A MINIMUM OF SUPERVISION:
e.g., works without excessive
redirection, reassurance, con-
stant help or teacher time.

53. WALKS: Swings arms appropri-
ately, feet are straight and
land on heels, maintains
proper balance.

54. RUNS: Moves arms and feet
with body inclined forward;
maintains balance while
running.


1 2 3 4 5 6 7


81 8 4 3 1 2 0



59 20 11 6 2 1 0



35 25 21 13 5 0 0




46 20 13 12 9 0 0



47 19 12 11 10 1 0


41 23 18 13 5 0 0

31 28 20 13 6 0 1




33 28 17 13 8 1 1




30 18 20 16 16 0 0



77 5 3 9 3 4 0


74 6 3 10 3 4 0








1 2 3 4 5 6 7


55. CLIMBS STAIRS: Walks up and
down stairs, one step at a
time, alternating feet with-
out stumbling.

56. THROWS UNDERHAND: Throws a
playground ball underhand
using both hands, or a soft-
ball, using one hand.


72 5 5 9 4 3 1


63 16 8 6 4 2 1


57. CATCHES: C
ball when b
to him/her.


atches a large
ounced or thrown


65 12 6 10 4 2 1


58. OPENS, CLOSES DOORS: When
entering or leaving a room,
opens and closes the door
using the handle or door-
knob.

59. GRASPS, PICKS UP AN OBJECT:
Picks up an object and hands
it to the teacher without
dropping it.

60. DIALS PRIVATE DIAL TELEPHONE:
Given a written phone number,
picks up receiver, listens
for dial tone, and dials all
digits in order.

61. WRITES NAME LEGIBLY: First
and last names from memory.

62. WRITES OWN TELEPHONE NUMBER
Writes, from memory, own num-
ber or number to call in an
emergency.

63. WRITES OWN STREET ADDRESS
LEGIBLY: Writes, from
memory, sufficient address
to locate student or respon-
sible person; e.g., in rural
areas, P.O. number or town
name.

64. PRODUCES TEN FOOD WORDS.

65. REPEATS FIVE FOOD WORDS AFTER
TEACHER.


81 12 3 3 1 1 0



84 11 3 2 0 0 0




15 6 12 12 51 2 2


37 5 4 17 35 2 0



15 4 3 6 69 2 2






11 3 4 12 68 2 0

* 61 9 15 11 4 0


* 82 3 5 6 3 0


* This response was not appropriate for the item.









66. IDENTIFIES TEN FOOD WORDS WHEN
SPOKEN BY THE TEACHER.

67. COMPREHENDS TEN FOOD WORDS WHEN
SPOKEN BY THE TEACHER.

68. PRODUCES THREE WORD PHRASE/
SENTENCES.

69. REPEATS THREE WORD PHRASE/
SENTENCES.

70. DISCRIMINATES LOUD, SOFT SOUNDS.

71. FOLLOWS THREE-STEP DIRECTIONS.

72. IDENTIFIES 'MAJOR BODY PARTS:
When asked, points to head,
arm, leg, stomach, hand, and
foot.

73. NAMES BODY PARTS: When teacher
indicates major body parts, the
student can name them; e.g.,
arms, legs, head, hand, foot,
stomach, eye, ear, nose, mouth,
hair, finger, toe, teeth.

74. DIFFERENTIATES BETWEEN UP AND
DOWN.

75. DIFFERENTIATES BETWEEN FRONT
AND BACK.

76. DIFFERENTIATES BETWEEN OVER
AND UNDER.

77. DIFFERENTIATES BETWEEN AROUND
AND THROUGH: e.g., when asked,
goes around or through a box
or cylinder.


78. DIFFERENTIATES BETWEEN
AND RIGHT: e.g., when
holds up right or left
or foot.

79. KNOWS OWN SEX.


LEFT
asked,
hand


1 2 3 4 5 6 7


* 68 8 14 7 1 0


* 55 10 22 11 1 0


* 40 11 18 26 4 0


* 52 10 18 16 4 0

* 60 8 10 19 2 1

* 54 13 17 14 1 1



* 83 6 6 4 1 0





* 73 .8 10 7 3 0


* 72 7 11 9 0 0


* 63 10 13 13 1 1


* 62 11 12 14 1 1



* 58 12 13 15 1 1



* 39 10 11 38 1 1

* 83 5 2 8 0 1


* This response was not appropriate for the item.









80. STATES WHOLE NAME: When asked,
states first and last names
correctly.

81. STATES ADDRESS: When asked,
states correctly number of
house and street name or suf-
ficient directions for someone
to get to his/her home.

82. STATES TELEPHONE NUMBER: States
own number or number to call in
emergency.

83. NAMES TEN FLASHCARD SAFETY WORDS.

84. COMPREHENDS TEN WRITTEN SAFETY
WORDS.

85. NAMES TEN FLASHCARD PUBLIC
SIGN WORDS.

86. COMPREHENDS TEN WRITTEN PUBLIC
SIGN WORDS.

87. NAMES FIVE FLASHCARD PUBLIC
BUILDING TITLE WORDS.

88. COUNTS ORALLY (1-10): When
asked, counts in order from
1 to 10.

89. COUNTS OBJECTS (1-10): When
shown ten objects, counts
each in order without count-
ing the same one twice or
without omitting an object.

90. NAMES FLASHCARD NUMERALS
(0-10):

91. SELECTS DESIGNATED NUMBER OF
OBJECTS FROM GROUP: Selects
any designated number of
objects (1-12) from a group
of twelve objects.

92. DIFFERENTIATES BETWEEN MORE
OR LESS.


1 2 3 4 5 6 7



73 8 7 9 3 1




26 7 17 46 4 1



21 3 7 63 4 2

6 3 32 55 4 1


9, 7 33 47 3 1


4 3 26 61 4 1


6 4 30 57 3 1


4 2 10 79 4 1



65 6 11 15 3 0




* 56 8 14 20 2 1


* 52 5 16 24 3 1




* 41 7 17 31 1 2


* 26 8 19 43 1 1


* This response was not appropriate for the item.









93. DIFFERENTIATES BETWEEN ALL-
SOME-NONE.

94. TELLS TIME ON HOUR. Uses a
clock to state correct time
to nearest hour.

95. IDENTIFIES COINS: With coins
(one of each) on a table, can
indicate the coin named by
the teacher.

96. NAMES COINS: When shown coins
(one of each) and asked, can
name each correctly.

97. READS FIVE PRICES UNDER $1.00.

98. DIFFERENTIATES WORTH OF COINS,
CURRENCY.

99. MAKES CHANGE UP TO 50 CENTS.


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

* 45 9 16 26 1 3


* 23 6 10 56 3 2



* 36 5 20 36 2 1


* 33 5 21 38 3 1

* 15 4 11 66 4 1


* 17 5 15 60 2 1

* 2 1 4 89 3 1


* This response was not appropriate for the item.








Date Due











4r