• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Letter of transmittal
 Table of Contents
 Soil survey of Flagler county,...
 Public resolution--no.9
 Maps






Group Title: Advance sheets, Field operations of the Bureau of Soils,, 1918
Title: Soil survey of Flagler County, Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074999/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Flagler County, Florida
Physical Description: 41 p. : illus. ;
Language: English
Creator: Taylor, Arthur Elijah, 1877-
United States -- Bureau of Chemistry and Soils
Publisher: Govt. print off.
Place of Publication: Washington
Publication Date: 1922
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Florida -- Flagler County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Flagler County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Arthur E. Taylor.
General Note: Advance sheets, Field operations of the Bureau of Soils, 1918
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074999
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001619849
oclc - 01845818
notis - AHP4406

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Soil survey of Flagler county, Florida
        Page 5
        Description of the area
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
        Climate
            Page 8
        Agriculture
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
        Soils
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
        Summary
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
    Public resolution--no.9
        Page 43
    Maps
        Page 44
        Page 45
Full Text




U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF SOILS-MILTON WHITNEY, Chief.





SOIL SURVEY OF FLAGLER COUNTY,

FLORIDA.



BY

ARTHUR E. TAYLOR.


W. EDWARD HEARN, INSPECTOR, SOUTHERN DIVISION.




[Advance Sheets-Field Operations of the Bureau of Soils, 1918.]


WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINING OFFICE.
1922.


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UNIVERSITY

OF FLORIDA

LIBRARY /
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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF SOILS-MILTON WHITNEY, Chief.






SOIL SURVEY OF FLAGLER COUNTY,


FLORIDA.




BY

ARTHUR E. TAYLOR.


W. EDWARD HEARN, INSPECTOR, SOUTHERN DIVISION.





[Advance Sheets-Field Operations of the Bureau of Soils, 1918.]


WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1922.
.... .* .. ..
.... .. .: ".


S. .. .





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(3/4 17

FP574 z











LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF SOIIS,
Washington, D. C., June 24, 1921.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the manuscript report
and map covering the soil survey of Flagler County, Fla., and to
recommend that they be published as advance sheets of Field Opera-
tions of the Bureau of Soils, 1918, as authorized by law.
Respectfully,
MILTON IWHITNEY,
Chief of Bureau.
Hon. H. C. WALLACE,
Secretary of Agriculture.


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.


* .

.


**
* *



















CONTENTS.


Page.
SoIL SURVEY OF FLAGLER COUNTY, FLORIDA. By ARTHUR E. TAYLOR ---
Description of the area----------- 5
Climate ___--------_----s--- ___ S
Agriculture -- ---_____ ..- __________ __ 9
Soils ___ _- -- -- -- _____- ____ ___ _____ 14
Bladen fine sandl----------- --____ 17
Bladen fine sandy loamin_-_________________ 20
Bladen clay -_ -- ----_________23
Lakewood fine said ____________ ____ ____ 24
Gainesville sand -------_-----________ 25
Leon fine sand --------------------- 25
Norfolk fine sand------------------- 27
Parkwood fine sandy 1,ln'_loam--___ 29
Parkwood clay _----------- -- ________ 30
Portsmouth fine sand ________________ 31
Plummer fine sand-____________________ 32
St. Johns fine s;:nd_--___---- ___----____ 33
St. Lucie fine sand__________ 35
Coquina ---_-_-------_--____ 35
Peaty muck ----_---_-__-_-_-__ _____ 36
Swamp ------------------------------ 36
Coastal beach --.- -- ----__-_______ 37
Tidal marsh ______-___________----_ 38
Marsh --- __-------- __ 38
Summary ----------------------------------------- 30


ILL U ST AT ION S.


FIG. 1. Sketch ma l showing" Ilocntion o'f he Fingler ('01nlly area, Florftla-


Page
5


MAP.

Soil map, Flagler County sheet, Florida.


6 e't
















SOIL SURVEY OF FLAGLER COUNTY, FLORIDA.
By ARTHUR E. TAYLOR.-Area Inspected by W. EDWARD HEARN.

DESCRIPTION OF THE ARE\.
Flagler County lies in the northeastern part of Florida. about 50
miles southeast of Jacksonville. The Atlantic Ocean forms its
eastern boundary and Crescent Lake a part of its western boundary.
The county has an area of 491 square miles, or 314,240 acres.
The county may be separated into two main topographic divisions,
the low-ridge region along the coast, and the flatwoods proper com-
prising the remainder of its area. The
low-ridge region is in the northeastern _-
part of the county, bordering the coast,
and comprises a zone 3 to 5 miles wide,
made up of low, narrow ridges, shallow
valleys, and flatwoods. The shallow val-
leys and the low ridges, which in many
cases are remnants of old beaches, extend
in a northwest-southeast direction, paral-
lel with the coast line. Immediately
along the coast and separated from the FI. 1.-Sketch map showing o-
mainland by the Florida East Coast cation of t"" Flagler county
nrea, Florida.
Canal is the barrier island, which ranges
from a few hundred yards to 1 mile in width. It consists mainly of
a number of low, parallel, dunelike ridges with intervening troughs,
but in places the surface is almost flat and more or less plottedd with
poorly drained basins.
The flatwoods proper consists of almost level areas interrupted by
slight depressions, both large and small, in addition to shallow drain-
age ways and low, gently undulating ridges. Lake Diston occurs in
the flatwoods region in the southwestern corner of the county and
Gore Lake east of Bunnell. In the vicinity of Neoga there occur
low sand dunes, small lakes, and limestone sinks.
The average elevation of the county, according to determinations
made by the United States Geological Survey, railroad surveys, and
drainage surveys, is about 24 feet. The elevations at some of the
5
















SOIL SURVEY OF FLAGLER COUNTY, FLORIDA.
By ARTHUR E. TAYLOR.-Area Inspected by W. EDWARD HEARN.

DESCRIPTION OF THE ARE\.
Flagler County lies in the northeastern part of Florida. about 50
miles southeast of Jacksonville. The Atlantic Ocean forms its
eastern boundary and Crescent Lake a part of its western boundary.
The county has an area of 491 square miles, or 314,240 acres.
The county may be separated into two main topographic divisions,
the low-ridge region along the coast, and the flatwoods proper com-
prising the remainder of its area. The
low-ridge region is in the northeastern _-
part of the county, bordering the coast,
and comprises a zone 3 to 5 miles wide,
made up of low, narrow ridges, shallow
valleys, and flatwoods. The shallow val-
leys and the low ridges, which in many
cases are remnants of old beaches, extend
in a northwest-southeast direction, paral-
lel with the coast line. Immediately
along the coast and separated from the FI. 1.-Sketch map showing o-
mainland by the Florida East Coast cation of t"" Flagler county
nrea, Florida.
Canal is the barrier island, which ranges
from a few hundred yards to 1 mile in width. It consists mainly of
a number of low, parallel, dunelike ridges with intervening troughs,
but in places the surface is almost flat and more or less plottedd with
poorly drained basins.
The flatwoods proper consists of almost level areas interrupted by
slight depressions, both large and small, in addition to shallow drain-
age ways and low, gently undulating ridges. Lake Diston occurs in
the flatwoods region in the southwestern corner of the county and
Gore Lake east of Bunnell. In the vicinity of Neoga there occur
low sand dunes, small lakes, and limestone sinks.
The average elevation of the county, according to determinations
made by the United States Geological Survey, railroad surveys, and
drainage surveys, is about 24 feet. The elevations at some of the
5







6 FIELD OPERATIONS OF THE BUREAU OF SOILS, 1918.

railroad stations are as follows: Roy 23 feet, Bunnell 21.5 feet,
Dupont 26 feet, Korona 29 feet, and Favoretta 28 feet.
The principal watershed enters Flagler County about 1 mile west
of the southeast corner of the county and extends in a northerly
direction to a point near the west-central part of Fishhawk Cypress
Swamp. Here it turns northeastward to a point near where the
Florida East Coast Railroad crosses the Flagler-Volusia County line,
where it takes a northerly and slightly westerly course, following
along the east side of Gore Lake and thence northwestward, crossing
Hulett and Pringle Swamps and entering St. Johns County about 1
mile east of Big Cypress Swamp. West of this divide the streams
flow northwest, west, and southwest through Crescent Lake to the
St. Johns River, while to the east the drainage is carried eastward
and southeastward to the Atlantic Ocean.
Comparatively small areas of Flagler County are well drained.
The principal well-drained areas occur in the low-ridge region lying
along the coast and in the low sand ridges about Neoga and Gore
Lake. The remainder of the county, with the exception of small,
scattered, low, ridgy areas of about 10 to 100 acres, is poorly drained.
There are large areas in which drainage is either lacking or only
partially established. Such places are conspicuously marked by
many large swamps and bays, which often occupy the higher eleva-
tions. The largest of these, Big Cypress Swamp, in the northwestern
part of the county, at an elevation of 23 feet, has a length of about
10 miles and a width of 1 to 7 miles. Other large swamps and bays
occupying from 1 to 10 square miles are Hulett, Pringle, Fishhawk
Cypress, Hull Cypress, and Grahams Swamp; Quigley, Shakey, Hog-
house, Winket, and Cross Bays; and Mound Slough. There are many
smaller swamps and bays, and cypress ponds ranging from 1 to 25
acres are very numerous throughout the flatwoods.
The present streams are sluggish and have not developed valleys.
It is often difficult to determine the extent of the overflow area, owing
to the gradual merging of the bottoms into the upland, and along
many of the stream courses the water spreads out over large areas,
forming swamps and marshes. Only the larger creeks and rivers
have well-defined channels. The streams generally head in swamps
or bays, and in their upper reaches are merely wet-weather streams.
Both creeks and branches are fringed with a heavy growth of cypress
and hardwoods.
In the vicinity of Neoga there are several deep lakes without sur-
face outlets. These probably owe their origin to limestone sinks.
Flagler County was formed in 1917. Settlement in this region
began early in the eighteenth century, and was at first confined to
favorable locations near the coast. The first settlers were of Spanish







SOIL SURVEY OF FLAGLER COUNTY, FLORIDA.


descent. In 1763 Florida was ceded to the English, and in 1767 an
English association formed a colony of 4,000 Europeans from the
island of Minorca, island of Corsica, and the Grecian Archipelago,
and settled on lands between St. Augustine and New Smyrna, in-
cluding all of the Flagler County coast line. From the time of the
transfer of Florida by Spain to the United States, in 1821, there
was a slow inflow of settlers, mostly from the Carolinas and Georgia,
but the population was sparse until the, development of the potato-
growing industry during the last 20 years. In this brief period many
settlers have come from all parts of the United States and Canada.
According to the 1920 census the population of Flagler County is
2,442, all of which is classed as rural. It is very irregularly dis-
tributed, there being large uninhabited areas. Settlement is densest
on the Bladen fine sandy loam areas between the Dean Road, Cody-
ville, and Lake Diston. There are many farms along the Brick Road
between Espanola and Ocean City and in the vicinity of Korona and
Favoretta and between St. Johns Park and Big Cypress Swamp.
Thirty-nine and two-tenths per cent of the population are negroes.
Bunnell, the county seat and largest town, is situated near the cen-
ter of the county, on the Florida East Coast Railroad and the Dixie
Highway, and is the principal shipping point in Flagler County.
Dupont is an important shipping point on the Florida East Coast
Railroad and the Dupont & Florida Central Railroad. Roy, New
Dinner Island, Neoga, Espanola, Korona, and Favoretta are other
shipping points on the Florida East Coast Railroad. St. Johns Park,
in the extreme western part of the county, is provided with both
railroad and water transportation. Atlantic City is both a summer
and winter resort. Relay is a small turpentine" town in the south-
ern part of the county. Codyville is a shipping point on the Dupont
& Florida Central Railroad.
The Florida East Coast Railroad crosses Flagler County diago-
nally from northwest to. southeast. The Dupont & Florida Central
Railroad connects the towns of Dupont and St. Johns Park. Water
transportation is afforded in the western part of the county by Cres-
cent Lake, and along the coast by the Florida East Coast Canal, and
all parts of the county are fairly well supplied with means of
transportation.
A brick wagon road (Dixie Highway) enters the northern part of
Flagler County and extends southeast to Bunnell and thence east to
Ocean City. The John Anderson Highway, in the eastern part of
the county, and the road connecting Bunnell and St. Johns Park have
hard surfaces of shell or limestone, and there are a number of other
roads that are graded. Settlement and turpentine roads extend into
most sections of the county, with the exception of the large swamp
areas.







8 FIELD OPERATIONS OF THE BUREAU OF SOILS, 1918.

Local and long-distance telephone service is available in many
parts of the county, and there are telegraph facilities at Bunnell,
Dupont, and Espanola. Rural and star mail routes reach many of
the settlements. Public schools are conveniently located throughout
the county.
Early Irish potatoes are shipped to all the larger cities between
Chicago and Boston. Early cabbage is shipped to Atlanta, Savannah,
and New York.
CLIMATE.

The climate of Flagler County is subtropical, characterized by
long summers and short, pleasant winters. Occasionally during the
months of December, January, and February the temperature for
periods of two or three days may drop to near the freezing point.
The lowest temperature on record at St. Augustine is 130 F. and the
highest is 1040 F. A comparison of the records of the Weather
Bureau stations at St. Augustine, which is about 16 miles north of
the county and has a climate typical of that section of Flagler
County along the coast, and at Federal Point, which is about 8 miles
north and 1 mile west of the northwest corner of Flagler County,
shows some variation in precipitation. Since there is little differ-
ence in elevation, the variation is probably due to the nearness of
St. Augustine to the ocean.
The average annual precipitation is 47.15 inches at St. Augustine
and 52.25 inches at Federal Point. The wet season occurs during
June, July, August, and September, and the winter and spring
months are the driest.
The average date of the last killing frost in the spring as recorded
at St. Augustine is February 17, and that of the first in the fall, De-
cember 18. The latest date of killing frost recorded in the spring
is March 27, and the earliest date in the fall, November 10. At the
Federal Point station the average date of the last killing frost in
the spring is February 16, and that of the first in the fall December
18, while the latest recorded date of killing frost in the spring is
March 27 and the earliest recorded date in the fall November 17.
The long growing season, which averages 305 days, is favorable to
a widely diversified agriculture and to the extension of the stock-
raising and dairying industries. Grazing continues throughout the
year.
The following table is compiled from the records of the Weather
Bureau stations at St. Augustine, St. Johns County, and at Federal
Point, Putnam County:








SOIL SURVEY OF FLAGLER COUNTY, FLORIDA.


Normal monthly, seasonal, and annual temperature and precipitation.


Month.


December...........
January............
February...........

Winter........

March..............
April...............
May................

Spring........

June................
July................
August..............

Summer......

September..........
October.............
November...........

Fall..........

Year..........


Federal Point.


St. Augustine.


Temper- Precipitation. Temperature. Precipitation.
ature.

TTotal Total
o tal otal Abso- Abso- amount amount
amount Amount lute lute Mean. for the for the
Mean. Mean. for the for the Mean. maxi- mni Mean. driest wettest
estmaxi- mini- driest wettest
driest wettest mum. mum. year year
year. year. (1911). (1880).


o F. Inches. Inches. Inhes. F. F. o F. Inches. Inches. Inches.
54.7 3.00 3.50 2.68 57.6 87 16 2.73 1.1.9 1.32
56.6 2.73 .96 .67 56.5 85 18 2.62 1.55 3.22
57.8 3.18 4.63 9.53 58.6 87 13 2.90 .00 6.91

57.3 8.91 9.09 12.88 57.6 87 13 8.25 2.74 11.45


64.4 3.12 5.67 8.40 62.9 94 26 2.94 1.30 1.30
68.3 2.51 3.13 3.91 68.3 93 36 2.56 .78 2.08
74.7 3.64 1.43 6.83 74.0 99 45 3.32 1.02 4.68

69.1 9.27 10.23 19.14 68.4 99 26 8.82 3.10 8.06

79.2 6.16 3.91 6.28 79.0 104 54 5.14 4.73 5.95
81.2 6.75 3.30 4.62 80.9 101 62 5.23 1.22 11.09
81.2 6.92 5.96 9.89 80.7 101 63 5.94 5.48 8.20

80.5 19.83 13.17 20.79 80.2 105454 16.31 11.43 25.24

78.5 7.40 3.46 7.29 78.5 100 51 6.50 1.14 2.57
71.9 4.79 1.68 7.87 72.3 98 38 5.00 5.83 14.29
64.0 2.05 .60 3.16 64.1 92 26 2.27 3.80 5.51


73.6

69.5


14.24

52.25


5.74 18.32

38.23 71.13


71.6 100

69.5 104


26 13.77

13 47.15


10.77 1 22.37

28.04 67.12


AGRICULTURE.

Early in the eighteenth century the Spaniards had farms along the
coast on which they grew some vegetables and staple products for
their own use, but they subsisted mainly by fishing and hunting.
Indigo, sugar cane, corn, sweet potatoes, cotton, and oranges were
grown prior to 1800, and sugar cane and upland rice were important
crops from 1830 up to the Civil War period. Stock raising was taken
up by the Spanish. Practically the whole county was an open range,
and stock could graze over large areas. The raising of cattle and
hogs became the sole occupation of many farmers and has remained
an important industry to the present time.
Late in the seventies the citrus-fruit industry began to attract
attention. It developed along the coast very rapidly until the freeze
of 1895, which killed most of the trees. About 1909 the production
of early Irish potatoes for northern markets was started near Bun-
56061-22-2


1






10 FIELD OPERATIONS OF THE BUREAU OF SOILS, 1918.

nell. This industry has grown rapidly and at present is the chief
occupation of the county. In the eighties and nineties turpentining
and lumbering were carried on rather extensively, and they are still
important industries, although the forest resources are being rapidly
depleted. There are sawmills at Dupont and Roy and northeast of
Bunnell, and turpentine stills at Relay, Favoretta, Bulow. Still,
Neoga, New Dinner Island, and Roy.
At present, Irish potatoes, corn, sugar cane, cowpeas, and sweet
potatoes are the principal crops. Velvet beans and oats, grown for
stock feed, are probably the most important of the minor crops.
The growing of citrus fruit and grapes are important industries
in a few localities. Probably half the farmers are engaged in
raising hogs on the open range, and some raise range cattle. Dairy-
ing is engaged in on a small scale. The principal wild grasses
are wire grass and broom sedge in the flatwoods section, needle grass
and bunch grass in the fresh-water marshes, and saltweed and sword
grass in the salt-water marshes.
Irish potatoes are by far the most important crop. According
to the 1920 census Flagler County stood third in the production of
Irish potatoes in the State, being exceeded only by St. Johns and
Putnam Counties, the production in 1919 being 103,561 bushels from
1,368 acres, an average of 75.7 bushels per acre.
The Spaulding Rose is the leading winter variety grown, while
the Green Mountain and Lookout Mountain are the leading varieties
for fall.
Corn ranks next to Irish potatoes in importance. Most of the
corn is used on the farm, chiefly for feeding the stock, but to some
extent for making into meal. More corn is shipped into than out of
the county. The 1920 census reports 826 acres in corn with a pro-
duction of 6,258 bushels.
Hay and forage crops are relatively unimportant, although they
are grown to a limited extent on almost every farm. The greater
part of the hay is fed on the farm to work stock and dairy cattle.
Some hay is sold to local markets, but this does not supply the de-
mand, and a large amount of hay is imported each year. Cowpeas,
with a volunteer growth of crab grass, form the leading hay crop
of Flager County. The crop is grown on almost every farm, in many
cases for soil improvement or for hog pasture. Oats are cut in the
heading stage and cured for hay. Sudan grass is reported as giving
very good results, yielding about 2 tons per acre. Other hay crops
that have been tried in an experimental way, with some success, are
soy beans, velvet beans, Natal grass, Para grass, Rhodes grass, feter-
ita, milo, kafir, and Japanese and Jerusalem cane. Many farmers
grow sufficient hay for their own use. The 1920 census reports 711
acres in hay and forage crops, with a production of 770 tons.







SOIL SURVEY OF FLAGLER COUNTY, FLORIDA.


Sugar cane is grown by most farmers, principally for making
sirup, and to a small extent for sugar. The 1920 census reports 38
acres in sugar cane, and 6,361 gallons of sirup made on farms.
Sweet potatoes and yams are grown in patches on most farms. In
1919 the total acreage was 124 acres, producing 11,777 bushels.
Oranges of splendid flavor and quality are produced in Flagler
County. The principal groves are located on the Bladen fine sandy
loam near Knights Store and on the Norfolk fine sand in the extreme
eastern part of the county. Prior to the freeze of 1917 there were
several groves south of St. Johns Park on the Bladen clay. Very
good oranges were produced on the Bladen clay without fertilizer.
The 1920 census reports 3,501 orange trees, yielding 1,925 boxes
of fruit; 339 grapefruit trees, yielding 322 boxes; and 690 tangerine
trees, yielding 255 boxes.
Probably one-half of the farmers of Flagler County keep one to
three cows for milk and butter, the 1920 census reporting 271 dairy
cattle. Grade Jersey is the leading type of dairy cow. In addition
to the native wire grass, broom sedge, crab grass, and beggarweed,
pastures of cowpeas, oats, and Sudan grass are sometimes provided
for the dairy cattle. Some farmers supplement these pasture grasses
with cottonseed meal, ensilage of velvet beans and corn fodder or
cowpea vines and corn fodder, concentrates, and dry feed.
At the time of the survey (1918) five dipping vats were being con-
structed in different parts of the county for the purpose of eradicat-
ing the Texas fever tick. It is generally believed that dairying will
be carried on much more extensively when the eradication is effected.
At present condensed milk and butter are shipped into the county
in large quantities.
The raising of cattle for beef purposes is a relatively important
industry. There are a few farms with herds ranging from 100 to
300 head; in most cases the herds number from 10 to 50 head. The
1920 census reports 1,023 beef cattle in the county. These cattle
are of a low-grade type and in most cases receive no other feed than
that obtained from the open range, which though extensive is gen-
erally poor. The maintenance of purebred bulls is very difficult
on account of the prevalence of the Texas fever tick.
The hogs are of better quality than the other live stock. The im-
portation of purebred boars and sows has resulted in great improve-
ment on the former razorback variety. Poland-China, Berkshire,
and Duroc-Jersey are the leading breeds. The 1920 census reports
2,165 hogs in the county. A large percentage of the hogs feed on
the forage and mast of the swamps, hammocks, and flatwoods, and
many of them are fattened by turning them into fields of cowpeas
or peanuts, or by feeding corn. There is not sufficient pork and beef






12 FIELD OPERATIONS OF THE BUREAU OF SOILS, 1918.


produced in Flagler County to supply the local markets, and large
quantities are imported.
Horses and mules are fed on about the same pasturage and rough-
age as the cattle, but this is supplemented with corn, oats, alfalfa
meal, and various mixed feeds. Not enough horses and mules are
raised in the county to meet the local demand. There are in Flagler
County one flock'of 3,000 sheep and a number of small flocks that
graze on the open range.
All the farmers recognize differences in the adaptation of the
various soils to certain crops, and the majority are guided in a
measure by such knowledge in selecting their fields. It is generally
realized that the Bladen fine sandy loam is the best Irish potato soil,
although it is little better than the Bladen fine sand; that the Park-
wood and Gainesville soils are best adapted to leguminous crops;
and that the Norfolk fine sand is the best soil for sweet potatoes,
sugar cane, and citrus fruits. Until the ground-water level is low-
ered, the hardpan broken up, and lime applied to correct the acidity,
the St. Johns and Leon soils will remain practically nonagricultural.
When adequate drainage is provided the Portsmouth soils are known
to be well adapted to growing corn and potatoes. The Plummer fine
sand, because of its low content of organic matter and poorly drained
condition, is classed as an inferior soil. Owing to their lack of or-
ganic matter and their leachy nature and incoherency, the St. Lucie
soils are not farmed. The Peaty muck, when reclaimed, has proved
well adapted to onions, celery, and corn. The Coastal beach soil is
considered nonagricultural.
SThe common method of preparing the seed bed for Irish potatoes
is to break the ground in November or December into beds 3 or 4
feet apart with disk cultivators. There are 10 or 12 of these beds
in a plat. Between the plats are water furrows, connected invariably
at one end and usually at both ends with ditches, which are used for
both drainage and irrigation, water for irrigating being supplied by
artesian wells. Commercial fertilizer is applied in the top of the
bed with the potato planter. The crop is cultivated with disk culti-
vators and is sprayed frequently to counteract the blight, which may
do serious injury, especially during wet seasons, when not sprayed.
The crop matures in about 90 to 100 days after planting.
Immediately after cultivation of the potatoes, corn is usually
planted on the side of the bed, without additional fertilizer. When
the potatoes are dug, the soil is turned toward the corn, leaving it
in the center of the bed, where the drainage is better. The corn is
worked with shovel and disk cultivators and sweeps. At the last
cultivation cowpeas are usually sown broadcast, but rice is some-
times sown between the rows. When the corn is harvested-the
common practice is to top the stalks and snap the ears-hogs and






SOIL SURVEY OF FLAGLER COUNTY, FLORIDA.


cattle are often turned into the field to fatten on the cowpeas, but
in many cases the vines, with the volunteer growth of crab grass, are
cut for hay.
A few farmers have had excellent success in growing Sudan grass.
The seed is drilled in April at the rate of 3 pounds per acre, in rows 3
feet apart. At the second cultivation seed is again drilled in between
the rows at the rate of 3 pounds per acre. It is considered best to
grow Sudan grass after corn and velvet beans.
In sections of the county where farming has been well developed
the houses are generally substantial. Most of the fields are fenced
With barbed wire, though woven wire is coming rapidly into use.
Improved farm implements are used by the majority of farmers,
although some still use the 1-horse turning plow and the old type
of small, straight plow and sweep. Mules are used most extensively
as work animals, since they are more easily kept and endure the
warm weather better than horses. The mules are rather small and
the horses are of a light harness type. Oxen are used to a very
limited extent in clearing and breaking new land.
No definite crop rotation is practiced, although two or three crops
may be taken in the same season from one field. All the farmers use
commercial fertilizer for Irish potatoes, and corn, which generally
follows that crop, receives benefit from the fertilization. From 1,000
to 2,000 pounds per acre of a ready mixed fertilizer is applied for
potatoes. The fertilizer most commonly used consists of a mixture
of cottonseed meal, blood and bone, and acid phosphate, analyzing
6 to 7. per cent phosphoric acid and about 41 per cent ammonia.
Very little stable manure is available, but an old method of manuring
the land known as "cowpenning" is practiced extensively. The
stock is kept during the night in an inclosure of an acre or two,
which is changed from place to place as the soil becomes sufficiently
enriched. A few farmers who have plowed under cowpeas and velvet
beans report a very material increase in the quantity and quality
of the succeeding crop of Irish potatoes, as well as in the corn crop
immediately following the potatoes. The 1920 census reports the
use of fertilizer by 107 farms at a cost of $69,045, an average of $645
per farm.
Except during the potato harvest the farm labor is done largely
by the landowner. Most of the laborers are colored. Those em-
ployed by the month are paid from $25 to $35, while day laborers
receive $1.75 a day ordinarily, and $2 a day for harvesting potatoes.
With the subdivision of many of the large land holdings into 5,
10, 20. and 40 acre tracts, the average size of the farms is steadily
decreasing. The size depends mainly upon the character of the soil






14 FIELD OPERATIONS OF THE BUREAU OF SOILS, 1918.

and to a less degree upon the condition of the roads and the nearness
to towns and transportation facilities. The smaller farms are situ-
ated on the better drained tracts of the Bladen, Parkwood, and Nor-
folk soils.
The 1920 census reports 187 farms in Flagler County of an aver-
age size of 56.8 acres, of which 21.8 acres is improved land.
When land is rented, which is rather uncommon, the cash-rent
system prevails, from $5 to $20 being paid per acre. Where land
is rented on shares the tenant usually furnishes the labor and equip-
ment, and receives two-thirds of the crop.
Land values are steadily increasing, with the constant inflow of
settlers. At the time of the survey (1918) the selling price of un-
cleared areas of the better types of farming land ranged from $30 to
$150 an acre, depending on the quality of the soil, the drainage, the
character of the roads, and the distance from towns, schools,
churches, and lines of transportation. Lands composed of the St.
Johns, Leon, Plummer, and St. Lucie soils, Coastal beach, and
Swamp could be bought for $5 to $30 an acre. Improved farms were
held at $100 to $300 an acre. The higher priced land, excluding
locations near the towns, consists of the Bladen, Parkwood, Norfolk,
and Gainesville soils.
SOILS.

The formations of Flagler County from which the soils are derived
are largely Pleistocene and Recent in age, and consist of sediments
laid down by water under varying conditions of deposition. These
water-transported materials now appear as unconsolidated sands,
sandy clays, and clays covering the entire county, except for a few
relatively small areas of coquina in the northeastern part, along the
Florida East Coast Canal, and a number of small scattered beds of
marl, recent-fluvial deposits, and Peaty muck beds, which occur in all
parts of the county.
A very limited relation exists between the nature of the geological
formation and the derived soils. This relation is evident mainly
in respect to texture. Where the formation is a deep fine sand the
resulting soil is a fine sand, and where the particles in the original
formation are a medium sand the soil derived from it is a medium
sand in texture. The sandy clay formation produces the fine sandy
loams, while the clay formations give rise to the clays, which form
only 4 per cent of the area of the county.
The soils of Flagler County, on the basis of origin, may be classed
in four general groups: (1) Soils derived from the underlying un-
consolidated formations, (2) alluvial soils, (3) cumulose soils, and
(4) miscellaneous soils. The first two groups are subdivided into






SOIL SURVEY OF FLAGLER COUNTY, FLORIDA. 15

series and types. The series include soils of a common origin and
having similar characteristics of color, structure, topography, and
drainage. The type differentiation within any series is based upon
the texture, which is dependent upon the proportions of the different
grades of material-sands, silt, and clay-of which the particular soil
is composed. Minor variations in the soil, not sufficient to produce
type differences, are indicated as soil phases.
The soils derived from the unconsolidated sands and clays are
classed mainly in the St. Johns, Bladen, Norfolk, Plummer, and
Leon series, but include small areas of St. Lucie, Parkwood, Ports-
mouth, Lakewood, and Gainesville soils. The St. Johns, Norfolk,
Plummer, Leon, St. Lucie, and Portsmouth series owe their origin
to the weathering of unconsolidated sands. The Gainesville series
has originated from coquina or other shelly rock intermingled with
unconsolidated sands. Most of the Parkwood fine sandy loam has
been derived from unconsolidated sands and marly clay or marl, the
unconsolidated sands resting upon marl or marly clay beds. The
Parkwood clay in some places has been derived from the marl or
marly clay in situ. To the alluvial group belong a large part of the
Bladen fine sandy loam, Bladen clay, and Parkwood clay; a part
of the Bladen, Plummer, and Portsmouth fine sands along streams,
particularly the swamp phases of these types; and some of the Park-
wood fine sandy loam where it occurs along stream courses. Peaty
muck, the only representative of the cumulose group, has originated
from the partial decomposition of organic material in the presence
of water.
The surface soils of the types in the Bladen series are gray to
black in color. The subsoil is a gray to mottled brownish, yellowish,
and grayish plastic loamy fine sand to clay. The Bladen soils oc-
cupy flat -basins which appear to have been recently in a swampy
condition.
The Lakewood series includes types characterized by light-gray
or white surface soils and an orange or golden-yellow subsoil. The
surface material resembles that of the Leon soils, while the subsoil
is like that of the Sassafras series-a series not found in Flagler
County. The Lakewood soils occupy nearly level to rolling country,
and are well drained.
The Gainesville series includes types with reddish-brown to choco-
late-brown surface soils and a reddish-brown subsoil, which contains
fragments of shells and small pieces of coquina. These soils are
developed on low ridges, and are well drained.
The types grouped in the Leon series have light-gray to almost
white soils, underlain at 8 to 30 inches by a compact layer of fine
sand ranging in color from dark brown to black. A white fine sand






FIELD OPERATIONS OF THE BUREAU OF SOILS, 1918.


frequently underlies this hardpan" layer within the 3-foot section.
The Leon soils occur along lakes and on sandy ridges.
The Norfolk series comprises types with a light-gray to grayish-
yellow surface soil and a yellow subsoil. The members of this series
occupy nearly level to gently rolling uplands, and are well drained.
The Parkwood soils are dark gray to brownish gray, and under-
lain by a gray, dark-brown, or mottled gray and brown, calcareous
clay, which rests upon a dark-drab to almost white marly clay. The
surface is flat and the drainage is very poor.
The surface soils of the members of the Portsmouth series are
dark gray to black, and normally high in organic matter. The sub-
soil is prevailingly gray to light gray, but may be mottled with
yellow and brown in the lower part. The subsoil of the heavier
members is always somewhat plastic, though often carrying con-
siderable sand. The jortsmouth soils are developed in flat to de-
pressed, poorly drained situations. The fine sand with two phases
is the only type of this series developed in Flagler County.
The surface,soils of the types in the Plummer series are gray, and
the subsoil is light gray or dingy gray, often mottled with yellow.
The Plummer series occupies flat, poorly drained areas of the flat-
woods.
The types correlated in the St. Johns series are dark gray to black
in the surface soil, and gray in the subsoil, except for a dark rusty
brown to black hardpan layer, usually 3 to 10 inches in thickness,
which is encountered at a depth of 16 to 24 inches. These soils
occupy low, flat or slightly depressed areas.
The types of the St. Lucie series consist of a white, loose sand ex-
tending to a depth of more than 3 feet. They occur on ridges rising
above the associated flatwoods soils.
The miscellaneous soils of Flagler County are mapped as Coquina,
Peaty muck, Swamp, Coastal beach, and Tidal marsh.
In the following pages of this report the various soils of Flagler
County are described in detail, and their relation to agriculture dis-
cussed. The distribution of the soils is shown on the map accom-
panying this report, and the table below gives the name and the
actual and relative extent of each:







SOIL SURVEY OF FLAGLER COUNTY, FLORIDA. 17

Areas of different soils.

oil. Areas. Percent. Soil. Acres. Percent.

Bladen fine sand............. 41,536 Peaty muck.................. 8,256 2.6
Swampphase............. 36,032 4 Portsmouthfinesand......... 768
St. Johns fine sand........... 72,576 23.1 Swampphase ............ 4,352 1.7
Bladen fine sandy loam....... 36,160 Prairiephase ............ 192
Swampphase............ 10,112 Tidal marsh.................. 5,248 1.6
Leon fine sand................ 40,576 Parkwoodclay .............. 2,624
Scrub phase .............. 704 1.1 Prairie phase............. 1,536
Swamp ..................... 12,544 4.0 St. Lucie fine sand........... 3,904 1.2
Plummer fine sand .......... 2,368 3.6 arsh ............... ...... 3,200 1.0
Swamp phase............ 9,152 l'arkwood fine sandy loam.... 2,752 .9
Norfolk fine sand.............. 3,520 Lakewood fine sand.......... 1,216 .4
Hammock phase......... 2,752 Coastalbeach................. 1,216 .4
Scrub phase.............. 2,176 2 Gainesvill sand.............. 192 .1
Shellphase............. 128 Coquina...................... 128 .1
Bladenclay.................. 5,312
Prairiephase............ 1,536 2.7 Total................... 314,240 ..........
Swamp phase............ 1,472


BLADEN FINE SAND.

The Bladen fine sand consists of a dark-gray or almost black fine
sand, 4 to 12 inches deep, grading into a grayish to almost white
loamy fine sand, which passes at about 16 inches into a gray or mot-
tled grayish and yellowish loamy fine sand. In the lower part of
the section, from 30 to 36 inches, there is normally a small amount
of clay, sufficient to make the material slightly sticky.
As mapped this type is somewhat variable, the surface soil rang-
ing from very fine sand to sand. Frequently the upper subsoil con-
sists of a pale-yellow fine sand, which at about 18 to 24 inches passes
into a bright-yellow or orange-yellow loamy fine sand. In the south-
western part of the county, south and southwest of Knights Store,
the surface soil is more loamy and contains more organic matter than
the average of the type, and the subsoil is a gray loamy fine sand
with yellow mottlings. In the vicinity of Bunnell the surface soil
is a gray loamy fine sand. Most of the areas contain small unsepa-
rated patches of St. Johns fine sand and Leon fine sand, and in a few
it is difficult to determine whether or not the Bladen is the predomi-
nating type.
The Bladen fine sand is the most extensive soil in the northwestern
part of the county. Large areas occur also in the southeastern part,
east of Korona, about Winket Bay, and west and south of Relay.
The topography is flat or nearly flat, and the drainage is poor, the
type often being saturated or covered with water during rainy
seasons.
56061-22- 3






18 FIELD OPERATIONS OF THE BUREAU OF SOILS, 1918.

This is one of the most important soils of the county, although
probably not more than 5 per cent of it is cultivated, the remainder
being used for pasture. The type comprises the "grassy flatwoods,"
"prairie flatwoods," or "meadows" of the county, and is charac-
terized by a scattered growth of Cuban pine (Pinus cubensis) and
some longleaf pine (Pinus palustris), together with wire grass, bunch
grass, broom sedge, and such plants as sundew and pitcher plant.
The most important crops produced are Irish potatoes and corn,
each occupying about the same acreage. Potatoes are the principal
money crop. A large part of the corn is used to feed the work stock
on the farm; a portion is used in the production of meat and dairy
products for home use and for sale; and a small portion is ground
into meal for use in the home. Cowpeas, which rank next to Irish
potatoes and corn in importance, are grown for hay and also for fat-
tening hogs and cattle. Sugar cane is grown for making sirup, and
sweet potatoes for home use and for the market. Upland rice is
grown mainly to be ,fed in bundles to stock, only a small proportion
of the crop being thrashed for use in the home and for sale on the
local markets. All the garden vegetables common to the region are
produced for home use, and occasionally there is a small surplus
for sale. Practically all the uncultivated part of the type is used
as open range for cattle and hogs, the stock being branded or marked.
Most of the Cuban pine has been "boxed for turpentine. Citrus
fruits and Muscadine and bunch grapes have been found to do well
on this soil. Bermuda grass makes a good permanent pasture, while
oats, barley, or rye sown in September or October provide good
winter pasturage.
Irish potatoes on this soil range in yield from 10 to 85 barrels per
acre, but because of the blight the average yield is about 25 to 35
barrels. Corn yields 15 to 35 bushels per acre, averaging about 25
bushels, and sugar cane from 10 to 170 gallons per acre, averaging
about 50 gallons. The maximum yields are obtained where cowpeas
or velvet beans are plowed under and where the farmers understand
and supply the fertilizer needs of the soil. Most farmers plow in
December and divide the field into plats, consisting of about 12 rows.
Between these plats are deep water furrows for both drainage and
irrigation. From 1,000 to 2,000 pounds of commercial fertilizer,
consisting of about 6 to 7.5 per cent available phosphoric acid and 4.5
per cent ammonia, is applied. Irish potatoes are planted about the
middle of January. At the last working of the potatoes corn is
planted on the side of the bed, without additional fertilizer. When
the potatoes are dug the soil is turned about the corn, leaving the
corn in the center of the bed. At the last working of the corn,
cowpeas are sown on both sides of the bed. After the corn is topped






SOIL SURVEY OF FLAGLER COUNTY, FLORIDA.


and the ears snapped, hogs and cattle are turned into the field to
fatten on the cowpeas.
Unimproved areas of Bladen fine sand sell at $20 to $50 an acre,
depending upon the condition of the roads, the amount of clearing,
and the distance from towns and railroad stations. Where the land
is cleared, fenced, and ready for cultivation the prices range from
$75 to $200, with an average of about $100, an acre.
Artificial drainage is invariably necessary for the best results on
this soil. Drainage districts have been established throughout the
county and canals are being constructed. The maintenance of a sup-
ply of organic matter in the soil is essential. This may be accom-
plished by liberal applications of barnyard manure and by green
manuring. The growing of leguminous crops will greatly improve
the soil, and less nitrogen will be required in commercial fertilizers.
By plowing under cowpeas and velvet beans as green manures, several
farmers have obtained a better quality of Irish potatoes and an in-
crease in yield of about 7 barrels per acre, as well as a very substantial
increase in yield in the immediately succeeding corn crop. The soil
is well suited to the prevailing type of general farming.
Bladen fine sand, s'wamvp phase.-The Bladen fine sand, swamp
phase, consists of 1 to 12 inches of mucky material, beneath which is
a gray or pale-yellow fine sand, passing in the lower subsoil into a
sticky, yellow, drab, or mottled yellow and drab fine sand or fine
sandy loam. Lenses of fine sandy clay are present in places. Areas
without mucky surface occur.
The Bladen fine sand, swamp phase, is the most extensive swamp
soil in Flagler County. Its largest occurrence is in Big Cypress
Swamp in the northwestern part of the county, but many other areas,
ranging from a few acres to several hundred acres, are found in
swamps and shallow basins in all parts of the county.
The surface is basinlike, the phase lying 1 to 4 feet below the gen-
eral level of the typical Bladen fine sand. It has very poor drainage,
being covered with water, except during long dry periods. It sup-
ports a growth of pond cypress, bald cypress, water oak, willow oak,
sweet gum, black gum, tupelo gum, and myrtle, with sphagnum and
club mosses in the wetter areas. There is some Cuban pine on the
bases or knees of the cypress trees.
The Bladen fine sand, swamp phase, is used as pasture land. Lum-
ber companies are cutting the cypress timber in the larger swamps,
and some turpentine is obtained. The soil is not cultivated, on ac-
count of the excessive moisture, but when drained it soon loses all
swamp characteristics and is adapted to all the crops grown on the
typical Bladen fine sand.






20 FIELD OPERATIONS OF THE BUREAU OF SOILS, 1918.
BLADEN FINE SANDY LOAM.

The Bladen fine sandy loam consists of a gray to dark-gray or
dark-brown loamy fine sand, 5 to 12 inches deep, grading into a gray
loamy fine sand, mottled with yellow, that gradually becomes heavier
with increase of depth until the drab, bluish-drab, mottled yel-
low and drab, or yellow plastic clay subsoil is reached at 12 to 30
inches. The type as mapped is not uniform. To the north and
northwest of Dean Still the surface soil is shallow, the heavy clay
outcropping in places. Such spots are poorly drained. In many
places the clay subsoil is very friable, owing to a large amount of
fine sand. The surface soil may be mottled with yellow in places.
Between Dean Still, Haw Creek, and the Volusia County line there
is a gradation between this soil and the Bladen clay, the plastic clay
rarely ever being deeper than 15 inches. In secs. 5 and 6, R. 30 E.,
T. 14 S., the loamy fine sand extends to a depth of 30 to 36 inches,
where a sandy clay is encountered. In the vicinity of St. Johns
Park the surface soil is a dark-gray very fine sandy loam or loamy
very fine sand, passing at about 14 inches into a gray very fine sand
and at about 18 inches into a mottled gray and yellow sandy clay.
At 30 inches a heavy very fine sandy loam is encountered. South of
Shell Bluff there is usually about 3 inches of black loamy fine sand
at the surface. Northwest of Shell Bluff, along the northeast shore
of Crescent Lake, the surface soil is a light-gray fine sand, passing
at about 18 inches into a brown, ferruginous, organic hardpan ma-
terial. At 20 to 22 inches a drab or gray friable clay is encountered.
Low-lying dome-shaped mounds of Leon fine sand and St. Johns fine
sand are of common occurrence in the areas of Bladen fine sandy
loam, and there are also many included patches of Bladen fine sand
and some of Bladen clay.
The Bladen fine sandy loam is developed in large areas between
Bunnell and Codyville on the east and St. Johns Park and Lake
Diston on the west. Small areas occur west of the southern extrem-
ity of Hull Cypress Swamp, along Pringle Swamp, north of Espan-
ola, southeast of Hulett Swamp and south and west of Malcompre
Well.
This is the most important soil type in the county, although it is
unsuitable for cultivation without artificial drainage. Perhaps 25
per cent of it is under cultivation. The forested areas support a
growth of Cuban pine, with grasses, sedges, and saw palmetto; in
places there is a heavy hammock growth consisting of live oak, cab-
bage palmetto, gum, magnolia, myrtle, and groundsel bush. There
are a few small patches of longleaf pine.
Irish potatoes and corn are the chief crops grown, occupying
about the same acreage. Cowpeas, sweet potatoes, oats, and sugar





SOIL SURVEY OF FLAGLER COUNTY, FLORIDA.


cane, ranking in acreage in the order named, are other important
crops. Cabbage and celery are grown for the early markets in the
vicinity of Knights Store. Upland rice, velvet beans, sorghum, Ber-
muda grass, Para grass, Sudan grass, Natal grass, and all the gar-
den vegetables common to the region are grown to a small extent.
Possibly 50 per cent of the farmers keep cows to supply their own
milk and butter. A few farmers in the vicinity of Knights Store
have small commercial groves of oranges, tangerines, and grape-
fruit. Muscadine and Concord grapes do very well on this type
but are not extensively grown.
The producing of early Irish potatoes has become a very important
industry in the vicinity of Knights Store, Bunnell, and St. Johns
Park. Early potatoes mature from about April 10 to May 15.
Irish potatoes vary greatly in yield, from 10 to 100 barrels per
acre, with an average of 35 to 40 barrels. Corn yields from 15 to 45
bushels per acre, with an average of about 25 bushels.
The Bladen fine sandy loam responds readily to improved methods
of management and fertilization. It is handled in practically the
same way as the Bladen fine sand. Where potatoes are dug early,
corn is planted after the crop instead of on the side of the bed at the
last working of the potatoes. In this case the potatoes are dug with
modern machinery instead of by hand. The crop of cowpeas, which
follows the corn, together with the volunteer growth of crab grass,
is usually cut for hay, but is sometimes pastured.
All the farmers use commercial fertilizer for Irish potatoes, the
same brands and amounts being employed as in the case of the
Bladen fine sand. Stable manure has been used with good results.
"Cowpenning" is a popular method of fertilizing land for sweet
potatoes and other crops. During periods of extreme dry weather
some crops, especially Irish potatoes, tend to suffer from lack of
moisture, and water is supplied from artesian wells, being
conveyed to the crops through the same ditches or tiles that are used
for drainage during periods of excessive moisture. The artesian
water, because of its relatively high temperature, is also valuable
as a protection from frosts.
Uncleared areas of the Bladen fine sandy loam range in selling
value from about $25 to $100 an acre, depending upon the condition
of the roads and the location with respect to towns and railroad sta-
tions. Improved farms range from $100 to $300 an acre.
Although the Bladen fine sandy loam is a strong, easily cultivated,
and readily improved soil, many fields have decreased in productive-
ness owing to dependence on commercial fertilizer year after year
to maintain fertility. The practice should be modified to provide
for the addition of organic matter to the soil in growing Irish pota-
56061-22---





22 FIELD OPERATIONS OF THE BUREAU OF SOILS, 1918.

toes. In a few cases, where green cowpeas have been plowed under,
a very noticeable increase in the yields has resulted. More beef and
dairy cattle and hogs could be raised profitably on this land. Corn
and velvet-bean silage gives excellent results as a feed for dairy cows
and other cattle, and should be fed much more extensively. Tile
drainage is very beneficial. It makes the soil dry out earlier after
rains, permits better aeration and oxidation of organic matter,
leaches out injurious salts and acids, favors during the wet part of
the year the development of a better root system with which to en-
dure the droughts that may come later, and warms the soil so that
the growing period is lengthened.
Bladen fine sandy loam, swamp plase.-The surface soil of the
Bladen fine sandy loam, swamp phase, is a dark-gray to black, loamy
fine sand, underlain at depths ranging from 4 to 10 inches, but ordi-
narily about 8 inches, by a dull-gray or mottled yellow and gray
fine sand to loamy fine sand. This passes at about 14 to 30 inches
into a yellow, drab, or mottled drab and yellow plastic to friable clay.
In the wetter areas the material to a depth ranging from 1 to 16
inches often consists of a black to brown muck or peat. In some
places the upper subsoil is a light-gray to almost white fine sand,
gradually giving way to a drab or mottled drab and yellow plastic
to friable clay. There are places where the stratum of clay is 2 to 6
inches thick and underlain by loamy fine sand.
The largest development of this phase is in the flood plain of
Sweetwater Branch. Other areas are found in Big Cypress and
Pringle Swamps, west of Jack O'Neck Island, about Quigley Bay,
south of Winklet Bay, and south of Dean Still. Small bodies occur
throughout the Bladen fine sandy loam. While the surface is pre-
vailingly flat, it is broken along Sweetwater Branch by sloughs and
stream channels and by occasional depressions and other inequalities
due to erosion by overflow water. The natural drainage is very poor,
water standing on the surface for long periods after heavy rains.
Because of its poor drainage this soil is not cultivated, being used
as range for cattle and hogs. It supports a growth of Cuban pine,
pond pine (Pinus serotina), water oak (Quercus nigra), willow oak
(Quercus pkellos), live oak (Quercus virginiana), laurel oak (Quer-
cus laurifolia), pond cypress (Taxodium distichum imbricarium),
bald cypress (Taxodium distichum), water gum (Nyssa biflora),
tupelo or cotton gum (iVyssa sylvatica), silver maple (Acer sac-
charinum), loblolly bay (Gardonia tasianthus), cabbage palmetto,
myrtle, and groundsel bush.
The following table gives the results of mechanical analyses of
samples of the soil, subsoil, and lower subsoil of the typical Bladen
fine sandy loam:






SOIL SURVEY OF FLAGLER COUNTY, FLORIDA.


Mechanical analyses of Bladen fine sandy loam.

Number. Description. Fine Coarse Medium Fine Very fine Sit. Clay.
gravel. sand sand sand. sand. Silt. Clay.

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
261801....... Soil............. 0.2 7.6 9.3 73.2 1.8 5.0 2.8
261802........ Subsoil.......... .1 6.7 8.1 66.4 1.6 5.0 11.9
261803........ Lower subsoil.. .2 6.2 7.7 4.1 1.8 5.3 21.7

LADEN CLAY.

The Bladen clay consists of a dark-gray, dark-brown, or almost
black, stiff clay, passing at 6 to 12 inches into a gray to dark-gray
plastic clay, which is mottled slightly with yellow. At 15 to 24
inches a gray or mottled gray and yellow silty clay loam, sandy clay
loam, or fine sandy loam is encountered, and this continues to a depth
of 3 feet or more. The shifting of the stream currents has caused
considerable variation in the stratigraphy of the 3-foot section. In
parts of the flood plain most remote from the stream channel and in
other places where the water movement has been very sluggish at
the time of deposition, the gray to dark-gray clay continues to a
depth of more than 3 feet, but where the stream current has been
comparatively swift the surface soil is often a black sandy clay,
grading quickly into a fine sandy loam. A high content of organic
matter gives the soil its characteristically dark color. North of
Tipperary the Bladen clay is a dark-gray to almost black, heavy,
plastic clay, passing at about 10 inches into a very sticky, bluish-
gray clay which at about 24 inches becomes lighter in color. At
about 3 feet a steel-gray, plastic clay, with brownish-gray mottlings,
is encountered.
The Bladen clay occurs principally in the vicinities of Tipperary
and Saplings, and southeast of Mud Lake. The type occupies old
flood plains along streams, and is subject to inundation at times of
very high water.
On account of its poor drainage the Bladen clay is not cultivated,
but it is used to some extent for pasture. The swampy areas rather
remote from the streams support a growth of pond cypress and
bald cypress, while the first-bottom areas near the streams and sub-
ject to frequent inundations support a hammock growth consisting
of live oak, water oak, willow oak, Cuban pine, tupelo gum, sweet
gum, black gum, haw, silver maple, hickory, and magnolia.
This is one of the strongest soils of the county, and it is believed
that ditching and the construction of levees, where needed, would
prove profitable. Owing to the naturally heavy texture and compact
structure cultivation is much more difficult than upon the prevailingly





24 FIELD OPERATIONS OF THE BUREAU OF SOILS, 1918.

sandy textured soils with which the type is associated, the type being
sticky when wet and clodding upon drying. Cultivation and plow-
ing must be done when the moisture condition is right. The soil
should be harrowed immediately after it is plowed, in order to break
the clods before baking takes effect. The use of lime will correct
the acidity of the soil and improve its physical condition. With
proper treatment this will be found to be one of the best corn soils
of the county.
Blaclen clay, swamp phase.-Except in drainage, the swamp phase
differs little from the typical Bladen clay. The soil is a dark-gray,
dark-brown, or black plastic clay, underlain by a gray to dark-gray
plastic clay, mottled with yellow. This usually grades downward
into a silty clay loam, sandy clay loam, or fine sandy loam, but in
the vicinity of Tipperary the soil is often a dark-gray to bluish-gray
plastic clay to a depth of 3 feet or more.
This phase occupies the flood plains along Little Haw Creek, Haw
Creek, and Hunters Branch, and shallow basins west and northwest
of Dean Still. It remains in a swampy condition throughout the
greater part of the year and supports a growth of cypress, oak, haw,
gum, maple, hickory, and magnolia. The phase is not under culti-
vation, but provides pasturage for cattle and hogs.
Bladen clay, prairie phase.-The prairie phase is essentially the
same as the typical timbered Bladen clay, except for the absence of
trees and the slightly higher elevation. Only the highest waters
submerge this soil. It is not farmed, but supports a growth of
prairie grasses which furnish pasturage for cattle and hogs. The
suggestions made for the improvement of the typical Bladen clay
are applicable also to this phase.
Below are given the average results of mechanical analyses of sam-
ples of the soil, subsoil, and lower subsoil of the typical Bladen clay:
Mechanical analyses of Bladen clay.
Number. Description. ine Coarse Medium Fine V ne ilt. Clay.
Number. eiptio. gravel. sand. sand. sand. sand.

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
261809,261819. Soil............. 0.1 1.9 2.5 31.9 8.7 18.2 36.6
261810,261820. Subsoil ........ .1 1.7 2.3 29.9 8.6 16.2 40.9
261811.... Lowersubsoil... .1 2.5 3.4 38.9 4.6 10.1 40.2

LAK1EWOOD FINE SAND.

The surface soil of the Lakewood fine sand is a light-gray to white,
incoherent fine sand, ranging in depth from 16 to 30 inches. It is
underlain by a pale-yellow to orange-yellow loose fine sand. In a
few places the subsoil is underlain at 20 to 28 inches by coquina, shell






SOIL SURVEY OF FLAGLER COUNTY, FLORIDA.


rock, or limestone, such areas really representing the Dade fine sand
mapped elsewhere in Florida. Locally the surface few inches has a
dark-gray color due to the accumulation of organic matter.
The Lakewood fine sand occurs in long, narrow strips, parallel to
the coast, between Malcompre Well and Ocean City. It is developed
on the tops of ridges, and the surface varies from almost level to
ridgy and hummocky. The drainage is everywhere good or even
excessive.
This soil has a very low agricultural value for general crops, and
practically none of it is farmed. The vegetation consists of scrubby
evergreen oak, sand pine, saw palmetto, and a scattering of Cuban
pine, scrub oak, rosemary, and myrtle. There is practically no grass
or undergrowth, and where the soil has been leached out or beaten by
the rain it presents a barren or desertlike appearance.

GAINESVILLE SAND.
The surface soil of the Gainesville sand is a reddish-brown to choc-
olate-brown sand to loamy sand, about 8 inches deep. The subsoil is
a reddish-brown loamy, calcareous sand, containing fragments of
shells and small pieces of coquina. Often the coquina rock is encoun-
tered in the 3-foot section. Where the bedrock is very near the sur-
face the surface soil has an orange color, but where it is 4 feet or more
beneath the surface the color is much lighter.
This type is confined to long, low ridges along the Florida East
Coast Canal in the eastern part of the county. It has good drainage.
About 40 per cent of the type is under cultivation. The remainder
supports a hammock growth of live oak, cabbage palmetto, hickory,
magnolia, and saw palmetto. Corn, cane, vegetables, and citrus
fruits all produce well on this soil without fertilizer.
Unimproved land is held at about $30 an acre, while improved
land ranges from $50 to $70 an acre, depending largely upon the
development.
LEON FINE SAND.
The Leon fine sand consists of a gray to dark-gray fine sand 1 to 5
inches deep, overlying a light-gray to almost white, rather incoherent
fine sand, which at depths varying from 8 to 30 inches, though
usually between 15 and 22 inches, passes into a dark-brown or rusty-
brown and sometimes black dense hardpan layer. This ranges from
3 inches to 2 feet in thickness and is underlain by a moist and com-
pact white fine sand, which when disturbed becomes incoherent and
has the nature of quicksand. Included with the type are small
areas of St. Johns fine sand, Plummer fine' sand, and Bladen fine
sand, the extent of which did not warrant separation.
...* .: .. .. .
.. S.
*. e S *
.-.... ". .... : .
*' I ***** *" ** ***







26 FIELD OPERATIONS OF THE BUREAU OF SOILS, 1918.
A notable variation appears where the Leon fine sand is associated
with the Bladen soils. Here both the soil and subsoil, except the
hardpan layer, show a distinct loaminess and sometimes there is a
slight stickiness and a mottled gray and yellow color below the hard-
pan layer in the lower subsoil. This is a better soil than that of more
typical areas.
The Leon fine sand is most extensively developed in the southern
part of the county, between Middle Haw Creek and Lake Diston.
Areas ranging from a few acres to 1 square mile in extent are com-
mon in all parts of Flagler County.
The type lies slightly higher than the St. Johns fine sand, and
somewhat lower than the Norfolk fine sand. It occurs on sandy
ridges which form the divides of streams in the flatwoods and bor-
ders around the lakes. The loose, open structure of the soil and the
small quantity of organic matter present tend to make the drainage
excessive, and even under ordinary conditions crops suffer from lack
of moisture. The hardpan layer, being impervious, prevents the
capillary rise of moisture from the saturated sand underlying it.
Practically none of this type is under cultivation and it is gener-
ally considered of low productiveness. Its principal use is for
grazing. The type supports a characteristic native vegetation of
Cuban pine, scrubby saw palmetto, oak runner, wire grass, broom
sedge, gallberry, dog fennel, and false huckleberry.
Land of this type ranges in selling price from $5 to $50 an acre,
depending upon the amount and character of the timber, the condi-
tion of the roads, and the distance from towns and railroads.
Owing to the high cost of clearing, the difficulty of drainage on
account of the ditches filling with loose, wet sand, and the inferior
quality of the soil, the greater part of this type is best suited to
grazing and forestry. However, this soil might be used for culti-
vated crops if the hardpan layer were broken up by deep subsoiling
or by blasting, so as to permit the moisture to rise. The destructive
method of burning off the vegetation should be discontinued, and
large quantities of organic matter should be supplied by either the
application of manure or the plowing under of green crops. From
2 to 3 tons of ground limestone should be applied to each acre, to
correct the acidity. The growing of leguminous crops, such as cow-
peas, velvet beans, crimson clover, vetch, snap beans, and soy beans,
would furnish a large amount of nitrogen, so that this element could
be partly eliminated in the fertilizer mixtures. Irrigation is neces-
sary for the best agricultural utilization of the type.
Leon fine sand, scrub phase.-The scrub phase of the Leon fine
sand is characterized by its scrub vegetation of evergreen oak. The
soil is essentially the same as that of the typical Leon fine sand, ex-
..... '.:. :i. -"-" :....

.:






SOIL SURVEY OF FLAGLER COUNTY, FLORIDA.


cept that the hardpan layer is somewhat deeper. This phase is in-
extensive. It occurs in the extreme eastern part of the county, one-
fourth to 3 miles from the ocean, occupying ridges which extend in
a northwesterly and southeasterly direction, parallel with the coast
line.
NORFOLK FINE SAND.
The Norfolk fine sand, to a depth of 5 or 6 inches, is a light-gray,
incoherent fine sand, sometimes slightly darkened at the surface with
organic matter, particularly in the flatter areas. The subsoil to a
depth of 36 inches or more is a yellowish-gray to pale-yellow, loose
fine sand. Occasionally both soil and subsoil are coarser or finer
than typical.
This type occurs in large areas in the northeastern corner of the
county, along Pellicers Creek. Small areas are developed along
Bulow Creek, east of Hulett Swamp, south of Lake Diston and in
the vicinity of Espanola.
The type occurs characteristically on ridges or undulating high-
lands, and is well drained. Around lakes and along streams the
slopes are sometimes abrupt. In the vicinity of Espanola and in
the extreme northwestern corner of the county the surface is flat.
On ridges and on the steeper slopes the soil is inclined to suffer
from excessive drainage, by reason of its open, loose structure.
Probably 20 per cent of the Norfolk fine sand is in cultivation.
while the remainder serves as range for cattle and hogs. The virgin
timber growth is Cuban pine, but where this has been removed a
growth of forked-leaf blackjack oak has sprung up. Wire grass is
common in the uncleared areas.
The principal crops on this type are corn, cowpeas, sweet potatoes,
sugar cane, and peanuts. Corn yields 10 to 20 bushels per acre with
fertilization. Each farm supplies garden vegetables for home use.
There are small orange groves about Pellicers Creek. Citrus fruits
do well, but require heavy fertilization. Muscadine grapes do very
well on this soil, and are grown for the making of wine. Until a
few years ago there were vineyards of the improved bunch grape, the
Niagara variety doing especially well. Pecans, olives, and Japanese
persimmons have been grown with success, but on a very limited
scale. A common and efficient method of fertilization practiced by
the farmers on this type is cowpenning."
Uncleared land of this type has a selling value of $15 to $40 an
acre, according to the location. Land cleared and ready for the plow
ranges from $50 to $150 an acre, depending upon the improvements,
the distance from towns, and the transportation facilities.
The Norfolk fine sand, owing to its topography and loose, open
structure, is drought during dry periods, and irrigation is necessary






28 FIELD OPERATIONS OF THE BUREAU OF SOILS, 1918.

for successful truck farming. This can only be accomplished by the
sprinkling method, as the deep, porous soil will not permit subirri-
gation. The type is very deficient in organic matter, and this should
be supplied by the liberal application of barnyard manure and the
plowing under of vegetation, so as to increase the moisture-holding
capacity and provide plant food. The application of lime will cor-
rect the acidity and will be found especially helpful in growing
legumes. On this same type of soil in other sections of Florida
watermelons do very well with applications of about 1,000 pounds
of fertilizer to the acre.
Norfolk fine sand, shell phase.-The Norfolk fine sand, shell phase,
to a depth of about 12 inches, is a dark-brown loamy fine sand in
which are incorporated large quantities of oyster-shell fragments.
The surface is thickly strewn with this material, and the soil is
known locally as shell land." The subsoil is practically free from
shell fragments and is comparable to that of the typical Norfolk fine
sand in texture, structure, and color. These shells seem to represent
the remnants of shells applied to the land prior to 1819 by the
Spaniards. Writers tell that the Spaniards had a method of improv-
ing the land by covering it with shells, and in some places this cov-
ering was a foot thick.
This phase occurs in long, narrow areas parallel with the coast.
It lies slightly higher than the remainder of the county, and is well
drained. Some of the first farms of Flagler County were located on
this soil. It is one of the most productive fine sands of the county,
and about 30 per cent of it is under cultivation. It supports a
hammock growth of live oak, magnolia, hickory, bay, and cedar.
Corn, oats, and all the common vegetables do well on this soil.
Irish potatoes produce fair yields. The presence of lime keeps the
land in a sweetened condition, so that it is especially adapted to the
growing of legumes.
Norfolk fine sand, hammock phase.-The Norfolk fine sand, ham-
mock phase, is a light to dark gray loose fine sand to a depth of 2
to 7 inches, the darker color and somewhat loamy character of the
material being due to the presence of organic matter. Below this
surface layer is a yellow, pale-yellow, or grayish-yellow fine sand,
which is sometimes slightly loamy. In places a dark-gray to rusty-
brown, hardpanlike layer, a few inches thick, is encountered from
18 to 24 inches. Both above and below this layer the material has
the characteristic pale-yellow or yellow color of the Norfolk series.
In places the texture of both the soil and subsoil approaches that of
a medium sand.
This phase occurs in long, narrow belts parallel with the coast line
between St. Johns and Volusia Counties. The topography ranges






SOIL SURVEY OF FLAGLER COUNTY, FLORIDA.


from almost level to undulating or gently sloping and drainage is
good.
Although comparatively inextensive, the Norfolk fine sand, ham-
mock phase, is an important soil. Probably 10 per cent of it is cul-
tivated, while the remainder serves as range for stock. A dis-
tinguishing characteristic of the phase is the hammock growth, con-
sisting principally of live oak, cabbage palmetto, magnolia, and
hickory.
Practically the same crops are grown, and similar yields are ob-
tained, as on the typical Norfolk fine sand. Because of its favorable
position with reference to bodies of water, the growing of citrus
fruits has given very excellent results, and some of the best groves
in Florida are located on this soil. The methods of improvement
suggested for the typical Norfolk fine sand are applicable also to
this phase.
Norfolk fine sand, scrub phase.-The Norfolk fine sand, scrub
phase, consists of a thin veneer of incoherent white fine sand, which
is usually less than 1 inch in thickness but may be 10 inches deep,
underlain by pale-yellow, loose fine sand which extends to a depth
of 3 feet without any important change.
This phase is developed in the eastern part of the county, from
one-half to 5 miles from the coast, and occupies long, narrow ridges,
3 to 10 feet higher than the surrounding soils, and extending parallel
to the coast line.
The topography is rather billowy, and shows evidence of eolian
erosion and deposition. The porous nature of the soil permits rain
water to pass rapidly downward to considerable depths, resulting in
excessive drainage.
Agriculturally the Norfolk fine sand, scrub phase, is not important,
only about 1 per cent of it being farmed. It supports very little
grass for grazing. The timber growth consists mainly of sand pine
(Pinus clausa), blackjack oak, Cuban pine, and a few live oaks. Saw
palmetto, low-growing shrubs, and grapevines form the undergrowth.
The suggestions made for the improvement of the typical Norfolk
fine sand are applicable also to this phase.
PARKWOOD FINE SANDY LOAM.
The surface soil of the Parkwood fine sandy loam is a dark-gray,
loamy fine sand, 2 to 6 inches deep, passing into a brownish gray
or gray fine sand that extends to a depth of about 8 to 16 inches.
The upper subsoil varies from a yellow or gray calcareous fine sandy
loam to a mottled yellow and gray, gray, or dark-brown calcareous
clay loam or clay. This material, at about 16 to 20 inches, is under-
lain by a light-gray, mottled gray and yellow, or nearly white sandy






30 FIELD OPERATIONS OF THE BUREAU OF SOILS, 1918.
marly clay. Usually the calcareous material increases with depth, in
the lower subsoil in spots being almost a pure white marl. There
are places where the marl passes into a substratum of light-gray or
bluish-white fine sand, while in other places a noncalcareous, stiff,
drab or bluish-drab clay underlies the marly clay. Sometimes small
fresh-water shells are scattered over the surface and disseminated
throughout the soil section.
The Parkwood fine sandy loam is developed in long, narrow areas
extending roughly parallel with the coast between the ocean and
Kings Road from Pellicers Creek south to the Volusia County line.
Other areas are found south of Shell Bluff and east of Gore Lake.
The type occurs characteristically in shallow basins or low hammocky
areas, and is very poorly drained, water standing on the surface of a
large part of the type during rainy seasons.
* This soil is considered very productive, but because of its poor
drainage and the cost of removing the heavy hammock growth, less
than 5 per cent of it is cultivated. The timber growth is especially
heavy and the trees are large. The growth consists of live oak, water
oak, Cuban pine, cedar, cabbage palmetto, gum, ironwood, hickory,
elm, maple, ash, persimmon, magnolia, bay, and holly, with an under-
growth of vines, saw palmetto, briers, myrtle, and shrubs in places.
In some areas the tree growth is confined almost wholly to cabbage
palmetto, while in others there is a mixed growth of hardwoods and
pine and a scattering of cabbage palmetto.
Uncleared tracts of the Parkwood fine sandy loam are held at $25
to $100 an acre.
In most cases this type is favorably situated for artificial drainage,
and with good drainage it is especially well suited for the produc-
tion of the general farm crops and for trucking. On Drayton
Island, in Putnam County, citrus fruits have done very well on this
type with relatively small quantities of fertilizer.
PARKWOOD CLAY.
The Parkwood clay consists of a dark-drab to black, heavy, plastic
clay, 6 to 10 inches deep, resting upon a lighter colored clay which
grades into a grayish-drab clay, mottled with yellow. This contains
marl and often shell fragments. The lower subsoil is usually a drab
to dark-drab, marly clay.
The largest area of Parkwood clay occurs in Grahams Swamp, in
a belt 10 miles in length and averaging about one-fourth mile in
width. This extends in a northwest-southeast direction parallel with
the ocean shore line. Another area occurs on the west side of Pringle
Swamp.
The surface is flat and is subject to inundation from streams. Be-
cause of its poor drainage the type is not cultivated, but it is recog-






SOIL SURVEY OF FLAGLER COUNTY, FLORIDA. 31

nized as a very fertile soil. The tree growth consists of cabbage pal-
metto, cedar, maple, live oak, gum, bay, cypress, and magnolia.
Land of the Parkwood clay can be bought for $40 to $70 an acre,
the price depending largely upon the character of the timber.
When drained this will be a strong, productive soil, particularly
adapted to the growing of corn, legumes, and general farm crops.
Parkwood clay, prairie phase.-The Parkwood clay, prairie phase,
consists of 2 or 3 inches of dark-drab to black clay, underlain by a
lighter colored clay, containing considerable marl, which at about 6
or 8 inches passes into a gray, mottled with yellow, clay, high in marl.
Around the outer boundaries of this phase a veneer of a few inches of
fine sand often overlies the clay.
This phase is found in a number of areas east of Grahams Swamp.
The surface is flat and is covered-with water a large part of the year.
With the exception of 40 acres, which have been drained and put
under cultivation, the land supports a vegetation of coarse grasses
and a few scattered willow trees. Corn, the only crop grown, yields
35 to 40 bushels an acre without fertilizer. Unimproved land of this
phase is held at about $50 an acre.

PORTSMOUTH FINE SAND.
The Portsmouth fine sand consists of a very dark gray to black,
loamy fine sand, high in organic matter, grading at 5 to 10 inches into
a gray fine sand which is sometimes mottled with yellow or brown in
the lower portion of the subsoil. The lower subsoil is usually satu-
rated, and where exposed the material has a tendency to flow. East
of Bulow Still, where the type supports a heavy hammock growth, the
black surface soil is almost a fine sandy loam. Small areas of Scran-
ton fine sand-a soil mapped in other areas in the State-are included
with this type, the subsoil here being a grayish-yellow or yellowish-
gray fine sand, with brownish-yellow mottlings.
The Portsmouth fine sand occurs in the eastern part of the county,
between Kings Road and the Florida East Coast Canal, occupying
long, narrow areas which extend parallel with the coast. The topog-
raphy is flat, and the resulting poor drainage almost prohibits culti-
vation, artificial drainage being necessary before the type can be used
for general farming purposes. The vegetation consists of a scattered
growth of Cuban pine and a rather heavy growth of grasses.
Portsmouth fine sand, swamp phase.-The swamp phase of the
Portsmouth fine sand consists of 5 to 12 inches of black, loamy fine
sand to mucky fine sand or loam, underlain by gray to light-gray
fine sand which extends to depths of more than 3 feet.
There are a few small areas representing the Hyde fine sand, the
black soil here being underlain by black to dark-gray fine sand to a
depth of more than 86 inches. This phase is extensively developed






32 FIELD OPERATIONS OF THE BUREAU OF SOILS, 1918.

in Hulett and Matanzas Swamps, in a number of small areas in the
swampy basins of the flatwoods, and in drainage-way depressions
where the flow is intermittent and sluggish.
The Portsmouth fine sand, swamp phase, is characterized by a heavy
growth of pond cypress, bald cypress, bay, hickory, sweet gum,
black gum, tupelo gum, swamp maple, water oak, willow oak. laurel
oak, live oak, ash, elm, cabbage palmetto, pond pine, magnolia, per-
simmon, and myrtle, with an almost impenetrable network of vines,
briers, and shrubs in many places.
Only a few acres of this phase have been drained and put under
cultivation, but some of the best corn crops of the county have been
grown. Good results would probably be had with onions, celery, and
cabbage. The addition of lime is usually beneficial on soil of this
character after it has been drained.
Portsmouth fine sand, prairie phase.-The Portsmouth fine sand,
prairie phase, consists of 6 to 14 inches of black, loamy fine sand to
mucky fine sand, underlain by gray'fine sand. This phase occurs
in a number of small areas which are rarely more than 3 miles
from the coast line. It occupies ponds, marshes, and sloughs, and
its surface is basinlike. It has very poor drainage, being covered
with water much of the year. It supports a heavy growth of saw
grass, needle grass, and bunch grasses, and is used to a limited extent
for pasture and the cutting of marsh hay. It is not cultivated,
though by means of ditching, and in some cases leveeing, part of it
could be used with profit for growing corn, onions, celery, and cab-
bage.
PLUMMER FINE SAND.
The surface soil of the Plummer fine sand is a gray to dark-gray
fine sand, 4 to 8 inches deep. The immediate surface material con-
tains considerable organic matter, which gives it a dark color and a
loamy feel. The subsoil is a light-gray or dingy-gray loose fine
sand, of the nature of quicksand. In some places it is mottled with
yellow, while in others it is pale yellow throughout. Included with
the type are small mounds of St. Johns fine sand and Leon fine
sand, which are conspicuous because of a growth of saw palmetto
and gallberry bushes. In many places the type is so intimately asso-
ciated with the Bladen fine sand that it is very difficult to determine
where the boundary should be placed between the two types.
The Plummer fine sand occurs in large areas northwest of Lake
Diston and south of New Dinner Island. Small areas are scattered
throughout the county. The type occupies flat, poorly drained areas,
and the subsoil is water-soaked, except during long-continued dry
periods.






SOIL SURVEY OF FLAGLER COUNTY, FLORIDA.


This is an unimportant soil. It is not under cultivation, but is used
for grazing purposes. It supports a scattered growth of Cuban pine,
with an undergrowth of wire grass, broom sedge, sundew, pitcher
plant, saw grass, bunch grass, crab grass, and rushes.
Land of this type ranges in selling price from $5 to $50 an acre,
depending largely upon.the location.
With the same treatment as is suggested for the Bladen fine sand,
fair yields of truck and general farm crops could be produced on this
soil.
Plummer fine sand, swamp phase.-The swamp phase is similar to
the typical Plummer fine sand in color, structure, and texture. The
surface soil is a gray to dark-gray somewhat loamy fine sand, passing
at 4 to 8 inches into a gray or dingy-gray loose fine sand which con-
tinues to a depth of more than 3 feet with an almost uniform texture
and structure.
This phase is developed in large areas in Big Cypress Swamp and
in the vicinity of Korona. Smaller areas are found in almost every
part of the county, usually along stream courses or in shallow basins.
Drainage is very poor, the soil being submerged during wet seasons.
The Plummer fine sand, swamp phase, is unimportant, except as
range for cattle and hogs. The forest growth in the large swamp
areas consists mainly of pond cypress and bald cypress, but in the
smaller areas, especially along stream branches, there is a growth of
gum, oak, maple, bay, ash, magnolia, elm, hickory, and myrtle.
Because of its porous, loose nature, this soil in general can best be
used as range for stock. Some areas, however, such as those in Big
Cypress Swamp, which resemble the Bladen fine sand, can, by means
of proper drainage, irrigation, and fertilization, such as are suggested
for the Bladen fine sand, be made to produce fair yields of truck and
general farm crops.
ST. JOHNS FINE SAND.
The St. Johns fine sand consists of a dark-gray to black loamy fine
sand, 5 to 10 inches deep, grading into a dingy-gray to almost white
fine sand which is underlain at depths ranging from 10 to 36 inches,
but usually 18 to 24 inches, by a black to dark-brown, compact fine
sand, or hardpan. This layer of hardpan, which averages 3 to 4
inches in thickness, but has a range from 1 to 24 inches, is underlain
by a dark-brown fine sand, which when disturbed is loose and inco-
herent and will flow like quicksand. The black color of the surface
soil is due to the presence of organic matter, which varies in quantity
from merely enough to impart a dark color to quantities sufficient
to give a mucky character to the material in swampy areas. Where
this type is associated with the Bladen soils, both the soil and sub-






34 FIELD OPERATIONS OF THE BUREAU OF SOILS, 1918.

soil, except in the hardpan layer, show a distinct loaminess, and
sometimes there is a slight stickiness and a yellowish-gray or mottled
gray and yellow color below the hardpan layer in the lower subsoil.
In a few places where associated with the Bladen fine sandy loam
a drab or yellowish-drab clay is encountered immediately under the
hardpan. Where the type is developed in association with the Leon
and Bladen soils the surface soil is lighter colored than typical.
There are numerous inclusions of Leon fine sand and Bladen fine
sandy loam, the extent of which did not warrant separation.
The St. Johns fine sand is found in all parts of the flatwoods sec-
tions, and is the predominating type in the eastern half of the county.
It is flat and poorly drained, water standing on the surface in the
slight depressions for long periods after rains.
Less than 3 per cent of-the St. Johns fine sand is under cultiva-
tion, by far the greater part of it being used as a range for cattle
and hogs. Practically all of the type supports a forest growth of
Cuban pine (Pinus cubensis), which is either boxed for turpentine
or is being cut for lumber. There are a few small patches of long-
leaf pine; and scrub saw palmetto and gallberry, together with a
growth of wire grass and broom sedge, are found in most places.
Generally speaking, cultivation of this soil has been unsuccessful
in Flagler County, although good yields of Irish potatoes, corn, cow-
peas, velvet beans, and Rhodes grass have been obtained where a mix-
ture of 2 tons of ground limestone and 1 ton of slaked or burnt lime
per acre has been applied to plowed land and thoroughly worked in
by harrowing about 1 month previous to planting. In addition to
liming, adequate drainage has been provided where the best results
have been obtained, and about the same fertilization has been given
the various crops as on the Bladen fine sand. Among the best farm-
ers on the St. Johns fine sand it is customary the first year, after
breaking to a depth of about 5 inches, to plant corn instead of Irish
potatoes, and at the last working to sow cowpeas or velvet beans be-
tween the rows. After harvesting the corn, the stalks and the legume
vines are cut with a stalk cutter or rolling cutter and plowed under.
The second year the land is broken to a depth of about 6 inches and
about 2 tons per acre of ground limestone is applied where the hard-
pan is near the surface. Irish potatoes are grown and succeeded by
corn and cowpeas, as on the Bladen fine sand. The third year the
same crops are again grown, but the soil is broken to a depth of about
8 inches. The fourth year the field is used for hay, sweet potatoes,
or some crop other than Irish potatoes or corn. Irish potatoes have
yielded from 30 to 50 barrels per acre, and corn 15 to 35 bushels.
This land is valued at prices ranging from $5 to $40 an acre, de-
pending upon the character of the range, the quality of timber, and






SOIL SURVEY OF FLAGLER COUNTY, FLORIDA.


the distance from towns and lines of transportation. Improved areas
range in price from $50 to $125 an acre.
Where there is a distinct loaminess throughout the soil section, ex-
cepting of course the hardpan layer, this type can be made fairly pro-
ductive by such means as artificial drainage, liming, and breaking the
hardpan layer, which obstructs the movement of moisture. After a
few years of cultivation the organic matter in the surface layer is
largely depleted and the color becomes white, like that of the Leon
soils, and the necessity of supplying the soil with large amounts of
vegetable matter, instead of burning it off, as is often done, is readily
apparent. In Bradford County strawberries are grown extensively
on the more loamy variation of this type, and in trucking sections it is
used successfully for the production of celery, lettuce, beets, and toma-
toes. Where the subsoil, except the hardpan layer, is incoherent
and flows like quicksand when wet, the type should remain in forest
and permanent grazing land.

ST. LICIE FINE SAND.
To a depth of 36 inches or more the St. Lucie fine sand consists of
a loose, incoherent, white to light-gray fine sand. No hardpan is
encountered in the 3-foot section, but where the type adjoins the St.
Johns fine sand a hardpan layer is usually present at lower depths.
In the hammock areas the soil to a depth of 1 to 3 inches is a gray
fine sand, carrying a noticeable amount of organic matter.
The St. Lucie fine sand occupies long, narrow ridges parallel with
the coast from the northeast corner of the county to the House of
Refuge. Other areas occur east of Gore Lake, and in the vicinity of
Neoga, southwest of Relay. The type lies higher than the surround-
ing soils and in places has a hummocky surface. It is excessively
drained.
This soil has not been cleared of its native vegetation, which con-
sists principally of evergreen oak, some sand pine, Cuban pine, and
cabbage palmetto, together with an undergrowth of saw palmetto,
rosemary, oak runner, and a few other plants.
In Putnam County there are some successful citrus groves on this
soil, while farther to the south it has been the principal pineapple
soil of Florida. It requires large quantities of fertilizer and barn-
yard manure in order to supply the needed plant food and maintain
good moisture conditions.
COQUINA.
The Coquina formation consists of stratified shell fragments, the
shell belonging principally to the coquina clam, but supplemented
by conch shells and those of the oyster, clam, and other mollusks.
Some of the strata consist of finely divided shell fragments and






36 FIELD OPERATIONS OF THE BUREAU OF SOILS, 1918.

others of coarse fragments. The strata vary from well-cemented
shell rock to loose fragments. The white and brown shells give a
speckled appearance to an exposed section. In places a dark-gray to
brownish fine sand overlies the coquina. The coquina beds grade
into the Coastal beach sands, which are in many places underlain
with the former.
Coquina beds occur typically east of Bella Vista, occupying a nar-
row ridge 200 to 500 feet from the coast and extending parallel with
the coast for a distance of about 2j miles.
The Coquina is nonagricultural, although it supports a growth of
cedar and live oak. The value of the coquina material for building
purposes has long been recognized. The indurated shell-rock forma-
tion was the chief building material used in the early days of St.
Augustine. Fort Marion was built of blocks of this material. The
loose rock is used with cement in making blocks, which are used in
large structures.
PEATY MUCK.
Peaty muck, as mapped in Flagler County, consists of vegetable
matter in various stages of decomposition, mingled with varying
proportions of mineral matter. The typical Peaty muck beds are
made up of black or dark-brown, fibrous to rather finely divided
vegetable matter, mixed with a small amount of mineral matter,
mainly fine sand. This is usually underlain at any depth from
about 12 to 24 inches by a gray, fine sand, but in a few cases by
a gray or drab clay. Included with the Peaty muck in places are
areas of Peat, where the fibrous vegetable matter is more than
3 feet deep and is almost free from grit.
Peaty muck occurs most extensively in the swamps and marshes
along Black and Sweetwater Branches; in Shakey, Hoghouse, and
Cross Bays, in Hull Cypress Swamp, and around the north shore
of Lake Diston. Small areas are scattered throughout the county.
The type is not farmed, but furnishes some mast for hogs. In
most cases it supports a growth of bay, magnolia, gum, oak, ash,
maple, myrtle, briers, and vines, but there are some prairie areas,
as along Black Branch, where a rank growth of saw grass, needle
grass, bunch grass, and dog fennel occurs.
Until drained, the Peaty muck can not be used for agricultural
purposes. With proper drainage, and the application of lime to
correct the acidity, this soil will be found well adapted to celery,
onions, cabbage, tomatoes, and Irish potatoes.
SWAMP.
Swamp includes the flood plains along streams and other low-
lying areas that are more or less covered with water throughout the







SOIL SURVEY OF FLAGLER COUNTY, FLORIDA.


year, and which in addition comprise such an intermingling of soils
that it is almost impossible to separate them into their proper series
and types. In many places the surface material is somewhat mucky,
while in others, as in the swamp along Sweetwater Branch, a layer of
Peaty muck or Peat, from 6 inches to 2 feet in thickness, often over-
lies a gray, loose fine sand. The material in the flood plains of Haw
Creek, Middle Haw Creek, Little Haw Creek, and Sweetwater
Branch is often a heavy, dark-gray or black clay, resembling the
Bladen clay, while along most of the other streams the flood plains
comprise a mixture of soils, including the Bibb fine sand, which is a
light-gray fine sand extending to a depth of 3 feet or more; the
Ochlockonee fine sand, a brown loamy fine sand; and the Johnson
fine sand, a dark-gray fine sand passing into gray or mottled gray
and yellow fine sand. In some cases the loams, clay loams, or clays
of the Bibb, Ochlockonee, and Johnson series are encountered.1
There are places where a mucky material or a gray fine sand is under-
lain by a marly clay.
Extensive areas of Swamp are developed on the east side of Cres-
cent Lake and also a fairly large area along Haw Creek to the south-
east of Mud Lake. Other important areas lie along Middle Haw
Creek, Sweetwater Branch, Black Branch, and Sparkman Branch,
and smaller areas in every part of the county.
The type is considered of no agricultural importance, except for
grazing. The tree growth is heavy. Along the streams it consists
of bald cypress, pond cypress, black gum, sweet gum. tupelo gum,
water oak, willow oak, live oak, laurel oak, Cuban pine, water maple,
silver maple, hickory, ash, elm, cabbage palmetto, magnolia, tulip,
and persimmon. Pond cypress is the predominating tree in the larger
and wetter swamps. Cedar grows where there is a marl subsoil. If
the Swamp were well drained some very good soil would be available
in places, especially in the heavier areas and those having a marly
subsoil.
COASTAL BEACH.
The Coastal beach consists of a gray, incoherent sand ranging in
texture from very fine to medium, mixed with varying amounts of
broken shells. In the basinlike areas between the ridges and sand
dunes the surface material has a dark-gray color, due to a slight
admixture of organic matter. Included narrow strips of dark-brown
to grayish-brown fine sand contain considerable organic matter, and
are underlain by a grayish-brown or speckled grayish and brown-
ish fine sand or "shelly fine sand. Mixed with the sand in these
areas is a large quantity of finely broken shell fragments. Such
'These series are not mapped separately in this area, but are widely distributed
through the Coastal Plain from North Carolina to the Mississippi River.






38 FIELD OPERATIONS OF THE BUREAU OF SOILS, 1918.

areas really represent the Palm Beach sand-a soil mapped in the
Indian River area-but owing to their small extent they are com-
bined with the Coastal beach in mapping.
The Coastal beach is confined to a narrow belt which extends
back 100 to 600 yards from the shore line. From the water's edge
up to the base of the barrier the surface is smooth, but the remainder,
and the larger part of the type, is comprised of a series of broken
ridges, knolls, and hummocky areas running parallel with the coast.
About 2 miles from the northeastern corner of the county the sur-
face is relatively flat, dotted with small accumulations of sand.
The Coastal beach everywhere presents evidences of wind action, and
in many places a dunelike topography has been developed. On
account of its loose and porous structure, the drainage is excessive.
In a few places the type affords some scant grazing, but because
of the excessive drainage and the salt spray, which is often carried
back for half a mile or more and which is detrimental to the growth
of most plants, the Coastal beach has practically no agricultural
value. In some places it supports a dense growth of saw palmetto
and scrub oak and a scattering of cabbage palmetto. Where the
sand is unprotected by vegetation, it is easily moved about by the
winds.
TIDAL MARSH.
Tidal marsh comprises low-lying, wet areas subject to salt-water
inundations at times of high tide. The soil varies from fine sand to
clay, and includes many patches of Peaty muck and Muck.
The principal areas of Tidal marsh occur along the Florida East
Coast Canal and along Matanzas River and Bulow Creek. The
type is comparatively extensive, but agricultural development, aside
from grazing and the cutting of marsh hay, is almost impossible on
account of the inundations by salt water and the salty condition
of the soil, which precludes the growth of plants other than those
of a salt-tolerant character. Salt weed and sword grass are the
most characteristic plants. A considerable part of the Tidal marsh
could be reclaimed by diking, but this would be very expensive and
impracticable under present conditions.

MARSH.
The soil of the Marsh classification ranges from a gray to black
fine sand to clay comparable in many places to the Bladen clay.
Included with the Marsh are small spots of Peat, Peaty muck, and
Muck which could not be separated on the soil map.
Marsh occurs in the western part of the county along Haw Creek,
and Crescent Lake. The Marsh is locally known as fresh-water
prairie. The soil is wet most of the year and is subject to inundation






SOIL SURVEY OF FLAGLER COUNTY, FLORIDA.


by fresh water at times of high water from gales, particularly when
the water in St. Johns River is pushed back into Crescent Lake. The
type under present conditions has no agricultural value other than
for grazing. In the vicinity of Mud Lake the Marsh supports a
heavy growth of needle and bunch grasses.
Expensive diking would be necessary to reclaim this marsh land.
When it is thoroughly drained and reclaimed there is every reason to
believe that large yields of staple crops and grasses may be obtained.

SUMMARY.
Flagler County lies in the northeastern part of Florida, about 50
miles south of Jacksonville. It has an area of 491 square miles, or
314.240 acres.
The surface in general is almost level, broken along the coast and
to a lesser degree along streams and around lakes by low ridges.
West of the principal divide the streams flow northwest, west, and
southwest through Crescent Lake to the St. Johns River, while
to the east the drainage is carried eastward and southeastward to
the Atlantic Ocean.
Elevations in the county range from almost sea level to 29 feet
above. The average for the county is about 24 feet.
Settlement in the region now comprising Flagler County, which
began early in the eighteenth century, was at first confined to favor-
able locations near the coast. During the last 10 years there has
been a very rapid increase of population in the western half of
the county, due to the development of the potato-growing industry.
The settlers in this section have come from all parts of the United
States and Canada.
The county is fairly well supplied with transportation facilities,
there being two railroads in addition to water transportation by the
Florida East Coast Canal and Crescent Lake.
The Dixie Highway, a brick road, passes through the county, and
in addition there are a number of shell and graded roads.
The climate of Flagler County is subtropical, being characterized
by a long summer season and short, pleasant winter season. The
mean annual temperature is about 69.50 F., and the mean annual
precipitation is about 50 inches. There is a normal growing season
of about 305 days.
The selling price of the better farming land ranges from $30 to
$150 an acre for unimproved areas and from $100 to $300 an acre
for improved areas.
Early Irish potatoes are by far the most important crop. Corn,
cowpeas, sugar cane, sweet potatoes, and oats, ranking in the order
named, are grown rather extensively. Velvet beans, peanuts, sweet






40 FIELD OPERATIONS OF THE BUREAU OF SOILS, 1918.

clover, Bermuda grass, Rhodes grass, Sudan grass, Para grass, John-
son grass, and Natal grass, saccharine sorghum, rye, soy beans, snap
beans, and lima beans, and milo and kafir are grown to some extent.
The growing of citrus fruits and Muscadine and other native grapes
receives some attention.
The raising of cattle and hogs on the open range is an important
industry. The hogs are being improved by the importation of pure-
bred boars and sows.
All the farmers use commercial fertilizer for Irish potatoes. Corn
and other crops following the potatoes are not fertilized, but receive
benefit from the fertilizer applied to the potatoes.
The soils of Flagler County vary from loose sands to heavy clays
and Peaty muck, but they are predominantly fine sands. In topog-
raphy and drainage they range from shallow, undrained soils of
basin areas, through flat, poorly drained areas to excessively drained
ridges. On the basis of origin they are classed in four general
groups: Soils derived from the sedimentary formations, alluvial soils,
cumulose soils, and unclassified soils. The sedimentary soils are classed
mainly in the St. Johns, Bladen, Norfolk, Plummer, and Leon series,
but include small areas of St. Lucie, Parkwood, Portsmouth, and
Gainesville soils. To the alluvial group belongs a large part of the
area of the Bladen and -Parkwood soils, and most of the Portsmouth
and Plummer areas occurring along streams.
The St. Johns fine sand is an extensive soil, but it is used chiefly
as range for cattle, less than 3 per cent of its area being under culti-
vation. Where this soil has been properly ditched, fertilized, and
treated with lime it gives good yields of Irish potatoes and corn.
The Bladen fine sand is one of the most extensive and important
soils of the area. About 5 per cent of it is cultivated, the remainder
being used as open range for cattle and hogs. Irish potatoes, corn,
cowpeas, sugar cane, and upland rice do very well. The typical'
Bladen fine sandy loam -is the best Irish-potato soil of the county.
About 25 per cent of it is cultivated. The swamp phase of the Bladen
fine sandy loam, and the Bladen clay, with its swamp and prairie
phases, are not cultivated, on account of the excessive moisture. These
soils are used as open range for stock.
The Norfolk soils are well drained and are warm natured, being
especially adapted to early truck crops, sweet potatoes, and sugar
cane. Corn, cowpeas, and upland rice are also grown. Citrus fruits
and Muscadine and other American grapes do very well on these soils.
The yields on the hammock phase are about equal to those on the
typical Norfolk fine sand. The yields on the shell phase of this type
are a little larger and on the scrub phase a little smaller.






SOIL SURVEY OF FLAGLER COUNTY, FLORIDA.


The Plummer fine sand and its swamp phase are characterized by
light-gray to dull-gray subsoils. They are poorly drained and are
not under cultivation, being used solely for grazing.
The Leon fine sand and its scrub phase are well developed in the
southern part of the county. They are not cultivated and are con-
sidered poor agricultural soils. They need irrigation, the addition
of organic matter and lime, and blasting or deep subsoiling to open
the hardpan layer of the subsoil.
The St. Lucie fine sand is conspicuous on account of its white
color. Because of its lack of organic. matter'and excessive drainage
it is considered of little agricultural value.
The Parkwood soils occur in poorly drained shallow basins or
low hammock areas, and have marl or marly-clay subsoils. They
are very productive when drained, and are especially adapted to
the legumes and corn.
The Portsmouth soils occur in low, flat areas, and are not im-
portant agriculturally, although when artificially drained they make
good corn and truck soils.
The Gainesville sand has a calcareous subsoil and is underlain
with coquina. It occurs on ridges and is well drained and pro-
ductive.
The Peaty muck is not farmed, but with proper drainage and the
application of lime to correct acidity this soil will be found adapted
to celery, onions, cabbage, tomatoes, and Irish potatoes.
Coastal beach, Swamp, Tidal marsh, and Coquina represent areas
in which the soil material is not sufficiently uniform to be classed
with established series. Except for a little gardening these soils
are not cultivated, but they are used to some extent for grazing.












.A
7 P3/ 4




















[PUBm.e RESOLUTION-No. 9.]
l, JOINT RESOLUTION Amending public resolution numbered eight, Fifty-sixth Congress,
second session, approved February twenty-third, nineteen hundred and one, "providing
for the printing annually of the report on field operations of the Division of Soils,
S Department of Agriculture."
Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of
America in Congress assembled, That public resolution numbered eight, Fifty-
sixth Congress, second session, approved February twenty-third, nineteen hun-
dred and one, be amended by striking out all after the resolving clause and
inserting in lieu thereof the following:
That there shall be printed-ten thousand five hundred copies of the report 6n
field operations of the Division of Soils, Department of Agriculture, of which
one thousand five hundred copies shall be for the use of the Senate, three thou-
sand copies for the use of the House of Representatives, and six thousand copies
for the use of the Department of Agriculture: Provided, That in addition to the
number of copies above provided for there shall be printed, as soon as the
manuscript can be prepared, with the necessary maps and illustrations to accom-
pany it, a report on each area surveyed, in the form of advance sheets, bound in
paper covers, of which five hundred copies shall be for the use of each Senator
fifrom the State, two thousand copies for the use of, each Representative for the
congressional district or districts in which the survey is made, and one thousand
copies for the use of the Department of Agriculture.
A Approved, March 14, 1904.
[On July 1, 1901, the Division of Soils was reorganized as the Bureau of Soils.]















i ot '






























































Areas surveyed in Florida, shown by shading.






U. S. DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE
BUREAU OF SOILS
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