• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Authors
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Figures
 List of Tables
 List of symbols
 Introduction
 Research objectives
 Facilities and instrumentation
 Experimental procedure
 Results
 Conclusions
 Bibliography
 Appendix A and B missing (pages...
 Appendix C: Experimental data
 Experiment 1
 Experiment 2
 Experiment 3
 Experiment 4
 Experiment 5
 Experiment 6
 Experiment 7
 Experiment 8
 Experiment 9
 Experiment 10
 Experiment 11
 Experiment 12
 Experiment 13
 Experiment 14
 Appendix D: Recommended experimental...
 Appendix E: Impact of suspended...






Group Title: Technical report – University of Florida. Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Program ; 131
Title: Clearwater local sediment scour experiments
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075014/00001
 Material Information
Title: Clearwater local sediment scour experiments
Series Title: Technical report – University of Florida. Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Program ; 131
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Sheppard, Donald Max
Odeh, Mufeed
Glasser, Tom
Affiliation: University of Florida -- Gainesville -- College of Engineering -- Department of Civil and Coastal Engineering -- Coastal and Oceanographic Program
Publisher: Dept. of Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering, University of Florida
Publication Date: 2002
 Subjects
Subject: Coastal Engineering
Scour at bridges   ( lcsh )
University of Florida.   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Notes
Funding: This publication is being made available as part of the report series written by the faculty, staff, and students of the Coastal and Oceanographic Program of the Department of Civil and Coastal Engineering.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075014
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Authors
        Section
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    List of Figures
        List of Figures 1
        List of Figures 2
        List of Figures 3
        List of Figures 4
        List of Figures 5
        List of Figures 6
        List of Figures 7
        List of Figures 8
        List of Figures 9
        List of Figures 10
    List of Tables
        List of Tables
    List of symbols
        Section
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Research objectives
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Facilities and instrumentation
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Experimental procedure
        Page 12
        Page 11
    Results
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Conclusions
        Page 18
        Page 17
    Bibliography
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Appendix A and B missing (pages 25-35)
        Page 25
    Appendix C: Experimental data
        Page 36
    Experiment 1
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Experiment 2
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Experiment 3
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Experiment 4
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Experiment 5
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
    Experiment 6
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Experiment 7
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
    Experiment 8
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
    Experiment 9
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
    Experiment 10
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
    Experiment 11
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
    Experiment 12
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
    Experiment 13
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
    Experiment 14
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
    Appendix D: Recommended experimental procedure
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
    Appendix E: Impact of suspended sediment on local scour
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
Full Text




UFL/COEL-TRI131


CLEARWATER LOCAL SEDIMENT SCOUR EXPERIMENTS







by






D. Max Sheppard
Mufeed Odeh
Tom Glasser


April 2002
























AUTHORS


D. Max Sheppard, PhD
Professor of Civil and Coastal Engineering Department
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611
Sheppard@ufl.edu

Mufeed Odeh, PhD
Hydraulics Research Engineer
U.S. Geological Survey-BRD, Environmental Hydraulics Laboratory
Turners Falls, Massachusetts 01376
odehm@exteral.umass.edu

Tom Glasser, MS
Hydraulics/Coastal Engineer
Ocean Engineering Associates, Inc.
Gainesville, Florida 32605
Tom@oea-inc.com

















CLEARWATER LOCAL SEDIMENT SCOUR EXPERIMENTS


by:

D. Max Sheppard,
Mufeed Odeh,
Tom Glasser


April 2002










TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section Page

LIST OF FIGURES ..................................................................................................... iv

LIST OF TABLES ........................................................................................................... xiv

LIST OF SYM BOLS .................................................................................................. xv

CLEARWATER LOCAL SEDIMENT SCOUR EXPERIMENTS................................. 1
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 1
Research Objectives ............................................................................................. 2
Facilities and Instrum entation ................................................... ......................... 3
Facilities ....................................................................................................... 3
Instrum entation ............................................................................................ 6
Experim ental Procedure .................................................... ............................... 11
Pre-experim ent ....................................................... .................................. 11
During experim ent ....................................................... ............................ 12
Post-experim ent.......................................................................................... 12
Results ...................................................................................................................... 12
Conclusions ........................................................................................................ 17

BIBLIO GRAPHY ....................................................................................................... 19


Appendices Page

A TEST FA CILITIES ........................................................................................... 25

B. IN STRUM EN TA TION ....................................................................... ................ 29
V elocity M easurem ent ....................................... .............. .........................29
W ater Level M easurem ent ................................... .........................................30
An AC2626K Temperature Measurement ................................................30
A acoustic Transponders........................................................... ...................30
V ideo M easurem ents................................. ................ ................................32
M easurem ent Setup........................................ ................ ...........................35

C. EXPERIM EN TA L DATA ..................................................... .......................... 36
Experim ent 1 ...............................................................................................37
Experim ent 2............................................................................................... 44
Experim ent 3 ...............................................................................................52
Experim ent 4............................................................................................... 64
Experim ent 5 ............................................................................................... 73
Experim ent 6 ............................................................................................... 82
Experim ent 7 ............................................................................................... 91
Experim ent 8 .............................................................................................103
Experim ent 9 .................................................................................13










Experiment 10.........................................................................................125
Experiment 11 ...........................................................................................138
Experiment 12...........................................................................................148
Experiment 13 ...........................................................................................161
Experiment 14...........................................................................................174

D. RECOMMENDED EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE ...................................... 187
Pre-experiment ..........................................................................................190
During Experiment..................................................................................193
Post-experiment ..................................................... ............................. 194

E. IMPACT OF SUSPENDED SEDIMENT ON LOCAL SCOUR........................ 196









LIST OF FIGURES


Figure 1. The USGS-BRD Conte Anadromous Fish Research Center in
Turners Falls, M assachusetts. ................................................ ...........3

Figure 2. Schematic drawing of the flume used for this research...........................4

Figure 3. Isometric drawing of the flume illustrated in Figure 2 ............................5

Figure 4. Experimental setup showing the instrumentation
bridge/platform ...................................................... ............................. 6

Figure 5. Schematic drawing of the local scour depth measuring
instrum ents......................................................................................... 7

Figure 6. Internal video cameras and housing for the 0.114 m (4.5 in)
diam eter cylinder. ............................................................. ................... 8

Figure 7. Internal video cameras and housing for the 0.305 m (1 ft)
diam eter cylinder. ............................................................. ................... 8

Figure 8. Watertight video camera housing for the 0.915 m (3 ft) diameter
cylinder. ...............................................................................................9

Figure 9. Diagram of the acoustic transponder array used for the 0.915 m
(3 ft) diam eter cylinder. .......................................................................9

Figure 10. Acoustic transponder arrays on the 0.915 m (3 ft) diameter
cylinder viewed from upstream. ..................................................... ......10

Figure 11. Acoustic transponder arrays on the 0.114 m (4.5 in) diameter
cylinder viewed from above.....................................................................10

Figure 12. Diagram of the measuring system used during the experiments ..............11

Figure 13. Graph illustrating the impact of suspended fine sediment on
equilibrium local scour depths under clearwater scour
conditions. Experiment A experienced a sudden increase in
suspended fine sediment about 10 hours into the test.
Experiment B was with the same sediment and structure but
with a slightly higher velocity and a deeper water depth. In the
Experiment B Adjusted plot the data for Experiment B has been
analytically adjusted to the flow conditions of Experiment A
(with the exception of the suspended fine sediment)...............................14









Figure 14. Measured versus predicted (using Equation 6) equilibrium scour
depths for the clearwater data obtained during this research and
for data from other researchers [Sheppard et al. (2002), Jones,
J.S. (2000), Melville, B.W. and Chiew, Y.M. (1999), Chabert, J.
& Engeldinger, P (1956), Ettema, R. (1980), Chiew, Y.M.
(1984)].................................................................................................. 18

Figure A- 1. The USGS-BRD Conte Anadromous Fish Research Center
located in Turners Falls, M a. .................................................................25

Figure A- 2. Schematic drawing of the flume in which the tests were
conducted. .......................................... .................. ..............................26

Figure A- 3. Isometric drawing of the flume illustrated in Figure A-2........................26

Figure A- 4. Photographs of the test flume at various stages of setup and use..............28

Figure B- 1. Detailed schematic of the acoustic transponder arrays used for
the sm all structures. ................................................. .......................... 31

Figure B- 2. Detailed schematic of the acoustic transponder arrays used for
the large structure...................................................... ......................... 31

Figure B- 3. Schematic of the local scour depth measuring devices............................32

Figure B- 4. The internal cameras for the 0.114 m (4.5 in) diameter cylinder ............33

Figure B- 5. The internal cameras for the 0.305 m (1 ft) diameter cylinder.................33

Figure B- 6. The sealed internal cameras for the 0.905 m (3 ft) diameter
cylinder. ................................................................................................34

Figure B- 7. Photographs of the forward-looking internal cameras positioned
inside the 0.114 m (4.5 in) and 0.305 m (1 ft) diameter
w atertight cylinders.................................... ............................................34

Figure B- 8. Diagram of the measuring system used during the experiments .............35

Figure C- 1. Measured velocity and water depth for experiment 1.............................38

Figure C- 2. Measured local scour data from the internal video camera for
experim ent 1....................................... .................. ..............................38

Figure C- 3. Curve fit to the local scour data measured with the acoustic
transponder data for experiment 1. ....................................................39

Figure C- 4. Bed elevation contours at completion of experiment 1
referenced to the original bed. All dimensions are in meters .................40

Figure C- 5. Experiment 1 (D = 0.114 m, D50= 0.22 mm) before test........................42









Figure C- 6.

Figure C- 7.

Figure C- 8.

Figure C- 9.


Figure C- 10.


Figure C- 11.


Figure C- 12.

Figure C- 13.

Figure C- 14.

Figure C- 15.

Figure C- 16.

Figure C- 17.

Figure C- 18.

Figure C- 19.


Figure C- 20.


Figure C- 21.


Figure C- 22.

Figure C- 23.

Figure C- 24.

Figure C- 25.

Figure C- 26.

Figure C- 27.

Figure C- 28.


Experiment 1 (D = 0.114 m, D50 = 0.22 mm) before test........................42

Experiment 1 (D = 0.114 m, D50= 0.22 mm) after test...........................43

Measured velocity and water depth for experiment 2.............................45

Measured local scour data from the internal video camera for
experim ent 2......................................... ................ ..............................45

Curve fit to the local scour data measured with the internal
video camera for experiment 2. ............................................................46

Bed elevation contours at completion of experiment 2
referenced to the original bed. All dimensions are in meters .................47

Experiment 2 (D = 0.305 m, D50 = 0.22 mm) before test........................49

Experiment 2 (D = 0.305 m, Ds0 = 0.22 mm) before test........................49

Experiment 2 (D = 0.305 m, D50 = 0.22 mm) after test...........................50

Experiment 2 (D = 0.305 m, D50 = 0.22 mm) after test...........................50

Experiment 2 (D = 0.305 m, D50 = 0.22 mm) after test...........................51

Experiment 2 (D = 0.305 m, D50 = 0.22 mm) after test...........................51

Measured velocity and water depth for experiment 3 .............................53

Measured local scour data from the internal video camera for
experim ent 3................................................................ .......................53

Curve fit to the local scour data measured with the acoustic
transponder data for experiment 3. ....................................................54

Bed elevation contours at completion of experiment 3
referenced to the original bed. All dimensions are in meters. .................55

Experiment 3 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 0.80 mm) before test........................60

Experiment 3 (D = 0.915 m, Ds0= 0.80 mm) before test........................60

Experiment 3 (D = 0.915 m, Dso = 0.80 mm) before test ........................61

Experiment 3 (D = 0.915 m, Do = 0.80 mm) after test...........................61

Experiment 3 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 0.80 mm) after test...........................62

Experiment 3 (D = 0.915 m, Dso= 0.80 mm) after test...........................62

Experiment 3 (D = 0.915 m, D50 = 0.80 mm) after test...........................63









Figure C- 29.


Figure C- 30.

Figure C- 31.


Figure C- 32.


Figure C- 33.


Figure C- 34.

Figure C- 35.

Figure C- 36.

Figure C- 37.

Figure C- 38.

Figure C- 39.

Figure C- 40.

Figure C- 41.

Figure C- 42.

Figure C- 43.


Figure C- 44.


Figure C- 45.


Figure C- 46.

Figure C- 47.

Figure C- 48.

Figure C- 49.

Figure C- 50.

Figure C- 51.


Experiment 3 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 0.80 mm) during point
gauging................................................................................................. 63

Measured velocity and water depth for experiment 4.............................65

Measured local scour data from the internal video camera for
experim ent 4......................................... ................ ..............................65

Curve fit to the local scour data measured with the internal
video cameras for experiment 4............................................................66

Bed elevation contours at completion of experiment 4
referenced to the original bed. All dimensions are in meters. .................67

Experiment 4 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 0.80 mm) before test........................69

Experiment 4 (D = 0.915 m, D5o = 0.80 mm) before test........................69

Experiment 4 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 0.80 mm) after test...........................70

Experiment 4 (D = 0.915 m, D50 = 0.80 mm) after test...........................70

Experiment 4 (D = 0.915 m, D50 = 0.80 mm) after test...........................71

Experiment 4 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 0.80 mm) after test...........................71

Experiment 4 (D = 0.915 m, D5o = 0.80 mm) after test...........................72

Experiment 4 (D = 0.915 m, Do = 0.80 mm) after test...........................72

Measured velocity and water depth for experiment 5. ............................74

Measured local scour data from the internal video camera for
experim ent 5................................................................ .......................74

Curve fit to the local scour data measured with the acoustic
transponder data for experiment 5. ....................................................75

Bed elevation contours at completion of experiment 5
referenced to the original bed. All dimensions are in meters ..................76

Experiment 5 (D = 0.305 m, Dso = 0.80 mm) before test........................78

Experiment 5 (D = 0.305 m, Do = 0.80 mm) before test........................78

Experiment 5 (D = 0.305 m, D50= 0.80 mm) before test........................79

Experiment 5 (D = 0.305 m, D50 = 0.80 mm) after test...........................79

Experiment 5 (D = 0.305 m, D50= 0.80 mm) after test...........................80

Experiment 5 (D = 0.305 m, Ds0 = 0.80 mm) after test...........................80









Figure C- 52.

Figure C- 53.

Figure C- 54.


Figure C- 55.


Figure C- 56


Figure C- 57.

Figure C- 58.

Figure C- 59.

Figure C- 60.

Figure C- 61.

Figure C- 62.

Figure C- 63.

Figure C- 64.

Figure C- 65.


Figure C- 66.


Figure C- 67.


Figure C- 68.

Figure C- 69.

Figure C- 70.

Figure C- 71.

Figure C- 72.

Figure C- 73.

Figure C- 74.

Figure C- 75.


Experiment 5 (D = 0.305 m, D50 = 0.80 mm) after test...........................81

Measured velocity and water depth for experiment 6.............................83

Measured local scour data from the internal video camera for
experim ent 6................................................................ .......................83

Curve fit to the local scour data measured with the acoustic
transponder data for experiment 6. ....................................................84

Bed elevation contours at completion of experiment 6
referenced to the original bed. All dimensions are in meters ................85

Experiment 6 (D = 0.114 m, Dso= 0.80 mm) before test........................87

Experiment 6 (D = 0.114 m, D50 = 0.80 mm) before test........................87

Experiment 6 (D = 0.114 m, D50 = 0.80 mm) after test...........................88

Experiment 6 (D = 0.114 m, D50 = 0.80 mm) after test...........................88

Experiment 6 (D = 0.114 m, Do = 0.80 mm) after test...........................89

Experiment 6 (D = 0.114 m, Dso= 0.80 mm) after test...........................89

Experiment 6 (D = 0.114 m, D5o= 0.80 mm) after test...........................90

Measured velocity and water depth for experiment 7 .............................92

Measured local scour data from the internal video cameras for
experim ent 7....................................... .................. ..............................92

Curve fit to the local scour data measured with the internal
video cameras for experiment 7............................................................93

Bed elevation contours at completion of experiment 7
referenced to the original bed. All dimensions are in meters ..................94

Experiment 7 (D = 0.915 m, Ds0 = 2.90 mm) before test........................98

Experiment 7 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 2.90 mm) before test........................98

Experiment 7 (D = 0.915 m, Dso= 2.90 mm) before test........................99

Experiment 7 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 2.90 mm) before test........................99

Experiment 7 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 2.90 mm) after test .........................100

Experiment 7 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 2.90 mm) after test...........................100

Experiment 7 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 2.90 mm) after test.........................101

Experiment 7 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 2.90 mm) after test.........................101









Figure C- 76.

Figure C- 77.

Figure C- 78.

Figure C- 79.


Figure C- 80.


Figure C- 81.

Figure C- 82.

Figure C- 83.

Figure C- 84.

Figure C- 85.

Figure C- 86.

Figure C- 87.

Figure C- 88.

Figure C- 89.

Figure C- 90.


Figure C- 91.


Figure C- 92.

Figure C- 93.

Figure C- 94.

Figure C- 95.

Figure C- 96.

Figure C- 97.

Figure C- 98.

Figure C- 99.


Experiment 7 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 2.90 mm) after test.........................102

Experiment 7 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 2.90 mm) after test.........................102

Measured velocity and water depth for experiment 8...........................104

Measured local scour data from the internal video camera for
experim ent 8........................................ ................. ............................104

Curve fit to the local scour data measured with the acoustic
transponder data for experiment 8 ...................................................105

Experiment 8 (D = 0.915 m, Dso= 2.90 mm) before test......................109

Experiment 8 (D = 0.915 m, D50 = 2.90 mm) before test......................109

Experiment 8 (D = 0.915 m, Do50 = 2.90 mm) before test......................10

Experiment 8 (D = 0.915 m, Do50 = 2.90 mm) after test.........................110

Experiment 8 (D = 0.915 m, D50 = 2.90 mm) after test.........................11

Experiment 8 (D = 0.915 m, Dso = 2.90 mm) after test.........................111

Experiment 8 (D = 0.915 m, Dso= 2.90 mm) after test.........................12

Experiment 8 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 2.90 mm) after test.........................12

Measured velocity and water depth for experiment 9...........................14

Measured local scour data from the internal video camera for
experim ent 9.............................................................................................114

Curve fit to the local scour data measured with the internal
video cameras for experiment 9.............................................................115

Experiment 9 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 2.90 mm) before test......................121

Experiment 9 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 2.90 mm) after test.........................21

Experiment 9 (D = 0.915 m, D50 = 2.90 mm) after test.........................122

Experiment 9 (D = 0.915 m, Dso= 2.90 mm) after test.........................122

Experiment 9 (D = 0.915 m, Do50 = 2.90 mm) after test...........................123

Experiment 9 (D = 0.915 m, D50 = 2.90 mm) after test.........................123

Experiment 9 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 2.90 mm) after test......................... 124

Experiment 9 (D = 0.915 m, Dso= 2.90 mm) after test......................... 124


Figure C- 100. Measured velocity and water depth for experiment 10.........................126









Figure C- 101. Measured local scour data from the internal video camera for
experim ent 10...................................... ................. ............................126

Figure C- 102. Curve fit to the local scour data measured with the internal
video cameras for experiment 10.....................................................127

Figure C- 103. Experiment 10 (D = 0.915 m, Dso= 2.90 mm) before test....................134

Figure C- 104. Experiment 10 (D = 0.915 m, Do0= 2.90 mm) before test....................134

Figure C- 105. Experiment 10 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 2.90 mm) after test.......................135

Figure C- 106. Experiment 10 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 2.90 mm) after test.......................135

Figure C- 107. Experiment 10 (D = 0.915 m, Dso= 2.90 mm) after test.......................136

Figure C- 108. Experiment 10 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 2.90 mm) after test.......................136

Figure C- 109. Experiment 10 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 2.90 mm) after test.......................137

Figure C- 110. Experiment 10 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 2.90 mm) after test.......................37

Figure C- 111. Measured velocity and water depth for experiment 11 .........................139

Figure C- 112. Measured local scour data from the internal video cameras for
experim ent 11............................................................... .................... 139

Figure C- 113. Curve fit to the local scour data measured with the internal
video camera for experiment 11. .....................................................140

Figure C- 114. Experiment 11 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 2.90 mm) before test....................144

Figure C- 115. Experiment 11 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 2.90 mm) before test....................144

Figure C- 116. Experiment 11 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 2.90 mm) after test.......................145

Figure C- 117. Experiment 11 (D = 0.915 m, D5o= 2.90 mm) after test.......................145

Figure C- 118. Experiment 11 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 2.90 mm) after test.......................46

Figure C- 119. Experiment 11 (D = 0.915 m, Dso= 2.90 mm) after test....................... 146

Figure C- 120. Experiment 11 (D = 0.915 m, Do = 2.90 mm) after test.......................47

Figure C- 121. Experiment 11 (D = 0.915 m, D50 = 2.90 mm) after test.........................147

Figure C- 122. Measured velocity and water depth for experiment 12.........................149

Figure C- 123. Measured local scour data from the internal video cameras for
experim ent 12...................................... ................. ............................149

Figure C- 124. Curve fit to the local scour data measured with the internal
video camera for experiment 12. .....................................................150









Figure C- 125. Velocity profile for experiment 12 taken at the end of the
experiment. All dimensions are in meters and the velocity is in
m eters / second.........................................................................................151

Figure C- 126. Bed elevation contours at completion of experiment 12
referenced to the original bed. All dimensions are in meters..............152

Figure C- 127. Experiment 12 (D = 0.305 m, D50= 0.22 mm) before test....................156

Figure C- 128. Experiment 12 (D = 0.305 m, D50= 0.22 mm) during the test.............156

Figure C- 129. Experiment 12 (D = 0.305 m, D50= 0.22 mm) after test.......................157

Figure C- 130. Experiment 12 (D = 0.305 m, D50= 0.22 mm) after test.......................157

Figure C- 131. Experiment 12 (D = 0.305 m, D50= 0.22 mm) after test.......................158

Figure C- 132. Experiment 12 (D = 0.305 m, D50= 0.22 mm) after test.......................158

Figure C- 133. Experiment 12 (D = 0.305 m, Dso= 0.22 mm) after test.......................159

Figure C- 134. Experiment 12 (D = 0.305 m, Do0= 0.22 mm) after test.......................159

Figure C- 135. Experiment 12 (D = 0.305 m, D50= 0.22 mm) after test.......................160

Figure C- 136. Measured velocity and water depth for experiment 13.........................162

Figure C- 137. Measured local scour data from the internal video cameras for
experim ent 13............................................................. ...................... 162

Figure C- 138. Curve fit to the local scour data measured with the internal
video camera for experiment 13. .....................................................163

Figure C- 139. Velocity traverse across the flume at the 0.09 m elevation above
the bed for experiment 13. ...................................................................164

Figure C- 140. Bed elevation contours at completion of experiment 13
referenced to the original bed. All dimensions are in meters ...............165

Figure C- 141. Experiment 13 (D = 0.305 m, Dso= 0.22 mm) before test....................169

Figure C- 142. Experiment 13 (D = 0.305 m, D50= 0.22 mm) before the test .............169

Figure C- 143. Experiment 13 (D = 0.305 m, D50= 0.22 mm) during test....................70

Figure C- 144. Experiment 13 (D = 0.305 m, Dso= 0.22 mm) during the test............170

Figure C- 145. Experiment 13 (D = 0.305 m, D50= 0.22 mm) after test.......................171

Figure C- 146. Experiment 13 (D = 0.305 m, Dso= 0.22 mm) after the test.................171

Figure C- 147. Experiment 13 (D = 0.305 m, D50= 0.22 mm) after test.......................172










Figure C- 148. Experiment 13 (D = 0.305 m, D50= 0.22 mm) after the test.................172

Figure C- 149. Experiment 13 (D = 0.305 m, D50= 0.22 mm) after the test.................73

Figure C- 150. Measured water depth for experiment 14..............................................175

Figure C- 151. Measured local scour data from the internal video cameras for
experim ent 14...................................... ................. ................ ............175

Figure C- 152. Curve fit to the local scour data measured with the acoustic
transponder data for experiment 14. ............................................... ....176

Figure C- 153. Bed elevation contours at completion of experiment 14
referenced to the original bed. All dimensions are in meters ..............177

Figure C- 154. Velocity profiles taken at the center of the flume, 0.46 m East of
center and 0.46 m West of flume center on 6/29/2001.......................... 178

Figure C- 155. Velocity profiles taken at the center of the flume, 0.46 m East of
center and 0.46 m West of flume center on 7/11/2001..........................178

Figure C- 156. Experiment 14 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 0.22 mm) before test....................181

Figure C- 157. Experiment 14 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 0.22 mm) before the test...............181

Figure C- 158. Experiment 14 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 0.22 mm) after test.......................82

Figure C- 159. Experiment 14 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 0.22 mm) after the test.................182

Figure C- 160. Experiment 14 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 0.22 mm) after test.......................183

Figure C- 161. Experiment 14 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 0.22 mm) after the test.................183

Figure C- 162. Experiment 14 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 0.22 mm) after test.......................184

Figure C- 163. Experiment 14 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 0.22 mm) after the test.................184

Figure C- 164. Experiment 14 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 0.22 mm) after test.......................85

Figure C- 165. Experiment 14 (D = 0.915 m, D50= 0.22 mm) after the test.................185

Figure E- 1. Graph illustrating the impact of suspended fine sediment on
equilibrium local scour depths under clearwater scour
conditions. Experiment A experienced a sudden increase in
suspended fine sediment about 10 hours into the test.
Experiment B was with the same sediment and structure but
with a slightly higher velocity and a deeper water depth. In the
Experiment B Adjusted plot the data for Experiment B has been
analytically adjusted to the flow conditions of Experiment A
(with the exception of the suspended fine sediment).............................198


I









Figure E- 2. Pre-test photograph of test bed (D = 0.915 m, D50 = 0.22 mm). ..............199

Figure E- 3. Scour hole after high suspended fine sediment experiment
(Experiment A) (D = 0.915 m, D0 = 0.22 mm, yo = 1.22 m,
V N = 0.92) .............................................................................................199

Figure E- 4. Scour hole after low suspended fine sediment experiment
(Experiment B) (D = 0.915 m, D50= 0.22 mm, yo = 1.8 m, V/V
= 0.97). .....................................................................................................199

Figure E- 5. Contour plot of scour hole for the high suspended sediment
level experiment (Experiment A) (D = 0.915 m, Ds= 0.22 mm,
y, = 1.22 m, VNV = 0.92). ..................................................... ............200

Figure E- 6. Contour plot of scour hole for the low suspended sediment level
experiment (Experiment B) (D = 0.915 m, D5s= 0.22 mm, yo
=1.8 m VNV = 0.97). ............................................................................200









LIST OF TABLES


Table 1.

Table 2.

Table C- 1.


Table C- 2.


Table C- 3.


Table C- 4.


Table C- 5.


Table C- 6.


Table C- 7.


Table C- 8.


Table C- 9.


Table C- 10.


Table C- 11.


Table C- 12.


Table C- 13.


Table C- 14.


Flow, sediment and structure parameters summary.................................13

The local scour results summary.............................................................13

The rate of scour depth from the internal video camera for
experim ent 1....................................... .................. ..............................41

The rate of scour depth from the internal video camera for
experim ent 2......................................... ................ ..............................48

The rate of scour depth from the internal video cameras for
experim ent 3................................................................ .......................56

The rate of scour depth from the internal video camera for
experim ent 4......................................... ................ ..............................68

The rate of scour depth from the internal video camera for
experim ent 5................................................................ .......................77

The rate of scour depth from the internal video camera for
experim ent 6................................................................ .......................86

The rate of scour depth from the internal video camera for
experim ent 7.......................................................................................... 95

The rate of scour depth from the internal video cameras for
experim ent 8....................................................................................... 106

The rate of scour depth from the internal video cameras for
experim ent 9.............................................................................................116

The rate of scour depth from the internal video cameras for
experim ent 10...................................... ................. ............................128

The rate of scour depth from the internal video cameras for
experim ent 11............................................................. ...................... 141

The rate of scour depth from the internal video cameras for
experim ent 12...................................... ................. ............................153

The rate of scour depth from the internal video camera for
experim ent 13...................................... ................. ............................ 166

The rate of scour depth from the internal video cameras for
experim ent 14...................................... ................. ............................179


Table C- 15. Summary of data and computed parameters...........................................186









LIST OF SYMBOLS

D = circular cylinder diameter;

D16 = sediment size for which 16 percent of bed material is finer

D50 = median sediment grain diameter;

D84 = sediment size for which 84 percent of bed material is finer

dse = equilibrium scour depth;

ds = scour depth at the end of the experiment, or

= Time dependent scour hole depth.

Kcp = peak value of normalized clearwater scour depth

Ks = shape factor


a = standard deviation of sediment particle size distribution, 84


V = depth averaged velocity;

Vc = depth averaged velocity at threshold condition for sediment motion

(sediment critical velocity);

yo = approach water depth;

t = dynamic viscosity of water

ps = mass density of sediment

pw = mass density of water

S = bed shear stress

T = critical bed shear stress









CLEARWATER LOCAL SEDIMENT SCOUR EXPERIMENTS


Introduction

The accurate prediction of sediment scour depths near bridge piers under design

storm conditions is very important in bridge design. Under-prediction can result in costly

bridge failure and possibly the loss of lives, while over-prediction can result in millions

of dollars wasted on the construction of a single bridge. The physical processes involved

are very complex and difficult to analyze, and thus most design scour depth predictive

equations are based on laboratory scale experimental results. An ongoing bridge scour

research program at the University of Florida is directed at increasing the understanding

of scour processes and improving the accuracy of design scour depth predictions.

In spite of a significant research effort over the last four decades, at a number of

institutions around the world, there is still disagreement among researchers regarding

such fundamental aspects of the problem as the most appropriate way to normalize the

parameters required to characterize the scour processes. Even the variable used to

normalize the equilibrium scour depth differs among researchers. Some use the local

(unscoured) water depth while others use the diameter/width of the structure.

The research described in this report was a joint effort by the University of

Florida and the USGS Conte BRD Laboratory to extend the knowledge of local sediment

scour processes through large-scale experiments. All of the experiments were conducted

in a large, flow-through type flume in the USGS Laboratory in Turners Falls,

Massachusetts. Three different circular cylinder diameters [0.915 m (3 ft), 0.305 m (1 ft),

and 0.114 m (4.5 in)], three different sediment grain sizes (D50 = 0.22 mm, 0.80 mm and









2.9 mm) and a range of water depths were investigated. All experiments were conducted

in the clearwater scour range of velocities.

A brief description of the facilities, instrumentation and procedures is presented in

the body of the report along with a summary of the results. Detailed information

regarding the experiments and the results is presented in the appendices.


Research Objectives

Research by the lead author and his students has shown that normalized,

equilibrium local scour depths can be adequately described in terms of three

dimensionless parameters, YoD, V/ c, and i50, where yo is the water depth, D the

structure diameter/width, V the depth averaged velocity, Ve the depth averaged critical

velocity, and D50 the median sediment grain diameter. Laboratory data obtained by the

lead author and other researchers prior to this work correlated well with these parameters

for the range of values for which data was available. The range of available data was

limited due to the sizes of flumes available for this type of research. In particular, the

range of values for D50 was very limited and far from the values for prototype

structures. Experiments at the University of Florida indicated a trend in the data with

increasing values of Ys that had not been observed before. If correct, this trend could

have a significant impact on equilibrium scour depth predictions for large prototype

structures. Thus, one of the objectives of this research was to obtain local scour data for

larger values of Dso .

The rate at which local scour occurs and the dependence of this rate on the

sediment, flow and structure parameters is another problem that has plagued researchers









2.9 mm) and a range of water depths were investigated. All experiments were conducted

in the clearwater scour range of velocities.

A brief description of the facilities, instrumentation and procedures is presented in

the body of the report along with a summary of the results. Detailed information

regarding the experiments and the results is presented in the appendices.


Research Objectives

Research by the lead author and his students has shown that normalized,

equilibrium local scour depths can be adequately described in terms of three

dimensionless parameters, YoD, V/ c, and i50, where yo is the water depth, D the

structure diameter/width, V the depth averaged velocity, Ve the depth averaged critical

velocity, and D50 the median sediment grain diameter. Laboratory data obtained by the

lead author and other researchers prior to this work correlated well with these parameters

for the range of values for which data was available. The range of available data was

limited due to the sizes of flumes available for this type of research. In particular, the

range of values for D50 was very limited and far from the values for prototype

structures. Experiments at the University of Florida indicated a trend in the data with

increasing values of Ys that had not been observed before. If correct, this trend could

have a significant impact on equilibrium scour depth predictions for large prototype

structures. Thus, one of the objectives of this research was to obtain local scour data for

larger values of Dso .

The rate at which local scour occurs and the dependence of this rate on the

sediment, flow and structure parameters is another problem that has plagued researchers









in this field. A second objective of this study was to provide accurate scour depth versus

time data for a range of sediment, flow and structure parameters.

Phase I of this study covers the clearwater scour range of velocities

i.e.,0.45< / <1 Phase II will address the live bed scour range of velocities

(/ >1 ). The live bed experiments will be conducted by the lead author in a flume at

the University of Auckland in Auckland, New Zealand during the first half of 2002. This

is the final report for Phase I of this investigation.


Facilities and Instrumentation

Facilities

All of the tests were conducted in a large 6.1 m (20 ft) wide, 6.4 m (21 ft) deep,

38.4 m (126 ft) long, flow-through type flume, located at the USGS Conte Laboratory.

An aerial photograph of the USGS Laboratory is shown in Figure 1. Schematic drawings


Figure 1. The USGS-BRD Conte Anadromous Fish Research Center in Turners Falls,
Massachusetts.









in this field. A second objective of this study was to provide accurate scour depth versus

time data for a range of sediment, flow and structure parameters.

Phase I of this study covers the clearwater scour range of velocities

i.e.,0.45< / <1 Phase II will address the live bed scour range of velocities

(/ >1 ). The live bed experiments will be conducted by the lead author in a flume at

the University of Auckland in Auckland, New Zealand during the first half of 2002. This

is the final report for Phase I of this investigation.


Facilities and Instrumentation

Facilities

All of the tests were conducted in a large 6.1 m (20 ft) wide, 6.4 m (21 ft) deep,

38.4 m (126 ft) long, flow-through type flume, located at the USGS Conte Laboratory.

An aerial photograph of the USGS Laboratory is shown in Figure 1. Schematic drawings


Figure 1. The USGS-BRD Conte Anadromous Fish Research Center in Turners Falls,
Massachusetts.











of the flume used for this research are shown in Figures 2 and 3. The test section was the

width of the flume, 9.8 m (32 ft) long and started 24.4 m (80 ft) downstream of the


entrance. The sediment in the test area was 1.83 m (6 ft) deep as shown in Figure 2.

Water for the flume was supplied from a hydroelectric power plant reservoir adjacent to

the building housing the flume. Water flowed from the reservoir, through the flume, and


discharged into the Connecticut River downstream of control structures in the river. The


drop in water elevation from the reservoir to the bottom of the flume is approximately 6.5

m (21 ft). The main advantage of a gravity driven flume, such as this, is that large flow

discharges can be obtained without pumps. There are, however, disadvantages to flow-


through systems. Other than water depth and flow velocity there is little control on the

water used in the experiments. For example, the water temperature will be that of the


NOT TO SCALE
All dimensions in meters
FE
1.2 x 1.2 3 .4

A 3

IN flow B





sluice gate
Plan View W
Test Sediment I3 low Disharge
-J To Connecticut
River
Section A-A
t H38.4
__- Plan View









Filter Material Base Sediment Test Sediment Base Sediment
Section A-Ae



Section I f- o e


Figure 2. Schematic drawing of the flume used for this research.












Flow diffuser


I cydlnder


10mm


Test section <
1.83 m x6.1 m x6.4


Test sand


10 mm stone


Outflow



Figure 3. Isometric drawing of the flume illustrated in Figure 2.




reservoir and at this location the range in temperatures was from slightly above freezing

during the winter months to around 260 C during the summer. In addition, constituents in

the water, such as suspended sediment, could not be controlled. The presence of

suspended sediment in the water during times of heavy runoff from the Connecticut River

drainage basin presented problems for some of the experiments as is discussed later in

this report. The flow discharge and depth-averaged velocity were controlled with a weir

located at the downstream end of the flume (see Figure 3). A bridge across the flume

provided horizontal support for the tops of the test structures and a platform for the

computers and data acquisition systems (see Figure 4).






























Figure 4. Experimental setup showing the instrumentation bridge/platform.


Instrumentation

The instrumentation used in this research can be divided into two categories:

1) that which measures the flow parameters, and 2) that which measures scour depth.

The flow parameters monitored were flow discharge (indirectly), velocity at specific

locations, water depth, and temperature. The scour hole depth was monitored with

internal (and on some occasions) external video cameras and with arrays of acoustic

transponders. A more complete description of the instrumentation used in this research is

presented in Appendix B.

The height of the weir at the downstream end of the flume was set for the desired

water depth and flow discharge for each experiment. Flow velocities were measured at

two locations, 2 m (6.6 ft) upstream and 1.0 m (3.3 ft) to the side of the center of the test

structure with electromagnetic flow meters. The vertical position of the meters was set at










40% of the water depth from the bed. The velocity at this location is approximately equal

to the depth-averaged velocity for a fully developed logarithmic velocity profile. A

commercial water level instrument, which used a near bottom mounted pressure

transducer measured water depth at a location between the test structure and the weir.

The water temperature was measured just downstream of the structure.

Two miniature video cameras were mounted on a platform that traversed

vertically as shown in the sketch in Figure 5. The speed of the traverse mechanism was

set manually and had a speed range from 1 mm/hr (0.04 in/hr) to 90 m/hr (295 in/hr).

Length scales were attached to the inside of the cylinders in view of the cameras so that

quantitative scour depth measurements could be obtained from the video images.

Miniature video cameras were also mounted in streamline waterproof housings for

viewing the scour hole from outside the structure. The 0.114 m (4.5 in), and 0.305 m (1

ft) diameter cylinders were constructed to be watertight while the 0.915 m (3 ft) diameter



Cameras
,m .. .....-.-
s i V' ideo
cameras
Camera --Acoustic Field of
Traverse Mechanism Transponders View

Video Cameras --Test Pile J

Plan View


Test Sand




'Test Piles with Scour Depth Instrumentation

Figure 5. Schematic drawing of the local scour depth measuring instruments.


1










cylinder was allowed to flood during the experiment. The internal cameras for the large

0.915 m diameter cylinder were mounted in a waterproof housing. Photographs of the

three internal camera arrangements are shown in Figures 6, 7, and 8.


Figure 6. Internal video cameras and housing for the 0.114 m (4.5 in) diameter cylinder.


Figure 7. Internal video cameras and housing for the 0.305 m (1 ft) diameter cylinder.


Three arrays of acoustic transponders were attached to the cylinder just below the

water surface. Each array contained four crystals, which produced a 2.5 cm (1 in) in

diameter acoustic beam at the transducer. The spread angle of the beam was approxi-

mately 1.5 degrees. The footprint of the beam (area of the acoustic beam at the bed)

varied with the water and scour hole depths. The time required for the acoustic pulse to


I
























Figure 8. Watertight video camera housing for the 0.915 m (3 ft) diameter cylinder.


travel to the bed and return to the transponder was measured and the distance from the

transponder to the bed computed based on the speed of sound in water at that tempera-

ture. This system provided scour hole depth measurements at the 12 locations along

three radial lines throughout the experiments. A diagram of one of the transponder arrays

is given in Figure 9. Photographs of the transponders are shown in Figures 10 and 11.


MTA for large pile diameters(greater than 1 ft.)

side view (cross-section) front view
o g rg (cross-section)
mounting ring


3.15 in 0.5 in
(8cm) (1.3 cm)
top view


i 2.0 ini

10______ 12.0 in ______bo
( (30.5 cm)

Figure 9. Diagram of the acoustic transponder array used for the 0.915 m (3 ft) diameter
cylinder.
























Figure 10. Acoustic transponder arrays on the 0.915 m (3 ft) diameter cylinder viewed
from upstream.


Figure 11. Acoustic transponder arrays on the 0.114 m (4.5 in) diameter cylinder viewed
from above.



Personal Computers were used to both control the instrumentation and to record

the data. A flow chart of the instrumentation/data acquisition system is shown in Figure

12.


10










Video Camera
PC PC Traverse
# #2 Control


SenTek
Water Control Box Video Camera
Level Digital Housing
Indicator Thermometer
Acoustic
Transponders Video Camera, VCR
Velocity Velocity _and Lights Control
Meter #1 Meter #2


Flood Internal VCR Monitor
Lights Video
Cameras


Figure 12. Diagram of the measuring system used during the experiments.


Experimental Procedure

A brief summary of the experimental procedure used in performing the local

sediment scour experiments is outlined below. A more complete procedure is given in

Appendix D. The procedure is divided into the tasks performed before, during and after

the experimental run.


Pre-experiment

1. Compact and level the bed in the flume.

2. Fill the flume slowly and allow to stand for approximately 12 hours or until all the

air trapped in the sediment has escaped. Drain the flume and re-compact the bed.

3. Take pre-experiment photographs.

4. Fill the flume slowly and allow trapped air to escape (approximately six hours).

5. Start and check all instrumentation.









During experiment

1. Measure the scour depth as a function of time with acoustic transponders and

video cameras.

2. Measure the velocity, water depth, and temperature. Observe water clarity as an

indicator of suspended sediment.

Post-experiment

1. Take post-experiment photographs.

2. Observe and note bed condition throughout the flume (presence of bed forms,

etc.)

3. Survey the scour hole with a point gauge.

4. Reduce and analyze the data.


Results

A significant amount of local sediment scour data and information were gathered

during this research program. A brief summary of the results is given in Tables 1 and 2.

Two different scour depths are given in the table, the measured value at the end of the

experiment and the estimated equilibrium depth. Most of the experiments conducted as

part of this work were long in duration and thus the scour depths were near equilibrium at

the end of the test. During some of the tests there was an increase in suspended sediment

in the water from the reservoir and this proved to impact the equilibrium scour depth.

This is illustrated in Figure 13 which shows three time history plots. In Experiment A (D

= 0.915 m, D50 = 0.22 mm, yo = 1.2 m, V = 0.30 m/s, Vc = 0.32 m/s), there was a sudden

increase in suspended fine sediment approximately 10 hours into the test. Experiment B

was with the same structure and sediment but with a slightly higher velocity and deeper










Video Camera
PC PC Traverse
# #2 Control


SenTek
Water Control Box Video Camera
Level Digital Housing
Indicator Thermometer
Acoustic
Transponders Video Camera, VCR
Velocity Velocity _and Lights Control
Meter #1 Meter #2


Flood Internal VCR Monitor
Lights Video
Cameras


Figure 12. Diagram of the measuring system used during the experiments.


Experimental Procedure

A brief summary of the experimental procedure used in performing the local

sediment scour experiments is outlined below. A more complete procedure is given in

Appendix D. The procedure is divided into the tasks performed before, during and after

the experimental run.


Pre-experiment

1. Compact and level the bed in the flume.

2. Fill the flume slowly and allow to stand for approximately 12 hours or until all the

air trapped in the sediment has escaped. Drain the flume and re-compact the bed.

3. Take pre-experiment photographs.

4. Fill the flume slowly and allow trapped air to escape (approximately six hours).

5. Start and check all instrumentation.









During experiment

1. Measure the scour depth as a function of time with acoustic transponders and

video cameras.

2. Measure the velocity, water depth, and temperature. Observe water clarity as an

indicator of suspended sediment.

Post-experiment

1. Take post-experiment photographs.

2. Observe and note bed condition throughout the flume (presence of bed forms,

etc.)

3. Survey the scour hole with a point gauge.

4. Reduce and analyze the data.


Results

A significant amount of local sediment scour data and information were gathered

during this research program. A brief summary of the results is given in Tables 1 and 2.

Two different scour depths are given in the table, the measured value at the end of the

experiment and the estimated equilibrium depth. Most of the experiments conducted as

part of this work were long in duration and thus the scour depths were near equilibrium at

the end of the test. During some of the tests there was an increase in suspended sediment

in the water from the reservoir and this proved to impact the equilibrium scour depth.

This is illustrated in Figure 13 which shows three time history plots. In Experiment A (D

= 0.915 m, D50 = 0.22 mm, yo = 1.2 m, V = 0.30 m/s, Vc = 0.32 m/s), there was a sudden

increase in suspended fine sediment approximately 10 hours into the test. Experiment B

was with the same structure and sediment but with a slightly higher velocity and deeper









Table 1. Flow, sediment and structure parameters summary.

Flow Sediment Structure
Test Depth Velocity D50 a Diameter
(m) (m/s) (mm) (m)
1 1.19 0.29 0.22 1.51 0.114
2 1.19 0.31 0.22 1.51 0.305
3 1.27 0.40 0.80 1.29 0.915
4 0.87 0.39 0.80 1.29 0.915
5 1.27 0.39 0.80 1.29 0.305
6 1.27 0.41 0.80 1.29 0.114
7 1.22 0.76 2.90 1.21 0.915
8 0.56 0.65 2.90 1.21 0.915
9 0.29 0.57 2.90 1.21 0.915
10 0.17 0.50 2.90 1.21 0.915
11 1.90 0.70 2.90 1.21 0.915
12 1.22 0.40 0.22 1.51 0.305
13 0.18 0.30 0.22 1.51 0.305
14 1.81 0.30 0.22 1.51 0.915




Table 2. The local scour results summary.
Test Time to Max. Estimated
Duration 90% Measured Equilibrium
Test
dse (equil.) Scour Depth Scour Depth
(hr) (hr) (m) (m)
1 89 111 0.133 0.17
2 163 408 0.257 0.41
3 360 322 1.112 1.10
4 143 905 0.638 0.99
5 88 128 0.416 0.51
6 41 29 0.185 0.23
7 188 151 1.270 1.41
8 330 186 1.058 1.14
9 448 347 0.896 0.96
10 616 831 0.659 0.72
11 350 720 1.004 1.24
12 256 71 0.377 0.39
13 216 66 0.296 0.31
14 580 913 0.787 0.97












0.6


0.5 Experiment B (low turbidity) ..*-.-


0.4 -


A*. A Experiment B Adjusted
0.3 AA (adjusted to flow conditions of Experiment A
"3 .**A




0.1" Experiment A (high turbidity)



o
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Time (hrs)


Figure 13. Graph illustrating the impact of suspended fine sediment on equilibrium local scour depths under clearwater scour
conditions. Experiment A experienced a sudden increase in suspended fine sediment about 10 hours into the test.
Experiment B was with the same sediment and structure but with a slightly higher velocity and a deeper water depth. In
the Experiment B Adjusted plot the data for Experiment B has been analytically adjusted to the flow conditions of
Experiment A (with the exception of the suspended fine sediment).









water depth (yo = 1.8 m, V = 0.30 m/s, Vc = 0.32 m/s). In the Experiment B Adjusted

plot the data from Experiment B has been adjusted (using Equation 6) to the water depth

and flow velocity conditions of Experiment A. By comparing the results from

Experiment A with those from Experiment B Adjusted the impact of fine sediment can be

seen. The reasons behind this affect are currently being investigated by the lead author

but it is suspected that it is due to the suspended fine sediment induced reduction in bed

shear stress reported by researchers working in the field of drag reduction (see e.g., Gust

1976). Additional discussion on this topic is presented in Appendix E.

Equilibrium depths were estimated by extrapolating a curve fit to the data. The

function used to fit the data was first used by J. Sterling Jones (personal communication)

and is given in Equation 1.


ds=a1 1- )+c 1 (1)
l1+abt 1+cdt

This function does a good job fitting the majority of clearwater scour time history

data. Most clearwater scour time history plots display at least two distinctive rates. The

divisions between rates are clearly defined in some cases while in others the change is

more gradual. In order to use Equation 1 for extrapolation of data it is essential that there

is sufficient data in the second (lower rate of scour) regime. Obviously, the longer the

duration of the test the more accurate the extrapolation to equilibrium scour depth.

Equilibrium scour depths were estimated for all tests including those affected by

suspended fine sediment. The confidence level for the shorter duration tests and those

with suspended sediment is, of course, lower than that for the remaining tests. It does

appear from the time.history plots and some analysis of the longer duration data that the








equilibrium scour depths obtained by this method error on the high side (i.e., the

predicted scour depths represent upper bound values for the conditions tested).

The coefficients in Sheppard's clearwater scour equations (1995) have been

slightly adjusted to accommodate these conservative equilibrium scour depth values. The

resulting equations are given below:

d= _KsK 3 (2)
D V D50

where


f -= a tanh[ 4, (3)



f2 ( -1-3.31 -1 (4)


D ____3.03 (5)
f3 D-(5)
tD50) 2.6exp 0.43loglor 0.707 + 0.43exp -2.6 loglo D +4.27
D5 D50

Ks Shape factor (1 for circular piles)

Kcp Peak value of normalized clearwater scour depth = 2.5 in these equations.

For Kcp = 2.5 Equation 2 becomes

s= Ks2.5 tanh [ [ 1-3.31 1 )2
D D Vc

1 (6)









A plot of measured versus predicted (using Equations 2-6) equilibrium scour

depths for the clearwater data obtained during this research and that of other researchers

is shown in Figure 14.


Conclusions

The primary objectives of this research were to extend the existing data base for

local sediment scour into areas of larger structure to sediment diameter ratios and to

verify that the equilibrium scour depth dependency on this ratio, found in earlier studies

at the University of Florida, held. Both objectives have been met. The coefficients in

Sheppard's equations have been slightly modified to accommodate the conservative

equilibrium scour depths obtained by extrapolating the measured depths to infinite flow

durations. The revised equations do a good job of fitting the data in the clearwater scour

range as can be seen in Figure 14.

The next phase of this work will address equilibrium scour depths under live bed

scour conditions. Sheppard's equations in the live bed scour range are based on limited

laboratory data and the hypothesis that a "live bed scour depth peak" occurs and that it

occurs at the point when the bed "planes out" (i.e., under the conditions when the bed

forms disappear and the bed away from the structure becomes planar). More laboratory

data is needed in this important range of flow conditions so that these equations can be

tested/verified. Live bed scour experiments will be conducted by the lead author in a

flume at the University of Auckland in Auckland, New Zealand during the early part of

2002.













1.5 -



1.25 -



1-


- ds(comp.) = ds(meas.)

U Sheppard et al. (2002)


* Jones (2000)


+ MeMlle & Chiew (1999), Chabert & Engeldinger
(1956), Ettema (1980), Chiew (1984)


0.25 0.5 0.75 1

ds measured (m)


1.25


1.5


Figure 14. Measured versus predicted (using Equation 6) equilibrium scour depths for the clearwater data obtained during this
research and for data from other researchers [Sheppard et al. (2002), Jones, J.S. (2000), Melville, B.W. and Chiew, Y.M.
(1999), Chabert, J. & Engeldinger, P (1956), Ettema, R. (1980), Chiew, Y.M. (1984)].


-S44


E

_0
-*.-
co

cz
0C


0.75



0.5


tS2


;13


0.25 -



o
0
0


I I


L









A plot of measured versus predicted (using Equations 2-6) equilibrium scour

depths for the clearwater data obtained during this research and that of other researchers

is shown in Figure 14.


Conclusions

The primary objectives of this research were to extend the existing data base for

local sediment scour into areas of larger structure to sediment diameter ratios and to

verify that the equilibrium scour depth dependency on this ratio, found in earlier studies

at the University of Florida, held. Both objectives have been met. The coefficients in

Sheppard's equations have been slightly modified to accommodate the conservative

equilibrium scour depths obtained by extrapolating the measured depths to infinite flow

durations. The revised equations do a good job of fitting the data in the clearwater scour

range as can be seen in Figure 14.

The next phase of this work will address equilibrium scour depths under live bed

scour conditions. Sheppard's equations in the live bed scour range are based on limited

laboratory data and the hypothesis that a "live bed scour depth peak" occurs and that it

occurs at the point when the bed "planes out" (i.e., under the conditions when the bed

forms disappear and the bed away from the structure becomes planar). More laboratory

data is needed in this important range of flow conditions so that these equations can be

tested/verified. Live bed scour experiments will be conducted by the lead author in a

flume at the University of Auckland in Auckland, New Zealand during the early part of

2002.









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Hydraulic Engineering, 123(2), 125-136.









Melville, B.W., and Chiew, Y.M. 1999. "Time scale for local scour at bridge piers."

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Appendix A: Test Facilitities
Appendix B: Instrumentation
pages 25-35 missing










APPENDIX C
EXPERIMENTAL DATA









Experiment 1
Scour Summary Form


Circular Pile diameter, D:

Sediment:
Type: Quartz
Ds5(mm): 0.22
0: 1.51
ps (Kg/m3): 2650


0.114 m


Start Date:
Stop Date:


08/22/1998
08/26/1998


Start Time:
Stop Time:


Duration: 87 hrs


Flow Variables:


Average(m/s):
Maximum(m/s):
Minimum(m/s):


West Velocity Meter
0.28
0.35
0.21


East Velocity Meter
0.30
0.35
0.27


Channel average velocity from weir (m/s):

Critical (sediment) velocity, Vc (m/s):

Bed Relative Roughness, RR:

Water depth, yo :
Average water depth(m):
Minimum(m):
Maximum(m):

Water Temperature:
Average (degrees C): 23.6
Maximum (degrees C): 24.1
Minimum (degrees C): 23.2


Local Equilibrium Scour Depth, ds:
Maximum depth from acoustic transponders (m):
Maximum depth from internal video cameras (m):
Maximum depth from point gauge (m):
Maximum scour depth (m):


Dimensionless Parameters:
yo/D: 10.4


D/D50: 518


V/Vc: 0.89

ds/D: 1.17


5:23 PM
7:59 PM


0.28

0.32

5


1.19
1.16
1.20


0.104
0.115
0.133
0.133












1.25


0 20 40 60 80
Time (hrs)


0.40

0.35

0.30

0.25

0.20

0.15

0.10

0.05

0.00


Figure C- 1. Measured velocity and water depth for experiment 1.


0.140-

0.120-

So0.100 -

. 0.080-
(D


0.040

0.020


0.000


0


., **


20


40 60
Time (hrs)


Figure C- 2. Measured local scour data from the internal video camera for experiment 1.


38


C,



C.)


1.20
E
1.15 "
C-

1.10 36


1.05


1.00
100


* *


80


100


i


4w


-Il












0.2 -

0.18- 1 dse=0.17m




0.14 -


0 0.1



80.08- d- +c --
( 08 '~ [ I +abt 1+cdt
0.06 .- ..... a = 0.07
b= 13
0.04 'Transponder data c= 0.085
Curve fit d =0.5
0.02 -- -Equilibrium scour depth .......



0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Time (hrs)

Figure C- 3. Curve fit to the local scour data measured with the acoustic transponder data for experiment 1.














- 0.02


-0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8


--0


-0.02


-0.04


-0.06


-0.08


-0.1


-0.12


-0.14


Figure C- 4.


Bed elevation contours at completion of experiment 1 referenced to the
original bed. All dimensions are in meters.


40


0.2-


-0.2-



-0.4-



-0.6-


_ _~~_~ I


i


0.6-









Table C-1. The rate of scour depth from the internal video camera for experiment 1.

Time (hrs) Depth (m)
0.00 0.000
0.02 0.015
0.05 0.025
0.08 0.028
0.10 0.030
0.12 0.033
0.20 0.038
0.28 0.043
0.40 0.048
0.50 0.052
0.62 0.055
1.62 0.070
2.62 0.076
3.62 0.083
4.62 0.085
5.62 0.089
6.62 0.093
7.62 0.100
8.62 0.105
9.62 0.107
10.62 0.110
11.62 0.110
12.62 0.112
13.62 0.113
26.12 0.113
27.12 0.113
28.12 0.113
29.12 0.114
30.12 0.114
34.12 0.114
38.12 0.114
43.12 0.114
44.12 0.115
50.12 0.114
54.12 0.114
57.12 0.114
69.12 0.114
79.12 0.114
90.12 0.114


41


I








































Figure C- 5. Experiment 1 (D = 0.114 m, D5s = 0.22 mm) before test.


Figure C- 6. Experiment 1 (D = 0.114 m, D,5 = 0.22 mm) before test.


42


_ ~~__ ___

































Figure C- 7. Experiment 1 (D = 0.114 m, D5, = 0.22 mm) after test.


43









Experiment 2
Scour Summary Form


Circular Pile diameter, D:


Sediment:
Type:
Dso(mm):
sa:
ps (Kg/m3):


Quartz
0.22
1.51
2650


0.305 m


Start Date:
Stop Date:


Duration: 163 hrs


Flow Variables:

Average(m/s):
Maximum(m/s):
Minimum(m/s):


West Velocity Meter
0.29
0.34
0.25


East Velocity Meter
0.32
0.35
0.25


Channel average velocity from weir (m/s):

Critical (sediment) velocity, Vc (m/s):

Bed Relative Roughness, RR:

Water depth, yo :
Average water depth(m):
Minimum(m):
Maximum(m):

Water Temperature:
Average (degrees C): 23.9
Maximum (degrees C): 24.5
Minimum (degrees C): 23.0


0.29

0.32

5


1.20
1.19
1.21


Local Equilibrium Scour Depth, ds:
Maximum depth from acoustic transponders (m):
Maximum depth from internal video cameras (m):
Maximum depth from point gauge (m):
Maximum scour depth (m):


Dimensionless Parameters:
yo/D: 3.9


D/Dso: 1386


V/Ve: 0.96

ds/D: 0.84


44


08/28/1998
09/04/1998


Start Time:
Stop Time:


7:55 PM
3:20 PM


0.213
0.255
0.257
0.257


~ I































0 50 100 150
Time (hrs)


0.40

0.35

0.30

0.25

0.20

0.15

0.10

0.05

0.00


Figure C- 8. Measured velocity and water depth for experiment 2.


0.3 -


0.25 -


" 0.2 -
I..-

.0


0( 0.1-
01-


0.05 -


Ac


0


50


100
Time (hrs)


150


200


Figure C- 9. Measured local scour data from the internal video camera for experiment 2.


45


E


aD


S1.26


1.24

E
-1.22 "


1.20


1.18


1.16
200


I I


"lr !


I #** ** * 4


I












0.5

0.45
0.45 ........... -- --
dse = 0.41 m

0 .4 -' .. .... ... .




E 0.3

D 0.25 -
=3

oo8 0"2 ds al1+abt 1 + 1 +cdt
.0.2 5

0.15a 0.18
b=4
0.1 c = 0.23
Video data
d = 0.05
Curve fit d
0.05
0.05 Equilibrium scour depth

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
Time (hrs)

Figure C- 10. Curve fit to the local scour data measured with the internal video camera for experiment 2.











00 -0-08
1- 0.06
0.04
o0.02
0
0.5- 00 -0.02


--0.08
-0.1
-0.12
-0.14
d -0.14
-0.5- -0.18
00 -0.2
-0.22
-0.24
--1 -0.26
SO -0.28

-0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5

Figure C- 11. Bed elevation contours at completion of experiment 2 referenced to the
original bed. All dimensions are in meters.


47









Table C- 2. The rate of scour depth from the internal video camera for experiment 2.

Time (hrs) Depth (m) Time (hrs) Depth (m)
0 0 43 0.245
1 0.09 44 0.2475
2 0.115 45 0.2475
3 0.125 46 0.25
4 0.135 47 0.25
5 0.15 48 0.25
6 0.155 49 0.25
7 0.16 50 0.25
8 0.17 51 0.25
9 0.175 52 0.255
12 0.18 57 0.255
13 0.185 60 0.255
14 0.19 64 0.255
15 0.19 69 0.255
16 0.195 75 0.255
17 0.2 79 0.255
18 0.203 87 0.255
19 0.206 93 0.255
20 0.21 98 0.255
21 0.21 105 0.255
22 0.21 111 0.255
23 0.215 122 0.255
24 0.215 130 0.255
25 0.215 136 0.255
26 0.22 144 0.255
27 0.22 153 0.255
28 0.22 161 0.255
29 0.225 163 0.255


30


0.225


31 0.225
32 0.23
33 0.23
34 0.23
35 0.235
37 0.24
38 0.24
39 0.24
40 0.24
41 0.245
42 0.245


48















































































Figure C- 12. Experiment 2 (D = 0.305 m, D,5 = 0.22 mm) before test.


Figure C- 13. Experiment 2 (D = 0.305 m, Dso = 0.22 mm) before test.


49


r
r
rZ
.
; ~;*.
..... r
~.r~. r
:' 2- '
-~il~ ;r
...
u, ..

































Experiment 2 (D = 0.305 m, Dso = 0.22 mm) after test.


Figure C- 15. Experiment 2 (D = 0.305 m, D5s = 0.22 mm) after test.


50


Figure C- 14.

































Experiment 2 (D = 0.305 m, D5s = 0.22 mm) after test.


Figure C- 17. Experiment 2 (D = 0.305 m, Ds = 0.22 mm) after test.


51


Figure C- 16.









Experiment 3
Scour Summary Form


Circular Pile diameter, D:

Sediment:
Type: Quartz
D5o(mm): 0.80
o: 1.29
ps (Kg/m3): 2650


0.915 m


Start Date:
Stop Date:


Duration: 362 hrs


Flow Variables:


Average(m/s):
Maximum(m/s):
Minimum(m/s):


West Velocity Meter
0.39
0.43
0.27


East Velocity Meter
0.41
0.46
0.25


Channel average velocity from weir (m/s):

Critical (sediment) velocity, Vc (m/s):

Bed Relative Roughness, RR:

Water depth, yo:
Average water depth(m):
Minimum(m):
Maximum(m):

Water Temperature:
Average (degrees C): 8.5
Maximum (degrees C): 9.6
Minimum (degrees C): 7.1


0.43

0.47

2


1.27
1.23
1.28


Local Equilibrium Scour Depth, ds:
Maximum depth from acoustic transponders (m):
Maximum depth from internal video cameras (m):
Maximum depth from point gauge (m):
Maximum scour depth (m):


Dimensionless Parameters:
yo/D: 1.4


V/Ve: 0.85

ds/D: 1.22


D/Dso: 1144


52


12/02/1998
12/17/1998


Start Time:
Stop Time:


1:47 PM
3:37 PM


1.063
1.016
1.112
1.112












0.5
0.45
0.4
0.35
0.3
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0


E

c)
VT
ci)


Figure C- 18. Measured velocity and water depth for experiment 3.


1.2 -

1-

S0.8-

D 0.6-

8 0.4-
or)

0.2 -

0


0


* East camera (m)
* West camera (m)


100


200
Time (hrs)


300


400


Figure C- 19. Measured local scour data from the internal video camera for experiment
3.


53


,)
E

0


-- 1.5
1.45
1.4
1.35
1.3
e1 1.25

SWest Velocity meter (m/s) 1.2
East Velocity meter (m/s) 1.15
Water Depth (m) 1.1
1.05
1
0 100 200 300 400
Time (hrs)


q


Al













1.4



1.2
dse 1.1 m


1


E
0.8 -- -J^\r
Q d =a al- +cl
) S ^1I +abt l+cdt

0.6- a a=O0.15
b b=12.5
c = 0.95
d = 0.025
0.4
Video data
Curve fit
0.2
Equilibrium scour depth



0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400


Time (hrs)


Figure C- 20. Curve fit to the local scour data measured with the acoustic transponder data for experiment 3.













2-


1



0.5-



0



-0.5-



-1-



-1.5-




-1 .5


Figure C- 21.


Bed elevation contours at completion of experiment 3 referenced to the
original bed. All dimensions are in meters.


55


0
-0.05
-0.1
-0.15
-0.2
-0.25
-0.3
-0.35
-0.4
-0.45
-0.5
-0.55
-0.6
-0.65
-0.7
-0.75
-0 .8
-0.85

-0.9
-0.95
-1
-1.05
-1 .1









Table C-3. The rate of scour depth from the internal video cameras for experiment 3.

Time West East Time West East Time West East
(hrs) camera camera (hrs) camera camera (hrs) camera camera
(m) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m)
0.00 -0.010 0.000 7.03 0.260 0.270 25.07 0.394 0.426
0.08 0.000 0.013 7.37 0.267 0.279 25.57 0.400 0.435
0.17 0.013 0.025 7.70 0.273 0.286 26.08 0.400 0.438
0.25 0.035 0.048 8.03 0.273 0.292 27.08 0.410 0.445
0.33 0.051 0.060 8.37 0.276 0.292 28.08 0.419 0.457
0.40 0.057 0.070 8.70 0.286 0.299 29.08 0.426 0.464
0.50 0.070 0.079 9.03 0.286 0.305 30.08 0.435 0.470
0.67 0.086 0.095 9.37 0.289 0.305 31.08 0.441 0.480
0.83 0.095 0.105 9.70 0.292 0.308 32.08 0.448 0.483
1.00 0.102 0.118 10.03 0.295 0.308 33.08 0.457 0.495
1.17 0.114 0.124 10.38 0.302 0.318 34.08 0.464 0.502
1.33 0.127 0.133 10.72 0.305 0.318 35.08 0.470 0.508
1.50 0.133 0.140 11.05 0.305 0.327 36.08 0.480 0.518
1.67 0.140 0.146 11.38 0.308 0.330 37.08 0.483 0.524
1.83 0.143 0.152 11.72 0.308 0.330 38.08 0.492 0.530
2.00 0.152 0.156 12.05 0.311 0.333 39.08 0.499 0.537
2.17 0.156 0.165 12.38 0.314 0.337 40.08 0.502 0.546
2.33 0.165 0.171 12.72 0.318 0.337 41.08 0.508 0.546
2.50 0.165 0.171 13.05 0.321 0.343 42.08 0.511 0.546
2.67 0.171 0.178 13.55 0.324 0.343 43.08 0.521 0.556
2.83 0.178 0.184 14.05 0.327 0.349 44.08 0.527 0.556
3.00 0.184 0.194 14.55 0.330 0.346 45.08 0.530 0.562
3.17 0.191 0.197 15.05 0.333 0.349 46.08 0.534 0.565
3.35 0.194 0.203 15.55 0.333 0.362 47.08 0.540 0.572
3.52 0.197 0.206 17.55 0.343 0.368 48.08 0.546 0.578
3.68 0.203 0.210 18.05 0.346 0.378 49.08 0.549 0.584
3.85 0.206 0.216 18.57 0.349 0.381 50.08 0.559 0.591
4.02 0.210 0.222 19.07 0.353 0.381 51.08 0.562 0.597
4.18 0.216 0.225 19.57 0.353 0.384 52.08 0.568 0.597
4.35 0.216 0.229 20.07 0.356 0.384 53.08 0.572 0.600
4.52 0.222 0.232 20.57 0.359 0.394 54.08 0.568 0.597
4.68 0.222 0.216 21.07 0.362 0.394 55.08 0.572 0.600
4.85 0.229 0.235 21.57 0.362 0.394 56.08 0.578
5.02 0.229 0.238 22.07 0.368 0.400 74.08 0.629 0.654
5.37 0.235 0.241 22.57 0.368 0.403 75.08 0.635 0.661
5.70 0.241 0.248 23.07 0.375 0.407 76.08 0.638 0.667
6.03 0.245 0.254 23.57 0.381 0.413 77.08 0.642 0.667
6.37 0.251 0.264 24.07 0.384 0.419 78.08 0.635 0.654
6.70 0.254 0.264 24.57 0.387 0.422 79.08 0.632 0.654









Table C-3 (continued)

Time West East Time West East Time West East
(hrs) camera camera (hrs) camera camera (hrs) camera camera
(m) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m)
80.08 0.635 0.661 118.97 0.724 0.743 157.97 0.813 0.835
81.08 0.635 0.667 119.97 0.727 0.746 158.97 0.813 0.832
82.08 0.645 0.670 120.97 0.734 0.749 159.97 0.810 0.829
83.08 0.651 0.673 121.97 0.727 0.756 160.97 0.807 0.829
84.08 0.661 0.683 122.97 0.740 0.762 161.97 0.800 0.826
85.08 0.667 0.692 123.97 0.743 0.769 162.97 0.775 0.803
86.08 0.667 0.692 124.97 0.749 0.769 163.97 0.775 0.803
87.08 0.667 0.690 125.97 0.759 0.781 164.97 0.775 0.803
88.08 0.661 0.686 126.97 0.762 0.784 165.97 0.778 0.807
89.08 0.661 0.686 127.97 0.775 0.794 166.97 0.784 0.810
90.08 0.661 0.686 128.97 0.778 0.800 167.97 0.788 0.813
91.08 0.661 0.689 129.97 0.781 0.800 168.97 0.788 0.813
92.07 0.667 0.692 130.97 0.775 0.800 169.97 0.794 0.813
93.07 0.667 0.696 131.97 0.775 0.797 170.97 0.800 0.816
94.07 0.673 0.702 132.97 0.769 0.791 171.97 0.800 0.819
95.07 0.680 0.708 133.97 0.765 0.788 172.97 0.800 0.819
96.07 0.686 0.711 134.97 0.762 0.784 173.97 0.807 0.823
97.07 0.686 0.718 135.97 0.756 0.778 174.97 0.810 0.823
98.07 0.692 0.724 136.97 0.756 0.775 175.97 0.810 0.826
99.07 0.705 0.730 137.97 0.759 0.775 176.97 0.813 0.826
100.07 0.702 0.730 138.97 0.762 0.778 177.97 0.816 0.829
101.07 0.699 0.724 139.97 0.762 0.781 178.97 0.819 0.832
102.07 0.692 0.711 140.97 0.765 0.788 179.97 0.823 0.832
103.07 0.689 0.708 141.97 0.769 0.791 180.97 0.823 0.835
104.07 0.696 0.711 142.97 0.775 0.794 181.97 0.832 0.838
129.07 0.699 0.718 143.97 0.775 0.800 182.97 0.838 0.838
130.07 0.702 0.724 144.97 0.778 0.800 183.97 0.838 0.842
107.07 0.705 0.727 145.97 0.781 0.803 184.97 0.845 0.842
108.07 0.711 0.730 146.97 0.781 0.807 185.97 0.848 0.845
109.07 0.718 0.743 147.97 0.791 0.819 186.97 0.851 0.848
110.07 0.727 0.749 148.97 0.794 0.819 187.97 0.851 0.848
111.07 0.727 149.97 0.800 0.826 188.97 0.851 0.848
112.07 0.737 150.97 0.807 0.832 189.97 0.851 0.848
112.97 0.740 0.762 151.97 0.813 0.835 190.97 0.851 0.848
113.97 0.737 0.756 152.97 0.816 0.838 191.97 0.851 0.848
114.97 0.730 0.749 153.97 0.819 0.842 192.97 0.854 0.851
115.97 0.718 0.740 154.97 0.819 0.842 193.97 0.854 0.851
116.97 0.718 0.740 155.97 0.823 0.838 194.97 0.854 0.861
117.97 0.721 0.737 156.97 0.819 0.838 195.97 0.854 0.861









Table C-3 (continued)


Time West East Time West East Time West East
(hrs) camera camera (hrs) camera camera (hrs) camera camera
(m) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m)
196.97 0.857 0.864 240.67 0.915 0.927 279.67 0.877 0.896
197.97 0.857 0.870 241.67 0.915 0.931 280.70 0.877 0.896
198.97 0.857 0.870 242.67 0.921 0.934 281.70 0.883 0.899
199.97 0.857 0.877 243.67 0.921 0.937 282.70 0.883 0.902
200.97 0.861 0.877 244.67 0.924 0.937 283.70 0.886 0.902
201.97 0.861 0.877 245.67 0.924 0.940 284.70 0.886 0.905
202.97 0.864 0.880 246.67 0.924 0.940 285.70 0.889 0.905
203.97 0.864 0.883 247.67 0.924 0.943 286.70 0.889 0.905
204.97 0.864 0.883 248.67 0.927 0.943 287.70 0.889 0.908
205.97 0.864 0.883 249.67 0.927 0.943 288.70 0.892 0.911
206.97 0.864 0.883 250.67 0.927 0.940 289.70 0.892 0.915
207.97 0.864 0.883 251.67 0.927 0.940 290.70 0.896 0.915
208.97 0.867 0.883 252.67 0.927 0.940 291.70 0.896 0.915
209.97 0.867 0.883 253.67 0.927 0.940 292.70 0.899 0.915
210.97 0.867 0.886 254.67 0.927 0.940 293.72 0.899 0.915
211.97 0.867 0.886 255.67 0.927 0.940 294.70 0.902 0.921
217.67 0.864 0.883 256.67 0.927 0.937 295.70 0.902 0.921
218.67 0.864 0.877 257.67 0.924 0.937 296.70 0.905 0.921
219.67 0.864 0.877 258.67 0.921 0.937 297.70 0.905 0.924
220.67 0.861 0.880 259.67 0.921 0.934 298.70 0.908 0.927
221.72 0.864 0.880 260.67 0.921 0.937 299.70 0.911 0.927
222.67 0.864 0.880 261.67 0.918 0.937 300.70 0.915 0.927
223.67 0.864 0.883 262.67 0.918 0.937 301.70 0.915 0.927
224.67 0.864 0.883 263.67 0.915 0.934 302.70 0.915 0.931
225.67 0.867 0.886 264.67 0.918 0.934 303.70 0.915 0.931
226.67 0.867 0.886 265.67 0.918 0.934 304.70 0.915 0.934
227.67 0.867 0.886 266.67 0.911 0.934 305.70 0.915 0.934
228.67 0.877 0.889 267.67 0.896 0.934 306.70 0.918 0.934
229.67 0.889 0.899 268.67 0.896 0.934 307.70 0.918 0.937
230.67 0.902 0.905 269.67 0.892 0.931 308.70 0.921 0.940
231.67 0.902 0.915 270.67 0.870 0.934 309.70 0.921 0.940
232.67 0.902 0.915 271.67 0.877 0.921 310.70 0.924 0.940
233.67 0.902 0.915 272.67 0.870 0.889 311.70 0.927 0.940
234.67 0.915 0.911 273.67 0.867 0.889 312.70 0.927 0.943
235.67 0.908 0.911 274.67 0.864 0.886 313.70 0.927 0.943
236.67 0.902 0.915 275.67 0.867 0.889 314.70 0.927 0.943
237.67 0.908 0.915 276.67 0.873 0.892 315.70 0.931 0.946
238.67 0.911 0.921 277.67 0.873 0.892 316.70 0.931 0.946
239.67 0.915 0.924 278.67 0.877 0.896 317.70 0.931 0.943









Table C-3 (continued)

Time West East Time West East
(hrs) camera camera (hrs) camera camera
(m) (m) (m) (m)
318.70 0.931 0.943 359.97 0.991 1.000
319.70 0.931 0.946 360.97 0.991 1.004
320.70 0.940 0.953 361.97 0.991 1.000


321.70


0.940


0.959


322.70 0.946 0.934
323.70 0.946 0.934
324.70 0.946 0.965
325.70 0.946 0.969
326.70 0.946 0.972
327.70 0.950 0.978
328.70 0.950 0.988
331.97 0.953 0.994
332.97 0.953 0.997
333.97 0.953 1.000
334.97 0.953 1.000
335.97 0.953 1.004
336.97 0.953 1.004
337.97 0.953 1.004
338.97 0.953 1.004
339.97 0.953 1.004
340.97 0.953 1.004
341.97 0.953 1.004
342.97 0.953 1.000
343.97 0.953 1.000
344.97 0.953 0.997
345.97 0.953 0.997
346.97 0.953 0.994
347.97 0.956 0.994
348.97 0.962 0.997
349.97 0.962 0.994
350.97 0.962 0.994
351.97 0.956 0.994
352.97 0.959 0.997
353.97 0.969 0.997
354.97 0.978 0.997
355.97 0.978 0.997
356.97 0.985 1.000
357.97 0.988 0.997
358.97 0.991 1.000










































Figure C- 22. Experiment 3 (D = 0.915 m, D5s = 0.80 mm) before test.


Figure C- 23. Experiment 3 (D = 0.915 m, D,5 = 0.80 mm) before test.


60


___

































Figure C- 24. Experiment 3 (D = 0.915 m, Ds = 0.80 mm) before test.


Figure C- 25. Experiment 3 (D = 0.915 m, D5s = 0.80 mm) after test.


61

































Figure C- 26. Experiment 3 (D = 0.915 m, D5s = 0.80 mm) after test.


Figure C- 27. Experiment 3 (D = 0.915 m, D,5 = 0.80 mm) after test.


62




































Figure C- 28. Experiment 3 (D = 0.915 m, D50 = 0.80 mm) after test.

A) .


Figure C- 29. Experiment 3 (D = 0.915 m, Ds = 0.80 mm) during point gauging.


63









Experiment 4
Scour Summary Form


Circular Pile diameter, D:


0.915 m


Sediment:
Type:
D5o(mm):
a:
Ps (Kg/m3):

Flow Variables:


Quartz
0.80
1.29
2650


Average(m/s):
Maximum(m/s):
Minimum(m/s):


Start Date:
Stop Date:


01/29/1999
02/04/1999


Start Time:
Stop Time:


1:30 PM
1:15 PM


Duration: 143 hrs


West Velocity Meter
0.40
0.44
0.36


East Velocity Meter
0.33
0.38
0.21


Channel average velocity from weir (m/s):

Critical (sediment) velocity, Vc (m/s):

Bed Relative Roughness, RR:

Water depth, yo :
Average water depth(m):
Minimum(m):
Maximum(m):


Water Temperature:
Average (degrees C):
Maximum (degrees C):
Minimum (degrees C):


0.38

0.46

2


0.87
0.87
0.85


0.5
0.9
0.2


Local Equilibrium Scour Depth, ds:
Maximum depth from acoustic transponders (m):
Maximum depth from internal video cameras (m):
Maximum depth from point gauge (m):
Maximum scour depth (m):


Dimensionless Parameters:
yo/D: 1.0


D/Dso: 1144


V/VN: 0.85

ds/D: 0.70


64


0.465
0.622
0.638
0.638












0.5

0.45

0.4

0.35

0.3

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0


0


50


100


0.9


-U
i ... .- .






West Velocity meter (m/s)
- East Velocity meter (m/s)
- Water Depth (m)
------I------------


0.7


150


Time (hrs)

Figure C- 30. Measured velocity and water depth for experiment 4.


0.70

0.60

0.50

0.40

0.30

0.20

0.10

0.00


0


50


100

Time (hrs)


150


200


Figure C- 31. Measured local scour data from the internal video camera for experiment
4.


65


0.85



0.8



0.75


n


.. U
-



U
7----- ---------
____

]1---------------------------------------


crJ


_~~~


L
















dse = 0.99 m


1



0.8

E
t-
CD 0.6

0 o

0.4



0.2



0


d- =+c-1- + l..
d= I l+abt 1 +cdt

a =0.3
b=2
c = 0.65
S d = 0.01


180


Curve fit to the local scour data measured with the internal video cameras for experiment 4.


1.2


Video data
- Curve fit
- Equilibrium scour depth


0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
Time (hrs)


200


Figure C- 32.




















1- 0.00


-0.10
0.5-

-0.20


-0.30


-0.40
-0.5-

-0.50
-1-.
-0.60


-0.70
-1.5-



-2-

-1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5

Figure C- 33. Bed elevation contours at completion of experiment 4 referenced to the
original bed. All dimensions are in meters.


67


C









Table C- 4. The rate of scour depth from the internal video camera for experiment 4.

Time (hrs) Depth (m)
0 0
1.5 0.152
3 0.216
4 0.241
5 0.267
6.5 0.279
7.5 0.286
9 0.295
10 0.305
12 0.318
13 0.324
15 0.337
17.5 0.343
21 0.368
23 0.375
25 0.381
29 0.387
34 0.407
38 0.426
41 0.432
46 0.451
50 0.470
54 0.470
58 0.470
61 0.470
65 0.470
69 0.483
72 0.483
77 0.502
101 0.553
116 0.572
125 0.584
140 0.610
146 0.622
164 0.622


68
































Figure C- 34. Experiment 4 (D = 0.915 m, Dso = 0.80 mm) before test.


Figure C- 35. Experiment 4 (D = 0.915 m, D,5 = 0.80 mm) before test.


69










































Figure C- 36. Experiment 4 (D = 0.915 m, Ds = 0.80 mm) after test.


Figure C- 37. Experiment 4 (D = 0.915 m, D5s = 0.80 mm) after test.


70


_ _1___ __

































Figure C- 38. Experiment 4 (D = 0.915 m, D5s = 0.80 mm) after test.


Figure C- 39. Experiment 4 (D = 0.915 m, Ds = 0.80 mm) after test.


71

































Experiment 4 (D = 0.915 m, D5s = 0.80 mm) after test.


Figure C- 41. Experiment 4 (D = 0.915 m, D5s = 0.80 mm) after test.


72


Figure C- 40.









Experiment 5
Scour Summary Form


Circular Pile diameter, D:

Sediment:
Type: Quartz
D5o(mm): 0.80
a: 1.29
ps (Kg/m3): 2650


0.305 m


Start Date:
Stop Date:


Duration: 87 hrs


Flow Variables:

Average(m/s):
Maximum(m/s):
Minimum(m/s):


West Velocity Meter
0.41
0.43
0.38


East Velocity Meter
0.33
0.41
0.30


Channel average velocity from weir (m/s):

Critical (sediment) velocity, Vc (m/s):

Bed Relative Roughness, RR:

Water depth, yo :
Average water depth(m):
Minimum(m):
Maximum(m):

Water Temperature:
Average (degrees C): 1.2
Maximum (degrees C): 2.2
Minimum (degrees C): 0.8


Local Equilibrium Scour Depth, ds:
Maximum depth from acoustic transponders (m):
Maximum depth from internal video cameras (m):
Maximum depth from point gauge (m):
Maximum scour depth (m):


Dimensionless Parameters:
yo/D: 4.2


V/Vc: 0.83

ds/D: 1.36


73


03/11/1999
03/15/1999


Start Time:
Stop Time:


3:18 PM
7:03 AM


0.37

0.47

2


1.27
1.27
1.27


0.384
0.400
0.416
0.416


D/Dso: 381

















-law -A&&& *dk -a& -Am& Ak& At


ALA L A JL A -L A A
~A AAA AL


0.45
0.4
0.35
0.3
0.25
0.2

0.15
0.1
0.05
0


20


40


60


80


-1.34

1.32

1.3 k

-1.28

-1.26 0

S1.24

-1.22

1.2
100


Time (hrs)


Figure C- 42. Measured velocity and water depth for experiment 5.


I i


* West camera (m)

* East Camera (m)


RI I


20
20


40


60


80


100


Time (hrs)


Figure C- 43. Measured local scour data from the internal video camera for experiment
5.


74


* West Velocity meter (m/s)
* East Velocity meter (m/s)
A Water Depth (m)
I I I I


>
I>


0


0.450

0.400

0.350

0.300

0.250

0.200

0.150

0.100

0.050

0.000


"S


(


0


9 1


-

-
-


I
















dse = 0.51 m


* *


0.5



0.4
E
--c
(D0.3
0


0.2



0.1



0


I C +
d I +abt 1 +cdt
a= 0.1
b=21
c= 0.33
d= 0.16


0 10 20


30


40


50
Time (hrs)


60


70


80


90


Curve fit to the local scour data measured with the acoustic transponder data for experiment 5.


0.6


Transponder data
- Curve fit
Equilibrium scour depth


100


Figure C- 44.



















0.15

0.1

0.5- 0.05

0

-0.05

-0.1

0- o -0.15
-0.2

-.-0.25
-0.3
-0.5- -0.35












Figure C- 45. Bed elevation contours at completion of experiment 5 referenced to the
original bed. All dimensions are in meters.
"1-






original bed. All dimensions are in meters.


76









Table C- 5. The rate of scour depth from the internal video camera for experiment 5.

Time West East Time West East Time West East
(hrs) camera camera (hrs) camera camera (hrs) camera camera
(m) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m)
0.00 0.000 0.000 3.33 0.178 0.179 42.08 0.378 0.375
0.02 0.003 0.003 3.50 0.180 0.180 43.08 0.380 0.378
0.03 0.010 0.010 3.67 0.183 0.183 44.08 0.383 0.380
0.05 0.014 0.013 4.00 0.188 0.188 45.08 0.388 0.385
0.07 0.018 0.016 16.57 0.275 0.275 46.08 0.389 0.388
0.08 0.020 0.016 17.07 0.279 0.280 47.08 0.393 0.390
0.10 0.023 0.020 17.57 0.281 0.283 48.08 0.393 0.393
0.12 0.024 0.023 18.07 0.285 0.285 49.08 0.393 0.395
0.13 0.025 0.023 18.57 0.288 0.288 50.08 0.393 0.398
0.15 0.029 0.025 19.07 0.290 0.290 51.08 0.393 0.399
0.17 0.030 0.028 19.57 0.293 0.294 52.08 0.393 0.399
0.18 0.031 0.028 20.07 0.295 0.296 53.08 0.393 0.399
0.20 0.033 0.028 20.57 0.298 0.299 54.08 0.393 0.399


0.22


0.035 0.030


21.07 0.300 0.300


0.23 0.040 0.038 21.57 0.304 0.304
0.25 0.045 0.041 22.08 0.305 0.306
0.27 0.049 0.045 22.58 0.308 0.309
0.28 0.053 0.049 23.08 0.310 0.313
0.30 0.055 0.053 23.58 0.313 0.315
0.32 0.060 0.058 24.08 0.315 0.316
0.33 0.068 0.063 24.58 0.318 0.320
0.50 0.096 0.095 25.08 0.320 0.323
0.67 0.113 0.111 26.08 0.325 0.325
0.83 0.123 0.121 27.08 0.326 0.325
1.00 0.128 0.130 28.08 0.325 0.325
1.17 0.134 0.135 29.08 0.326 0.328
1.33 0.140 0.140 30.08 0.328 0.330
1.50 0.146 0.145 31.08 0.335 0.335
1.67 0.150 0.149 32.08 0.343 0.340
1.83 0.153 0.152 33.08 0.345 0.343
2.00 0.158 0.155 34.08 0.350 0.348
2.17 0.160 0.160 35.08 0.353 0.350
2.33 0.163 0.163 36.08 0.355 0.354
2.50 0.165 0.166 37.08 0.360 0.358
2.67 0.169 0.168 38.08 0.363 0.361
2.83 0.170 0.170 39.08 0.368 0.365
3.00 0.173 0.173 40.08 0.370 0.368
3.17 0.175 0.175 41.08 0.375 0.370


77








































Figure C- 46. Experiment 5 (D = 0.305 m, D5s = 0.80 mm) before test.


Figure C- 47. Experiment 5 (D = 0.305 m, D50 = 0.80 mm) before test.


78


I -









































Figure C- 48. Experiment 5 (D = 0.305 m, Ds = 0.80 mm) before test.


Figure C- 49. Experiment 5 (D = 0.305 m, D5s = 0.80 mm) after test.


79


~

































Figure C- 50. Experiment 5 (D = 0.305 m, D5s = 0.80 mm) after test.


Figure C- 51. Experiment 5 (D = 0.305 m, Dso = 0.80 mm) after test.


80

































Figure C- 52. Experiment 5 (D = 0.305 m, D, = 0.80 mm) after test.


81









Experiment 6
Scour Summary Form


Circular Pile diameter, D:

Sediment:
Type: Quartz
Dso(mm): 0.80
a: 1.29
ps (Kg/m3): 2650


0.114 m


Start Date:
Stop Date:


03/29/1999
03/31/1999


Start Time:
Stop Time:


Duration: 42 hrs


Flow Variables:


Average(m/s):
Maximum(m/s):
Minimum(m/s):


West Velocity Meter
0.34
0.36
0.31


East Velocity Meter
0.43
0.46
0.39


Channel average velocity from weir (m/s):

Critical (sediment) velocity, Vc (m/s):

Bed Relative Roughness, RR:

Water depth, yo :
Average water depth(m):
Minimum(m):
Maximum(m):

Water Temperature:
Average (degrees C): 3.7
Maximum (degrees C): 3.5
Minimum (degrees C): 3.5


0.38

0.47

2


1.27
1.21
1.28


Local Equilibrium Scour Depth, ds:
Maximum depth from acoustic transponders (m):
Maximum depth from internal video cameras (m):
Maximum depth from point gauge (m):
Maximum scour depth (m):


Dimensionless Parameters:
yo/D: 11.1


V/Vc: 0.87

ds/D: 1.62


82


2:43 PM
8:14 AM


0.130
0.171
0.185
0.185


D/D50: 143












0.50
0.45
0.40
0.35
0.30
0.25
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.05
0.00


0 5 10 15 20 25
Time (hrs)


30 35 40 45


Figure C- 53. Measured velocity and water depth for experiment 6.


ift


0 a U I0U EU U


* West video camera (m)
* East video camera (m)


10


20


Time (hrs)


Figure C- 54. Measured local scour data from the internal video camera for experiment
6.


83


8


* West velocity meter (m/s)
* East velocity meter (m/s)
A Water depth (m)


- 1.40

-1.20

- 1.00

- 0.80 E
0.
- 0.60 I

- 0.40

S0.20

0.00


0.2 -

0.18

0.16
0.14
0.12 -

0.1-

0.08

0.06

0.04
0.02
0


E
cL
-.
0a

0
0


/


i
It

I


0


30


40


50


--1(C


m6 I I


1










0.3
0.3 -.......------------------------------

0.25-- i-- dse = 0.23 m -



0.2
ET

a 0.15

o a--
S0.1 +c
a = 0.08
Transponder data b = 10.5
S- Curve fit c = 0.1
0.05-d = 2 0
Equilibrium scour depth


0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
Time (hrs)


Curve fit to the local scour data measured with the acoustic transponder data for experiment 6.


Figure C- 55.




















0.04

0.02

0.00

-0.02

-0.04

-0.06

-0.08

-0.10

-0.12

-0.14

-0.16

-0.18

-0.20


-0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2

Figure C- 56 Bed elevation contours at completion of experiment 6 referenced to the
original bed. All dimensions are in meters.


85


;
ri:
'"









Table C- 6. The rate of scour depth from the internal video camera for experiment 6.

Time West East Time West East
(hrs) camera camera (hrs) camera camera
___ (m) (m) (m) (m)
0.00 0 0 37.08 0.171 0.171
0.08 0.02 0.0125 39.07 0.171 0.171
0.17 0.025 0.0175 40.07 0.171 0.171
0.25 0.0275 0.02 42.08 0.171 0.171


0.33


0.032


0.0275


0.50 0.04 0.035
0.67 0.042 0.041
0.83 0.052 0.051
1.00 0.059 0.06
1.17 0.065 0.066
1.33 0.0725 0.071
1.50 0.079 0.082
1.67 0.086 0.087
1.83 0.09 0.093
2.00 0.096 0.098
2.17 0.102 0.1
2.33 0.105 0.105
2.50 0.106 0.106
2.85 0.111 0.112
3.02 0.116 0.116
3.18 0.116 0.117
3.35 0.118 0.115
3.52 0.12 0.12
3.68 0.122 0.122
3.85 0.125 0.125
4.02 0.124 0.124
4.18 0.127 0.126
4.35 0.127 0.1275
4.53 0.129 0.128
4.70 0.129 0.129
4.87 0.13 0.13
5.03 0.132 0.133
8.38 0.148 0.151
8.72 0.152 0.152
9.03 0.153 0.155
9.38 0.156 0.156
17.57 0.166 0.17
18.07 0.17 0.171
18.57 0.171 0.172


86

































Figure C- 57. Experiment 6 (D = 0.114 m, D5s = 0.80 mm) before test.


Figure C- 58. Experiment 6 (D = 0.114 m, D5s = 0.80 mm) before test.


87

































Figure C- 59. Experiment 6 (D = 0.114 m, D5s = 0.80 mm) after test.


Figure C- 60. Experiment 6 (D = 0.114 m, D5s = 0.80 mm) after test.


88




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