PUBLIC GARDENS AND PLANTATIONS,
T THE YEAR ENDED 31" MARCH, 1900.
BY W. FAWCETT, F. So., DIRECTOR.
rbs b b 3P~i0 Exleelenec tle (~obert~rn to be~ ~rinttbe,
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, 79 DUKE STREET, KINGSTON.
- C--\ --
DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC GARDENS AND PLANTATIONS,
FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31st MARCH, 1900.
Economic Plants at Hope ...... 2
Bananas ... ... 4
Citrus ... ... & 4
Cocoa ... ... 5
Coffee ... ... 3&5
Essential Oils ... ... 5
Grapes ... ... 6
Mangoes .. .. 6
Nutmegs .. ... 6
Pine Apples .. ... 2 & 7
Rubber ... .. 7
Sugar ...... 7
Tobacco .. .. 7
Practical Instruction ... ... 8
Importation and Exchange of Plants and Seeds ... 9
Herbarium and Library ...... 9
Bulletin ... ... 13
SHope ... ... 14
Castleton ... ... 16
Gardens :- Cinchona ...... 18
Bath ... ... 20
Parade .. ... 20
SKing's House ... ... 21
Meteorological Returns .. .. 22-24
Condition of, and areas in Economic Plants at Hope Gardens.
(1.) Piece of land in various economic plants consisting of 1 acre, 2 roods, 37 perches contain-
Large trees (of several varieties) ... 37
Young trees (1 year old) ... 60
Total Cocoa trees ... 97
Large trees ... 14
Young trees ... 27
Total Nutmeg trees 41
Trees ... 9
Liberian ... 106
Stenophylla ... 3
Total Coffee trees ... 109
Miscellaneous Economic and Fruit Trees.
Star Apples (Chrysophyllum Cainito) ... 10
Naseberry (Achras Sapota) ... 11
Breadfruit (Artocarpus incisa) ... 3
Breadnut (Brosimum Alicastrum) ... 2
Olives ...... 42
Elengi (Mimusops) ... 2
Limes ...... 5
Tangierine orange ... ... 1
Purple Guava (Psidium Cattleyanum) ... 2
Bitter Wood (Picraena exoelsa) ... 10
Surinam Quassia (Simaruba amara) ... 16
Pear (Persea gratissima) ... 1
Ceara Rubber (Manihot Glaziovii) ... 11
Para Rubber (Hevea) ... 3
Total Miscellaneous, Economic and Fruit trees 119
The condition of the large cocoa trees is fair, it would be good but for the damage done to them in
the 1886 hurricane which spoiled the shape. They all fruit regularly, and some very heavily.
Some of the young trees have grown exceedingly well; others only fairly. This is due to the
variation of the soil.
Liberian Coffee is all in fair condition. Oqffa stenophylla is in very good condition.
The large Nutmeg trees are in fair condition; they would be good, but taking limbs for grafting
has in some degree spoiled their appearance.
All the other plants are in fair condition, but some thinning is necessary among the fruit trees.
A large Woman's tongue" tree requires to be removed.
The trees of Hevea brasiliensis are in g6od condition.
Some of the trees of Manihot Glaxiovii have suffered from tapping.
(2.) Piece of land from big Black Mango towards old pond, consisting of 1 acre 19 perches, of
which 18 perches are in Pine Apples consisting f the following varieties-
Green Ripley.Queea ... 454
Red Ripley Queen ... 213
Moscow Queen ... 60
Enville ... 2
Smooth Cayenne ... 10
Black Pine ... 11
Abbaka' ... 15
Cow Boy ... 10
Sugar Loaf ... 10
Cheese Pine ... 10
Charlotte Rothschild ... 13
The Pine Apples have just been replanted on what I consider to be a good piece of land,
On this piece of land are also the following varieties of Coffee-
Arabian ... 165
Abbeokuta ... 15
Stenophylla ... 16
Pea berry (so called) ... 14
Golden Drop ... 2
Marogogipe .... 6
Christy's Liberian ... 2
Species with Stenophylla ... 3
Total Coffee trees 223
All in fair condition.
Also 3 Kola and
43 Breadnut (Brosimum Alicastrum)
58 (Hevea brasilienais) young plants received from Botanic Gardens, Demerara, and about
one year old, in good condition.
Hevea brasiliennss 17 plants four years old, all in good condition.
(3) Piece of land below coffee and rubber land, consisting of 3 roods 28 perches containing some
Akee trees and one grafted plant of Mr. Mudon's Governor" Mango.
Land in Canes consisting of 3 acres 36 perches, containing varieties of sugar canes, some in
good, some in fair, and some in bad order requiring replanting; this plot requires steers to work the
plough in order to economise labour.
(5.) Land in Citrus Fruits consisting of 3 acres 2 roods 4 perches, containing the following
varieties of citrus fruits:-
Melrose Shaddock ... 4
Grape fruit, Ayton var. ... 8
Hopewell var. ... 5
Castleton var. ... 5
Californian var. 4
Lemon, Genoa ... 11
Orange, Sweet ... 32
Tangierine ... 17
Navel ... 100
All in fair condition.
(6.) Piece of land in yams consisting of 19 perches in the following varieties:-
recently planted and just started to grow.
(7.) Piece of land consisting of 96 square yards, containing 96 plants of Andropogon (A. Narclus.)
A. aehoenanthus) in good condition.
(8.) Piece of land consisting of 1 rood 6 perches, containing 86 plants 2 years old, of Castilloa elas-
tioa, in fair condition.
(9.) Piece of land consisting of 2 roods 26 perches containing
Plants received from Mr. T. H. Sharp raised by him from seeds procured by the Agricultural Society
from British Honduras ... ... 8
Plants raised by Botanical Department from seeds received from Curator Botanical Gardens,
British Honduras .. ... 297
Pthe Apples Ripley vars. ... ... 385
Planted for purpose of experimenting with artificial manures, according to the plan of Mr. Watts.
(10.) Piece of land consisting of 2 roods 32 perches containing Tobacco, Vegetables, Pine-apple
suckers, Peaches and Seedling Canes all in fair condition.
(11.) Piece of land consisting of 32 perches containing 21 varieties of Bananas received from Kew
and Dominica for trial. In good condition.
(12.) Piece of land consisting of 2 roods 5 perches containing Grape Vines on arbours.
(13.) Piece of land consisting of 3 roods 24 perches containing some sour orange stocks and Grafted
East Indian Mangoes from the trees at Castleton. Plants in good condition, but land needs weeding.
Total area planted 14 aores.
The following varieties of Bananas have been planted out at Hope :-
2 "RAm kela"
2 "Cinerea" (Saharanpur)
"Ladies finger," Pashongar
"Pisang Kudjo Hudang" (Java)
Pisang Sereh" (Java)
"Pisang Kelat" (Singapore)
Musa sapientum, var. rubra
2 "Cundy" (Octamund)
"Pisang Ambon" (Java)
"Pisang Soosoo" (Java)
Bakerii Fehi" (Kew)
"Pisang Mass" (Java)
"Musa sp. from Congo (M. Patin)
The Superintendent of Hope Gardens reports results of experiments in budding on various stocks
in continuation of his report of last year:-
Sweet orange on lime stocks-These trees continue to grow well They fruit regularly, and are
perfectly free from scale insects and all forms of disease. They receive no attention in the way of cul-
tivation, except that, being in the nursery,-they never suffer from drought.
Sweet orange on rough lemon stocks still look well.
Sweet orange on sour stocks also look well.
Sweet orange on sweef stock-Of the 18 trees originally planted out at Hope, three only have
been allowed to live; these are looking well. The other 15 showed signs-of various diseases and were
destroyed Sweet orange is a bad stock at Hope. This is an important fact to notice, as at one time
many people were trying to persuade owners of properties to cut down what they call their wild" trees
and have them budded. In many cases the so-called "wild" trees produced delicious fruit; and to cut,
down such trees for the sake of budding them with varieties known by name only would be absurd.:
Navel oranges have done equally well on some stocks and rough lemons.
Tangierines also look well on both stocks.
Grape fruit on rough lemons are looking very well.
Shaddocks also are doing well.
It may prove interesting to record here the growth made by different citrus fruits on different
stocks. The figures quoted b low are for trees budded at Hope in July and August, 1896, on stocks
not more than one year old, and transplanted to the places they now occupy in September, 1897:-
Grape Fruit on rough lemon stock 12ft. 13ft.
Shaddock 10 12 "
Lemon Imperial 10 13 "
Sweet Orange on Sweet Orange stocks 8 6in. 9 "
" Rough Lemon 7 6 13 "
Sour Orange* 8 6 "'
Tangierine Rough Lemon 10 8"
Navel 10 10 "
Budding.-Our experience of budding in Jamaica has taught us that a strong stock growing ra-
pidly, a healthy, fresh bud, and a sharp knife-are absolutely indispensable. With these 95 per cent.
of buds put in ought to grow. Without these 95 per cent. will fail. If the stock receives a check
after the bud is put in, the bud will suffer, and probably die. Fine dry weather and artificial watering'
are the best at Hope for budding. One constant rule is, if the sap of a stock is not flowing sufficiently
to allow the bud to lift the bark without help from the knife or finger, that stock is not budded, but
left until the bark does run easily.
Diseases.-Scale insects are easily destroyed by the mixture of soap and kerosine recommended in
the Bulletin for December, 1893. Gumming is prevented almost entirely by liming the soil. Beetles--
eat the leaves, causing much damage; the remedy is to catch and kill them, or if too numerous, to
spray with Paris green mixed with water.
*These are a year younger than the others,
A chemist who has studied Cocoa in the various W. India Islands where it is grown, states that
he has formed the opinion that not much dependence can be placed on the form of the pod in making
choice of good seed. One seed in the pod should be cut, and the colour noted. This, he thinks, is a
more reliable test than the form of the pod. For flavour he prefers the white colour in the interior of
the seed. But if this kind of cocoa is produced by a tree not so vigorous as that yielding seeds with red
or purple colour, at any rate the light pink colour is preferable to the purple colours.
He is of the opinion that small settlers should go in for a quick fermentation of about 4 days in
In March 1899, 60 young plants were planted out at Hope, some of these on good loamy soil with
irrigation have reached a height of from 3 to 7 feet, those on thin dry gravelly soil deficient in humus
have grown but little. Cocoa needs good moist soil and some shade when young. Old cocoa trees
need similar root conditions, but not shade. All cocoa trees require protection from wind.
It is necessary to plant young trees each year in order that the boys may be instructed in the act
of planting, pruning and caring the young trees.
Mr. Robt. Thomson in a letter to the "Times" during last year, quotes paragraphs from his paper
published in a Foreign Office Report in 1895 (Misc. Ser., 370 Colombia.)
He states in this Report that coffee cultivation in Colombia yields a larger profit than in Jamaica
He assigns several causes, viz.; land at a nominal cost, cheap and abundant labour, exchange in
planters' favour, and larger yield per acre.
All these causes are more than sufficient to account for a large profit., He might have added abun-
dance of land with virgin soil and suitable climate, which would ful!y account for the larger yield. He,
however, appears to think that one of the chief elements of success must be assigned to the systematic
interplanting of shade trees with the coffee," and apparently assumes that this is not the practice in
Elsewhere he alleged that another reason for the low price of Jamaica coffee is the want of care-
I understand, although he does not make it clear, that he is only referring to the coffee of the
peasantry. It is however hardly fair to compare without discrimination the coffee industry in the two
countries: in Colombia it is carried on by capitalists on large estates, whereas in Jamaica the bulk of
the coffee is grown by peasants on small holdings.
Mr. Thompson refers to extension of cultivation, in my Annual Report for 1892-93 I dealt with
the desirability of the extension of cultivation chiefly by large landowners, and pointed out that the
circumstances operating against any increase in cultivation were scarcity of labour and want of roads,
which also enhance the cost of production and putting on the market.
At the present time and with the price of coffee so low, it is rather the improvement in cultivation
and in the curing of coffee of low altitudes, than any extension that is desirable.
Mr. Thomson states that in Colombia at an elevation between 5,000 and 6,000 feet, no shade at
all, or only light shade, is required; and between 3,000 and 5,000 feet he recommends certain legumi-
nous trees, Erythrina and Inga. He is in error in stating that "British colonial coffee planters have
in the main ignored the application of shade to the coffee tree." In Jamaica just as in Colombia the
coffee tree at the highest elevations does not need any shade, but on the contrary it wants all the sun it
can get; and if for some reason, such as the proximity of forest land inducing cloud, there is a defi-
ciency of direct sunlight, the coffee berries do not ripen, and cultivation is a failure. At somewhat
lower altitudes a slight shade is necessary, at any rate during the hottest part of the year. Jamaica
coffee planters in the Blue Mountains use the West Indian Cedar which is a light shade at a good height
above the coffee, the trees being bare of leaves during the winter months. In Manchester at still lower
elevations the light shade of the Trumpet tree is made use of, and shade of some kind is quite universal
at.this and all lower elevations. In fact so far from shade not being used, I have frequently pointed
out cases where the shade used is too dense, favouring the growth of fungus pests.
There is no need to direct attention to the employment of shade in general but there is need for
careful inspection of the kind used and its effects in different localities, and for directions about the
adoption of shade trees more suitable than many of those at present in use.
But the proper use of shade is only one item in an immense number of agricultural operations
of which the peasant proprietors are completely ignorant, and have no opportunity of learning, unless
instructors are sent amongst them, not to lecture, but to demonstrate by actual work in their fields.
Information has been sought from the Department about the essential oil of "lemon grass" or
"fever grass" which grows so readily in many places. While the experience of India and Ceylon can
be given, no trials have been made with these grass oils here. .Some of the common lemon grass has
been planted at Hope, and plants of Andropogon Nardus (as well as A. Schoenanthus) have been ob-
tained from Kew, in order thoroughly to test the per centage and quality of oil in these grasses grown
Some are inclined to think that such small cultures as these are beneath our notice, but in the
aggregate they may amount to something considerable. The attar of roses industry in Bulgaria is one
of 'these, and the essential oils of Citrus in the south of France are the product mainly of culture by in-
Mr. Cradwick reports as follows about the Grape vines at Hope :-
Fosters seedling ripened first, cropping and ripening well-a few bunches being spoiled by
mildew. Black Hamburgh bore a fair crop, none ripened properly, all being spoiled by mildew. Muscat
of Alexandria bore a large crop, a few only ripening, the rest being spoiled by mildew. Alicante pro-
duced only a small crop, but these all ripened well. Muscat Hambro produced a lot of fruit, but from
lack of attention had no chance to ripen. Barbarossa or Guillaume, the common black grape of the
Savannahs, pruned in the autumn in the same way as Mr. Elliott's vine, produced no crop either in
winter or summer. The vine was left unpruned in the Spring, being treated exactly the same as Mr.
Mildew was very troublesome. Wasps were very destructive, boring through the bags made of
mosquito net. The grapes were on the whole very disappointing.
This year the number of plants will be very much reduced. Grafting on native grapes will be
tried when the native grapes are strong enough.
Vines were pruned every month from August. All were failures, some not even producing
flowers. Grapes cannot be ripened in the winter months at Hope.
One of the youths trained at the gardens has been sent to prune vines for the following :-Mrs.
White, Miss Duncan, Si'ter Madeline, Sir Fielding Clarke, Hon. Fred. Evans, Mrs. Laing, Mr. Lopez,
and Mr. Thomas.
Mr. Cradwick reports as follows on Mangoes at Hope Gardens :-
There are now planted out 20 grafted plants from trees of the noted Bombay Mango" imported
by H. E. Sir J. P. Grant and planted at Castleton. There have also been planted the following
varieties of mangoe from Prof. G. Landes, Martinique:-
Julie 2 plants; Martin 1 plant.
One of the trees of Mexican Mango ripened fruit. They were of excellent quality, large, of
good appearance and of excellent flavour.
One of the Governor man goes died, the other plant looks well, but grows slowly.
Nutmeg cultivation has never been very popular for many reasons. In the first place the market
is limited; then there is the probability that, after having waited 6 or 7 years for the trees to flower,
two-thirds of them will turn out to be male trees.
For some time we have been trying at Hope Gardens to bud or graft from a female tree on strong
healthy seedlings, so that a planter might be certain that all his trees will bear. These experiments
have been in the hands chiefly of Mr. T. J. Harris, and he has now succeeded. Six youths have been
trained to do this work, and each can now graft 100 a day. Mr. Harris makes the following statement
of the method to be adopted :-
The Grafting of Nutmegs.
Stocks ready for grafting ten months after sowing; still in bamboos.
"Select the tree which bears the largest nuts, construct rough but level stages of different
heights around the tree; draw some of the main branches down to the stages with wire attached to
pegs driven into the ground; place moss or cloth under the wire to prevent its cutting the bark of the
branch. The strongest only of the shoots should be used as scions.
"Cut a thin slice of the bark from the side of the seedling stock, taking care to cut through the
cambium, this cut to be about two inches long and about 4 inches from the base of the plant. Make a
corresponding cut in the side of the of the scion at the point at which it is of the same diameter as the
stock (it may be eight, nine or ten inches from the tip of the shoot) and opposite the cut on the lat-
Place the two cuts together at once and tie tightly with raffia or grafting tape. Allow them to
remain for two months, watering carefully meantime; at the end of which time a small notch is made
with a very sharp knife on the scion just below and on the opposite side to, the union. Eight or ten
days later the notch is made deeper by cutting out a little more wood ; this time nearly severing the
scion from the tree.
A week after take a sharp pair of shears and complete the cut.
Take the grafted plants at once to a cool moist corner out of the reach of hot dry wind.
Two weeks later the top of the stock may be cut off close down to the union.
After six weeks'.stay in the cool, moist corner, they may be gradually hardened off to the condi-
tions of the plantation, and when ready can be planted out.
Remove the raffia or grafting tape when the first young leaves begin to develop on the scion.
A series of experiments were carried out with the Ripley Pines, chiefly in regard to the correla-
tion of the colouring matter in the leaf, and the quality of the fruit, and the results are given in my
report for 1898-99.
The question of the proper distance to plint is an important one. We first started to plant at 3
feet apart in the rows, with rows 5 feet apart, thinking that at this distance it would be possible to keep
the land clean by cultivators drawn by mule or horse, and so reduce the cost. This was quite feasible
while they were in the "plant" stage, but as the plants ratooned the fruits on the side. shoots weighed
them down breaking off many, and exposing the side of the fruits of all to the sun causing sun burn."
Other distances were tried, until it was finally decided that 2 x 3 feet was the proper distance, the reason
being that although the hand cultivation necessary for the first year's growth is expensive, by the
second year the pines so shade the land that there is little or no growth of weeds beyond a few climbers
The plants are close enough together to prevent leaning and consequent sun burn.
An experiment with artificial manures under the direction of Mr. Watts in 1899, gave no results,
except perhaps to prove that with proper manual cultivation and a sufficient supply of moisture, the
greater part of the Hope land contains all the plant food required by Pine Apples.
The experiments are being continued on a poorer soil.
List of Pines in Collection.
Green Ripley Queen
Mr. Cradwick makes the following observations on pine-apples in the English market. The one
pine-apple being sold in England is the Smooth Cayenne, but not as many people would have us
believe, on account of its superior quality. The chief reason it sells so well is that it is a good looking
pine, a fruit of good size, fine colour, and a handsome top, the weight ranging from 3 to 8 lbs., but the
average about 4 to 6 lbs., larger not being required in England. The second reason for the Cayenne
selling better than the much finer flavour Ripley is that it gets to market in better condition. Many
dealers lost money over the Ripleys being black in the centre, although apparently good on the outside.
Mr. Geo. Monroe of Covent Garden stated that if Ripleys could be got to market in good condition,
they would run the Cayennes out of the market. There is a good market in England for pine-apples
at all seasons, a three-pound fruit will always fetch 4/ retail if in good condition; fruits weighing 51
to 6 lbs., if not too plentiful sell retail at 8/ to 10/.
There is a good demand for pines before the St. Miehael's fruit arrive, which is generally about
the beginning of June, although they are by no means plentiful before August.
Some of the plants of Central American Rubber (Castilloa sp.) have grown to a height of over
seven feet. Para Rubber (Hevea sp.) also continues to grow well, some of the trees having reached a
height of 15 feet. Fifty more have been planted out. Ceara Rubber (Manihot Glaziovii) fruits re-
gularly and plants are raised from the seed and distributed.
Kickxia elastica grows slowly and is subject to attacks of scale insects. None of the seeds re-
ceived have ever grown.
In confirmation of a planter's testimony in my last Report on cane D. 95, another planter writes
"I have very great pleasure in reporting most satisfactory results from No. 95 cane: under
ordinary conditions the yield from plants and 1st ratoons has been 14 tons Muscavado Sugar and 14
phns. rum per acre for crop 98/9 (a Planter's year) this was increased to 2 tons and 2 phs., and this
number very materially assisted in rendering the crop a record one. I find that it stools out
wonderfully well, giving from 10 to 13 plants; it is robust and erect with good tops; a soft rind, giv-
ing a trash weighing but about 250 lbs, for the 1,000 ground. It will bear a drought every bit as well
as the variety common to Vere as has been proved by recent experience."
"The ordinary cane in an average year yields me I ton and I phs., and in a very favourable crop
such as 1898-98 1 ton and 1 phn."
Owing to our ignorance of the art of curing tobacco, we have only been able to prove that we can
grow the leaf.
Mr. Machado visited Hope, saw our 1898 crop, and pronounced it equal to anything he had ever
seen in Cuba.
Without the help of a Cuban, however, we have not been able to cure the leaf satisfactorily. I
hope that the Agricultural Chemist will be able to spare time to help in experiments in curing.
The following varieties have been grown during the past year, some from Prof. Dr. Coomes,
Botanic Gardens, Portici, near Naples, and others, the tobaccos of the Austrian Empire, from the
Austrian Ambassador at Washington:-
LIST OF TOBACCO SEEDS SOWN FROM PORTICI.
Puertorico Prior Blue
Hester Tenidie Taka
Vuelta abajo Monnaikappal
LIST OF TOBACCO SEEDS FROM AUSTRIA.
Tiszcar Imported from Vuelta Abajo-
Hercegovina Station Stolac Havana
Hercegovina Station Mostar Muscateller
Hercegovina Station Trebinje Original Galizicher
Hercegovina Station Capljina Tzamothater
Hercegovina Station Ljubinje Muscateller
Hercegovina Station Lnjubuski Rethater
Bosnien Station Trebienioa Rogen
Bosnien Station Foca Kigyojer Kuba
Bosnien Station Orasje Palatinat
Dalmatiner Tabaksame Rosen
Presented by Mr. R. Craig- Sudtiroler
As Mr. Cradwick was absent in England for part of the year, not so much was done, but the fol-
lowing is a report of one of his tours as an illustration of the work:-
Tour in Manchester, Afarch 19th to 16th 1900.
Bethany, Monday, March 12th.
"Lectured in the School-room to a good attendance. The chief subjects dealt with being the need
of care in picking, curing, and packing the various products of the district."
"Particular stress was laid on the way in which Jamaica produce is affected by carelessness or
ignorance of the proper way in which it should be sent to market. Dealing with cultivation, atten-
tion was drawn to the best methods of preventing the deterioration of the soil, by manuring, green
dressing, and deep cultivation. Also dealt with insect pests, especially those affecting citrus trees.
Demonstrations were given in budding, pruning, and the working of improved implements.
I was much encouraged here by some of the audience relating their success in various ways in
carrying out suggestions made by me, when I visited Bethany about a year and a half ago."
"Mr. A. P. Coley, a black man, and small settler, has over 100 budded grape fruit and orange
trees growing on his own land, all the result of my previous visit, when I taught him how to bud."
Teacher Swaby also related his success in manuring, renovating soil which had previously been
looked upon as worn out, he had found particular benefit from green manuring."
Mr. Davey also related the success he had had, with green manuring for ginger, also for a worn
out coffee piece."
Devon, Tuesday, March 13th.
"Lectured in the Baptist School-room on subjects as at Bethany, but went more fully into-the
difficulties that are likely to beset the planter of budded oranges."
"Plenty of intelligent questions followed the lecture."
"The demonstrations were as at Bethany."
Nazareth, March 14th.
"Lectured to a very large School-room full of people. This is the centre of a very large coffee
growing district, and this was the chief product dealt with. The people are anxious to extend their
orange cultivation, so we finished the day with oranges."
Coley Mountain, Thursday, March 15th.
"Coffee and orange cultivation again dealt with."
New Eden, Friday March 16th.
Lectured in the Moravian School Room. New Eden is the-centre of a large poor district. The
people cultivating chiefly peas, corn, potatoes, a very little coffee and a few oranges. Only a very few
seemed able to grasp the idea that an alteration in the methods of cultivation might- be necessary, or
that any improvement is possible. After the demonstration, however, I think that it may have
dawned on perhaps half a dozen of them, that running free over the land, scratching the surface with
a hoe, was not really all thht might be done for the land.
Besides the lectures and demonstrations in the fields of the peasantry, I visited Shaftston, Blue-
fields, at request of Mr. Tate to advise him as to the future treatment of his grape vine and other
IMPORTATION AND EXCHANGE OF PLANTS AND SEEDS.
The most important importation during the year was one of Date Palms from the neighbourhood
of Biskra in Algeria. In the year 1896, M. Ch. Riviere the Director of the Botanic Gardens of Haurna
near Algiers, with the permission of the French Government, very kindly arranged to get suckers of
of the famous variety known as Deglet-Nur. It is well known that Dates do not come true from seed
and it was necessary to adopt the onerous task of sending into the desert to take suckers from bearing
trees, despatch them by rail from Biskra to Algiers and thence to the Botanic Gardens of Hauma.
There they were nursed in flower pots for a considerable time under the care of the Director, until
finally they were sent to Jamaica. One hundred female suckers and 12 males were originally brought
from the desert, and of these, 75 plants have been receive.l, which is a very high per centage, and tes-
tifies to the care which has been bestowed upon them by M. Riveire. There are already 48 suckers of
these young plants.
Havana Tobacco Seed, 100 lbs. of the best variety of Havana seed was imported, and distributed
free to all who wished to try it.
Persian Berries. An enquiry was made for Persian Berries, and an application was forwarded to
Her Majesty's Consul at Smyrna, who.was good enough to obtain the seeds required.
Pitch Pine Seeds. A few years ago a small packet of seed of Pinus palustris was received. The
seed germinated and the plants made slow growth the first year, but in the second year they grew very
rapidly. The young trees look so promising that a further supply of seed has been procured to make
a trial on a larger scale.
Plants or seeds were as usual received from, and sent to the following Gardens:- Royal Gardens
Kew: Botanic Gardens, Demerara: Botanic Gardens, Trinidad: Botanic Station, British Honduras:
the Imperial Department of Agriculture for the West Indies, etc.
HERBARIUM AND LIBRARY.
The following extracts from letters received during the year, will illustrate the necessity of form-
ing and maintaining Herbarium and Library, which together constitute a Cyclopaedia of reference:-
Below we beg to hand you memo. describing a certain drug which a firm abroad is desirous of obtaining
of us. We may mention that this plant, from which the Drug is manufactured is said to be indigenous to
this Island by a firm of Chemists abroad, of whom we tried to procure same.
The Drug is described as follows:-
OIL ARGEMONE MEXICANA.
called also "Pavot EPINEUX" (rough prickly poppy,) CHARDON BENIT des ANTILLES" (Antille
Holy Thistle) or CHICALONE."
We would like to obtain about J lb. of this Oil, together with all information regarding same.
I notice a weed springing up over the pastures here, which seems to be a good gatherer of nitrogen, I
send you some pieces of leaves, flowers and roots; will you kindly let me know its botanical name; and I
shall be glad to know if you consider it will compare favourably with other legumes such as Beggar's Weed"
etc., for ploughing in as a green dressing.
Can you tell me whether any analyses have been made of the barks of local Exostemmas ?
Wright p. 358 and Dancer p. 387 attribute valuable medicinalproperties to a decoction of the bark, the
former says it is three times as strong as that made with an equal quantity of Cinchona Vera."
Have you any specimens of these species in the Herbarium ?
The species used by Wright-? E. triflorum, G. Don, were found by him at Martha Brae in Trelawny.
Will you kindly let me know if the Vine or Climber locally known as "Basket Hoop" is the Rattan of
India and of China?
I send herewith specimens of abnormal growth from a Lemon, and should be glad to know cause.
Also a very pretty creeper for identification. I am afraid it is rather injurious to pastures.
I require drying oils for certain local industries which I am hoping to start and, I have been consider,
ing the possibility of growing flax if it can be acclimitized here and, as I am taking up the Castor Oil
business the expression and treatment of other oils will be easy. The cost of linseed oil is so high that, if
I cannot overcome the obstacle of using imported oil, iheu I shall be practically helpless.
Would you kindly tell me if the Bay tree of St. Thomas Danish W. I., would do well in Jamaica ? I
heard it stated the other day that it soon turns into the common Pimento.
Re Datura Stramonium, I am experimenting in a small way on the above-and would like to know the
best stage at which to pick the leaves. Will you be so kind as to give me your opinion.
Herewith a few leaves of the Olive grown down here, with a trifle of blossom ; if this is the trae Olive
I understand that there are several trees in the vicinity.
There is growing on the rocks not far from here an Achimenes having a small rich crimson flower. As
I have not seen an Achimenes growing wild anywhere else in the Island, although I have travelled a good
deal, I have wondered if you know of any, and if so, this particular variety.
On walking over "the Bluff" here (Cayman Brac) a few days ago I came across two Orchids, as I
believe them to be, growing not on trees but in the rocky soil and I send them in a separate parcel for your
identification. I enclose the dried stalk of one of these with undeveloped flowers, the specimen with leaf
like an Easter Lily of which I will try and make a rough sketch on the opposite sheet.
Please find enclosed a stem of a garden weed which is commonly called the Water Grass."
Kindly be so good as to give me the botanical name for it and also the order to which it belongs.
The numbers of sheets of mounted specimens are as follows:-
Native Plants ... 12,741
Foreign ... 1,735
Garden ... 1,176
Total ... 15,652
The following is a list of books that have been added to the Library during the past year, and of
some that were omitted from previous lists:-
Anderson (J.) Colonial Office List for 1897. London. 1899. 8vo.
Arthur (Joseph Charles & Daniel Trimbly MacDougal). Living Plants and their Properties. A Col-
lection of Essays. New York. Minneapolis. 8vo.
Bailey (L. fl.) Plant Breeding. Being five Lectures upon the amelioration of Domestic Plants.
New York. London. 1897. 8vo.
Bailey (L. H) The Nursery Book. A complete Guide to the multiplication of Plants. Third Edition.
New York. London. 1897. 8vo.
Bailey (L. H.) The Principles of Fruit-growing. Second Edition. New York. London. 1898.
Bailey (L. H.) The Survival of the Unlike. A collection of Evolution Essays, suggested by the
study of Domestic Plants. Third Edition. New York. London. 1899. 8vo.
Baillon (H.) Histore des Plantes. Monagraphie des Labi6cs, Verbanac6es, Ericac6es et Ilicaces.
Paris. London. 1891. 8vo.
Baillon (H.) Histoires des Plantes. Monographie des Graminees. Paris. London. 1893. 8vo.
Baillon (H.) Histoire des Plantes. Monographie des Liliaces. Paris. London. 1894. 8vo,
Baillon (H.) Histoire des Plantes. Monographie des Pandanac6es, Cyclanthac6es et Aracees. Paris.
London. 1895. 8vo.
Baillon (H.) Histoire des Plantes. Monographie des Taccacees, Burmaniac6es, Hydrocharidacees,
Commelinacees, Xyridac6es, Mayacacees, Phylidracees et Rapateac6es. Paris. London. 1894.
Ballion (H.) Histoire des Plantes. Monographie des Acanthacees. Paris. London. 1891. 8vo.
Ballion (H.) Historie des Plantes. Monographie des Amaryllidacees, Bromeliacees et Iridacees. Paris.
London. 1894. 8vo.
Billion (H.) Historie des Plantes. Monographie des Palmiers. Paris. London. 1895. 8vo.
Barral (J A.) Drainage des Terres Arables. Third Edition. Paris. 1862. 2 Vols. 8vo.
Barren (Archibald F.) Vines and Vine Culture. Third Edition, Revised and Enlarged. London.
Bateman (James). Particulars respecting the mode of cultivation, &c., of the Averrhoa Carambola.
(Extrat Hort. Trans. Yoll. 11- Sec. Ser. Read Dec. 3. 1833). Plate.
Barnes (Charles Reid) Plant Life considered with special reference to form and function. New
York, 1898. 8vo.
Bonavia (E.) The Cultivated Oranges and Lemons of India and Ceylon, Atlas of Plates, with Des-
criptive Letter-press. London, 1890.
Bonavia (E.) The Cultivated Oranges and Lemons, &c., of India and Ceylon, with Researches into
their Origin and the Derivation of their names, and other useful information. London, 1888,
Brown. (Eorace T., and F. Escombe). On the Depletion of the Endosperm of Hordeum vulgare
during Germination. Extract, Proc. B. Soo., Vol. 63. London, 1897, 8vo.
Brown (Horace T., and G. Harris Morris). Researches on the Germination of some of the Gramineas.
Part 1. London 1890. 8vo.
Burberry (H. A.) The Amateur Orchid Cultivators' Guide Book. Second Edition. Liverpool, 1895,
Calvert (Agnes, and L. A. Boodle). On Lacticiferous Tissue in the pith of Manihot Glaziovii, and on
the presence of Nuclei in this Tissue. Extract Ann. of Bot., Vol. 1. No. 1., August, 1887.
Carena (Prof. Giacinto). Treatise on Artificial Reservoirs for Rain-Water, for the Regular Irrigation
of Land deficient in Running Waters. Turin, 1829. Translated by H. P. Mulock.
(Irrigation Tracts, No. 11.)
Printed Tracts Roorkee, India, n. d., 8yo,
Oandolle (Aug. Pyr. De) Collection de Memoires pour servir a I'histoire du Regne Vegetal. Memoires
un a dix. Paris 1828-1839, 4to.
Famille des Melastomacees
Famille des Crassulacees
Famille des Onagraires
Famille des Parouychides
Famille des Ombelliferes
Famille des Loranthacees
Famille des Valerianees
Quelques Espices de Cactus
Famille des Compos6es
Statistique de la Famille des Composees.
Candolle (Aug. Pyr. De) Memoire sur la Famille des Myrtacees Extract from Vol. IX. Des Memoires
de la Societe de Physique et d'Histoire naturelle de Geneve. Geneva, 1842, 4to.
Comes. (0.) Monographie du genre Nicotiana, Naples, 1899, 4to.
Coulter (John M.) Plant Relations. A First Book of Botany. New York, 1899, 8vo.
Cousins (Herbert H.) The Chemistry of the Garden. A Primer for Amateurs and Young Gardeners.
Second Edition Revised. London &c, New York, 1899, 8vo.
Duby (J. E.) Note sur une Maladie des fenilles de la Vigne, et sur une nouvelle espece de Micedinee.
Bufour (Jean) Notice sur Quelques Maladies de la Vigne. Extract Bulletin de la Societe Vandoise
des Sciences Naturelles. Vol. XXIII. No. 97, 1888. Lausanne, 1888.
Duss (R. P., & Dr. E. Heckel.) Flore phanirogamique des Antilles frangaises (Guadeloups et Marti-
nique) (Avec annotations du prof. Dr. Edward Heckel.) Extract Ann. de l'Inst. Col. de Mar-
seille. Macon, 1897, 8vo.
Dyer (W. T. Thistleton). Hooker's Icones Plantarum. Vol. VI. Parts 1 & 2. Edited by W. T.
Thistleton Dyer. London. 1897, 8vo. [Bentham Trustees through Kew.]
Engler A. (and K. Prantz) Die naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien. Vol. I. Pts. 1 & 11. Vol. III. Pts
IV.-VIII. Vol. IV. Pts. I-V. Leipzig, 1897, 8vo.
Evans (Ernest). Botany for Beginners. London, New York, 1899. 8vo,
Farmer (J. Bretland). A Practical Introduction to the Study of Botany. Flowering Plants. London,
New York, Bombay, 1899. 8vo.
Geddes (Patrick). Chapters in Modern Botany. Second Edition. London, 1899. 8vo.
Goffe (E. S.) Principles of Plant Culture. Wisconsin. U. S. A, 1897. 8vo.
G6tze (Woldemar). Educational Handwork, adapted for Teachers and Pupils in Rural Districts. Lon-
Gotze (Woldemar). Illustrated Manual of Hand and Eye Training on Educational Principles, Lon-
Gitze (Woldemar). Manual Training made serviceable to the School. Translated into English by W.
G. Field, M.A. London. 8vo.
Green (J. Reynolds). Manual of Botany. Vol. Morphology and Anatomy. Second Edition, Lon-
don, 1897. 8vo. Vol. II. Classification and Physiology. London, 1896. 8vo.
Green (J. R.) On the Germination of the Seed of the Castor-oil Plant. Extract Proc. R. Soc., Vol.
48. Read Jan. 30, 1890. London, 8vo.
Green (J. Reynolds). The Soluble Ferments and Fermentation. Cambridge, 1899. 8vo.
Hiern (William Phillip) Catalogue of African Plants collected by Dr. Friedrich Welwitsch in 1853-
61. Parts II, III. London, 1898. Svo. [British Museum.]
Hill (George William) Year-book of the United States Department of Agriculture. Edited by G..
W. Hill, Washington, 1897. 8vo. [Dept. of Agriculture, U. S. A.]
Hooker, (Sir J. D.) Lncture on Insular Floras, 1866. London, 1896. 8vo.
Hooker, (Joseph Dalton). The Flora of British India. Vol. VII. Perts XXIII & XXVI. London,
1897. 8vo. [Kew.]
Hooker (William Jackson) Botanical Miscellany. 3 vols. London, 1830. 1831, 1833. 8vo.
Hooker (William Jacks n). Curtis's Botanical Magazine. P1. 2689-3038. Vols. I-IV. N S. Lon-
don, 1827-30. 8vo.
Hooker (William Jackson). The Journal of Botany. 4 Vols. London, Edinburgh, 1836, 1860, 1861,
Hooker (Sir William Jackson). Icones Plantarum. Tab. 401-800. Vols. I.-IV. N. S. London,
Houston (Edwin J.) Outlines of Forrestry, or the Elementary Principles Underlying the Science of
Forrestry. Philadelphia, 1893. 8vo.
Jeffreys (Capt- W., R.E., Executive Engineer, Ganges Canal). On the proper Alignment of Rajubas,
or Canal Distributions. (Professional Papers on Indian Engineering, No. CLXI.) n.d. 8vo.
Journal ef the Royal Agricultural Society of England. Vol. VIII. Parts I. & II., London, 1897. 8vo.
Jekyll (Gertrude). Wood and Garden. Notes and Thoughts, Practical and Critical, of a Working
Amateur. London, New York, Bombay, 1899. 8vo.
3ussieu (Adrien De). Memoire sur le Groupe des Meliacees. Extract Des Memoires du Mfuseum d'His.
toire Naturelle. Read Jan. 1880.
Les Rutacees. Paris, 1825.
Des Euphorbiacearum. Paris, 1824. 4to.
King (Henry W.) The Physiology of Monstera deliciosa. Extract, Journ. Q. M. C., Series 11, No. 32.
Read June 17th 1892.
King (F. H.) The Soil, its Nature, Relations and Fundamental Principles of Management. New
York, London, 1897 8vo.
Kitchener (F. E.) Naked-eye Botany. With Illustration and Floral Problems. Third Edition. Lon-
don, 1898. 8vo.
Laslett, (Thomas) Timber and Timber Trees, Native ayd Foreign, by T. Laslett, Timber Inspector to
the Admiralty, 1875.
Second Edition, with Additions, &c, by Dr. H. Marshall Ward. London and New York,
Lecomte (Henri). Le Cafe, Culture, Manipulation Production. Paris, 1899. 8vo.
Massee (George). A Text-book of Plant Diseases caused by Cryptogamic Parasites, London, New
York, 1899. 8vo,
Masters (M. T.) On the Morphology of the Malvales, with a description of a new genus of Buett-
nerieae. Extract Linn. Soc. Journ. Bot., Vol. X. Read Dec. 20, 1866.
Mueller (Ferdinand Von). The Objects of a Botanic Garden. A Lecture delivered at the Industrial
Technological Museum, Melbourne. Melbourne, 1872. 8vo.
Naudin (C.) Melastomacearum. Monographicse Descriptions. Ann. des Science. nat. 3rd serie.
Bot. T. XVIII. (2)
Newell (F. H.) Irrigation in Western United Sta'es, Washington, 1892. Small Fol.
Nicholson (George). Illustrated Dictionary of Gardening. Edited by G. Nicholson, assisted by others.
Vols, I.-IV. London, 1885, 1886, 1887, 1889. 4to.
Rathay (Emerich). Die Peronospora-Krankheit der Weinrebe und ihre Bekampfung. (Entract
Weinlanbe) Klosternenburg, 1887. 8vo.
Rendle (Alfred Barton) Catalogue of African Plants collected by Dr. F. Welwitsch in 1853-61. Mo-
nocotyledons and Gymnosperms. Vol. II. Part 1. London, 1899. 8vo.
Ridley (Henry N.) Notes on Self-fertilization and Cloistogamy in Orchids. Extract Linn. Journ.
Botany. Vol. XXIV. Read 16th February, 1888.
Roberts (Isaac Phillips). The Fertility of the Land. New York, London, 8vo.
Sargent (0. S.) Silva of North America. Vol. X. Boston, New York, 1896. Fol.
Scott-Elliott (G. F.) Note on the Fertilization of Musa, Strelitzia reginue, and Ravenala madagasca-
riensis Extract Ann. of Botany, Vol. IV. No. XIV., May, 1890. Oxford, 1890. 8vo.
Saporta (Q' de) Physique et Chimie Vilicoles. With Preface by P. P Deherain, Paris, 1899. 8vo.
Seringe (N. C.) Memoire sur la Famille des Melastomacees. Extract from Vol. IV. Des Memoires
de la Societe Physique et d'Histoire naturelle de Geneve, don't on a conserve la pagination. Ge-
neva, Paris, 1830 4to.
Solereder (Dr. Hans). Systematische Anatomie der Dicotyledonen. Stuttgart, 1899. 8vo.
Stephens (Henry) Manual of Practical Draining Third Edition corrected and improved. Edin-
burgh, London, 1848. 8vo.
Tieghem (Ph. Van). Classification Anatomique des Melastomacees Bulletin. Read 13 March, 1891.
Trelease (William, and others) Missouri Botanicil Garden Eighth Annual Report, Mobil 1897,
8vo. [Missouri Botanical Garden.]
Triana (J.) Les Melastomacees Trans. Linn. Soc. Vel. XXVIII. Part I. London, 1871. 4to.
Trimen (Henry, & Sir J. D. Hooker). A Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon. By H. Trimen, continued
by Sir J. D. Hooker. Part V. Eriocauloneme-Gramineve. London, 1900. 8vo.
Trimen (Henry) A Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon. Continued by Sir J. D. Hooker. Part IV.
London, 1898. 8vo.
Tubeuf (Karl Freiherr von). Diseases of Plants induced by Cryptogamic Parasites. English Edition.
by William G. Smith, London.
New York, Bombay, 197. 8vo.
Urban (Ignatius). Symbol An'illane seeu Fundamenta Florae Indie Occidentalis. Vol. 1. Parts
TII. Vol. IL Pt I. Berlin, P ris, London. 1898-1900. 8vo
Vorrhees (Edward B.) Fertilizers. New York, London, 1898. 8vo.
Wakker, J. H. (and F. A. F. C. Went). Die Ziekten van het Suikerriet op Java. Laiden, 1898. 3vo.
Ward (H. Marshall) ) On the Tubercular Seedlings on the Roots of Vicia faba. (Extract Phil. Trans.
Roy. Soc. London. Vol. 178 (1887) B. pp 539-562.) London, 1887, 4to.
Watts (Francis) Introductory Manual for Sugar Growers. London, New York, 1893. 8vo.
Weiss (F. Ernest) The Caoutchouc containing Cells of Encomnia ulmoides. Oliver Trans. Linn,
Soc. 2nd Ser. Bot. Vol. III Part 7. Read 21st Jan. 1892. London, 1892. 4to.
Wildenow (Carolus Ludoviens). Species Plan!arum. 4 Vols. in 9. Fourth Edition. Berlin I.
(1797) II 1799) II. (1800) IV. (1805) 8vo. [Presented by H. Vendryes, Esq.]
Willis (J. C.) Flowering Plants and Ferns. Vols I. & II. Cambridge, 1897. 8vo.
Windle (W. S.) Fibres and raphidos in fruit of Monstera. Extract Botanical Gazette, March, 1889.
Wood, J. Medley (and Maurice S. Evans). Natal Plants, with Notes on their Distribution. Economic
Value, Native Names, &c., &c. Vol. I. Part 1. Durban, 1898. Folio.
Worsley (A) Notes on the Dist ibution of the Amaryllidese and of certain Liliaceous, Irideous and
other plants in Grand Canary, Cuba, Jamaica and Venezuela; with an enumeration of species,
London, 1895. 4to.
The question was raised of combining the "Bulletin of the Botanical Department" with the
"Agricultural Journal." It seems to me that it would be better to keep both, but make the subject
matter more distinct.
Before the Journal was commenced, the Bulletin was the only means of communicating agricultu-
ral subjects in print to cultivators Almost every article was the outcome of enquiries made by letters
or otherwise to the Director.
It might be convenient now to confine the Bulletin to subjects rather coming under Hlorticulture
than Agriculture, for instance, grafting, budding hybridising, nursery work, notes on plants which
come under the heading of the Orchard or the Garden, notes ol economic plants which are not cul-
tivated on a large scale,notes on interesting plants in the Botanic Gardens, notes on Botany.
The Bulletin is exchanged with a large number of publications which are most valuable on account
both of their practical and their scientific articles, dealing with current questions about agriculture and
botany, and giving details of actual work and experiments in progress elsewhere.
During the year under review the following articles have appeared in the Bulletin:-
Sterilisation of water
Elementary notes on Jamaica Plants
Some Constituents of the leaves of Rhus Metopium, and Haematoxylon campeachianum.
Diseases of Plants-
Diseases of the Vine.
Economic Plants :-
Pepper or Chillies
The Elengi Tree
Cinchona Bark and Quinine
Importation of Colonial Produce
Rice in Jamaica
Extracts from Consular Reports
Supply of Cinchona Bark
Pepper Cultivation in Assam
Cinchona: A Retrospect, and a Prospect.
Tobacco Cultivation and Curing
Notes on Dye Plants
Vanilla, etc., in Reunion
Cocoa in Guayaquil.
Tropical Fruits in English Markets
Packing Pine Apples
Bannma trade in Nicaragua
New packing material for fruits
Composition of Bananas and Plantain Fruits.
Effect of Tillage on Soil-moisture
Fertilisers for Pine-apples
Use of Fungi against Insect Pests
Remedial Measures, and Insecticides
Insect Pests in Peas
Plant Notes :-
Recent development in Cultivation
Methods of preparing Rubber
Central American Rubber
Tests of hew varieties
Sugar Industry in Jamaica
Improvement of Sugar-Cane by Chemical selection.
Eucalypti in the Transvaal.
The following Report by the Superintendent, Mr. Wm. Cradwick is in addition to reports on
Nursery-The nursery of plants at Hope for general distribution is perhaps the most useful and
important of such institutions in the world. A great improvement in the appearance of the nursery
has been marle by using wire instead of wooden rails for forming the plant beds. Many trees have
been removed and others lopped in order to lighten the nursery, this is necessary nearly every
year, as the trees have grown very fast since the plants have been kept standing under them, the
ground being kept constantly moist. Other improvements in the way of additional water pipes, et :.,
are still required. The lack of funds is the great deterrent in this, as in all other needed improvements.
The second plant stage has been removed and a bed of plants consisting chiefly of members of the
natural order Aroideae has been formed in its place. The plants are growing well. The substituting
of Panicum variegatum for Hemionitis palmata, and Zebrina pendula as an edging plant for
the large beds of palms and ferns, has ben a complete success. The orchids and other ornamental
plants continue to attract and delight the visitors to the gardens.
The piece of land used for nursery beds on the north side of the gutter has been levelled down
and the ground kept mown.
The walks in the rose garden have been filled up and grass planted in them, the appearance of the
rose garden has been improved.
A new walk has been made leading into the Nursery from the large Bougainvillaea, the one under
the Brownea has been abolished.
Two new Rockeries have been made below the road at the lower end of the Divi Divi Walk, a
table has been erected under the Divi Divi making a charming little spot.
A long border has been replanted; instead of being heterogenous in character the plants have
been arranged with a view to harmony of coour and artistic effect.
Ornamental plants.-All the orchids which flowered last year have again flowered in addition to
those which flowered last year.
Lelia albida Broughtonia lilacina var. alba
Ansellia africana Catasetum sp ? (Bocos del Toro)
Oncidium sp ? Cypripedium Leeanum
sphacelatum Epidendrum Rodigasianum
carthaginense ? Coelogyne flaccida
KINGSTON AND ST. ANDREW HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.
This Society is in very close connection with the Hope Gardens. The Director of Public Gardens
being President, and Mr. Cradwick the Secretary.
A Garden competition has just been organized on lines similar to those held by Horticultural
Societies in England.
The medals offered are those supplied by the Royal Horticultural Society of England, with which
the Kingston and St. Andrew Horticultural Society is affiliated.
1. Entries must be made to Mr. William Cradwick, Honorary Secretary of the Society, on or before
2. There will be two competitions; one for flower gardens, the other for fruit and vegetable gar-
dens. Competitors may enter for one or both competitions.
3. Gardens must be situated in Kingston or St. Andrew, and must belong to members of the
4. The first prize will be a silver medal: the second a bronze medal in each competition : but no
prizes will be awarded if the gardens are not considered by the judges of sufficient merit,
5. Judging will be by points, as follows :-
Tidiness ... 5
Cultivation ... 5
Artistic arrangement 5
Greatest number of species in good condition 10
Lawn ... 5
Total points 30
Cultivation ... 5
Tidiness ... 5
Greatest variety of vegetables and fruit in good cultivation 20
Total points ... 30
6. The gardens will be inspected four times, of which the first will be in the first week in May,
and the last in the last week in July.
7. The following are the judges appointed by the Committee of Management Messrs. F. Cundall,
Wm. Cradwick and W. Harris.
It may be stated that any person not a member of the Society who wishes to compete can do so
on making application for membership, the yearly subscription for which is 4s.
Apprentices from Gold Coast.
The two African lads, Brew and Martinson, have conducted themselves well. Martinson seems to
have a natural aptitude for Agriculture. There is no fault to be found with either.
Thomas, the only youth who has been apprentice, has paid 'great attention to the lessons and
demonstrations as well as to practical work. Several other boys although not apprenticed under the
law have been working in the gardens for nominal wages in order to get the advantage of theoretical
and practical training. This system seems likely to prove very satisfactory.
The Industrial School boys, the lads from the Gold Coast, the apprentice and other lads have all
received the same course of instruction as last year.
Sweet Oranges ... 19,525
Navel Oranges ... 301
Tangierine ... 75
Grape Fruit ... 24,523
Rough Lemons ... 2,225
Limes ... 461
Lemons (Budded) ... 374
Grape Fruit (Budded) ... 310
Cocoa .. ... 23,655
Kola ... ... 2,991
Nutmegs ... ... 1,909
Liberian Coffee ...... 2,982
Grape Vines ... ... 943
Blue Mountain Coffee ... ... 419
Rubber ... ... 1,859
Pine Suckers ... ... 840
Miscellaneous ... ... 1,751
Cane-tops ... ... 13,413
Timber and Shade Trees ... ... 984
Eucalypti ... ... 183
Melaleuca ... ... 144
Ornamental Plants ... ... 10,285
Miscellaneous, including Timber and Shade Trees ... 4,952
Eucalypti ... ... 708
Cane-tops ... ... 100
Palms Cocoa-nut ... ... 12
Ornamental Plants ... ... 5,980
Total number of Economic Plants ... ... 115,839
"COrnamental Plants ... ... 16,265
Plants distributed ... ... 132,104
Letters received ... 1,765
despatched ... 4,031
Visitors to Gardens.
The elevation of the Garden above sea level is 700 feet. The average mean annual temperature
is 77-30 F, and the average annual rainfall 53'96 inches for 19 years. The amount of rain that fell
during the year was 80 61 inches. The driest months were June, July, August, January, February,
March and the wettest were May, October, November, December. The mean temperature for the
year was 77'1 F.
The Meteorological tables for the different months are given on page 23.
The following Report is by the Superintendent-Mr. W. J. Thompson:
The flood in October washed away the walk in the lower garden that ran parallel to the river.
The track that runs through the east side of the Liberian Coffee field has been made into a walk nine
feet wide, the large stones iave been blasted out from it, raised when needed, concrete slabs fixed over
the gutters, gravelled, &c.
The track running up the hill on the west side of the garden has been widened to nine feet. To
make it easy to walk up, the high parts of the walks have been taken off and the lower parts filled up,
the walk is now an easy gradient to the upper part. Gutters have been made along the side and some
across the walk where needed.
The rest of the walks have been repaired where needed, kept weeded, gravelled and cleared as
usual. An open gutter has been made along side the nursery walk.
The open gutter at the Lily tank has been closed over with concrete slabs, several more open con-
crete gutters have been fixed on the walks.
A new walk has been made to run just below the Superintendent's house. About 300 concrete
slabs have been made and fixed in bridging gutters on the walks.
Fencing-About 20 chains of fencing at the river side were washed away by the late flood, new
fencing has been erected in its place; the rest of the fencing has been kept in fair order.
About three thousand barrels of soil and manure have been carried to different places in the
The holes in the land to the west of the garden have been filled up with soil so as to form a uni-
form slope. The borders and beds have been well forked and manured. The trees and shrubs have
been pruned and thinned out where needed. Several hundred young shrubs and some trees have been
planted out. The lawns and pastures have received the usual attention.
In my opinion there is still a large number of trees that need to be cut away as the garden is
quite dark in some places and the large trees prevent smaller plants from growing as they should. The
tall palms and trees about the Lily tank are forming quite a belt about 15 ft. from the Lily tank and
from 30 to 40 ft. high. The shade is so much about the tank that in some part of the year the tank
does not get more than about two hours of sun a day, without any shade from trees the Lily tank is so
closed in by high hills to the east and west that we have only about 1,000 hours sun a year.
The bower, tables and seats at the side of the river were washed away by the late heavy rains.
These have been renewed in the same place. Another of the small houses to accommodate visitors has
been re-thatched, the other houses have been repaired when needed. Several new benches for the gar-
den have been made and placed in position. Some of the gates have been repaired and refixed. A
small shed has been erected by the Public Works Department.
I am sorry to have to report that a lot of damage, &c was done to the lower garden, by the ex-
cessive rains we had in the autumn of 1899. The river overflowed its banks more than it has ever
done before in the memory of the oldest inhabitant of Castleton. About two acres of land that had
been cleared from bush and had had a lot of economic plants planted in it-some of them of recent in-
troduction-was washed away and much damage was done to the other parts of the garden
The first part of the year was remarkable on account of the, drought. Though there was rain on
74 days, yet we only had 40.12 inches of rain. The second part of the year was remarkable for ex-
cessive rains. In this six months we had rain on 110 days giving 100.25 inches of rain, or a grand
total of rain, on 184 days, of 140.37 inches.
New land taken in.-About 12 acres of land, south-west of the garden, covering the gully supply-
ing water for the garden has been taken over by the Government for non-payment of taxes. It is im-
portant for the garden to conserve the supply of water. On each side of the approach to the land,
shade trees have been planted to keep the gully cool. Of late years at Castleton, there is scarcely
enough water in the dry season to keep the plants in the nursery alive. It is hoped by taking in these
twelve acres of land to have enough water all the year through without having to carry from
the river. In addition to the land taken over we have acquired two acres of land from Mrs. James
Stephens in exchange for about three acres of garden land that lies over in another valley to the north-
west of the garden land. By acquiring these two acres of land we can prevent the trees on the land
taken over from being fired.
It should be remembered that these gardens are situated in a hollow, at an elevation of about
400 ft. above sea-level, surrounded by hills running up to an elevation of about 1,500 ft. It is an
ideal site for such vegetation as palms, ferns and such plants that require plenty of moisture at their
roots and not much sun or wind. But for such vegetation that needs all the light and sun it can get,
such as fruit trees, &c., the present Castleton Garden is not the place for them. At the present time
there is an inclination to spend more money on experiment stations, The top of the hills to the west
of this garden is at an elevation of about 1,500 ft. above sea. This land might be acquired to test
such plants as find Hope too hot and dry and the Hill Gardens too cold. There are hundreds of settlers
around Castleton, also a Government School within a mile of the place.
Two plants of Sarsaparilla received from J. R. Johnstone, Esq., Kingston, have been planted out and
are making good growth.
A new fodder plant Panicum tonsum received from the Head Office has made rapid growth, cattle
and horses are fond of it and it looks as if it would make a good grass for a wet district.
A large number of Mango stocks were grafted on to the Bombay Mangoes during the past season,
but I am sorry to say most of them were destroyed by the late storm ; of those that were saved, two or
each have been planted out in this garden, the rest have been sent to the Hope Garden.
A large heap of stones has been erected in the lower garden, so as to try and prevent the river
from washing away more of the garden.
Sweet Oranges ... 750
Grape Fruit ... 450
Cocoa ... 200
Nutmegs ... 255
Miscellaneous ... 202 1,857
Ornamental Plants ... ... 508
Sent to Hope.
Kola ... 550
Rubber ... 110
Breadfruit ... 141
Miscellaneous ... 905 1,706
Ornamental Plants ... ... 6,048
Economic Plants ... 90
Ornamental ... 150 240
Total number of Economic Plants ... ... 3,653
" Ornamental ... ... 6,706
Total number of Plants Distributed ... ... 10,359
LIST OF PLANTS WASHED AWAY BY THE RIVER.
Guatteria suberosa Barklya syringifolia
Kickxia elastica Brunfelsia jamaicensis
Schotia latifolia Canarium commune
Spathelia simplex Maoaranga sp
Sterculia acerifolia Pentadesma butyracea
Albizzia pruinosa Logwood trees
Antidesma Bunius Rose apple trees
LIST OF PLANTS PLAXIteD OUT IN PERMANENT PLACES.
3 Cloves Pimento officinalis, several
3 Grape fruit 2 Achras Sapota
3 Cocoa-nut palm 1 Cookia punctata
3 Licuala grandis Panioum tonsum
1 Ficus elastica 14 Grafted Mangoes
2 .Egle Marmelos 6 Imperial Lemon
Mahogany several 50 Vanilla
2 Cedar 4 Artocarpus nobilis
2 Smilax utilis 6 Pachira aquatic
Bignonia venusta and several others, also several hundreds of young ornamental plants to replace
old plants in the garden.
LIsT r SEEDS DISTRIBUTED.
Clove (Eugenia caryophyllata)
The elevation of the Garden above sea-level is 496 feet. The average mean annual temperature
is 760.0 F., and the average annual rainfall 114.07 inches for 28 years. The amount of rain that fell
during the year was 140.15 inches. The driest months were April, June, July; and the wettest were
October, November and December. The mean temperature for the year was 750.8 F. The meteorolo-
gical tables for the different months are given on page 23.
The following Report is by the Superintendent Mr. William Harris, F.L.S:-
BELLEVUE, CINCHONA. The beds, borders, lawns and walks were maintained in as good order as
possible throughout the year, For three months (June-August) we had scarcely any rain, and the
garden plants, and vegetation generally, suffered very much, nevertheless, we managed to keep up a
good show of such annuals and biennials as Dianthus, Phlox, Mignonette, Verbenas, Salvias, etc., ete,,
also Roses, Lilies of sorts, Fuchsias, Geraniums and such like. In the months of October and No-
vember we had very heavy wind and rain storms which seriously damaged the gardens. All the gravel
was washed off the walks, and several of the steep walks were entirely obliterated; trees were uprooted
and tender shrubs and herbaceous plants were blown and torn by the wind to such an extent as to be
almost unrecognizable, and many of them died. The work of putting everything in order after these
storms occupied weeks.
The buildings are all in need of painting and repairs, and if not taken in hand soon they will go
hopelessly to ruin. A sum of 18 was allowed, and spent during the year in re-covering one of the
large tanks, and in glazing and repairing one of the greenhouses, etc., but this sum was altogether inade-
quate and we were unable to even attempt numerous repairs so very much needed,
RESOURCE, ORANGE GROVE. This Garden also suffered severely during the prolonged drought in
the summer, and from the heavy wind and rains in October and November. For weeks during the
drought we were compelled to spend almost our entire weekly allowance on the carriage of water to
keep the large stock of nursery plants alive, and then towards the end of the year all the funds at our
disposal had to go towards repairing the extensive damage caused by the storms in October and 1No-
vember. Fences were blown down and had to be re-erected with new posts; roads were so seriously
damaged that they had practically to be re-made; drains were completely filled up with soil washed off
the surface by heavy rains, and had to be opened up again; seed beds were destroyed and large num-
bers of seedlings were killed, so that new seed-beds had to be made, and the seedlings that were not
beyond hope were rescued from the debris and transplanted. I will not attempt to enumerate the
difficulties we had to contend with during the past year; the climatic conditions that prevailed were
widespread and all suffered alike, but I may say that 1899 will be remembered as one of the most try-
ing years on record.
Citrus Plants. The leaves of a good many of the orange plants assumed a bright yellow colour,
indicating a lack of nourishment in the soil. As our soil is deficient in calcareous matter we gave each
plant a dressing of lime at the roots, and followed this later on with a dressing of rotten manure. This
had an almost immediate effect; in the majority of cases the yello v leaves disappeared and have
been replaced by healthy, green foliage. Some of the varieties are not thriving satisfactorily, and in
other instances some plants of certain varieties are doing well, whilst others planted in the same rows
are either dead or dying. The following notes made in the field may be of interest:-
Imported from Messrs. Rivers & Son, England-
Orange, Jaffa, 4 plants are doing well, 2 are dead.
Dom Louise. 3 plants are doing well, 1 is dead.
Egg, 1 plant doing well, 1 fair.
St. Michael's 2 plants are doing well.
Botelha, 1 plant doing well, 1 dead.
Sustain, 2 plants are doing well.
S Tangierine, 1 plant is doing fairly well, 3 are dead. The Tangierine does not thrive iA
the Port Rort Royal Mountains, as a rule. The small settlers grow all kinds of Ci-
trus successfully except this plant, and I am not aware that anyone has succeeded in
raising a tree of this variety.
Bitten Court, 2 plants are doing well.
Maltese Blood, 8 plants doing well, 1 fair, 1 dead.
Silver, or Plato, 2 plants doing well, 1 fair, 1 dead.
S Embiguo, or Navel, 2 plants doing well.
Corniculata, 1 doing well, 1 dead.
The following plants were imported from Messrs. Reasoner, Bros., Florida, U.S.A.:-
Orange, Whitaker, 2 plants doing well, 3 fairly well.
Centennial, 14 plants doing well, 4 fair, 3 dead.
Jaffa, 11 plants doing well, 3 dead.
Jaffa Blood, 3 plants doing well, 3 fair, 1 dead.
Navel, 4 plants doing well, 2 fairly well.
Tardif, 5 plants doing fairly well, 1 dead.
Parson Brown, 11 plants doing well, 8 fair, 1 dead.
China Mandarin, 1 plant doing well, others poor.
Dancy's Tangierine, 2 plants doing fairly well, 4 dead.
Satsuma Mandarin 1 plant doing fairly well, others dead.
Ruby, 10 plants doing well, 7 fair, 3 dead.
S King, 10 plants doing well, 2 dead
Homasassa, 10 plants doing well, 2 dead
ajorca, 10 plants doing well, 3 fair
Boone's Early, 15 plants doing well, 5 dead.
Without names, 200 doing well, 50 fairly well.
Kumquat, 6 plants doing fairly well.
Grape Fruit or Pomelo, Royal, 5 plants doing well, 1 dead.
it not named, 2 plants doing well, 3 fair, 1 dead.
c Pernambuco, 3 plants doing well, 1 fair.
c Aurantium, 2 plants doing well, 1 fair.
Lemon, Genoa, 3 plants doing well, 1 poor.
Villafranca, 3 plants doing well, 1 poor.
Citron all doing well.
All our own budded plants of Grape Fruit and Navel Orange are doing well, and have made
better growth than the imported plants; and all the plants budded on Rough Lemoon stocks are much
stronger and healthier than those budded on Sour Orange stocks.
Buds of all the imported kinds have been secured and worked on local stocks, so that we shall be
able to replace any plants that have died.
Parts of Resource land are exceedingly steep, and to prevent wash as much as possible, we have
planted Khus-Khus grass (Andropogon muricatus) on the lower side of plants growing on the steep
hill sides. The Himalayan grass (Pennisetum orientale) is also being utilised for the same purpose
through parts of the Grove, and where Bahama grass (Cynodon Dactylon) springs up sponta-
neously it is allowed to grow, except within a space of three or four feet from the stem of each tree.
In time we hope to get the whole of the ground covered with grasses, just keeping a clean space round'
each tree. This will prevent wash by storm rains, and the cost of keeping the Grove clean will be
very considerably lessened, and we shall be able to devote a larger portion of our small annual grant to
manuring, and thorough cultivation.
Green manuring.-Velvet beans were planted through a great portion of the ground, and round
the young trees, and were forked in as green manure.
Budding.--The weather during the greater portion of the year was very unfavourable for this
work, being either excessively dry or excessively wet, but considerable numbers of plants were success-
fully budded, including Grape Fruit, Navel and other varieties of oranges.
Insect Pests.-Scale-insects and ants were troublesome during the year, but we are constantly
trying to check them, so that they never get beyond control. Our nursery stock has been kept abso-
lutely free from injurious insects.
Oranges, seedlings ... 19,165
Grape Fruit do. ... 25,187
Rough Lemons do. ... 1,700
Budded Citrus ... 401
Blue Mountain Coffee ... 3,065
Miscellaneous ... 806
Ornamental Plants ... 520
Sweet Oranges, seedlings ... 755
Grape Fruit do. ... 50
Strawberry plants 236
W. I. Cedar ... 2,110
Miscellaneous ... 1,569
Total Economic plants distributed ... 54,404
Total Ornamental plants distributed ... 1,160
Total number of plants distributed ... 55,564
Also 654 dozens of Tree Tomatoes weighing 1,1201bs., and several pounds of Cinchona seed, and
8,000 Rough Lemon seeds. The value of plants, fruits and seeds sold was 97 2s. 2d.
The elevation of the Hill Garden, where the instruments ale placed, is 4,907 feet above sea-level.
The average annual mean temperature there is 62.6Fah., and the average annual rainfall 104.08 inches
for 29 years. The amount of rain that fell during the year was 138.54 inches.
The driest months were, June, July, August, February and the wettest were October, November,
December. The Meteorological Tables for the different months are given on page 22.
The rainfall at the Orange Garden, Resource, was 90.36 inches for the year.
The following Report is by the Overseer, Mr. A. H. Groves:-
This garden is now in fine order, owing to good seasons in the months of January and February in
addition to the attention given to it. Although we suffered very much from the storm in November
blowing down trees, injuring wire fence, etc, the garden rec covered from the effects thereof. All the
land has been forked, trenches cleaned out, walks attended to, and new flower beds made. Manure has
been applied to a part of the garden, fences repaired, and the well and grind-stone frames repaired.
During the past year particular attention was paid to the garden, in applying manure, repeatedly
to the beds and borders, and having it forked in, which has considerably improved the plants. The
garden being of made soil, requires to be frequently fertilized.
I received from Hope Garden over a thousand plants, which have been planted out, and are grow-
ing well. After a short time many of these plants were missing; they were being stolen by visitors, a
strict watch was kept but no one was caught. It appears that the plants were marked out in the day
and taken at night. The plants are now developing and are getting too large to be carried off. The
plants of Oreodoxa regia mentioned in my last report, are in fine condition,
I The general work of the garden has been carried on as usual; the aim being to present a tidy appear-
anc, keeping within the limits of the vote allowed for upkeep. The usual pruning and trimming of
plants; weeding, divesting of dried branches; mowing, forking, cutting and trimming edges, also the
daily watering, raking, sweeping, clearing and carting away rubbish, have been assiduously attended to.
The water tanks have been cleaned out, the mounds re-made with fresh earth, and the water lilies,
(Nymphaea rubra. and N. alba) planted out are growing in good condition. Seeds of Erythroxylon
Coca, Casuarina equesitifolia and Erythrina umbrosa, have been collected and forwarded to Hope Gar-
The K..I.M. Band is now playing alternately at 5 p.m. and at-7 p.m. which I find the citizens ap-
The walks require gravelling, and the benches re-painting.
There have been-few infringements of the Garden Regulations, -those which occurred have been
dealt with at the Police Court.
KiNG's HOUSE GARDENS AND GROUNDS.
The following report is by the Superintendent, Mr. J. Briscoe:-
During the past year the usual garden operations have been carried on satisfactorily. The borders
on either side of the drive have been thoroughly dug and kept constantly watered and mulched with
stable manure, which has been very beneficial to the plants. The Palms at the back of the borders are
looking well. Young plants of Crotons, ani other ornamental and fl.-~~r-ng shrubs have been -propa-
gated and planted in vacant spaces in the borders; a new border has been m.ide at the entrance to the
house and a large fig tree has been removed in consequence of its roots interfering with the drains, and
replaced with a fine young palm (Livistona chinensis.) The over-grown creepers such as the white
Coralilla, Boumontia Grandiflora, Ipomoea, Olerodendron, Cissus discolor, etc: have been-cut back and
trained, and are now looking well. The rose garden has been repeatedly forked and nulched with stable
manure. The Orchids and other pot plants have been carefully attended to as regards watering etc. 1
A new stage has been erected in the green house in place of the old one. The lawns have,been kept
weeded and are in-good order. The lily tank -has been cleaned out, and a rockery erected," and planted
with ferns etc, the tubs have been filled with fresh soil and the Nymphaeas have been repotted. The
drives and walks have continually been hoed and kept clean. A trench has been dug at the back of
the Ball room forty feet- long, two feet and a half wide, and three feet deep to prevent the roots of the
large Ficus Benjamina tree doing damage to the building. Trees and- shrubs have beeh pruned.
Thirty chains of- fence has been repaired, and the other- fences a-re- in eed of repairs. A new Buck
Eye lawn mower has been purchased and is doinggood work. During the month of January eight boys,
from the Reformatory School, Stony Hill, billed and cleaned certain pastures They did their work in
a very satisfactory manner. The Pine ground has beenforked, cleaned and manure: and open spaces
replaced with young supkers.- The young trees (Cassia siamea) on either side of Musgrave Avenue have
been pruned and are now doing well. During the heavy rainfall a portion of fence was washed away
over the Sandy Gully.
SThe elevation of the Garden above sea-level is 400 feet. The average mean annual temperature
is 781 F., and the average annual rainfall 48-54 inches for 20 years. The amount of rain that fell
during the year was 62'52 inches. The driest months were June, August, January, February, March ;
and the wettest October, November and December. The mean temperature for the year was 77"0.
The Meteorological tables for the different months are given on page 24,
W. FAWCETT, Director.
HILL GARDENS.--Elevation 4,907 feet.
Temperature. Elevation Blue Mountain Peak-Elevation, 7,423 feet.
*Pressure. Degrees Fahrenheit. Dew Point. Hu. Wind.
a a .-. -.
o- Co t c 5 a F o- E-1 -
1899, In. In. o o o o 0 o o 0 o
April ... 25.21725.179 59.0 63.7 66.6 55.1 11.5 54.8 60.0 83 86 E 19.6 4.21 2.55 1.5.99 11 a.m. 64 70.9 42.8 5.52
May ... .234 .205 61.3 65.4 69.2 56.6 12.6 54.8 60.6 78 84 E 13.1 4.54 3.60 1.6 99 10.30 65 69.9 44.8 8.23
June ... .251 .224 62.8 67.1 70.4 58.4 12.0 58.3 61.5 83 82 E 28.7 1.78 0.15 30.6.99 11.15 58 70.9 46.8 5.45
July ... .227 .210 63.3 66.8 70.8 57.5 13.3 55.9 60.8 81 78 SE 18.2 2.32 1.31 31.7.99 11 59 71.9 46.8 6.05
August ... .222 .213 60.0 69.7 74.2 57.5 16.7 55.8 63.2 80 79 E 21.9 0.76 0-15 31.8.99 10 67 74.9 44.8 6.45
September ... .211 .209 63.2 67.7 72.5 59.8 12.7 58.7 63.9 83' 87 E 14.1 5.39 3.04 2.10.99 1 p.m. 59 73.9 43.8 12.90
October ... .158 .121 61.6 64.4 68.0 58.6 9.4 57.9 62.3 87 92 E 38.6 41.22 29.34 1.11.99 11.55a.m. 56 70.9 42.8 15.95
November ... .166 .137 60.6 64.8 67.7 58.0 9.7 57.3 61.9 87 90 E 47.3 44.09 30.15 30.11.9911.30 69 70.9 46.8 48.16
December ... .203 .163 57.8 63.2 66.5 54.4 12.1 54.9 60.9 88 87 E 28.0 16.90 12.42 31.12.99 11.45 67 71.9 41.8 25.45
January ... .222 .196 57.7 62.4 65.4 54.9 10.5 54.6 60.3 89 91 E 12.7 7.60 5.10 1.2.00 11.30 54 69.9 36.8 22.10
February ... .243 .197 57.0 64.8 67.2 54.1 13.1 53.4 59.3 87 82 E 26.7 2.28 0.30 1.3.00 11.40 56 67.9 44.8 6.54
March ... .234 200 57.4 64.6 66.8 53.9 12.9 53.9 59.8 87 83 E 31.9 7.45 2.25 31.3.00 11.30 66 70.9 43.8 6.15
Means .. 5.2i725.187 60.1 65.4 68.7 56.5 12.5 55.8 61.2 84 85 1E'l 25.0 138.54 90.36 61.6 71.2 43.9 168.92
S--- -- I Total. --- ---- Total.
1 6 Mean=.6206 3 9 1 5 7 4 .Mean==57.5
*The Barometer pressures are reduced to standards at Kew, 320 and gravity at Lat. 456.
foPE GaDENas-Elevation 700 feet.
a.m 13 p.m.| Max.
- I- I I
Range. 7 a.m.
3 p.m. 7 a.m. 3. pm.
---- -- I-----
Means -- 71.8 82.5 87.1 67.2 19.9 66.2 79.4 82 67 80.61
Mean = 77.1
CASTLETaN GARDENs-Elevation 496 feet.
oPressure. Dew Point. Humidity.
Month. Degrees Fahrenheit. g
7 a.m. 3p.m. 7a.m. 3p.m. Max. Min. Range. 7 a.m, 3 p.m. 7 a.m. 3 p.m. M
1899. In. In. 0 0 0 0 0 0
April ...29.96729.894 68.0 80.7 83.5 63.5 20.0 64.8 71.0 91 74 4.91
May ... .935 .893 69.8 82.0 87.4 64.2 23.2 66.2 72.9 91 77 7.99
June ... .971 .912 70.8 83.7 88.6 66.3 22.3 67.0 73.1 91 74 4.49
July ... .951 .880 70.9 86.2 90.4 66.6 23.8 70.1 73.4 92 70 4.64
Auguat ... .965 .869 71.8 84.5 89.8 66.3 23.5 68.4 73.7 88 71 8.80
September ... .899 .851 71.4 82.6 90.4 66.3 24.1 70 6 75.3 89 81 9.29
October ... .849 .769 71.5 79.5 85.8 66.7 .9.1 69.4 70.8 91 78 34.40
November ... .862 .828 70.3 80.0 84.1 66.0 18.u 65.5 71.7 88 77 23.72
December ... .985 .916 73.9 77.8 b3.2 64.5 18.7 62.9 69.9 86 71 18.52
January ...30.003 .927 67.6 78.3 86.9 64.5 22.4 63.6 70.4 88 77 7.79
February ...29.993 .930 65 2 78.0 83.1 62.9 20.2 59.9 68.9 85 72 6.96
March ...29.964 .939 64.0 80.3 83.6 64.6 19.0 63.5 69.5 92 72 8.64
Means ...29.94429.884 67.9 81.1 86.4 65.2 21.2 66.' 71.7 89 74 140.15
The Barometer pressures are reduced to the Standards at Kew, 320, gravity at Lat. 450, and mean sea-level.
KING'S HousE GaUDENS-Elevation, 400 feet
a.m. 3 p.m.
,7 a.m. 3 p.m. 7 a.m. 13 p.m.