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AN N UAL REPORT
PUBLIC GARDENS AND PLANTATIONS,
. THE YEAR ENDED 31"S MAROH, 1901.
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S.V'. F TTB.Sc., F.L.S., DIRECTOR.
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DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC GARDENS AND PLANTATIONS,
.OR T.HIE YEAR ENDED 81st MARCH, 1901.
Economic Plants Page
Bananas ... ... 2
Citrus ... ... 2
Cocoa ... ... 3
Coffee ... ... 3
Grapes ...... 3
Kola ... ... 5
Mangoes ... ... 5
Nutmegs ... ... 5
Pine Apples ... ... 5
Rice ... ... 5
Rubber ... ... 5
Sugar Cane ... ... 5
Tobacco ... ... 6
Establishment of Board of Agriculture ... 6
Agricultural Society ....... 6
Absence of Director ... ... 6
Pupil Apprentices at Hope ....... 7
Apprentices from the Gold Coast ... 7
Rope Industrial School ...... 7
Elementary School Teachers ... ... 7
Students at Training Colleges ... ... 7
Bulletins ... ... 8
Value of Botanic Gardens and Herbaria ... 9
Library ... ... 10
Expenditure ... ... 11
Reports of Superintendents-
Hope Gardens ... ... 11
Castleton Gardens ...... 13
Hill Gardens .. ... 15
Kingston Public Garden ..... 15
King's House Garden ..... 15
Appendix: Meteorological Tables ... .... 17
A Banana Conference" was held in December 1900, at which His Excellency the Governor pre-
sided. The discussion, reported shortly after in the Bulletin for April, 1901, proved most useful, and
resulted in some advance in knowledge, and some changes in cultivation. One of the points brought
out was that the number of hands was already determined when the flower-shoot began to rise in the
interior of the stem ; another point was that the plough did more harm than good when it cut through
the roots close up to the stem; and another was that in irrigated lands the water-trenches should not
be made close to the full-grown stems. The question of wind-breaks is one of enormous importance,
but no general conclusion was arrived at. I have put forward the suggestion that whether regular
wind-breaks are used or not, isolated Guango* trees should be grown at distances of 60 to 100 feet
from one another amongst the bananas; so far as our experience goes at Hope and elsewhere, the
guango will not do any harm to the banana plant, and it probably will prevent the utter ruin of many
a banana walk.
The edible varieties cultivated now at Hope Gardens have almost all been received from Kew
Gardens, either directly, or from the Botanic Gardens at Dominica. The following is a list:-
1 Almeido pisang 13 Martabanica
2 Apple 14 Oleracea
3 Champa 15 Palembang pisang
4 Chinese or nwarf 16 Radji pisang
5 Cinerea (Saiiaranpur) 17 Raja Siem
6 Discolor 18 Ram Kela
7 Guindy (Ootacamund) 19 Red
8 Jamaica or Martinique 20 Species from the Congo, from M. Patin
9 Kudjo Hudang pisang (Java) 21 Sereh pisang (Java)
10 Lady's Finger 22 Susu pisang (Java)
11 Lady's Finger (Panshonger) 23 Vittata.
12 Maas pisang (Java)
During the year under review the number of bunches exported was 8,248,485, of the value of
618,636, or about 33 per cent. of the exports of the colony, (excluding gold and bullion) : these were
mainly shipped by the United Fruit Company.
The distribution was as follows: -
Destination. Bunches. Value.
United Kingdom 38,880 2,916
United States 8,203,957 615,297
Canada 2,513 188
Bermuda 2,365 177
British West Indies 690 52
Cuba 80 6
In the early part of this year (1901), a subsidized line of steamers (Messrs. Elder, Dempster &
Co.) with specially fitted cool-air chambers, commenced running from Jamaica direct to England,
mainly for the purpose of carrying fruit.
One of these steamers leaves every fortnight and proceeds to Bristol, whence the fruit is distri-
buted to various centres in the United Kingdom. Each steamer takes on an average about 20,000
bunches of bananas in addition to other cargo. If the trade develops, larger steamers will be em-
ployed, and one will leave each week.
The main question to decide at Hope up to the present has been that of the suitability of the va-
rious species and varieties of citrus for use as stocks on which to bad. The results obtained indicate
that the rough lemon and sour orange are equally good as stocks for the Bahia and Washington Na-
vels, and that the rough lemon is the best for the Grape Fruit. The ordinary Jamaica sweet orange
did not do well on either of the stocks, not nearly so well as the Navel or the Grape Fruit. None of
the imported varieties of sweet orange have as yet been tried at Hope. Preparations are being made
for planting out stocks of both the rough lemon and sour orange on which to bud the varieties now
growing at the Hill Gardens.
Our experiments at Hope have also shown that 'the Navel Orange and the Grape Fruit are well
suited to the dry, hot plains; that the Navel Orange is a success on either rough lemon or sour orange
stock, quite different in this way to what it is in Florida or California, where there is considerable dif-
ficulty in fruiting this plant; that the first step towards success is to plant well above the level of the
surrounding land; that it is necessary to be extremely careful not to cut or bruise either stem or root
of trees with hoe or cutlass; that it is essential to keep the plants moderately well watered, and at the
same time well drained; none of the citrus plants, no matter how well planted, or on what stock they
may be, thriving without regular and systematic irrigation in places having soil and climate similar
As several orange planters have started nurseries for the sale of budded plants, it was decided to
give up this work, and only 25 budded plants were sold.
The seedlings distributed were as follows:-
Orange Sweet ... ... 5,890
Seville ... ..... 1,912
Tangierine ... ... 156
Bergamot ... ... 24
Grape Fruit ... ... 7,511
Lemons ... ... 1,095
There is every prospect of the demand for cocoa continuing to increase faster than the supply.
Pure cocoa is an ideal food. Its use is, therefore, bound to increase in those countries like Great
Britain and Germany where its value is appreciated, but very much more so in countries like Russia
where at present it is scarcely known.
Wherever bananas can be grown, so also as a general rule, can cocoa, and as banana cultivation
is somewhat speculative, it is to the interest of every grower of bananas to add cocoa which is a per-
manent crop. Mr. Cradwick has not only been instrumental in improving cultivation and curing, but
he has induced numbers of people to start the cultivation. The number of plants distributed from
Hope in bamboo pots during the year was 53,279 besides 622 pods which ought to yield about 17,000
seedlings; some planters have grown their own seedlings : so that considerably more than the 70,000
due to the Department must have been put out.
In view of the enormous crops of coffee exported from Brazil and the consequent disastrous fall
in the prices of all grades, so that the uncured coffee of the small settlers is absolutely without value,
the Agricultural Instructor has been careful to show how coffee should be cultivated to yield good full
berries, and how cured so that it shall have some market value.
Experiments with shading at Hope have shown how beneficial is the shade of the guango at this
elevation, and how hurtful is that of Cassia siamea, another leguminous tree.
The different varieties of coffee,-Liberian, Abbeokuta, Highland Coffee of Sierra Leone, the
Maragogipe, Golden Drop, &c., are all thriving. Plants of Liberian Coffee were distributed to the
nvnber of 573, and of Blue Mountain Coffee to the number of 3,295.
Experimental Culture.-Grape vines were cultivated for a few years at Hope on a fairly large
scale for the purpose of obtaining definite information on certain points of importance. The
questions to. which answers were required were stated in the Annual Report for 1897, as follows :-
1. Which are the best varieties ?
(a) the heaviest cropper ?
(b) the finest looking grape ?
(c) the best traveller P
2. The best methods of training, whether on arbours, fences or otherwise.
3. The best method of root cultivation.
4. The best method of pruning
the results obtained by Mr. Cradwiok are as follows:-
1. (a) The heaviest cropper is what was provisionally called the Hope Wonder" which is the com-
mon black grape of the Savannahs, called in England Barbarossa.
The Muscat of Alexandria, and Liguanea are also very heavy croppers, but except at
Shaftston have not been ripened satisfactorily.
(b) Barbarossa is, on account of its rich bloom and very large berries and bunches, the hand-
somest of all the varieties tried.
(c) Not having yet exported grapes we have not been able to ascertain which travel the
2. The arbour system is much the best; the vines in Jamaica cannot be restricted, and the great
point in favour of the arbour system is that the bunches hang below the leaves, twigs and
branches, and do not get rubbed by them when the breeze blows. With the other systems it
is impossible to keep the leaves and twigs from rubbing the bloom off the bunches which of
course irretrievably spoils their appearance.
3. The best method of root cultivation has proved a wide question. On dry gravelly places like
Hope, subjected to dry winds, the roots should be kept as far below the surrounding level as
possible. On badly drained lands the raised beds answer much better. Perfect drainage is
the one thing that grape vines must have. On the dry deep red soil of the Savannahs little
need be done, except to give as much water as possible, and mulch heavily, so as to keep the
roots moist. Cow manure may be applied on any soil in unlimited quantities, its great value
as a holder of moisture being quite as much in its favour as its manurial qualities. It has
been found absolutely necessary to provide ample root space as the vine in Jamaica must be
continually extended or it loses its vitality and becomes unfruitful.
4. The spur system, with such modifications as have been found necessary by experience to suit
the different varieties, is the baet. For instance with Barbarossa, (a rampant grower) many
of the growths are so strong that to attempt to prune them back to the orthodox one or two
eyes would simply ruin them; in some cases they have been left as long as 10 to 12 joints.
Other growths can be cut back to one eye, even in some cases removed altogether, the same
applies to Muscat. Then again the pruning is largely dependent on the state of the vine, if
the resting season has been prolonged and dry, the vines can be pruned much closer than
after a resting season which has not been as favourable. Some varieties seem to rest more
completely under similar conditions than others, for instance, Alicante and Black Hamburgh.
The Muscat and Barbarossa are nearly always growing slightly, but yet are the greatest crop-
pers of all.
Incidentally, the possibility of grape-growing as a practical industry at an elevation of 660 feet
above sea-level has been tested. The growth of nearly all the varieties of grape vine tried has been
more than satisfactory, and the production of fruit up to certain point has been extremely easy. Then
difficulties arose with which we were unable to grapple. The grape requires warm, dry weather to
ripen in, and it is impossible to ensure this at Hope, prune when you will. If autumn pruning is re-
sorted to, they try to ripen in the spring, a season which is dry but not warm, extreme variations in
temperature from day to Light occurring which is fatal to the grape, causing the skins to become brit-
tle and crack; and mildew under these atmospheric conditions is always a terrible pest. If spring
pruning is resorted to, in four years out of five the weather is warm at the time of ripening, but not
dry, and the excess of moisture results in practically the same results as in the spring time:-Anthrao-
nose, cracking of skins, mildew, (though not so much as in the spring) and black rot. The Grapes
have been extremely disappointing, the vines were as fine as could be seen anywhere, full of good
bunches, then just as the grapes ought to be ripening, only a small proportion come to perfection. A
photograph of the Foster's Seedling was taken, giving a view of which any grape-grower migat well
be proud, yet within a week after it was taken, nearly the whole of the grapes were spoiled by a heavy
rain. We threw away over a hundred weight one morning, yet if these grapes could have had two
weeks more suitable weather, they would have been hard to beat anywhere.
The experiment in grafting may have a good effect on the ripening, but it must be borne in mind
that the failure was nut due to want of vigour in the plants. A Gros Colmar plant grew 26 inches in
12 days. The Barbarossa gre,; over 40 feet in a season. There are great possibilities in grapes but
only near sea-level. Hope is 660 feet above it.
Instruction :-A few vines are still maintained for the purpose of giving instruction in pruning,
thinning bunches, and in general care, to the apprentices, the Industrial School boys, and to any of the
general public who wish to learn. One of those who has taken advantage of the opportunities pro-
vided by the Department writes that he has sold grapes to the value of 5 10/ from one vine alone.
Some of the apprentices are sent out at the proper season in answer to applications from private
growers to pruue their vines.
The Agricultural Instructor, Mr. Oradwick, has demonstrated at several places near the season the
south side of the island, chiefly near Alligator Pond, where the Agricultural Society maintains a small
cultivation. Mr. C. Fulford who lives in the district has taken great interest in the extension of the
cuhlure amongst the small settlers, and helped them in disposing of their grapes, and in other ways.
Any assistance of the kind is most valuable.
Distribution-Rooted cuttings have been distributed to the number of 348, some of these being
cuttings, obtained by the Director, when in England, of the famous Black Hamburgh Vine of Hampton
Kola is still being planted to some extent, 569 seedlings having been distributed during the year.
In suitable districts Kola should be planted round the fencs,so that in time thl'y will form fence posts.
Dr. Preuss, Director of the Botanic Gardens in the Camernons, when lately on a visit to Jamaia, in-
formed us that the Kola grown here (Cola vera) is the very best of the edible species of W. Africa,
and that it is much finer than any he has seen there.
Mangoes have been sent to England from Hope Gardens quite successfully. They were picked
most carefully when they were just full, handled tenderly so as not to inflict the slightest bruise, wrapped
in paper, and tightly packed about 2 dozen together in small boxes in which large holes were bored
for ventilation. There is no reason why there should not be as large an export as of oranges, and they
would in time pay better.
Nutmeg seedlings were distributed to the number of 1,465.
Grafting.-Of the plants which were grafted last year, 70 have been grown on for planting out.
Several of the young trees have flowered whilst still in the pots; and one was allowed to fruit. With
regard to the commercial aspect of the grafting of Nutmegs it is hoped that several distinct advan-
tages will be gained by planting grafted trees; they are as follows:-
1. The tree is a female or bearing tree.
2. The tree will produce first-class nuts, as the scions used would be from the tree bearing the
3. The tree will fruit at a much earlier stage than a seedling planted in the ordinary way.
4. A grafted tree will keep low and spread, as against the straight upright growth of a seed-
ling; thereby rendering the gathering of the nuts and mace a much easier matter. The trees could also
be kept free of parasites, lichens, &c., with very little trouble.
The cultivation of pine-apples is on the increase. There is no doubt that large tracts of land, e.g.
in Vere and St. Elizabeth, that are now lying idle, are well suited to this culture, and the Agricultural
Instructor in his travels is pointing out where the soil is suitable, and advising on the cultivation.
Mr. C. Eugene Smith of Bog Walk has been experimenting on fertilizers and has been good
enough to send the conclusions arrived at so far; his notes are published in Bulletin for March,
April, May, 1900.
Rice seeds of different varieties have been obtained by the Department from Calcutta for a
planter, through the kindness of Surgeon Major Prain, Director of the Botanic Gardens.
Articles on cultivation, &c,, have appeared in the Bulletin.
Rubber plants to the number of 3,559 have been distributed. Dr. Bucher reports favourably of
the growth of Ceara Rubber in dry, poor soil near Spanish Town.
The plants of _untumia elastica received from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, have flowered.
Others lately received from the Trinidad Gardens are doing well.
Last year 31 acres, containing some 62 varieties, of cane, obtained from various parts of the
world, were maintained for the purpose of supplying tops to planters; but it was considered advisable,
when the newly appointed Government Chemist arrived, to stop the distribution of tops, and replant
with a view to making a thorough comparative test of all the varieties; 12 holes of each have there-
fore been planted out at a distance of 4 by 6 feet apart and are doing well. In addition to these old
varieties, tops of 36 new varieties from Demerara and 8 from Barbados have been planted out, and are
in a thriving condition, with the exception of four of the varieties from Demerara which died shortly
after arrival. During the arrowing season attempts were made to cross-fertilize some of the best vari-
eties with a view to producing a cane possessing the several good qualities of the parents, but we were
The seedlings that were raised at Hope last year have received careful attention, and are now
ratooning; one of them, a seedling from D. 95, looks promising.
This year, seeds of D. 61, D. 99, D. 49, and D. 95 were sown, resulting in a batch of 70 plants;
these have been potted into bamboo pots and will be planted out as soon as they are large enough.
There is a general awakening throughout the island to the belief that sugar should again be made
our most important crop. The cost of cultivation is less than in any other part of the W. Indies : e g.
in a dry district where there are 3 dry years in 10, a sugar planter states that the cost is 3 14s. per
acre, yielding an average of 18 tons.
Much of the machinery is antiquated, involving great loss. On one estate it is estimated that a
new mill costing 600 would make a difference of 1,000 per annum.
The Agricultural Instructor has been able in some cases to show that great improvement might
be made in cultivation, and his suggestions have readily been acted on with excellent results.
There is a large demand for new seedling canes, and tops to the number of 15,617 have been dis-
tributed. The reports as to the value of D. 95 and some others are very encouraging. An article in
the Bulletin on Sugar Cane Seedlings by Mr. T. J. Harris gives such directions that planters may
raise their own seedlings.
Altogether it may be said that with better cultivation, improved machinery, and new canes, the
prospects of sugar cultivation in this island are very much brighter than they have been for many
Four acres of tobacco were grown for the purpose of investigating the proper methods of curing
and cultivating; 2-3 acres was on a heavy soil, 11 acre on a light soil.
The first cutting was not treated properly and failed in the curing; an engagement was then en-
tered into with a Cuban tobacco planter (Mr. A. Leon) to advise from time to time on the cutting and
curing of the crop. A curirg shed was built and was subsequently enlarged on the advice of Mr.
Leon. It is too early to judge what the results of these experiments will be but it is believed that
some instructive facts have been recorded; it is felt, however, that one crop is not sufficient for the
purpose of obtaining information on which growers could place reliance; the methods of curing are
so very variable under different conditions, and in some cases actually conflicting.
ESTABLISHMENT OF BOARD OF AGRICULTURE.
During the year a Board of Agriculture was appointed by His Excellency the Governor with the
Colonial Secretary as Chairman. The ex-officio Members are the Director of Public Gardens and Plan-
tations, the Government Analytical and Agricultural Chemist, and the Commissioner of the Imperial
Department of Agriculture for the W. Indies Four Members are appointed by the Governor, two
being on the nomination of the Agricultural Society.
A Committee of the Board has control over the Experiment and Teaching Station at Hope Gar-
dens, with the Director as Chairman. All the experimental work done at Hope was placed under the
supervision of the Committee
The proposal made by this Department on several occasions that the whole of Mr. Cradwick's
time should be devoted to the agricultural demonstrations in various parts of the island was adopted
by the Board, and from the 1st December Mr. Cradwick took up his appointment as Agricultural In-
structor. He is directly under the control of the Experiment Station Committee.
The Board agreed to the discontinuance of expenditure on Bath Garden, and reductions in the ex-
penditure at the Hill Gardens, Castleton, and Kingston Public Garden.
In consequence of the appointment of Mr. Cradwick to be Agricultural Instructor, Mr. William
Harris was stationed at Hope to be Superintendent there as well as of the Hill Gardens, and to act as
Assistant to the Director. All the ground in Hope Gardens devoted to the purposes of the Experi-
ment Station is placed under the care of Mr. T. J. Harris, the Assistant Superintendent of Hope Gar-
The death of Mr. George A. Douet, the Secretary of the Agricultural Society, rendered some
changes necessary in the staff of that institution. The Board of Management decided that alterations
should be made in the Constitution, empowering His Excellency the Governor as President to appoint
" a Deputy Chairman to preside at meeting of the Board in the absence of the President and Vice-
Presidents, to convene and preside at all meetings of the Standing Committees, and to see that effect is
given to the decisions of the Board." At the same time they submitted the name of the Director of
Public (ardens and Plantations as Deputy Chairman, and His Excellency the President was pleased
to agree to the suggestions. I trust that the confidence placed in me by the Board will enable me to
be of service to the Society.
ABSENCE OF DIRECTOR.
I was absent from duty for six months on leave, during a great part of which time I was engaged
in the study of the flora of the island at the herbaria of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and of the
British Museum. I attended the Congress of the Chamber of Commerce in London, as one of the
Delegates from Jamaica.
At the request of His Excellency the Governor I attended the Agricultural Conference held at
Barbados in January last, presided over by Dr. Morris, Commissioner of the Imperial Department of
Agriculture for the West Indies.
Pupil Apprentices at Rope Gardens
Young men in limited numbers are allowed the privilege at Hope Gardens of receiving training
in the elementary principles and the practice of agriculture.
They are not bound as apprentices, as it is found more convenient for purposes of discipline to
engage them as labourers at the rate of 3/ per week for the first year, 4/ per week for the second year,
and 6/ per week for the third year. After three years, employment can generally be found for them
with planters, if they have proved industrious and capable.
Each apprentice has to make his own arrangements about board and lodging. A few rooms are
provided in the Gardens, where some of the apprentices are housed. This is a privilege, however,
which cannot be claimed by any, but it is offered when vacancies occur, in the first instance to appren-
tices whose friends live at a distance, and only so long as they give entire satisfaction.
Apprentices are required to work exactly in the same way as garden labourers, and to do any and
everything they are told in connection with the work carried on. No guarantee is given that they
will be specially trained in any particular branch of the work, but they will be given opportunities to
acquire a general knowledge of the following:-
1. Cocoa-Raising seedlings, potting, planting, pruning and training, curing.
2. Citrus-Raising stocks, budding, planting out, insecticides andjtheir application, and general
care of trees.
3. Grape Vines-Pruning and general care of vines.
4. Pines-Planting and general care.
5. Vutmegs-Raising stocks, grafting, planting out.
6. Tobacco--Raising seedlings, planting out, cultivation, cutting and curing.
7. Propagation of plants generally, potting, watering and the details of nursery work.
Apprentices are also allowed to attend the demonstrations given for half an hour each day on the
application of the principles underlying practical agriculture.
They are expected to purchase books which are recommended to them, and to study in their
They must be steady, punctual, diligent and painstaking, and any breach of discipline may be
punished by a fine, or by instant dismissal.
Apprentices from Gold Coast.
The two apprentices, Martinson and Brew, sent by the Government of Gold Coast to be trained
at Hope Gardens, have worked well both at work in the Garden, and in their study of books recom-
mended to them. Their term of two years was extended six months longer, ending July 1901.
Rope Industrial School.
The boys of this school are at work for the greater part of the day in the gardens. Those who
have shown any aptitude for gardening or agricultural work are kept on when their time at the School
is up at 16 years of age, and trained further as pupil apprentices. One who has been trained in this
way, is now in charge of a Cocoa walk getting 50 a year, quarters, &c. Others, and some of the ap-
prentices, are doing well either as gardeners, or assistants on estates. A great deal of the success of
both boys and apprentices is due to the Assistant Superintendent, Mr. T. J. Harris, who is most care-
ful and painstaking in his efforts in instructing them. The Superintendent Mr. William Harris has
the general supervision of all, and takes great interest in their welfare. presiding at their Mutual Im-
provement Society, &c.
Elementary School Teachers.
During the month of August, 1900, 36 elementary school teachers had a course of training at
Hope Gardens. Mr. Buttenshaw, the lecturer appointed by the Imperial Government, took all the
theoretical part, and Mr. T. J. Harris the practical work in the garden.
The aim was to give them such help that they might be able to take up the special teaching laid
down in the Code.
Students at Training Colleges.
Arrangements have been made to supplement the theoretical teaching given by Mr. Buttenshaw,
with practical work in the garden, and Mr. T. J. Harris takes a class from the Mico Training College
for elementary school teachers for 2 hours every Saturday morning.
The number of Bulletins distributed every month is 1,784, of which 244 are sent abroad. Be-
ides this regular number, many are constantly being sent which contain special articles on special
subjects on which information is sought.
In the volume for 1900 the following articles have appeared (the numbers refer to the pages) :-
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria, 182
Teaching agricultural principles in schools, 33.
Water, in some of its relations to agriculture, 113.
Cola acuminata & C. vera, 154.
Composition of Bananas and Plantain fruits, 24.
Rhus Metopium and Hafmatoxylon campechianum, 19.
Diseases of Plants -
Diseases of trees, 37.
Orange diseases, 129.
Parasitic enemies of cultivated plants, 52.
Potato scEb, 87.
Dyes and Colouring matters in plants-
Notes on Dye Plants, 1.
Rhus Metopium and Hsamatoxylon campechianum, 19.
Economic Plants (in general)-
Ballam Rice, 18.
Cocoa, 18, 21
Japan Wax and Varnish, 37.
Oil of Lemon, 185.
Rice culture, 60, 81, 97.
Sugar cane seedlings, 156.
Tobacco in Cuba, 180.
Nature Knowledge teaching, 59.
Nature study in rural schools, 123.
Teaching agricultural principles in schools, 33.
Manila Hemp, 177.
Ensilage without pressure, 37.
Salt bushes, 94.
Budding Citrus trees, 169.
Composition of Banana and Plantain Fruits, 24
Orange culture and diseases, 129.
Packing material for fruits, 23.
Moth-borer in sugar cane, 145.
Orange diseases, 129.
Protection against ants and scale insects, 180.
Fertilizers for Pine Apples, 7, 39
Rules for valuing manures, 181.
Prospects of Cinchona, 39.
Central American Rubber (Cas'illoa), 2.
Para Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), 186.
Vanilla, F, 45, 93.
VALUE OF BOTANIC GARDENS AND HERBARIA.
The value of Botanic Gardens and the Herbaria attached to them is well pointed out in a book *
lately published in the United States as follows:-
"As an instance of the beneficent influence of botanical science the records of the Royal Gardens
at Kew may be cited. Under the directorship of Sir William Hooker, and later of his son, Sir J. D.
Hooker, and at present under that of Sir W. T. Thistleton Dyer, it has accomplished wonders for the
education and delight of countless throngs of visitors. But its work does not cease with this objective
teaching; it constantly enriches the mnly Colonies of Great Britain One of the annual reports of
this truly Royal Garden contains a complete reply to any carping criticism of Botany.
Here is, no doubt, the largest herbarium in the world; here botanists, gardeners, and explorers
are trained; here are conducted experiments of most varied and useful character By means of Kew
coffee, cinchona, cotton, and many other important products have been extended to different countries.
All the Colonial as well as many foreign gardens are in touch with Kew. Every new plant is there
examined, eve ry supposed drug or fabric tested as to its value Improvements as to cultivation are
suggested, means of protection instituted. Kew is now conceded to be one of the most practical, best
paying, of all Britain's national institutions, it is honoured alike at home and abroad.
Who can fitly estimate the amount annually saved to the farmer by the researches of botanists
and entomologists ? The student of fungi alone becomes a benefactor, for mould, blight, and mildew,
as well as many of our own diseases, arise from the prevalence of active spores. We should then in all
ways, encourage those who with microscope and chemicals wage upon these pests an unrelenting
But let us consider a little more closely the uses of a herbarium and of a botanic garden.
In regard to the former it is to be said that much of the systematist's work is of necessity upon
dried plants. These he soaks in warm water, which in a measure restores the contours and softens
the tissues so they can be examined A botanist could not by any chance visit all countries, nor even
every part of his own, but in the herbarium he can have all or a large part of the plants of any given
region exposed in their natural sequence, or what science at the time considers such. Plants even of
one family or genus are not all simultaneously in flower or fruit, but in the herbarium all parts can be
thus viewed. The natural affinities and geographical and altitudinal distribution can be learned in no
other way, though closet work must needs supplement more direct field observation.
";.' Again, the herbarium is a cyclopedia of ultimate appeal. To it the student in doubt may
appeal as to an authority. At least he will ascertain what the best investigators have thought.
Hence a fine public herbarium is something to be amassed and cherished.
A botanic garden is almost equally important. Therein plants should be arranged as nearly as
possible by their natural affinities, well and clearly labelled so that all may learn tiem. Many horti-
cultural experiments can here be tried. Moreover, the garden should, like that of Kew, be a centre of
dissemination both of knowledge and useful products. It should at all times be open to the public.
and hence become a park of most delightful and varied usefulness."
New Species and Varieties described from Plants found in Jamaica.
Ilex Harrisii, Loes. (Symbolae Antillanae. Vol. I, p. 346.)
Desmodium axillare, Sw.
var. b angustatum, Urb. (l.c. Vol. II, p. 303.)
0(alactia laxiflora, Urb. (1.e. Vol. II, p. 315).
G. striata. Urb. var. cubensis, Urb. (l.c. Vol. II, p. 322.)
Leucaena brachycarpa, Urb. (1.c. Vol. II, p. 265.)
Pithecolobium Jupunba, Urb.
var. Alexandri, Urb. (.ce. Vol. II, p. 258.)
* Botanizing. By Prof. W. W. Bailey.
Rondeletia impressa, Kr. et Urb. (I.c. Vol. I, p. 412.)
R. microcalyx, Kr. et Urb. (l.e, Vol. I, p. 412).
R. jamaicensis, Kr. et Urb.,
var. Campbellii, Kr. et Urb, (1.e. Vol. I, p. 427.)
Eupatorium critoniforme, Urb. (I.c. Vol. I, p. 458.)
E. Harrisii, Urb. (1 c. Vol. I, p. 460.)
Senecio Fadyenii, Griseb.
var dolichanthus, Kr. et Urb. (1 c. Vol. I, p. 470.)
Lobelia Fawcettii, Urb. (1.e. Vol. I, p. 452).
L. assurgens, Linn.
var. jamaicensis, Urb. (1.e. Vol. I, p. 453.)
Salvia jamaicensis, Fawc. (1.e. Vol. I, p. 396.)
Camaridium parviflorum, Fawc. (I.e. Vol. I, p. 472.)
Bromelia superba, Mez. (1.e. Vol. I, p. 252.)
Hohenbergia spinulosa, Mez. (I.e. Vol. I, p. 253.)
H Urbaniana, Mez. (l.c Vol. II, p. 253)
H. Fawcettii, Mez. (l.c. Vol. II, p. 254 )
H. erios achya, Mez. (1 c. Vol. II, p. 256.)
Tillandsia ingens, Mez. (1 c. Vol II, p. 255 )
Species new for Jamaica.
Justicia Adhatoda, L. (1.e. Vol. II, p. 234)
Polyporus lucidus, Fries.
The following have been added to the collections in addition to native plants :-
Phycotheca Boreali-Americana. Collins. Fascicles, XII-XVI.
One great advantage to the Island resulting from the maintenance of the Gardens is that every
one, rich or poor, can get plants for a nominal sum.
Those Colonies which have no Botanic Gardens are dependent for their supply of new plants on
Firms like those of M. Lucien Linden of Brussels, who charge 4 per 100 for Rubber plants, 5 per
100 for Cocoa plants, &c
The following is a list of books that have been added to the Library during the past year, be-
sides those already catalogued, together with Serials, in the Bulletin :-
Brannt (William T.) India Rubber, Gutta-percha and Balata, Philadelphia. London. 1900. 8vo.
Hiern (William Phillip & others) Catalogue of the African Plants collected by Dr. FriedrichjWel-
witsch in 1853-61. Vol. II. Part 11. Cryptogamia. British Museum. London. 1901.
8vo. [British Museum.]
Cordemoy (Hubert Jacob de) Gommes Resins d'origine exotique et vegetaux qui les produisent parti-
culierement dans les Colonies Francaises Edited by Augustin Challmel. Paris, 1900. 8vo.
Bngler (A.) Das Pflanzenreich. Regni vegetabilis conspectus. IV.8 Typhaceae and IV. 10 Sparga-
niaceae, by P. Graebner. IV. 9 Pandanaceae, by O. Warburg IV. 45 Musaceae, by K.
-chumann Leipzig, 1900. 8vo
Engler (A. and K. Prantl) Die naturlich n Pflanzenfamilien. I Tiel. Abteilung Ia. and Ib.
Leipzig. 1900. 8vo I.Teil. Abteilung I."* Leipzig. 1900. 8vo.
Green (J. Reynolds) An Introduction to Vegetable Physiology. London, 1900. 8vo.
Hart (J. H.) Cacao. 2nd Edition. Trinidad, 1900. 8vo.
Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England. Vol XI Parts 1 and 2. London. 1900.
King (F. H.) Irrigation and Drainage. New York. London. 1899. 8vo.
Nicholson (George) Illustrated Dictionary of Gardening. Edited by G. Nicholson assisted by others.
Supplement, Parts 1 and 2. London 1900--1901.
Urban (Ignatius) Symbolae Antillanae seu Fundamenta Florae Indiae Occidentalis. Vol. II. Parts
1, 11. Berlin. Paris. London. 1898-1900. 8vo.
It is very difficult even for those engaged in agricultural work, and much more for those who have
had no experience of planting, to grasp the fact that garlea an I nursery work is necessarily very
expensive, very much more costly than field agricultural work. In England it has been estimated
that to maintain a Botanic Garden there in first class order, costs at the rate of 60 an acre Ex-
perts in such work are astonished at the amount of work that is done in Jamaica Gardens for the sums
The following Report is by the Superintendent, Mr. William Harris, F.L.S.:-
Oinamental Garden--The borders, beds, rookeries, lawns and. drives were kept in good order
during the year.
The beds and borders were forked, manured. and kept clean; the lawns kept free from weeds, and
The main drive, from the conduit near the Director's residence, to the gate near the Superin-
tendent's office was renovated and put in good order.
Date Palms:-Seventy-five Date Palms were received from Algiers in November, 1899. They were
in tubs, pots and wicker baskets To enable them to recover from the effects of their long journey,
and to get acclimatized, they were placed in the Nursery, looked after there, and gradually exposed to
the sun and hardened.
In February and March, 1901, sixty-nine if the plants were planted in prepare holes on the
lawn between the Director's office and residence. The phlnts are placed 36 feet apart in rows which
are 27 feet asunder Five of the original iplnts have lied.
A four-inch water main runs along the -ide of the drive, parallel with the palms, and connexions
have been made with this by means of 9-inch galvanized pipes with brass cocks, and laid to the root of
each palm, so that each tree has its own supply of wat, r.
Three suckers have been established so that we have at present 73 young trees.
Waste Water Gutter-The waste water from the reservoir of the Kingston and Liguanea Water
Works flows through the Gardens. The water is utilized for irrigating purposes as much as possible,
but the gutter was somewhat unsightly. Flood-gates aud dams have been built at intervals in the
gutter passing through the ornamental portion of the Garden, to keep back the water, and ferns and
various ornamental plants requiring a cool, moist atmosphere have been planted along the banks, and
are succeeding admirably. This is already an attractive feature, and a great improvement.
Orchids-The collection of orchids is extensive, and includes many valuable species. These have
been acquired mainly through exchanging desirable native species with English nurseymen, and other
large growers of exotic orchids The collection i is being thoroughly ovrhaulel and put in good order.
Numbers of Cattleyas, Dendrobiums, Oncidiums, Epindendrums, Laelias, &c., flowered during the
year and were much admired.
Show House-The old glass house for the protection of orchids when in flower, and other tender
plants, not only fell into disrepair, but was altogether too small for the numbers of plants requiring its
protection all through the year.. It was, therefore, taken down, and a larger and more substantial
structure has been erected in its stead. The new house is 58 feet long, 12J feet wide, and 7 feet 9
inches high. There are two plant stages, with a concrete path 51 feet wide down the centre. The
stages are lined with corrugated zinc sheets perforated. On top of the zinc is placed a thick layer of
sifted sand, which retains sufficient moisture to keep the house at all times fairly cool.
Rockeries are built underneath the stages. and planted with low-growing ferns, Episcias, &c.
One stage is filled with orchids in flower intermixed with fine-leaved palms, and ferns, whilst the
other is filled with ornamen'al-leaved Begonias, Caladiums, Acalypha hispida, &c, with palms and
The house is always showy and attractive, and we have the authority of Dr. Morris for saying
that there is nothing like it for beauty in the West Indies
Nursery-The nursery work at Hope is perhaps the most important of all.
The propagation and distribution to all parts of the Island of immense numbers of economic and
and ornamental plants entails an amount of careful forethought, and intelligent labour that few are
able to appreciate, except those who have some knowledge of such work. The demand for different
plants varies according to circumstances.
One year there is a run on Liberian coffee, another year nutmegs, another year kola, the next
year citrus plants, then cocoa and so on To meet all possible demands we are compelled to keep large
stocks on hand, and these have to be renewed frequently; as such plants as cocoa, kola, nutmegs
soon get overgrown, and if not sold or given away they must be thrown away to make room for young,
The numbers of plants now in the nursery ready for distribution exceed 90,000 not counting
thousands of young plants in seed and cutting beds.
Economic Plants :-
Cocoa ... 53,279
Cane-tops ... 15,617
O.anges-Sweet ... 5,890
Do. Sour ... 1,912
Do. Tangierine ... 156
Do. budded ... 25
Do. Bergamot ... 24
Grape Fruit ... 7,511
Lemons ... 1,095
Rubber plants ... 3.559
Nutmegs .... 1,4)5
Coffee-Liberian ... 573
Do. Blue Mountain ... 3,295
Kola ... 569
Grape Vines ... 300
Miscellaneous Fruit &
Economic plants ... 5,040
Ornamental plants 10,920
Cocoa pods 622
Miscellaneous, including Timber and Shade Trees 3,491
Grape Vines 48
Total number of Economic plants 107,831
Total number of plants distributed 118,751
Plants of budded citrus and of pine-apples, and cocoa-pods are occasionally obtained from
planters for applicants. This is in pursuance of the policy of the Department not to compete with
private growers. Sometimes an applicant is referred direct to a private grower; in other cases, where
the applicant lives a long way from the grower, the Department obtains the plants or pods for him,
packs them, and despatches them by rail or by coasting steamers free of charge This is also a part of
the policy of the Department, viz.: to distribute by every means within its power, plants or seeds of
1,850 cocoa pods were purchased for propagating purposes during the year. Only pods growing
on the stems of the trees should be used for seed; only the finest of these should be selected, and only
the largest seeds from these pods should then be taken. It is quite impossible to do more than grow a
few specimens of each tree or plant of economic value that now finds a home in the gardens. At least
an acre of cocoa trees, growing in a wet district, would be required to provide sufficient seed.
Letters received ... 1,383
despatched ... 3,186
besides numerous memoranda to and from Head Office.
The elevation of the Barometer at the Garden above sea-level is 680 feet. The average mean
annual temperature is 72 8 F., and the average annual rainfall 53.75 inches for 20 years. The
amount of rain that fell during the year was 49.88 inches, The driest months were April, August,
October, November, February, March; and the wettest were May, June, July, September. The mean
temperature for the year was 77.1 F. The Meteorological Tables for the different months are given
on page 98.
AREAS OF PLOTS UNDER CULTIVATION.
The following are approximately the areas of the various sections at Hope:-
A. R. P. A. R. P.
Sugar Canes ...
Banana and experiment
Rubber and Logwood ...
Miscellaneous Economic Plants:
Cocoa, Nutmegs, Cinnamon, Rubbers, Liberian
Coffee, Olives, Vines, Vanilla, etc.
Collections of Roses, Crotons, etc.
Ornamental borders and beds ...
Ferneries, and Orchid collections
Planted with various fruit and other trees
Sisal Hemp, and Industrial School Grounds
Yards adjoining buildings
Woodland and bush, ...
5 0 00
3 0 00
1 2 00
1 0 00
6 0 00
15 0 00
4 0 00
54 0 08
... 26 3 09
7' 3 00
3 0 00
... 65 2 00
Total area of Hope Estate
24 2 00
30 2 00
157 0 17
212 0 17
Length of wire fences: 260 chains = 3} miles
roads : 140 chains = 1 miles
The following Report is by the Superintendent, Mr. W. J. Thompson:-
The walks have been kept in their usual good condition, soil and gravel put on where required,
and more than one hundred concrete slabs made and placed over drains running under the walks.
The fencing has been kept in good condition, but more is needed on the economic side of the gar-
den to keep out stock.
The lawns and verges have also been shown proper care and attention. The pasture has been
kept clean and some grass cut for making manure.
The beds and borders have received the usual amount of forking and manuring.
Trees and shrubs have been pruned, but in some places the trees are becoming very much over-
grown and require thinning. Several shrubs have bean transplanted, and many young plants put out.
The following are among those planted out:-
Phormium tenax Punica granatum
Sterculia alata Carissa grandiflora
Landolphia Klainea Acalypha hispida
Garcinia ternophylla Corypha sp. (Kew)
Funtumia elastica Caryota mitis (Kew)
Amomum Danielli Bentinckia nicobarica (Kew)
Lagetta lintearia Caesalpinia coriaria.
I am pleased to be able to to report that most of the imported plants received during the last few
years are doing well
The Rubber trees in the Gardens have all made good growth and large numbers of rubber seeds
and plants have been sent to the Hope Gardens.
The Royal Palm (Oreodoza regia) planted in commemoration of the late Queen's Jubilee in 1897,
has grown to a height of twelve feet.
All the old imported orange trees have been taken up and re-planted, and are making rapid
growth ; most of them were suffering from having been planted too deep.
The old trees of Amherstia nobilis have received special attention. They are much improved in
health and have been one mass of bloom. A few plants have been raised and sent out.
The Water Lily tank has been cleaned and the lilies repotted.
The Mangosteen trees continue to grow vigorously, and have given a good crop of fruit, but from
some cause the fruit does not preserve its condition so long as it used to do.
Several new garden seat, have been made and the old seats repaired and painted. One of the
visitors' sheds has been repaired and re-thatched.
1 regret to state that one of the garden mules has died.
The exchange of land between the Government and Mrs. Stephens has been completed.
We are indebted to the Hon. Dr. Pringle, C.M.G., for seeds and plants from his estate.
The number of visitors to the Gardens has been less than last year.
The rainfall has been about the average, 117.75 inches, and rain on 214 days. December was the
wettest month with 24.96, and February the driest with 0.63 inches. The highest temperature was
92 degrees and the lowest 51 degrees. For the last 29 years the average annual rainfall is 114.03
inches, and the average mean temperature 75.9 degrees F.
There were 229 lots of seeds collected in the Gardens and sent to Hope.
The number of plants sent out this year is almost double that of 1899-1900. There have been
about 9,000 more plants sent to Hope than last year. The number of plants sold in the Gardens is
also greater, and we could have disposed of more if they had been in stock.
On December 1st, 1900, the grant to these Gardens was reduced to one-half, or 3 per week.
Owing to the drought, and the labour-saving improvements made within the last few years, as
well as the stoppage bf propagation, I have been able to keep the place clean, but to do any cultiva-
tiom on the money is out of the question.
The up-keep of the Gardens without propagation or cultivation can be done on 200 a year for
labour, but the upkeep of the ornamental part only, would not, in my opinion, ba using the Gardens to
the best advantage.
The small settlers in this neighbourhood will not buy economic plants even at 1/ a 100, but they
will take them when given away. In the past year a large number was distributed gratis.
Sent to Hope.
Economic Plants 12,285
Ornamental Plants 3,148 15,433
Sold at Castleton.
Economic Plants 2,266
Ornamental Plants 489 2,755
Economic Plants ... ... 2,070
Total number of Economic Plants 16,621
Total number of Ornamental Plants 3,637
Total number of Plants distributed 20,258
Total value of plants distributed 77 14 10
The amount spent during the year on the Gardens was 266 10 2
The following Report is by the Superintendent, Mr. William Harris, F.L.S.:-
Bellevue Cinchona-This Garden was maintained throughout the year, in as good order as possible
with the small amount voted for its up-keep. The beds and borders were kept neat and tidy, the
lawns and walks clean and in good order.
As usual, the garden was kept bright by a succession of flowers of Phlox, Dianthus, Salvias,
Roses, Lilies, Fuchsias, Geraniums, &c. The Plant of Wistaria chinensis, trained on an arbour at the
west end of the residence, flowered profusely in the early part of the year. The "Tulip tree" (Lirio-
deidron tulipfera) flowered for the first time during the summer of 1900. It is a fine, shapely tree,
and was covered with blooms.
No work was done on the buildings during the year.
Orange Garden Resource.-The work carried on at this Garden for the first eight months of the year
was chiefly of a routine character, such as billing grass, hoeing through the plantation, preparing seed
beds, sowing seeds, pricking out seedlings, carrying water and watering seedlings repairing roads and
fences, manuring and forking round trees, applying insecticides, and budding plants. The permanent
trees in the lower portion of the grove, the soil of which is comprised largely of shale, were found to
suffer exceedingly during prolonged spells of drought; the leaves wilted and finally turned yellow and
dropped off, and the trees altogether assumed a forlorn aspect through lack of moisture at their roots.
It was decided to transplant them to the upper portion of the grove, the soil of which contains a good
deal of clay. Holps were prepared and the trees removed in favourable weather, andl a decided change
for the better was at once apparent in the appearance of the trees
The grant for the Orange Garden was suspended on the 1st December, 1900. When work was
stopped a large number of seedlings were in the seed beds just ready to be transplanted to nursery
beds. As far as means would allow, beds were prepared for these plants at Hope, and the work of
transferring them commenced at once, but through want of water, shading, weeding, and constant
care, large numbers of these plants were lost at Resource.
About 120 of the permanent trees also died, and many others were seriously injured through at-
tacks by fungoid diseases, and scale insects, due to neglect.
The Superintendent of the Hill Gardens assumed charge also of Hope Gardens on the 1st De-
cember,. 1900, and now resides at the latter Gardens.
The elevation of the Hill Garden, where the instruments are placed, is 4,907 feet above sea-level.
The average annual mean temperature there, is 62.6 Fah., and the average annual rainfall 103.75
inches for 30 years. The amount of rain that fell during the year was 94.30 inches. The driest
months were April, August, February, March, and the wettest were May, September, November, De-
cember rnd January.
The Meteorological Tables for the different months are given on page 17.
The rainfall at the Orange Garden, Resource, was 99.13 inches for 11 months.
KINGSTON PUBLIC GARDEN.
The following Report is by the Superintendent, Mr J. Campbell:--
The usual gardening operations. were carried on during the year. The borders and beds were
heavily manured and mulched. Plants that were received from Hope Gardens, and planted out as by
my last report have developed, and improve the condition of the Garden. The lawns have been in
good condition most of the year, but from the monti of December there has been no rain, and the Gar-
den grant being reduced then, there was no possibility of keeping them during the drought in ver-
dure. During this period, the goats kept by persons in the neighbourhood of the Parade Garden,
were a great pest, and if it were not for the watchfulness of the Superintendent, and foreman, the Gar-
den in a large measure would have been destroyed by these animals.
I am glad to report that all the ornamental trees are in good order and have not suffered from the
The work of cutting and trimming the edges and verges has been regularly carried on, and the
forking, weeding, pruning, mowing, raking, sweeping, and carting away rubbish have been attended
The tanks have been cleaned, and fresh mould put in mounds for aquatic plants The paths have
been kept in order, but require gravelling. The benches have been repaired but require painting.
I may say that I have endeavoured to utilize the means at my dipsosal for the up-keep of the Gar-
den to the best advantage by doing all that can be done to make it present a clean and tidy appear-
ance. The area in cultivation is over seven acres.
The very few infringements of the Garden Regulations have been dealt with at the Police Court.
The average mean annual temperature is 79.10 F., and the average annual rainfall 35.1 inches
for 29 years.
KING's HOUns GAnDIW.
The following report is by the Superintendent, Mr. J. Brisooe.
During the past year the usual garden operations have been carried on with satisfactory results.
'Ihe borders on each side of the drive have been repeatedly dug and kept constantly watered and
mulched with stable manure. A quantity of crotons, rose plants and poinsettias have been struck and
planted out. The large palms at the back of the borders having been constantly watered are doing
well. The drive has been kept well hoed and cleaned to keep down the nut-grass, &c. The verges on
either side have been kept cut. The white Coralilla and a large number of overgrown creepers have
been removed from the front of the house, owing to their interfering with the palms.
The branches of the large Ficus Benjamina hanging over the ball-room have been removed, and
the roots have also been cut back.
The creepers on the steps leading from the lawn to the house have been constantly attended to:
these are Ipomcea, Clerodendron, Oissus discolor, Thunbergia grandiflora, Stephanotis. They have made
rapid growth and are now making a fine appearance.
The rockeries have been replenished with manure and good soil, and planted out with Phlox
Drummondii, Geraniums, Calliopsis, Zinnias, Balsams Godetias, Coxcombs, &c.
The lawns have been kept rolled and mowed, and are looking well. The walks round the house
have been constantly hoed and cleaned, The Nymphaeas in the tank have flowered well. The orchids
and pot plants have been carefully attended to and have flowered well.
The Pine-apple walk has been removed into the kitchen garden and three hundred young suckers
The Vines have bean pruned, and are now breaking well.
Thirty-seven tons of logwood have been cut, chipped, and sold off the property.
Two hundred and fourteen chains of fence have been repaired, &c.
Eight boys from the Reformatory have been down on tree occasions, billing aad cleaning the
pastures; they have done their work in a very satisfactory manner.
A new fence fifteen chains long has been run dividing a small pasture from a portion of the race-
The Cricket Ground is in fair condition.
The elevation of the garden above sea-level is 400 feet. The average mean annual temperature
78.1 F, and the average annual rain-fall 48.24 inches for 21 years. The amount of rain that fell
during the year was 41.72 inches. The driest months were November, February, and March, and the
wettest May and September. The mean temperature for the year was 76.1 F. The Meteorlogical
tables for the different months are given on page 19.
W. FAWOcaT, Direotor.
HILL GARDES.--Elevation 4,907 feet.
65.8 69.2 57.9
Blue Mountain Peak-Elevation, 7,423 feet.
I II -
* The Barometer pressures are reduced to Standards at Kew, 329,, and gravity Lat. at. 459.
HOPE GARDENS-Elevation 680 feet.
a.m. 3 p.m. Max.
Min, Range. 7 a.m. 3 p.m.
7 a.m. 3 p.m.
I--- ----- Total
Mean== 77. 1
CASTLETON GARDENs-Elevation 496 feet.
OPressure. Dew Point. Humidity.
Month. Degrees Faaenheit.
7 am. 3 p.m. 7 a.m. 3 p.m, Max. Min. Range. 7 a.m. 3 p.m. 7 a.m. 3 p.m. p
1900. In. In. 0 0 0 o 0 0
April ... 29.93729.861 69.8 80.7 85.5 64.4 21.1 67.2 74.4 90 76 4.24
May 29.89629.816 72.3 83.3 87.0 67.8 19.2 69.0 72.7 92 76 7.80
June ...29.90129.848 72.5 83.4 88.4 67.4 21.0 69.5 74.7 92 79 7.38
July ... 29.94629.902 72.8 82.9 87.5 66.6 20.9 70.5 73.4 93 74 8.70
August ...29.93729.878 72.3 84.7 89.7 66.3 23.4 69.8 73.5 89 68 2.98
September ... 29.91029.853 72.9 81.8 88.2 65.2 23.0 69.5 74.5 92 78 7.74
October ... 29.90429.837 71.4 80.8 86.8 65 4 21.4 68.0 76.9 91 84 11-80
November ... 29.91929.862 69.7 80.5 85.4 65.9 19.5 67.4 74.0 93 78 11.77
December .., 29.98729.920 68.7 79.6 83.7 64.1 19.6 65.8 72.7 93 77 24.96
January ... 30.03529.956 64.0 78.3 82.6 58.7 23.9 63.4 71.3 90 78 16.86
February ...29.99829.916 65.4 79.9 83.4 60.3 23.1 62.6 71.4 93 74 0.70
March ... 30.02529.940 65.6 79.6 82.8 61.5 21.3 62.8 74.0 93 84 7.15
Means ... 29.94929.882 69.7 81.2 85.9 64.4 21.5 67.1 73.6 91 78 112.08
The Barometer pressures are reduced to the Standards at Kew, 32,3 gravity at Lat. 459, and mean sea-level.
KiNG's Houss GAnBDs---Elevation, 400 feet.
Dew Point. Humidity.
7 a.m. 3 p.m. Max. in. 7 a.m. 3 p.m. 7 a.m. 3 p.m.
1900. 0 0 0 o o
April ... 72.6 84.2 88.0 64.4 23.6 69.1 73.4 87 69 2.64
May ... 75.4 85.1 88.7 67.5 21.2 71.1 73.8 87 69 5.25
June .. 74.8 84.6 89.5 67.6 21.9 72.1 75.3 90 72 4.36
July ... 75.0 85.0 89.8 66.1 23.7 70.8 75.4 87 72 3.19
August ... 73.8 86.1 90.9 65.8 25.1 70.3 76.0 87 73 4.31
September ... 73.5 84.1 88.9 64.5 24.4 70.3 74.4 88 72 10.00
October ... 73.1 82.6 88.9 62.7 26.2 69.9 75.9 89 79 2.09
November ... 71.9 82.8 89.1 62.0 27.1 69.0 76.5 90 80 1.75
December ... 69.3 82.9 90.3 60.6 29.7 65.9 73.3 85 74 3.24
January ... 66.7 81.1 88 0 56.3 31.7 62.0 71.3 84 71 4.20
February ... 67.9 84.6 88.3 58.7 29.6 62.9 72.3 84 66 0.00
March ... 68.9 83.2 88.4 63.0 25.4 64.0 70.6 84 67 0.69
Means ... 71.9 83.8 89.0 63.2 25.8 68.1 74.0 87 72 41.72
Mean = 760. 1