Title: Certain sand mounds of the St. John's river Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074980/00001
 Material Information
Title: Certain sand mounds of the St. John's river Florida
Series Title: Certain sand mounds of the St. John's river Florida.
Physical Description: 2 v. : ill. maps, ; 36 x 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Moore, Clarence B ( Clarence Bloomfield ), 1852-1936
Holmes, William Henry, 1846-1933
Publisher: Levytype Co.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Publication Date: 1894
Subject: Mounds -- Florida -- Saint Johns River Region   ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Saint Johns River Region (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
General Note: Pt. 1 includes Earthenware of Florida, by W. H. Holmes.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074980
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - ADB7152
oclc - 01549841
alephbibnum - 000588401
lccn - 02012881

Full Text












PL. 1.


This first part"of the report on the sand mounds of the St. John's River,
Florida, consists of scarcely more than an amplification of field notes which have
been given with considerable minuteness, since Florida is almost an unknown land
to the archaeologist.
Thanks are tendered to Professor Cope, to Professor Holmes, to Andrew E.
Douglass, Esq., and to Professor Haynes, for valuable references and information;
also to Dr. M. G. Miller for continuous aid in the field and in the preparation of
this report.
Philadelphia, July, 1893. C. B. M.

While- agreeing in the main with the suggestions of Professor Holmes contained
in this paper I can hardly entertain one involving the hypothesis of a post-Colum-
hian origin for any number of mounds of the St. Johns. My position in this
matter, based upon a thorough investigation of the entire river, will be detailed at
length in Part II of this report.
May, 1894. C. B. MOORE.


'~~j ~ ~ ~ *

,. I








This first part of the report on the sand mounds of the St. John's River,
Florida, consists of scarcely more than an amplification of field notes which have
been given with considerable minuteness, since Florida is almost an unknown land
to the archaeologist.
Thanks are tendered to Professor Cope, to Professor Holmes, to Andrew E.
Douglass, Esq., and to Professor Haynes, for valuable references and information;
also to Dr. M. G. Miller for continuous aid in the field and in the preparation of
this report.
Philadelphia, July, 1893. C. B. M.
The sand mounds of the St. John's River, Florida, have not until recently met
with systematic investigation.
The late Professor Jeffries Wyman, while exploring shell heaps of the
river between Palatka and Lake Harney, confined himself, so far as the sand
mounds were concerned, to superficial examinations.'
"" Freshwater Shell Mounds of the St. John's River, Florida." Footnote page 47.
1 JOUR. A. N. S. PHILA., VOL. X.


The late Dr. Frederick D. Lente, in the March and April, 1877, issues of the
"Semi-Tropical," a magazine published at Jacksonville, Florida, contributed an
article entitled "The Mounds of Florida." This paper was subsequently printed
in pamphlet form. The author frankly admits that in no case did he succeed in
reaching the base of any mound, his explorations being limited to a visit with a
party of ladies to the mound on Dunn's Creek, and to excavations in one of the
two mounds on Murphy Island. In neither case did his researches take him over
ten miles from home.
Beyond the cases cited, virtually no work has heretofore been done upon the
sand mounds of the river. In the Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology,
1883-84, page xxi, we read that in explorations recently made in Florida on
behalf of the Bureau,.the results were almost wholly negative, except so far as
they tended to show that in Florida the mounds were chiefly domiciliary, and that
but few were built for burial purposes. The portions of the state where these
researches were made are not specified. It is quite evident, however, that the ter-
ritory bordering the St. John's was not included.
Occasional tourists have from time to time made superficial examinations,
while the native "cracker" skimming the surface, has gathered at times a harvest
of beads or intrusive implements of metal.
The sand mounds of the St. John's, then, in respect to original burials, were
found by us as left by their dusky builders.
In the present report the mounds south of Palatka alone will be considered.
The sand mounds of the river, while having a general resemblance, vary so in
detail that an accurate classification is impossible. Many are crowded with human
remains, while in others considerable excavations along the base failed to reveal an
indication of use for purposes of sepulture. Numerous mounds are variously
stratified with sand of different shades, from the surrounding territory, with shell,
with "muck" and with sand mingled with hematite in powder. Others again are
composed of one homogeneous material. Some have a sprinkling of shell; in
others not a single Ampullaria or Paludina can be found. It is probable that cer-
tain mounds were used as look-out stations, and possibly all in later times served
for domiciliary purposes. In height and extent also there is a wide divergence.
The great mound at Tick Island has an altitude of over 17 feet, while the famous
Mt. Royal, with a circumference of 555 feet, is in area approached by no
mound on the river. On the other hand, small sand mounds not exceeding three
feet in height, are by no means uncommon. Almost without exception the shape
is a truncated cone, the summit plateau in some showing an area doubtless more
extensive than the original through the effects of the elements.
Even the form of burial varies. Intrusive interments are in anatomical order
as are bodies originally buried in certain mounds; while in others, the long bones,
denuded of flesh previous to burial, lie in a bundle with the crania; and again, both
forms of interment are met with side by side and evidently contemporary. Still


another form of burial is that of disconnected bones where no effort has been made
to keep in association the various portions of the skeleton. The "chieftain" mounds
cited by the late Colonel Jones' are not met with on the river, nor are bodies
ever found in a sitting position.
It is our intention briefly to describe the sand mounds of the St. John's as we
have found them, prefacing the account with the assurance that at no time has
work been done save in our presence; that all notes were taken on the spot and
rewritten while the memory was fresh, and that special care has been exercised at
all times carefully to measure depths and to distinguish the intrusive from the
original burial. To guard against confusion, all objects were labeled upon discov-
ery, while to various portions of the skeleton tablets of celluloid were attached,
with which subsequent treatment with heated glue could not interfere.
In nearly every case, the specimens described or figured are now in the pos-
session of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

Sand Mounds of the St. 7okn's River, Florida, considered in Part I of
this Report.
Dunn's Creek. Stark's Grove, Lake Beresford.
Murphy Island (2). Fort Florida (2).
Norwalk Landing. Northern end Lake Monroe.
Mt. Royal (2). Ginn's Grove (2).
Hitchen's Creek. Thornhill Lake (2).
Blue Creek. Black Hammock.
In Pine Woods near Blue Creek. Cook's Ferry.
Volusia (5). Mansfield's.
Bluffton (2). Raulerson's.
Opposite Bluffton. Persimmon Mound.
Tick Island. Indian Fields.
De Leon Springs. Long Bluff.
Thursby Mound. Mulberry Mound.
Huntoon Island (2). Fort Taylor.
In the accompanying map no attempt is made to represent distances by water.
So tortuous is the river that a rough estimate alone as to distance can be made by
those following the course of the stream.


On Dunn's Creek, about three miles from its point of union with the St. John's,
some nine miles south of Palatka, on the right hand side going down, is Horse
Landing which, however, must not be confounded with a place of the same name
on the St. John's River, a few miles further south. Hidden by woods, perhaps one
1" Antiquities of the Southern Indians," page 183.


hundred yards north of the creek, was a mound of sand having a height of 10 feet
and a circumference of 210 feet. Its form was the usual truncated cone. Upon it
grew five forest trees. Its proximity to Palatka made it for years the objective point
for picnic parties which had excavated in a desultory way, but a systematic inves-
tigation was never attempted.
The mound was visited by us November, 1892, and a portion carefully
explored. In April, 1893, it was again visited with a party of twenty men, and
leveled to the ground. The surface of the mound was composed of a layer of
sand to which a pinkish color had been given by admixture of pulverized
hematite. This layer had a maximum thickness of about four feet, being consid-
erably thinner on the summit plateau, doubtless through action of the elements.
Beneath was fine yellowish sand, in places as dry as flour; while lower, somewhat
coarser and moister sand continued to the base which was marked by a layer of
pure white sand about four inches in thickness; beneath was the yellow sand of
the surrounding territory.

Bodies were all in anatomical order, though in certain cases were found por-
tions of skeletons through which previous visitors had dug. Human remains were
confined exclusively to the pink sand layer, never exceeding a depth of three feet
from the surface.
With the exception of one calvaria, no human remains were preserved, owing
to their crushed and decayed condition, though all resources employed upon such
occasions were at hand, including shellac and heated solutions of glue.
And here it may be well to remark that the condition of bones depends less
upon their age than upon their surroundings. It is fallacious to adduce partial or
entire decay of human remains as a proof of advanced antiquity, since the Dunn's
Creek skeletons, interred with implements of European origin, must be assigned to
a post-Columbian period. On the other hand, human remains found in the shell
heaps and in sand mounds having an intermingling of shell, though certainly as
old and doubtless in some cases of much greater antiquity, through association
with shell and the consequent infiltration of lime salts, are in fairly good condition.
Two feet below the surface was a skull associated with a few vertebrae but
with no other bones. Close by lay a bit of hematite with two fragments of pot-
tery and two beads of shell. In addition were what seemed to be two brass or
copper buttons, spherical in shape and evidently of European origin, since one still
had a metal loop apparently soldered on. Their use as earrings is possible. One
lay in actual contact with the skull and had imparted a greenish tinge to a part of
the temporal bone. The calvaria was saved and was of the brachycephalic vari-
ety found almost without exception in the sand mounds. One foot from the sur-
face and three feet east of the skull just described, surrounded by sand deeply
tinged with red iron ore, were two tibiae, two femurs and a pelvis. A former
investigator had dug through the ribs.

'ra,. -

X Lndicates sand mound.
* ShelU-heeab

Ma of t John's Rivver,

Jetwat. Iletst.ns Wt adL akelfdilfllnl.

AsalA t la
3 y *





Three feet from the surface and three feet distant from the other remains was a
skeleton in anatomical order. The body lay upon its back, the thighs flexed on the
abdomen. The hands were folded upon the chest and on them lay a drinking cup
wrought from Fulgurperversum by the removal of the inner whorls and the
columella. Drinking cups of this character were still in use when the French
landed in Florida. They are not common in the sand mounds of the river, and
save in one case have been found only superficially in the shell heaps.1 Through
the bottom of this shell cup a hole had been purposely knocked. Vessels, whether
of shell or of clay, deposited with the dead in the river mounds, almost universally
show perforation. Of this custum we shall have more to say when describing the
low sand mounds near Volusia.
In various parts of the mound, especially on the summit plateau, burials were
comparatively numerous, though an estimate as to number would be misleading,
owing to the amount of surface investigation indulged in by excursionists from


Twenty-two-and-a-half feet from the southern margin of the base of the
mound, and three-and-a-half feet from the surface, in the pink sand, were found an
iron axe of curious pattern2 and what seemed to be a cold chisel, both greatly cor-
roded. In immediate association with these implements was
an ornament of metal, one inch in length, considerably dis-
colored, perforated for suspension (Fig. 1). Through fear of
FIG. 1 Pendant ornament injury to the specimen, no analysis has been made, but
of silver (full size). experts of the U. S. Mint, relying on acid tests considered
final by them, have pronounced the metal silver, and have ventured the opinion
that it is of unusual purity.
No bones were found in association with these articles of metal.
Beneath the roots of a large hickory, 10 feet west of the other implements,
24 feet from the margin of the base and 3 feet from the surface, were found in
association a polished hatchet of stone; a circular fragment of glass, rudely chipped
and considerably worn, possibly fashioned from the base of a bottle; an unworked
pebble; two shell beads; a cold chisel of iron, 8 inches in length, and an axe of
iron of the same pattern as the one previously described. No human remains
were in immediate association.
Thirty feet from the margin of the base and 6 feet from the surface, in the
yellow sand, was a pin formed from the columella of a marine shell, 4-75 inches in
length. In the annual report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 1880-81, plate XXX,
fig. 2, a counterpart of this pin is illustrated. A similar pin was found in another
portion of the mound. Both were unassociated.
'American Naturalist, Aug. 1893, p. 717.
'Figured in the account of the Thursby Mound.


Scattered through the pink sand layer, none being found below, were eleven
polished implements, commonly known as "celts," none exceeding 5-6 inches in
length. Of these, six, now at the Peabody Museum, Cambridge, were deter-
mined by Professor Wolf as being four of diabase, one of porphyrite, one probably
of a quartzose slate. Of the remaining five, four are of the usual traps, the fifth
syenitic gneiss. The surfaces are somewhat decomposed, rendering an absolute
identification impossible without injury to the specimens.
Not over two of these polished hatchets were found in association with human
remains. The frequent isolation of such deposits has been noticed by us in the
river mounds and commented upon by Mr. Douglass. in respect to the mounds of
the east coast. In this connection a cache has been suggested, but as we have
frequently found isolated polished implements at depths varying from 15 feet
to within a few inches of the surface, we are inclined to believe the deposit to have
been made out of respect to the dead generally, as we hang garlands on monu-
On the summit plateau, near the surface, was found a leaf-shaped implement
of chert, chipped, 3"5 inches in length, much worn as from continued handling.
In all, fifteen arrow and lance points were met with. They were confined to
no particular layer, but were distributed from the base to the surface. Of these
points eleven were of chert, one of hornstone, one of chalcedony and two of chert
breccia. One slender point was possibly a drill or fish spear. The type is not
uncommon on the surface but is seldom met with in the mounds of the river. On
the eastern slope, 5"5 feet from the surface, not far distant from the base, six arrow
and lance heads were found in immediate association, the largest being 4-1 inches
in length, the smallest 1"9 inches. With one exception, namely at Mt. Royal, we
have never before found so great a number of stone points together in a river
One arrow head of chert, unassociated, was smooth, with edges completely
rounded by artificial means.
A small arrow head of chert was discovered carefully stowed away within a
Fulgur carica.
Five feet from the surface on the northeastern slope was a slab of banded
slate 7-1 inches long, 3"1 inches wide, with a thickness varying from "2 to -7 of an
inch. It was imperforate and gave evidence of use as a hone for cutting-tools.
At the base and near the center of the mound with an arrow head of chert
was a flake, four inches long by 1"75 inch in breadth. With them lay a rude
implement of chert bordering on hornstone, showing cleavage on one side, and upon
the other traces of workmanship.
At various points, always with human remains, were six drinking cups,
wrought from Fulgur perversum, all, with one exception, showing intentional
perforation of the bottom. Throughout the pink sand layer were scattered numer-
ous beads of shell, some as much as one inch in length; while two beads of stea-


tite, with lateral flattening 1-5 inches and '9 of an inch in length, respectively, were
met with.
A small'bead of blue glass was found in the pink sand layer.
Other relics were an implement of shell fashioned from the axis of a Fascio-
laria; a copper hawk-bell, found superficially, covered with patine, still containing
the little ball which yielded a jingling sound when shaken. These hawk-bells,
used in falconry, were highly prized by the Indians who obtained them by barter
from the whites.
Many fragments of pots, denoting vessels unusually large for the sand mounds,
were met with in Dunn's Creek mound. From surface to base were sherds, vary-
ing from the coiled pottery of coarse material to the most compact and finest pot-
tery of the mounds. Certain fragments from the base were colored a bright car-
mine, and ornamented with rims projecting laterally, over an inch in breadth.
Other fragmentary portions of vessels had a graceful treatment of. curves, a style
of ornamentation usually wanting in the river mounds (Plate II, figs. 1 and 2).
Other sherds showed interesting patterns (Plate II, figs. 3 and 4). Near the sur-
face, the usual stamped pottery was abundant. Neither in this mound nor in other
river mounds do we recall seeing an admixture of crushed shells with the clay.
Owing to the great quantity of roots in the Dunn's Creek mound, often ren-
dering fruitless the most careful digging, we were so unfortunate as to lose several
pots by breakage. Besides a number of small bowls, undecorated, with the usual
hole knocked through the bottom, two bowls were found in association in the north-
eastern slope of the mound three feet from the surface, in the neighborhood of the
base. Both were perforated in the usual manner. One with a height of 3-5
inches and a maximum diameter of 4-75 inches, had the aperture contracted to a
diameter of 3*75 inches. The margin of the aperture was scalloped. Seven feet
from the surface, near the base, was a beautiful vase of unique design, imperforate,
with oval base, 4-25 inches in height with a maximum diameter through the body
of 2"5 inches. The upper diameter, including the laterally projecting rim, was
4"75 inches (Plate III, fig. 1). We have met with nothing resembling this vase in
all our mound work on the St. John's. Unfortunately, a portion of the rim suffered
slight mutilation through contact with a spade, while on the other side a part was
missing through a former break. A small pot with scalloped rim, but otherwise
undecorated, broken, but not beyond restoration, was found during the investigation
(Plate III, fig. 2). Another, somewhat larger but of the same pattern, was recov-
ered unbroken. But-one entire vessel was met with in the upper or pink sand

Six feet below the surface, and twenty-five feet from the southern margin of
the base, with a certain amount of charcoal, in such immediate association that the
2 JOUR. A. N. S. PHILA., VOL. X.


same spadeful of sand contained them, were found two tobacco pipes of coarse yel-
low clay. One was without decoration; the other was shaped to resemble, pre-
sumably, the head of the duck (figs. 2 and 3).

FIG. 2. Tobacco Pipe. Dunn's Creek Mound (full size).

FIG. 3. Tobacco Pipe. Dunn's Creek Mound (full size).

A discovery of pipes is almost unique in the river mounds. With the excep-
tion of two fragments from a small mound near Lake Poinsett, none have rewarded
our labors in twenty-nine sand mounds of the river. Mr. Andrew E. Douglass dis-


covered but one pipe during his extended researches in Florida.1 One other, of cor-
alline limestone, from a shell heap on the west coast is in his possession. Professor
Wyman found none in the shell heaps, and a small fragment from Mulberry
Mound2 is the unique result of our researches in the shell deposits of eighty local-
ities on the St. John's. These pipes are now at the Peabody Museum, Cambridge.
Of all the mounds of the St. John's opened by us that of Dunn's Creek offers
most difficulties as to a conclusion looking to an approximate date of origin. Less
than half a score of skeletons were found by us, but how many were disturbed by
previous workers it is impossible to say. In no other mound on the St. John's,
intended for sepulture, have burials been found exclusively of superficial character,
and this would indicate an intrusive origin for the burials in the Dunn's Creek
mound. On the other hand, it was not the custom of the river Indians to put
sherds, arrow heads and vessels of pottery into mounds not intended for sepulchral
purposes. The presence of glass, of iron, of bells and of buttons indicates inter-
course with Europeans. If we regard the burials as contemporary with the mound
it is post-Columbian. If, on the other hand, remembering that absolutely nothing
save of aboriginal manufacture came from below the upper layer where the bodies
were interred, we consider the interments of a secondary character, then the epoch
of the building of the mound remains an open question.


Murphy Island, on the east bank of the river, ten miles south of Palatka, is
the property of H. L. Hart, Esq., of that place. This gentleman will permit no
In addition to a large shell deposit there are two sand mounds on Murphy
Island. The northernmost, almost on the river's edge, is the usual truncated cone
but much more symmetrical than the majority of the river mounds, ascending at
an angle of thirty degrees. Its height is eleven feet, nine inches; its circumfer-
ence two hundred and forty feet. The diameter of the summit plateau is twenty-
one feet.
About two hundred yards to the south at a short distance from the river is
another symmetrical mound, ten feet in height, having a circumference of two
hundred and ten feet. It is covered with a forest growth.


In the pine woods, about one mile west of the landing, in sight of the road
leading to the town, was an unstratified mound of white sand. Its height was
3 feet, 8 inches; its circumference 132 feet. Its form was unsymmetrical, the sum-
mit plateau being disproportionately great. This mound was totally demolished by
us during four days of January, 1893.
'Mr. Douglass in private letter.
2American Naturalist, August, 1893, page 717.


Twenty-five interments, all of the bunched variety, were met with. In one case
the bundle included the long bones of two bodies. Two crania surmounted it.
The bones were badly decayed and crushed, in many cases nothing remaining
but small and friable pieces. By the aid of shellac applied in place, four skulls, in
a somewhat fragmentary condition, were saved.' One femur gave an index of 114.
Five tibiax gave an average lateral index of 63'7, the oscillation exponent2
being '11.
Three humeri were recovered. All showed perforation.
In all, nine polished hatchets, from 3-5 inches
to 8-5 inches in length, were found; some associated
/ with human remains, but the majority isolated. In
Addition the mound yielded a handsome lance head
of chert and a perforated stone tablet 2-25 inches in
length (fig. 4). Curiously enough, all relics, and
the great majority of interments, lay in the eastern
half of the mound.

Throughout the mound were occasional frag-
ments of undecorated pottery. In addition, super-
ficially, were two brightly colored sherds.
FIG. 4. Stone Tablet (full size).
All burials in this mound are believed to be original. No trace of intercourse
with the whites was discovered.


On the east bank of the St. John's, just below where the river leaves Lake
George, in a great grove of bearing orange trees, not 300 yards from the water's
edge,-stands Mt. Royal.
Its owner, David Wright, Esq., of Auburn, New York, fully appreciating the
interest attached to this famous monument whose makers now are nameless, has
long followed the example set by former possessors of the St. John's largest mound,
and kept it intact, carefully guarding it against the depredations of unsystematic
relic hunters. Mt. Royal, then, prior to our visit (April, 1893), knew no explorer
other than the gopher,3 the salamander,4 and the scarlet snake.'
'All crania will be described by Dr. Harrison Allen with the second part of this report.
2See account of Tick Island.
'Gopher, local for Florida tortoise, Xenobates polyphemus.
4Salamander, local for pouched gopher, Geomys tuza.
5Scarlet Snake, Cemophora coccinea. This beautiful little snake is found burrowing in many of the sand


For 128 years the existence of Mt. Royal has been a matter of history. The
elder Bartram, a Philadelphia Quaker, on his way down the St. John's, January,
1766, stopped at Mt. Royal. Under date of the 25th he writes:' "* * "About
noon we landed at Mount Royal, and went to an Indian tumulus, which was about
100 yards in diameter, nearly round, and nearly 20 feet high, found some bones
scattered on it, it must be very ancient, as live oaks are growing upon it, three feet
in diameter; what a prodigious multitude of Indians must have labored to raise it ?
to what height, we can't say, as it must have settled much in such a number of
years, and it is surprising where they brought the sand from, and how, as they had
nothing but baskets and boards to carry it in; there seems to be a little hollow
near the adjacent level on one side, though not likely to raise such a tumulus the
50th part of what it is, but directly north from the tumulus is a fine straight
avenue about 60 yards broad, all the surface of which has been taken off, and
thrown on each side, which makes a bank of about a rood wide, and a foot high,
more or less, as the unevenness of the ground required, for the avenue is as level
as a floor from bank to bank, and continues so for about three-quarters of a mile to
a pond of about 100 yards broad and 150 yards long, N. and S. seem to be an
oblong square and its banks 4 feet perpendicular gradually sloping every way to
the water, the depth of which we could not say, but do not imagine it deep as the
grass grows all over it; by its irregularity it seems to be artificial; if so, perhaps the
sand was carried from hence to raise the tumulus, as the one directly faces the
other at each end of the avenue; on the south side of the tumulus I found a very
large rattlesnake sunning himself, I suppose this to be his winter quarters; here
had formerly been a large Indian town; I suppose there is 50 acres of planting
ground, cleared, and of middling soil, a good part of which is mixed with small
shells; no doubt this large tumulus was their burying place or sepulchre; whether
the Florida Indians buried the bones after the flesh was rotted off them, as the
present Southern Indians do, I can't say; * "
Shortly before the Revolutionary War, the younger Bartram (William) went
up the river alone as far as what is now called Lake Beresford, passing a night at
Mt. Royal. The place had been under cultivation, which was not the case when
John Bartram went up the river. "At about 50 yards distant from the landing
place," he writes, "stands a magnificent Indian mount * But what greatly
contributed towards completing the magnificence of the scene was a noble Indian
highway, which leads from the great mount, on a straight line, three-quarters of a
mile, first through a point or wing of the orange grove and continuing thence
through an awful forest of live oaks, it was terminated by palms and laurel mag-
nolias on the verge of an oblong artificial lake which was on the edge of a green
level savanna. This grand highway was about fifty yards wide, sunk a little
1A Journal kept by John Bartram of Philadelphia, Botanist to His Majesty for the Floridas, upon a
journey from St. Augustine up the river St. John's as far as the Lakes. With explanatory Botanic notes. The
third edition, much enlarged and improved, London, sold by W. Nicoll, No. 51 St. Paul's Church-yard; and
T. Jeffries at Charing Cross-Geographer to His Majesty, MDCCLXIX.


below the common level and the earth thrown up on each side, making a bank
of about two feet high."
The good Quaker bemoans the change wrought since a former visit by the
felling of the trees, but adds that "the late proprietor had some taste as he has
preserved the mount and this little adjoining grove inviolate."
In an unpublished manuscript, cited by Squier and Davis,1 the younger Bar-
tram again refers to Mt. Royal:
"The vast mounds upon the St. John's, Alachua, and Musquito Rivers," he
writes, "differ from those among the Cherokees, with respect to their adjuncts and
appendages, particularly in respect to the great highway or avenue, sunk below the
common level of the earth, extending from them, and terminating either in a vast
savanna or natural plain, or an artificial pond or lake. A remarkable example
occurs at Mt. Royal, from whence opens a glorious view of Lake George and its
environs." He goes on to describe by the aid of a little sketch the highway
and mound, making the latter 40 feet in perpendicular height. (His father, years
before, by an estimate of half that amount, had come nearer the truth). "What
may have been the motive for making this pond I cannot conjecture," he continues,
" since the mound and other vestiges of the ancient town are situated close on the
banks of the river St. Juan. It could not, therefore, be for the convenience of
water. Perhaps they raised the mound with the earth taken out of the pond."
In 1872, Professor Jeffries Wyman visited Mt. Royal while engaged in his
researches among the shell heaps of the St. John's.3 The avenue to the lake was
then overgrown with forest trees.
These forest trees have now been largely cleared away, leaving here and there
a scattering pine, and the ground has been under cultivation. The avenue is still
readily traceable, though its point of union with the mound is no longer visible.
Its course is north about half a mile to the pond, where water lilies were in flower
at the time of our visit. It consists of a depression from twelve to twenty yards
in width at different points, between embankments of sand with an average height
of 2-5 feet, and 12 feet in breadth.


Mt. Royal has been under cultivation4 and consequently by the wash of the
summer rains a considerable quantity of sand from the sides has so raised the level
of the territory immediately surrounding, that measurements taken from the appar-
ent base to the summit are diverse and misleading. Its true height from the sum-
mit plateau to the base, as shown by measurement at the center of the mound, is
'" Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida, the Cherokee, Country
the Extensive Territories of the Muscogulges or Creek Confederacy, and the Country.of the Chactaws," Dublin,
1793, page 97.
2"Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley," page 122, et seq.
3" Fresh Water Shell Mounds of the St. John's River, Florida," page 40.
4William P. Wright, Esq., of Drayton Island, informs us that the entire mound has been ploughed over.


16 feet; the circumference is 555 feet. It is composed of the yellow sand of the
surrounding fields, with pockets and local layers of white sand along and above
the base. Wherever exposed, the sand at the bottom of the mound was found
mingled with pieces of charcoal. Beginning at the margin of the base, a layer of
sand colored by admixture of powdered hematite, covered the entire mound.
This layer attained a maximum thickness of 7 feet on the northeastern portion of
the summit plateau and adjacent slope. The general tint of the layer was what is
called crushed strawberry by dealers in ribbons, though at many points, and espe-
cially in the vicinity of relics, the sand in considerable quantity was dyed a brick-
red, even reaching what is termed Indian red by vendors of colors. At times
streaks and local layers of highly colored sand throughout the entire mound led to
implements, pottery, etc., and while the discovery of objects in the yellow sand
was not uncommon, still in the majority of cases they lay in contact with that
having an artificial color. Realizing this fact, the 21 colored men in our employ
worked with their hands alone in the presence of sand tinted with the red oxide,
and it is doubtless owing to this that but two objects in pottery were broken by
the spade during the seventeen days comprising our excavation.
The use of hematite in this connection in mounds has been noted by us upon but
three other occasions: at Dunn's Creek; at Duval's, near Blue Creek, Lake
Co.; and in the case of the mound a mile due west of Duval's in the piny woods.
At Dunn's Creek, it will be remembered, an outer layer of light pink sand was
found; at Duval's, as we shall see, a layer of pink lay between strata of white
sand, while in the other mound pockets of red sand alone were found, these
pockets always marking the presence of deposits. Mr. Andrew E. Douglass
noticed a similar use of hematite on the east coast of Florida; while strangely
enough a similar custom prevailed among early races in Europe. In the caves of
Mentone, Dr. Riviere repeatedly found objects tinted by contact with the red
oxide;' while Dr. Verneau found a layer of earth in which bodies had been
deposited,2 artificially colored by the use of iron ore.
It is a fact worthy of remark that while an artificial shell deposit of consider-
able depth borders the water's edge in sight of Mt. Royal not a single Paludina,
Ampullaria or Unio was met with in the mound.


In the southern portion of the mound, 12 feet from the margin of the base, a
trench following the base 89 feet in length, was dug. Its breadth at the beginning
was 12 feet, widening after a few feet to 30 feet, again decreasing to 25 feet, the
last 26 feet having a breadth of from 37 feet to 40 feet. Owing to the unstable
nature of the sand, a considerable convergence to the sides was requisite, so that
'De 1'Antiquit6 de 1'Homme dans les Alpes-Maritimes, page 176.
2" Nouvelle Decouverte de Squelettes Pr6historiques aux Baouss6-Rouss6, pros de Menton," l'Anthropol-
ogie, t6me troisi6me, page 526.


even at the broadest portion of the trench the surface of the base exposed had a
breadth of but 12 feet.
Starting from the northern side of the mound, 13 feet from the margin of the
base a trench 36 feet in breadth was dug along the base a distance of 21 feet.
This trench when discontinued had a depth of 8 feet. In addition to these
trenches a great portion of the surface of the mound was dug over to a depth of 7


That Mt. Royal was erected for purposes of sepulture is beyond a doubt. In
every portion of the excavations, though at considerable distances apart, signs of
burials were met with, though meagre and incomplete. In no mound of the St.
John's have human remains been found so fragmentary through the ravages of
decay, and it is probable that traces of many burials have entirely disappeared.
In certain cases human remains were represented by hardened sand retaining
nothing but the shape. Many fragments of bones resembled moistened powder
and crumbled at the touch. Beyond a few crowns of teeth no remains were saved.
It is probable that an admixture of shell with the sand of the mound would have
preserved the bones to a material extent.


While occasional drinking cups, wrought from the Fulgur perversum, have
been found in various mounds of the river, their occurrence has been marked by no
great numbers. The evenly perforated Fulgur with ground beak, usually the carica,
has been met with only in Mt. Royal, where three specimens lay under undis-
turbed strata, and superficially in the Thursby Mound. The discovery, then, in
Mt. Royal of vast quantities of Fulgurs is a feature peculiar to that mound.
These conchs were in no case shaped for use as drinking cups by the removal
of the columella and inner whorls, nor, with but few exceptions, did they resemble
the implements made by the grinding of the beak and the even perforation of the
body whorl above, below or above and below the shoulder, as the case may be.
The shells in question were seldom unbroken, having in nearly every case a frag-
ment knocked off, and these breaks, by a certain regularity as to their points of
occurrence, indicated an intentional fracture. That this fracture was made
through the prevailing custom that actuated the perforation, before or after comple-
tion, of mortuary pottery in the mounds of the St. John's there seems to be
little reason to doubt.
While scattered Fulgurs were met with in every portion of the mound, they
occurred in the greatest number beneath the summit pleateau and that portion of the
mound immediately adjacent, and were rarely found below 7 feet from the surface.
They were often encountered lying in actual contact in great deposits; in one case
so many as 136 being found together. From the main trench 1,307 Fulgurs were


taken; of these but 15 were noted as of the species carica, though possibly a few
may have escaped particular examination.
While objects of stone, of pottery and of metal were found in great abundance in
the mound, there seemed to be no central deposit but a distribution in every direc-
tion from below the base to within a few inches of the surface. Though objects
of stone were sometimes deposited near the dead, more frequently no traces of bur-
ial were apparent with them, and as in the case of the mound at Dunn's Creek,
objects seem to have been deposited in a general way to do honor to the dead as a
whole. On the other hand, in nearly every case, pottery, and invariably beads,
when found, were in close connection with human remains.
Arrow and Lance Points.-During the excavation 93 arrow and lance
points were met with. In nearly every case the material was chert, some-
times bordering upon hornstone. They were infrequently associated with human
remains, and with one notable exception lay usually singly, though sometimes in
pairs. Eight feet from the surface and six feet east of the center of the mound,
not in immediate association but scattered perhaps through a yard of sand, were 53
small arrow points, ranging between -8 of an inch and 1-4 inches in length. The
great majority were of chert, a few of chalcedony, and one of chert breccia. None
had the tang, and many were rude, though some were of finer workmanship,
barbed and serrated. With them lay the claw of a predatory bird, an eagle or a
In but three cases were arrow heads found in association with celts. Two
lance points of chert showed longitudinal strike, giving evidence of intentional pol-
ish, the inequalities of the surface being removed and the edges rounded. Another
lance head, also of chert, had the tang grooved as for suspension and likewise
showed marks of wear. This occurrence of the grooved tang is the first we
have met with on the river. One small arrow head in shape and size was the
counterpart of one figured by Joseph Jones, M. D., from a stone grave of Tenn-
Seven feet from the surface and five feet northwest of an imaginary line
drawn through the center of the mound, with human molars and various articles of
copper, was a.small and beautiful arrow head, probably of chert, which contact
with the metal had dyed green (Fig. 5).

FIG. 5. Arrow head of chert (full size.) FIG. 6. Lance point of chert (full size).
Exploration of Aboriginal Remains of Tennessee," page 46, fig. 12.
3 JOUR. A. N. S. PHILA., VOL. X.


In association with a crystal of quartz were an arrow head and a lance point
of chert of graceful pattern (Fig. 6).
A fragmentary portion of an arrow point was found with a marked curvature
to the barbs in opposite directions, doubtless intended to impart a rotary motion in
No spear points of unusual size were met with or of types previously unre-
Polished Hatchets.-In all, 61 polished hatchets, celts," so-called, were found
during the investigations at Mt. Royal. Scattered through every portion of the
mound they lay often in bright red sand, never more than three in association.
Some of beautiful finish tapered to a blunt point at one end, while others were
more rudely fashioned opposite the cutting edge. All sizes were represented, rang-
ing in length between 3-4 inches and 9-5 inches. One hatchet, upon which a
sandy deposit had formed, clearly showed where a heavy cord had twice encircled
it. The material of the hatchets was, as a rule, the usual trap rock, sometimes
porphyritic, though a microscopic examination, kindly made by Dr. Goldsmith,
showed the rock in certain cases to be of sedimentary origin, non-cleavable, argil-
laceous, closely bordering on claystone.
Polished Chisels.-Six polished implements, evidently chisels, were met with;
the smallest, 3-75 inches in length, gracefully shaped, still showing strias received
during its manufacture (Fig. 7). Another having a length of 4-75 inches was
almost cylindrical (Fig. 8).
The longest chisel, a beautiful implement of highly polished greenstone,
tapered gracefully from the cutting edge to a blunt point. Its length was ten
inches. It was found on the N. N. W. slope of the mound, one foot from the sur-
face1 (Fig. 9). We believe this specimen to be unique.
In the collection of the National Museum implements of this character and
length are wanting in stone, though present in copper from Wisconsin. The type
is not represented in the Museum of Natural History of New York.
Gorget.-A tablet 4-6 inches in length by 1 -7 inches was found on the western
slope 2-5 feet from the surface. Human teeth alone were in association. It was
notched at either end and perforated at one end as for suspension. It was presum-
ably worn upon the chest as a gorget (Fig. 10).
Ceremonial Implements.-Two implements of the rare form known as spade-
shaped were found in Mt. Royal. Both were of polished claystone.2 The smaller,
with a length of 9-5 inches, had four notches or tally marks upon either side. It
was found 18 inches below the surface, 25 feet due south of the center of the
mound. The larger, 11"6 inches in length came from about the center of the
'It is well to remember that the depth at which these implements were found does not represent the
distance from the surface at which they were originally placed. The entire mound has been under cultiva-
tion, as previously stated, and the height has been materially lessened by the storms of centuries in a penin-
sula having a greater rain fall than any other part of the country east of the Rockies.
2Professor Brown and T. D. Rand, Esq., have made careful examination of all stone implements from
Mt. Royal.

FIG. 7. Polished stone chisel (full size).

(full size).

FIG. 11. Ceremonial implement (full size).

FIG. 9. Polished stone chisel
(full size).

FIG. 8. Polished stone
chisel (full size)


mound at a depth of 5-5 feet from the surface. The notches were uneven in num-
ber, eight on one side and ten on the other, as shown in the figure (Fig. 11). As
a rule, we have found the number of these tally marks to agree on either side of
ceremonial implements.
Unlike so many of our aboriginal relics this implement is of a type unknown
in Europe.1 It is of comparative rarity, though of wide distribution, in the United
States. Mr. A. E. Douglass has one from Kentucky with notches, three on each
side of the blade which is slightly convex on the sides. It is highly polished. Its
length is 15-75 inches.2
We are indebted to Thomas Wilson, Esq. for a report of two of these imple-
ments, one of blue trap rock highly polished, found near Columbia, South Carolina;
the other from Kentucky. The collection in the Smithsonian Institution is largely
comprised of casts, and Dr. Rau, in his "Archeological Collection of the United
States Museum," (page 25) takes his figure from a cast.
Colonel C. C. Jones, (Plate XVII, fig. 2,3) figures the spade-shaped implement
found by Dr. Joseph Jones in Tennessee. Colonel Jones believes it to have been
an agricultural tool.
Dr. Joseph Jones4 figures the same implement. It is of highly polished green-
stone, 18 inches in length, and came from Old Town, Tennessee. He reports
others from various parts of the Cumberland Valley. "Several conjectures," he
says, "have been formed as to the use of these singular implements. Some have
supposed them to have been used in agriculture, the flat head being employed as a
spade, and the round handle for making small holes in the earth for the deposit of
grains of Indian corn; others believe that they were used to strip the bark
from trees; others again, that they were used in dressing hides, in excavating
caves, or in felling trees after the wood had been charred by fire. It is
possible that they may have been used for all these purposes, and also as war-like
weapons, since it would be easy to fracture or to cleave the human skull with a
single blow from one of these stone implements."
Mr. Thruston5 reports a number of these implements from various parts of
Tennessee, and rightly, we think, classes them as ceremonial. We consider them
of too infrequent occurrence to suggest their employment for any practical use.
We have been able to learn of none showing breakage or signs of use, and some
reported are too small in size to render them useful as weapons. Moreover, we
think the tally marks on certain specimens connect them with the ceremonial class.
The two from Mt. Royal, the larger of which we figure, are the first reported from
Miscellaneous Objects of Stone.-At various depths, carefully noted on the speci-
mens but not of material interest here, were found a "sinker" wrought from a
1" Prehistoric America," page 170, et seq.
'Mr. A. E. Douglass in private letter.
SOp. cit., page 302.
4Op. cit., page 87.
5" Antiquities of Tennessee," page 295, et seq., fig. 208 and Plate XV.


quartz pebble grooved for suspension; an implement of polished hematite, too frag-
mentary for identification; two pieces of iron pyrites; a bead of ferruginous sand-
stone, 1-5 inches in length and *75 inch in diameter, with a celt" in association; a
rude fragment of hornstone with cutting edge rounded by use, 3 inches in length
by 1'7 inches broad; several pendant ornaments and beads of calcite (Fig. 12),
one bead having a length of 2 inches; a chisel-shaped implement of chert breccia,
3-12 inches long; a quartz crystal -87 of an inch long and "5 of an inch thick,
with longitudinal groove, the entire surface roughened as by
S wear. In association were a lance and an arrow head of chert.
.P f Crystals of quartz, we are told,' were sometimes worn in the
ears of the aborigines. A hammer stone of chert; three
large marine pebbles, one flat in shape, the others oval, and
..- i numerous chips of chert and bits of red hematite were met
i with during the excavation.
I An interesting discovery was a slightly curved cylinder,
apparently a natural sandstone deposit, through which ran a
perforation, having a shoulder at one end (Fig. 13).
FiG. 12. Pendant ornament It is the opinion of some archaeologists that these cylin-
of calcite (full size), ders were used in the smoking of tobacco. Of this we shall
have something to say later in connection with the Bluffton Mound.
Fourteen feet from the surface and 16 feet south of the center of the mound,
with a number of unbroken vessels of pottery, bits of charcoal, a Fulgur, a portion
of the body whorl of the Fulgur
deeply grooved artificially, in a local

the addition of hematite were 951
S: .. fragments of chert and of hornstone.
These fragments, none exceeding a
goose-egg in size, lay scattered over
FIG. 13. Sandstone tube (full size). an area of two or three square yards.
Fragmentary human remains were in
association. It is difficult to assign a motive for this deposit of stone, since
none of the fragments were of a size to serve for the manufacture of implements,
and in addition contained flaws and defects. Not far distant was a similar deposit
of perhaps one hundred specimens. We know of no natural supply of chert or
hornstone nearer to Mt. Royal than the limestone of the west coast.
Beads.-Always in connection with human remains, at various depths in the
mound, were small discoidal beads of shell, at times in great quantities, single
deposits occasionally exceeding a pint. Several beads one inch in length and under,
wrought from the axes of large marine univalves, were scattered throughout the
1C. C. Jones, Antiquities of the.Southern Indians," page 521.


Seven and one-half feet from the surface in the N. N. E. slope of the mound,
with human remains and great numbers of small shell beads, was the perforated
vertebra probably of a catfish. The use of the vertebra of fishes as ornaments was
practised in Europe. Dr. Verneau speaks of the vertebra of a salmon in the caves
of Baousse-Rousse,' while the vertebral bones of various fishes are described and
figured as coming from the same caves by Dr. RiviEre, an earlier explorer.2
Pearls.-During the course of the excavation a number of globular beads were
met with, which examination by means of acid and of the microscope showed to be
pearls, the concentric lamination being clearly marked, which would not be the case
were the material from the nacreous portion of a shell.
The subject of pearls in southern mounds has been exhaustively treated by
Colonel Jones in Chapter XXI.3 We learn that not one was found in the stone
graves by Dr. Jones, while but few rewarded the .search of Colonel Jones. We
believe the discovery of pearls in the mounds of Florida to be hitherto unreported.
The mounds of Ohio yielded pearls to the investigation of Squier and Davis, while
a rich harvest lately rewarded the labors of Mr. Moorehead. The largest specimen
from Mt. Royal measured -36 of an inch and -26 of an inch respectively in its major
and minor axes.
Mr. H. A. Pilsbry of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, to
whom the beads were submitted, writes as follows: Having examined again the
beads supposed to be pearls, I can state with confidence that true pearls they
undoubtedly are. The curvature of the layers in the specimen treated with acid
precludes the supposition that they are beads cut from shell, and indicates a pearl
of nearly spherical form, four mm. in diameter. Where etched with acid the
characteristic structure of concentric lamine of carbonate of lime appears, the
layers of animal matter (conchiolin) which alternate with those of lime having been
dissolved away. This loss of organic cement leaves the delicate layers of lime
unsupported, and the pearls are consequently very fragile. For the same reason
the Unios are peculiarly liable to disintegration, contrasting in this respect with
the shells of porcellanous structure, such as Ampullaria and Paludina, found associa-
ted with them in the shell-heaps.
"The pearls were probably, in my opinion, obtained from fresh water mussels
(Unio). The only marine shell of the Florida coast which could be expected to
produce pearls of this size is Margariti hora radiata Leach, found abundantly on
the Keys, etc.; but sections of the pearls produced by a closely allied oriental Mar-
garitipz>ora which I have examined have the layers of lime distinctly thinner and
closer than in the specimen submitted to me by you. The so-called pearls of Strom-
bus or other gastropods need not be considered, as they have an internal structure
totally different from genuine pearls. It is therefore likely that your specimens
were taken from river-mussels."
SL'Anthropologie, T6me troisieme, 1892, page 528.
2 "De l'AntiquitW de 1'Homme dans les Alpes-Maritimes," page 273, plate XXI.
3 Op. cit.


Pottery.-In that portion of the main trench bordering on the margin of the
mound numerous sherds were met with of good material and mainly of the stamped
variety. As we believe them to be of a later period washed from the surface and
ploughed under during cultivation, they will not be particularly described.
Vessels of pottery were encountered in every portion of the mound, at times
singly and again in association with other objects or with each other. The material
was of fairly good clay, baked by exposure to fire, with no apparent admixture of
shell. As before stated, the presence of pottery, as a general rule, marked an
So great is the pressure exerted by masses of sand that in numerous instances
vessels of pottery were crushed beyond recovery. Others, again, allowed of restora-
tion; while a considerable number were recovered intact. As before stated, but two
vessels of pottery were broken by contact with the spade, the absence of roots being,
of course, a favorable factor in the work. Unbroken pottery in the river mounds
is a somewhat unusual occurrence, and beyond the large superficial deposits in the
Thursby mound and the specimens from Dunn's Creek our explorations have been
rewarded by but few examples of pottery not in a fragmentary condition.
A number of vessels of patterns entirely new on the St. John's were found
during the work, and will be particularly described.
One point in connection with Mt. Royal deserves special notice. Almost uni-
versally in the river mounds each burial is accompanied by small pieces of pottery,
to which, in many cases, the shape of the arrow or lance point has been intention-.
ally given. We have previously referred to this custom in the American Natural-
ist, February and July, 1892, in articles descriptive of the great Tick Island mound.
In the Mt. Royal mound, bits of pottery with the skeletons were absolutely want-
ing, and such isolated fragments as were found had no connection with human
remains, and were probably of accidental introduction. We are of the opinion that
the former inhabitants of Mt. Royal, of greater possessions than the majority of
those who built the other river mounds, were not compelled by poverty to confine
themselves to the interment of sherds with the dead.
Small pots of conventional forms were numerous in all portions of the mound,
but vessels of any size were absent and no fragments were found except superficially
to indicate the use of any of considerable size. Thirteen feet from the surface and
7 feet north-east of the center of the mound was a vessel much resembling a half-
barrel in shape. The bottom was missing. Its height was 7-5 inches. Its
diameter at the aperture was 10-75 inches, at the base 6-5 inches. The external
.decoration was stamped. This vessel was the largest found and the depth at which
it was discovered showed stamped designs to have been in use at the inception of
the mound.
Two feet below the surface was a vessel of yellow clay, 3-35 inches in height,
6'5 inches in diameter at the top, and 4-75 inches in diameter at the base, which
was intentionally perforated at the center. Near the upper margin of the vessel on


either side was a small perforation for suspension (Plate III, Fig. 3). This vase of
unusual type, gave the impression of a, saucer with perforated bottom, placed upon
a bowl. It was undecorated.
Two feet below the surface and 15 feet west of the center of the mound was
an oblong dish, undecorated, with a portion of the bottom intentionally knocked
out. The length of the vessel was 5 inches, its width 3"12 inches with a depth of
1-75 inches (Plate IV, Fig. 1).
Six feet eight inches from the surface, 3 feet north of the center of the mound,
was an imperforate bowl 7"75 inches in diameter, and 2-37 inches in height. Its orna-
mentation was a small diamond pattern conferred through the medium of a stamp.
Fourteen feet from the surface and 16 feet south of the center' of the mound
in a local layer of bright red sand with human remains and fragments of charcoal,
and in connection with a deposit of chert already described, were six unbroken
vessels of clay. In addition were a number crushed beyond restoration. Of the
unbroken pots all had base perforations intentionally made, and all, with two excep-
tions, were undecorated. Of these two one was of a model entirely unique in the
river mounds (Plate IV, Fig. 2). Diameter at opening 3 inches, maximum diame-
ter 4-5 inches, height 3 inches. The other, a bowl (Plate IV, Fig. 3), had a height
of 3 inches, a diameter at mouth of 1-4 inches, with a maximum diameter of 3-75
inches. Of the undecorated vessels in this deposit the largest, a bowl, had a height
of 3-25 inches, with a diameter at opening of 4-85 inches. Another was bell-shaped;
its height 3-5 inches, its diameter at the mouth 4-85 inches.
Three feet from the surface, with fragmentary human remains, was a rude bead
of pottery 2-12 inches in length, with a maximum thickness of 1-12 inches, tapering
somewhat toward the ends, and with longitudinal perforation.
Four feet from the surface was a small vessel of colored pottery. A broken
surface on either side below the margin indicated the former presence of handles.
Five feet six inches below the surface were four small bowls; one in fragments.
All were undecorated, and all were intentionally perforated through the base.
Three were of conventional form but the remaining one much resembled a small
tureen, an unusual pattern on the river (Plate V, Fig. 1). Its length was 3-75
inches, with a maximum breadth of 3 inches. The height was 2-5 inches.
A tube of pottery of dark color, upon which a high polish had been conferred,
was found near the surface. Its length was 3-25 inches, its diameter "7 of an
Four feet from the surface was a vase with flaring top. It was undecorated.
The bottom and a portion of the body were wanting. The height of the remain-
der was 5-5 inches, its maximum diameter 5 inches, the measurement across the
mouth 4-25 inches (Plate V, Fig. 2).
In the northern slope of the mound at a depth of 8 feet was a small undeco-
rated pot, intentionally perforated at the base. In shape it much resembled a cru-
cible; its height was 2175 inches.
1 The term center is used to indicate an imaginary line drawn vertically through the center of the mound.


In the northern slope 6"5 feet down were two small pots; one somewhat in the
form of a tureen had a height of 1 inch at the center, a length of 3 inches, with a
breadth of 2-25 inches.
Eight feet down in the northern trench was a small oval dish, without perfo.
Twenty-five feet from the northern margin of the base, and 7 feet from the
surface, lying on or below the base of the mound in a large pocket of bright red
sand, piled upon each other in actual contact and adhering together so that they were
lifted from the sand as a whole, were six vessels of pottery surmounted by a large
dish. This dish, though broken into fragments by the pressure of the sand, had
protected the vessels below. The vessels had the usual base perforation and had
the conventional shape of mortuary pottery, with the exception that two had each
a handle with a central opening, one projecting laterally, the other vertically (Plate
V, Figs. 3 and 4). Their respective dimensions were length, including the handle,
5-75 inches, height 2 inches; length 4 inches, width 3-2 inches, height 2 inches,
height including handle 4-8 inches. Two had ears extending from the upper mar-
gin, while one gave evidence of having been similarly decorated. The rim of one
bowl was plain.
Four feet below the surface, well down on the western slope, was a vessel of
pottery in a very fragmentary condition, though admitting of partial restoration.
Its height was 6 inches. From a diameter of 3-6 inches it tapered to one of 1-75
inches at the margin of the neck. The margin of the base showed an intentional
omission of the bottom. It is possible that this specimen belongs to a class of mor-
tuary pottery to which fuller reference will be made in the description of the Volu-
sia mounds (Plate VI, Fig. 1). With it lay portions of an almost similar vessel too
fragmentary for reconstruction.
Numerous other vessels of pottery were found during the excavation, some of
which we figure (Plate VI, Figs. 2 and 3; Plate VII, Figs. 1, 2 and 3).
While in certain cases perforation had been made subsequent to manufacture,
the great majority of vessels in Mt. Royal showed small base perforations made pre-
vious to baking. This curious custom, first called to the attention of archeologists
by us, will be more fully referred to later.
Galena.-In the northwestern slope of the mound 6 feet from the surface and'
at no great distance from the base, associated with three "celts" was a small piece
of galena.
Similar bits of lead sulphide are common in the western mounds and are found
in southern mounds north of Florida. Galena was highly prized by the
aborigines for its bright appearance and crystalline fracture. We have no record of
the reduction of the metal from the ore. We have found but one other bit of
galena in the mounds of the St. John's, namely at Tick Island, where its depth
indicated an original deposit.
4 JOUR. A. N. S. PHILA., VOL. X.


Copper.-In every portion of the mound, superficially and almost on the base
where the mound was of the greatest height, were various objects wrought from or
coated with, sheet copper. This sheet copper had the appearance of being an Indian
product, reduced to the desired thickness by hammering, while the design, appar-
ently produced-by pressure, seemed to indicate aboriginal work, an opinion shared
by Dr. Dall to whom a specimen of the workmanship in copper has been referred,
and by Professor Holmes who has examined the entire collection.
Two feet from the surface was a concavo-convex disc of sheet copper centrally
perforated. Its diameter was 1 inch. Such discs are reported from various sections,
and somewhat similar ones are figured by Squier and Davis.1 In one of the mounds
they found a block of compact sandstone with circular depressions and suggest the
probability (page 207) that these depressions were used as moulds to give the discs
convexity through the medium of pressure. Other copper discs closely resembling
the Mt. Royal specimens are reported from Tennessee,2 and described as probably
"relics of De Soto," an opinion which we do not share.
Copper and copper coated beads in various forms were found throughout the
One form consisted of a section of a reed thinly coated with copper, forming
a tubular bead. Rau in "The Archaeological Collection of the United States
National Museum," page 62, describes similar ornaments, though somewhat longer,
from an Indian grave near Newport, R. I. These tubular ornaments, however,"
he says "though covered with verdigris, cannot be very old, considering that each
of them encloses a tightly fitting piece of reed of equal length, evidently stuck into
the cylinders for diminishing the width of the holes, and even remnants of a narrow
thong by which they were connected or attached, have been preserved. It is prob-
able that the tubes are of Indian (not European) workmanship, and their appear-
ance bears witness to a comparatively recent origin."
We are inclined to believe that a conclusion as to a comparatively modern
origin can hardly be based upon the preservation of the reeds and of the thong.
The preservative action of the salts of copper is well known.
Beads of sheet copper were found in Ohio by Mr. Moorehead.8
Three feet down was a piece of sheet copper, 4 inches by 2-12 inches pressed
to form a central protuberance or boss 1-25 inches in diameter at the base. It was
centrally perforated.
Five feet below the surface was an oblong sheet of copper 2-4 by 1-9 inches.
The thickly corroded surface was subsequently cleared by the use of dilute acid,
showing the plate to be of irregular thickness, varying from -16 of an inch to
almost a cutting edge and revealing an interesting design made, we believe,
through pressure, as strike were plainly visible on the indented surface (Fig. 14).
Three feet beneath the summit plateau were two objects of sheet copper which
apparently had been attached to wood, particles being still adherent. One, 1"5 inches
1 Op. cit., page 206.
Antiquities of Tennessee." G. P. Thruston, 1890, page 303.
Primitive Man in Ohio," page 169.


square, had in the center a hollow boss from which ran beaded lines to the four cor-
ners (Fig 15).

FIG. 14. Plate of sheet copper (full size). FIG. 16. Plate of sheet copper (full size).

The other, oval, 2-5 inches by 2-12 inches had also a boss-like, perforated pro-
tuberance (Fig. 16). Ornaments suggesting this pattern appear in various plates of
Le Moyne and notably in Plate XVIII where King Outina is decorated with
numbers of them.
In association with them were beads of wood
thinly coated with sheet copper, beads of shell and the
crowns of nine human molars, one premolar, one canine,
and one incisor. The custom of placing human teeth,'
unaccompanied by other remains, with objects of copper
was very noticeable at Mt. Royal, where it was of fre-
quent occurrence. It may be suggested that in a mound
where human remains were so greatly affected by decay
other parts of the skeleton placed with the metal had
entirely disappeared. To this it may be said that bones
FIG. 15. Plate of sheet copper contiguous to copper are-hardly likely to be destroyed.
(full size). Moreover, as we shall see later, in a low mound in the
pine woods of Lake County, teeth, not connected with skeletal remains, were repeat-
edly found in association with objects of copper, and in this mound the bones
were in a much better state of preservation. In but two mounds of the St. John's
River have we found objects of copper other than superficially, and in but two (the
same) did the burial of human teeth, extracted from the jaw, prevail.
Mr. Moorehead,2 in an Ohio mound, found a human tooth with a deposit of
copper beads, which "from contact with them was almost as green as the copper
1 As a rule, but not always, crowns of the teeth alone were met with.
2 Op. cit., page 170.


Near the center of the mound, two feet from the surface, unassociated, was a
pin or piercing implement of copper; length 2"75 inches, thickness "1 to -2 of an
inch. A portion split from the main part indicated its manufacture by hammering
from sheet copper.
Twelve feet from the center of the mound, 5 feet from the surface, was an
object of great interest, consisting of a sheet of copper 10-6 inches square, centrally
decorated with seven depressed concentric circles and having a figure in each corner,
the conventional aboriginal bird's head (Plate I).1
Beneath the upper plate of copper was a layer of reeds laid side by side and
bound together by closely woven vegetable fibre. On one side, however, the reeds
were replaced by twisted vegetable fibre of equal length and diameter. Behind
this layer was a backing of bark about "25 of an inch in thickness. Next came
another copper plate bent over on itself, projecting beyond the other layers on one
side. It was ornamented with corrugations running in different directions. Behind
the copper were fragments of wood one inch in thickness, probably remnants of a
plank serving as a final backing to the various layers. An interesting fact noted
in connection with the upper plate was that a broken portion had been repaired by
the aid of rude copper rivets.
This object, worn as a breast plate, might seem sufficient to stop an arrow,2
and probably is of the nature of the copper chest pieces seen by the huguenot
Laudonniere, and figured by Le Moyne.
Immediately below this object were small fragments of a human cranium with
teeth, and two pearls, one with lateral perforation. In addition, covered with a
thin coating of sheet copper, were portions of the upper and of the lower jaw
of a small mammal identified by Professor Cope as the gray fox. The mandible
showed perforations as for suspension. In the upper portion the thin metallic
coating had been turned in to cover the interior of the orbit. Teeth of the deer,
treated in the same manner with sheet copper, have been found in an Illinois
Six feet from the surface were ten cylindrical beads of wood, thinly covered
with sheet copper, averaging 1-06 inches in diameter and -75 of an inch in height.
With them were five elongated beads of a like character tapering toward each
extremity: also two cylindrical beads of shell; the crowns of two human molars,
and one premolar; all bright green through contact with the metal.
Objects of wood, copper coated, have been found in the stone graves of Tenn-
Seven feet from the surface was the small and beautiful arrow head to which
reference has been made. In association with it were beads of copper, or copper-
The upper copper plate, greatly corroded, was unfortunately broken in transit. It is, however, capable
of restoration. A careful sketch on scale was made at the time of its discovery.
2Wonderful accounts, however, as to the power of the Indian bowmen are given by Cabeca de Vaca and
by the chroniclers of De Soto.
3Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences, March, 1887, cited by Nadaillac.
4" Exploration of the Aboriginal Remains of Tennessee," by Joseph Jones, M. D., page 45.


coated, still strung on a cord of vegetable fibre, with three spherical pendant beads,
a large one between two smaller ones. The beads, barrel-shaped, were -6 of an inch
in length. With them were human teeth and many small pieces of sheet copper,
evidently fragments.
In association with a polished hatchet, 5 feet from the surface, was a piercing
implement of copper, similar in shape to the one previously described. Its length
was 8-8 inches. With it was a disc of the same metal, badly corroded, with a cen-
tral boss surrounded by a beaded margin. The diameter of this disc was 2 inches.
Two-and-one-half feet below the surface of the
-s~ western slope were two objects, probably of soft lime-
S stone, the upper surface thinly coated at places with
sheet copper, at others exposed by erosion (Fig. 17).
In appearance they greatly resembled large cuff-but-
tons. Their diameter was 1-75 inches; diameter of the
FIG. 17. Copper-coated ear plug
(full size), expanded portion of the shank 1"12 inches; height -6 of
an inch. They were probably ear plugs worn in an
enlargement of the lobe of the ear, a use to which, it has been surmised, the spool-
shaped copper ornaments of the mounds in other localities were put. Many of
Le Moyne's plates' represent ear decorations of surprising size. While his pictures
are doubtless exaggerated, they are unquestionably based upon facts observed by
him during his visit to Florida, (1565).
Somewhat similar ear plugs are figured as coming from a stone grave of Tenn-
Three feet from the surface, unassociated, was a bead apparently of limestone,
copper-coated, one inch in length and "8 of an inch in diameter. At various depths
throughout the mound were beads of clay and of shell similarly coated.
In the northwest slope, 6 feet from the surface, was a sheet of copper about 6
inches by 6 inches, in two fragments. It was enclosed in a matting apparently of
reeds, flattened or split and woven together. Such matting is described as found in
other sections of the country.
The discovery of copper in considerable quantity is new to the records of
mound investigation in Florida. In the publications of the Smithsonian Institu-
tion no reference is made, we believe, to the occurrence of copper in the mounds of
that State, nor have authorities at the Institution been able to indicate references
of such a character. Mr. Douglass, during his extensive mound investigations on
the east coast, found but two objects of copper: one, a bead in the mouth of a
skull, which he believed to be intrusive; the other, a fragment of a spool-shaped
ornament.3 Excluding a hawk-bell and metal buttons, probably brass, from the
Dunn's Creek mound, and plaited wire of copper or brass found in association with
iron at Mulberry mound, all of which articles were clearly of European origin and
1" Breois Narratio," De Bry, Frankfort, 1591.
2 Antiquities of Tennessee," page 168.
3Andrew E. Douglass, Esq., in private letter.


all superficial, we have found copper in but two mounds of the St. John's River, in
both cases scattered from the base to within a short distance of the surface.
That the Indians of what are now our Northern States made use of copper in
pre-Columbian times is gainsaid by none.
That, ignorant of the art of reduction from the ore, they called into requisi-
tion native copper, and that this native copper, found in sufficient quantity in the
Lake Superior region only, consists of the pure metal with occasional admixture of
metallic silver, is generally admitted.
That the Indians of our Southern States were in possession of a certain
amount of copper at a period too early to account for its acquisition under the
hypothesis of barter with, or plunder from, the whites is indicated by the early
The source of supply of this southern copper has not been definitely shown.
Careful examination of the western mounds shows the implements of copper
to have been hammered into shape, and the sheet copper at times to have been
produced by rolling between stones. Now in these same mounds are found drink-
ing cups wrought from the Fulgur erversum, with beads and pins fashioned from
the axes of great marine univalves native to the southern coast. The presumption
that such objects were obtained by barter seems allowable enough and one would
naturally look for copper from the western territory in the mounds of, or near,
those localities from where the implements of shell were derived.' In point of
fact, objects of copper, either of, or resembling, the western type, have been found
in certain Southern States and have been described as of native copper from
Lake Superior, though presumably without the requisite analysis. A complete
investigation by chemical tests might reveal the material to be as stated, and would
certainly enhance, in any event, the interest attached to the copper. Certain
writers, moreover, seem to consider the evidence of malleability displayed by the
copper described by them as indicative of native metal. In point of fact, any
fairly pure copper though reduced from the ore, could with perfect readiness be
hammered into shape. In such matters too many precautions cannot be taken,
and in making deductions "it is well to beware of the expected."
Specimens of copper from Mt. Royal were submitted by us to Messrs. Booth,
Garrett & Blair of Philadelphia. The result of the analysis made by Mr. Garrett
is given herewith:
"The piece of copper, from an Indian mound,' which you left with us a short
time ago, yielded to our analysis:
Copper, 99-258 per cent.
Lead, 0758 per cent.
'For the results of investigation in such localities see: C. C. Jones, op. cit. pp. 226, et seq., and 232, et seq.
Thruston, op. cit. pp. 25, 79, 169.
Eleventh Annual Report, Peabody Museum, p. 307; also Fifteenth Annual Report, Peabody Museum.
Joseph Jones, M. D., Exploration of the Aboriginal Remains of Tennessee," pp. 8, 45, 59, 136,137.
Fifth Annual Report, Bureau of Ethnology, p. 101 et seq.
Rau, The Archaeological Collection of the United States National Museum," p. 59, et seq.


We also examined the sample for silver, antimony, tin, bismuth, iron and
zinc, but found no indication of their presence.
"The sample was very much corroded and was cleaned with acids before
"We do not think that this copper came from Lake Superior, since we have
never found lead in any sample that we have examined; neither can we find any
record of its presence in any published report."
Extended investigation shows no report of the presence of lead in native
Lake Superior copper.
The result of this analysis indicates the copper in Mt. Royal as obtained:
(1) through intercourse with Europeans, or
(2) from aboriginal sources other than the Lake Superior region.
Of this matter we shall speak farther in Part II of this report.
Miscellaneous Objects.-On the base of the mound, near the center, associated
with pottery, in the neighborhood of the chert and hornstone fragments already
described, was the columella of a marine univalve, ground at the beak.
During the excavation, the enamel-like covering of the crowns of two teeth of
the man-eating shark were met with.


So great a mass of sand is piled up at Mt. Royal that a total demolition of the
mound was not attempted, and we are, therefore, debarred from forming final con-
clusions. Among the hundreds of objects taken from the great mound was not
one bead of glass nor implement of iron, nor was any object met with obviously
of European manufacture, or of necessity connecting the mound with a period sub-
sequent to the arrival of the whites.


Four hundred yards north by east of the great mound was a small sand
mound which we totally demolished. Its height was 3 feet 2 inches, its circumfer-
ence, 195 feet. It was unstratified. A little west of the center was a pocket of
shell on the base. No skeletons were met with, nor relics of any sort, with the
exception of two fragmentary arrow points of chert.


About half a mile south of Volusia Bar, Hitchen's Creek, a waterway connect-
ing the river with Lake George, enters the St. John's. On the left hand side, going
up, about a quarter of a mile from the point of union, is the home and grove of
Miles Revels upon a large deposit of shell. A quarter of a mile north of the
house in the palmetto hummock is a sand mound 3 feet 8 inches in height and 243


feet in circumference. The mound is of a brown loamy sand filled
S with palmetto roots. Upon it is a small frame house. A trench, 10.5
feet by 7 feet, along the base on the east side showed no stratification.
Human remains in a bad state of preservation were met with.
Two feet below the surface was a small pendent ornament of hard trap
grooved for suspension (Fig. 18). The presence of the dwelling pre-
vented satisfactory investigation.


tFIG. rnaena- Directly opposite the point of union of Hitchen's Creek with the
(full size). St. John's, Blue Creek joins the river. This name is given to a water-
way which, making a detour, joins the main stream about three miles farther south,
forming an island of what otherwise would be a portion of the main land. On the
right hand side of Blue Creek, going south, about half way up, is a shell deposit
some two acres in extent. The spot is uninhabited, but is reported to belong to
a person named Duval. Following a path running north through the clearing and
turning west into the pine woods, one comes upon a sand mound about 200 yards
distant from the creek. The mound is now virtually demolished. Its height was
5-5 feet, its circumference 165 feet. It was thickly covered with scrub oak and
scrub palmetto whose roots, permeating the mound, made satisfactory investigation


About one foot beneath the surface of the mound, which was otherwise com-
posed of the white sand of the surrounding territory, ran a layer of pinkish sand,
having a maximum thickness of 18 inches. At places, especially in the neighbor-
hood of any deposit of pottery or of implements, the sand had been given a brick-
red hue.
Chemical analysis showed the coloring matter to be pulverized hematite.
This tingeing of the sand, it will be remembered, was noticed at the Dunn's Creek
mound and at Mt. Royal. We shall refer to it again in the case of a mound
shortly to be described.
About 15 feet from the southern margin of the base and three feet below the
surface was a small local deposit of Paludine. Otherwise the mound was devoid
of shell.


Burials were all original, lying under the unbroken stratum of pink sand.
They were mainly on or below the base and were all of disconnected bones, crania
greatly preponderating. Occasionally one or two long bones lay together, but no
ribs nor any of the smaller bones were apparent, save occasional cervical vertebrae


in connection with the skulls. At one spot near the center of the mound, with no
long bones in association, at a depth of 6 feet, were 6 crania almost in contact.
With them were a lance point of chert and several fragments of pottery.
The affinity of certain plants for nitrogenous elements was well exemplified in
this mound. Masses of roots, in some cases almost solid, filled the skulls, forming
a perfect cast of the cavity, somewhat resembling a cocoanut when the moldering
remains fell asunder.
No bones were in condition for measurement.
With the exception of several arrow points and 2 pots, one semi-ovoid in shape
(Plate VIII, fig. 1), nothing of interest was recovered.
About 100 yards southwest of the burial mound is a low sand mound of
unusual shape. Partial excavation yielded nothing. A diagram is appended.

0 / _f ofo P"` ?-,-1,c 4 near 234,/ue_ Creek.


Following the trail from Duval's clearing and passing the two mounds just
described, at a distance of about 2 miles in the pine woods we found an unstratified
mound of pure white sand containing occasional pockets of red sand surrounding
deposits of implements, pottery, etc. Its shape was a symmetrical truncated cone.
Its height was 4 feet 4 inches, its circumference 180 feet. It was leveled to the base.
5 JOUR. A. N. S. PHILA., VOL. X.


Owing to its isolated position its existence was known to but two or three persons
and no investigation had ever been attempted.


In this mound, burials were of the bunched variety.
Crania.-In all, 30 crania were met with, of which several were saved. At
times bundles of long bones were found without the skull, while in other portions
of the mound fragments of isolated crania were encountered. At times great
bunches of long bones were found with two or three crania in association. These
bunches were taken out in a solid mass, almost without exception thickly envel-
oped by roots. Roots of the scrub palmetto ran in numbers through the shafts of
the long bones, partially filled the crumbling skulls and appeared in bunches
through the sockets of the eyes. Most skeletons lay near or upon the base. Exactly
in the center of the mound, in actual contact, were seven crania surmounted by a
mass of long bones lying at all angles and in all planes. With the long bones lay
mandibles, pelves and scapulm, but smaller bones were wanting.
Humeri.-Five humeri showed three perforations, a percentage of 60. Of the
perforated, two were from the left side and one from the right. Two were male
and one of uncertain attribution.


Minimum Maximum Oscillation
Total. Average Index. Index. Index. Exponent.
Male 5 134-3 126 146- 5-8
Female 2 120- 116 124-
Uncertain 5 110-4 105 114 2'5


Minimum Maximum Oscillation
Total. Average Index. Index. Index. Exponent.
Male 5 63-8 541 70-4 5-9
Female 3 65-5 63-8 67-9
Uncertain 2 67-6 66-6 68-6


Unassociated, completely encysted in a mass of roots, was a spherical bead of
calcite having a diameter of one inch.
Apparently unassociated with human remains were several small pieces of
sheet copper; one fragmentary cylinder with overlapping edges, fashioned from
sheet copper; four human incisors and one canine; nine shell beads with a diame-
ter of one inch each, and sixteen smaller beads of shell.


With no human remains in the

'<'-- wrought river pebble; a fragment of
sheet copper; a small implement of
FIG. 19. Pendent ornament (full size). shell that crumbled upon exposure to
air, and a pendent ornament of hard polished trap rock (Fig. 19).
In another portion of the mound was a small copper cylinder with overlap-
ping edges, and a piece of sheet copper.
With a portion of the shaft of a human femur were a number of shell beads;
one bead of calcite; small pieces of sheet copper; fragments of decaying wood,
upon which the metal had served as a coating; several small bones of lower ani-
mals, dyed a bright green from contact with the copper, and a beautiful hoe-shaped
implement of polished trap rock, 7-3 inches in length, with a maximum breadth of
5-2 inches (Fig. 20).
The hoe-shaped type of implement is hitherto unreported from Florida.
Colonel Jones' describes a specimen from Georgia which differs from the attribution
of Squier and Davis who classed one of its type among ornamental axes. The
implement found by us seems to show slight marks of wear upon the edge, while
the specimen described by Colonel Jones has marked abrasions. A somewhat simi-
lar implement is figured as from Arkansas, and is described by Professor Holmes as
an "implement or ceremonial stone."2 The Smithsonian collection includes three
of these implements from Louisiana, and we read of an object of light blue slate
from Canada suggesting this type though the shank is more elongated.8
At several points in the mound the crowns of human teeth were found in
association with copper which had imparted to them a bright green color. This
inhumation of teeth, unassociated with other human remains, we have noticed in
but one other mound of the St. John's, namely, Mt. Royal. As we have previously
stated, Mt. Royal and the mound under discussion were the only two among all
the river mounds investigated by us which yielded copper showing aboriginal
Analysis of the copper from this mound was made by Mr. Garrett, of Booth,
Garrett and Blair, who returned the following report:
The last sample of copper from an Indian mound which you submitted to us
was almost, if not quite, oxidized through and through, and therefore we could not
remove the earthy matter from its surface, but treated the whole with acids, etc.
"The sample consisted almost wholly of copper with traces of lead, and also a
little iron and alumina, with a little sand; these last three substances coming from
the earthy coating. We found no silver in the sample."
The result of this analysis is virtually the same as that of the copper from
Mt. Royal.
'Op. cit., page 289, et seq., plate XIV, fig. 14.
'Third Annual Report Bureau of Ethnology, page 479, fig. 152.
'Annual Report Canadian Institute, 1887, page 32.


FIG. 20. Hoe-shaped implement (full size).


Pottery.-The pottery of this mound showed marked peculiarities which will
be described at length by Professor Holmes. Three small pots, imperforate as to
the base, were taken unbroken from various portions of the mound. One with
an upright projection from- the side (Plate VIII, fig. 2) closely resembled a class of
pottery to be described later in connection with the Thursby mound. In this
case, however, the projection, or handle, did not start from a thick mass at the bot-
tom and extend upward along the side, but had its origin at the margin of the
Sherds wrought to resemble rude arrow heads were notably absent in this
mound, as we have noticed to be the case where the makers of the mounds seem to
have been well provided with objects of value for inhumation.
Near the eastern margin of the mound was a solid animal head of pottery
4"75 inches in length, with a maximum diameter of 2"1 inches. The body was
wanting (Plate VIII, fig. 3). Professor Cope considers this head as probably hav-
ing formed part of an effigy of the marsh rabbit. Arthur E. Brown, Esq., Super-
intendent of the Zoological Society of Philadelphia, is strongly impressed with the
reptilian cast of features, and thinks it not unlikely that the fragment represents
the head of an Iguana, an animal found in regions south of Florida.
Near the eastern margin of the mound, just below the surface, was a spool-
shaped object of- pottery with central longitudinal perforation. Length 6-5 inches;
5 inches and 4 inches in diameter at ends. A broken surface at each extremity
debars any determination of the use of this curious object (Plate VIII, fig. 4).
Entirely unassociated, was found a curious pendent ornament of clay, perfor-
ated for suspension (Plate IX, fig. 1).
Another remarkable object was a coarse, thick, hollow, truncated cone of pot-
tery, laterally flattened, 4"4 inches in height, 6-5 inches in greatest diameter, max-
imum width 4*4 inches. The bottom had been intentionally omitted in manufac-
ture. On either side of the upper margin were apparently remnants of a handle
(Plate IX, fig. 2).
The gem of the collection from this mound was an animal effigy in clay, prob-
ably representing a turtle. The head was extended, the tail curved upward, the
body was hollow. The sides and legs were ornamented with lines and dots in a
pattern common to certain sherds in the mound. Remains of red pigment were
traceable upon the body. From point of snout to tip of tail this curious effigy
measured 11-7 inches, its average width being 4 inches, its height 4-5 inches (Plate
During the demolition of the mound certain sherds were found allowing of
partial restoration, the result indicating a gracefully shaped urn (Plate XI).


The mound in the pine woods near Duval's well illustrates how certain sand
mounds, resembling each other in a general way, vary in detail. The inhumation


of teeth unassociated with the jaw; the presence of sheet copper with aboriginal
designs; the admixture of pulverized hematite with the sand in places, and the
burial of objects of value, unassociated with human remains, as if through respect
for the dead in general, would seem to connect the builders of this mound with the
race that heaped up Mt. Royal.
On the other hand, the total absence of polished hatchets and the presence of
curious effigies and forms in pottery are a departure, so far as our investigations
indicate, from the customs of those who built Mt. Royal.


The small town of Volusia lies on the right hand bank of the St. John's about
8 miles above Lake George. Shell deposits line the river's bank, while the Dillard
grove in the rear is situated upon great ridges and heaps of shell. In woods about
400 yards northeast of the town was a group of low sand mounds probably five in
number. The country is somewhat uneven in character and various knolls might
readily be mistaken as of artificial origin. The mounds lay near together and
were unstratified, consisting of the same brown sand as the surrounding territory.
The mound of the greatest altitude had a height of 3 feet 3 inches; the low-
est was but 1 foot 9 inches in height.
These mounds were partially excavated during July, 1892, by Charles and
Barney Dillard of Volusia, this being the only occasion when work was done upon
any mounds included in this report otherwise than in our immediate presence.
From the mounds on this occasion were taken many fragments of large vessels
which we have examined and found to be of coarse yellow clay, made by means of
the coil by which, it will be remembered, a vessel of pottery was constructed much
after the manner of a straw hat. These fragments were apparently all of vessels
having perforations in the bottom, intentionally made previous to baking. Red
pigment had been used for purposes of decoration. The pottery was otherwise
unornamented. How much pottery was broken through imperfect methods of
excavation we are unable to state. Two large fragments (Plate XII, figs. 1 and
2) and a vessel in perfect condition (Plates XIII and XIV) are now at the Peabody
Museum. The shading in the illustrations indicates the painted decoration. The
unbroken vessel has a height of 1'-5 inches, its breadth is 19 inches, the aperture
is 10 inches in diameter; while the perforation at the base, made previous to bak-
ing, has a diameter of 3"5 inches. This urn-shaped vase is characterized by Pro-
fessor Putnam as "an entirely new form of utensil for archaeologists to puzzle
over."' Another large pot, now in the Wagner Free Institute, Philadelphia, has a
height of 10-25 inches, a maximum diameter of 15"5 inches with a diameter of 9"5
inches across the aperture. Through the base is a perforation made previous to
baking, having a diameter of 2-5 inches. The ornamentation of this vessel con-
sists of bands laid on with red pigment. One encircles the upper margin. From
'Report of Peabody Museum, 1892, p. 6.


this band three others extend vertically, two being surrounded by double curved
stripes, the other by only one.
In addition to this pottery, nothing, with the exception of two arrow heads
and human remains, rewarded the search of the Dillards.
November 13, 14, 15, 16, 1892, were devoted by us to careful work on such
portions of the mounds as remained. The burials were all of the bunched variety,
the cranium surmounting the bundle of long bones arranged horizontally. Upon
at least four occasions-a feature never noticed elsewhere in our mound investiga-
tion-large fragments of pottery were placed in actual contact on the skull. In
one case the top of a large vase laid over a skull had somewhat the appearance of a
hat. When, as was sometimes the case, the cranium lay beneath the bundle of
long bones this did not occur. One skull showed an ugly perforation, oval in
shape, *5 of an inch by "32 of an inch, in the right half of the occipital bone and
occupying the center of the triangle formed by the median line of the bone, the
right half of the superior transverse line and the lambdoidal suture. The blow
seemed to have been delivered obliquely. There was no splintering of the inner
table nor any exostosis, nor were any scratches or cuts apparent on the outer sur-
face suggesting trepanning.
No crania were saved in condition for measurement.
Of 6 humeri, 4 showed perforation.
One tibia showed an index of 64-4.
One femur gave an index of 136.
Lying in immediate association with a bunched burial were found together
two arrow heads; three chipped implements of chert, the largest having a length
of 5 inches; one spear head; four chips; two cores; a fragment of sandstone, and
three pieces of shell implements.
Several additional arrow heads were found during the excavation. While
fragments of large vessels were numerous, admitting of partial restoration, our
search yielded but one unbroken vessel, a small earthenware pot decorated with
crimson pigment. In this case a hole had been intentionally knocked in the bot-
tom, and not made previous to baking.
In none of the river mounds have we seen pottery approaching the size of that
from the low mounds of Volusia; while the curious custom of manufacturing mor-
tuary pottery with intentional perforation of the base previous to baking, a class of
pottery that could serve no purpose in the land of the living, is especially empha-
sized in these mounds. We are of the opinion that the breaking in pieces of whole
pottery when interred with the dead did not obtain with the Indians of the river,
since vessels when found broken lay in place as crushed by the weight of sand.
When disconnected fragments have been found with a skeleton they have often
proved to be of different patterns, and never capable of restoration. The mutilation
of pottery by perforation at the bottom is referred to by Squier1 as practised by
'Aborig. Mon. of the State of New York, page 71, foot note.


Florida Indians and by those of Oregon "to remove any temptation to desecration
of the grave which might otherwise exist."
Mr. Beauchamp' tells us,' speaking of later Indians, that "one feature of the
copper kettles found in the ossuaries, or bone-pits, is hardly creditable to the Cana-
dian Indians, at least the Hurons. When placed in graves they were almost uni-
versally perforated at the bottom, to render them useless, and so prevent robbery
of the tomb." We presume reference is made to the kettles.
Of this same custom prevailing among the Hurons we read2 elsewhere that
"after the arrival of the French, brass kettles were often buried with the bones.
These were purposely damaged at the time of interment by having a large hole
knocked in the bottom with a tomahawk. As many as twenty of these kettles
have been found in some ossuaries, especially those of the townships of Medonte.
Besides kettles, they buried copper and glass beads, wampum, pipes, pottery, copper
and stone axes, chisels, and, in fact, almost everything to be found in a Huron
We are of the opinion that the mutilation of pottery was practised in the
observance of some sacred rite, rather than for removal of incentive to theft.
Unbroken articles of great value to aborigines, as we are told, were placed with the
kettles by the Hurons, while we have observed how mounds, perfect mines of
wealth, were left unmolested by the Indians of Florida, inspired, doubtless, by a
superstitious terror or reverence for the dead.
We are unable to find, however, that Indians other than those of the St.
John's River, made mortuary pottery with perforation of the bottom previous to
Nothing indicating contact with Europeans was found on the base of the Vol-
usia mounds. One bead of blue glass was thrown out from the largest mound while
digging the second course. That is to say, one series of spadefuls had been dug
from the surface. A spade penetrates about 8 inches. If the bead lay on top of
the contents of the spade, as to which we have no means of knowing, its depth
below the surface was 8 inches. If, on the other hand, its position was beneath
the surface of the second course, it may have attained a depth of 16 inches.
These mounds are reported by the inhabitants to have been under cultivation, and
well marked furrows are in the neighborhood. A considerable party working with
trowels a number of days would, it would seem probable, have discovered beads
with the skeletons had any existed, and it is our belief that this solitary bead, at
one time superficial, owed its position when found to the agency of the plow.


Bluffton, formerly Orange Bluff, lies on the east bank of the St. John's, about
four miles south of Volusia, Volusia County. It has long .been under cultivation
'The American Antiquarian, May, 1890, page 167.
'Annual Report Canadian Institute, 1887, page 58.


and many objects of interest have been found in the vast shell deposits now cov-
ered with orange trees. In addition to many shell heaps there are upon the place
a conical mound of sand and shell, which has not been thoroughly investigated,
and a mound of sand somewhat more oblong in form than the usual truncated
cone. For permission to investigate this mound we are indebted to William Edgar
Bird, Esq., the owner. Professor Wyman, a score of years ago,1 made a superficial
examination of one of these mounds and finding skeletons, naturally supposed the
tumuli to have been erected for purposes of sepulture. While both mounds at
Bluffton contain intrusive burials, the results of our investigations show that the
sand mound, at least, had probably been constructed for a different purpose.
In the month of March, 1879, we were permitted to make a superficial exami-
nation of the sand mound, and were rewarded by the discovery of the skeleton of
a man, lying a short distance beneath the surface. In association were a tube of
stone (Fig. 21) and a fragment of human skull ornamented with incised lines (Fig.

FIG. 21. Stone tube (full size). FIG. 22. Ornamented fragment of human skull (full size).
This section of cranium possessed deep interest, since at that time the discov-
ery of no other ornamented piece of human bone was on record in the United
States, while but two specimens showing workmanship had been reported.2
Of this fragment of human bone, now in the Peabody Museum of Archbology,
Professor Putnam writes as follows: "I have looked up the piece of skull that
you sent in 1879 from the mound at Bluffton, and enclose an outline of the same
showing the lines cut upon the fragment. It is beyond question a piece of the
parietal bone of a human skull. It was probably a circular ornament cut from a
parietal bone such as I have found several times in Ohio, some of which are very
elaborately carved and correspond to the shell ornaments of the same circular
shape. I have also seen one of these circular pieces of parietal, from an Indian
grave in Ontario, not carved but simply perforated for suspension, so that this cut-
ting pieces of the human skull for ornaments seems to be rather widely spread-
say Florida, Ohio, Canada."
1 Fresh Water Shell Mounds of the St. John's River, Florida," page 37.
2 Jeffries Wyman, op. cit., page 63.
6 JOUR. A. N. S. PHILA., VOL. X.


An analysis of the stone tube is reported from the.Peabody Museum as fol-
lows: "Rock seems to be a light volcanic rock, probably a tufa derived from the
lava called andesite. Not found nearer than the Rocky Mountain region in the
U. S."
The occurrence of cylinders of stone and of pottery is reported from Florida
to Canada.1 Their use is uncertain, though the weight of opinion inclines to their
employment in the smoking of tobacco. Fig. 23
// represents a tracing made from Trofno Codex, by
H. C. Mercer, Esq., to whose courtesy we are
indebted for its use.
'*:. At the time of our second visit (1892) the
'i mound was 14 feet in height and 305 feet in circum-
*ference at the base. On the summit was the
*' ( r\ l \ usual plateau. Upon the sides grew live oaks of
considerable size, the circumference of the largest
being 9 feet at a distance of 5 feet from the
Ground. The sand of which the mound is mainly
composed seems to have an admixture of clay,
FIG. 23. From Troano Codex (full size). rendering it cohesive and difficult to dig.
On the east an excavation was made with a
width of 5 feet at-the start, broadening almost immediately -to 8 feet, then to 11-5
feet and decreasing to 10 feet and to 8 feet at the end. This trench, at times con-
verging toward the base, was 38 feet in length, with a maximum depth of 12 feet.
The mound is built on a large deposit of shells which forms its base and
extends on every side beyond. At the point where the trench-was begun it was
necessary to dig through 2 feet of sand to reach the shell deposit. Of these, one
foot belonged to the present height of the mound, and the other foot may be consid-
ered as a part of the original height before a stratum of sand of that thickness was
formed on the surrounding shell deposit. The excavation passed through the cen-
ter of the mound which is not entirely regular in shape, being somewhat elonga-
ted to the north and south. It would seem, judging from the various strata as
shown in the plan, that a smaller mound, having its apex to the east of the present
center of the mound, had been covered with light brown sand containing a slight
sprinkling of shell and a certain percentage of clay, and that this outer layer had
not been put on in a way to continue symmetrical stratification.
About 25 feet from the beginning of the trench, the strata C, D, E, F (see
plan) began abruptly. It is highly propable that these layers owe their discontinu-
ance at this point to some previous comparatively superficial excavation. The
strata B, C, D, E, F, viewed in connection with other mounds, present no remark-
able features, with the exception of the "muck" layer, D, which we have seen in
but one other mound in the river. No reference to such a stratum existing in any
Annual Report of the Canadian Institute, 1887, page 41.. .


Section ofMoundlBlufron.
A, center of plateau; B, brown sand and shell; C, lighter brown pure sand; D, Muck" layer; E,
brown sand with slight admixture of shell; F, shell; H, brown sand with slight admixture of shell; I, shell
base; K, apex of shell base, L, balls of sand; M, point where C, D, E, F, were lost; V, beginning of excava-

other mound of the State has come to our notice. The material, while in the
mound and damp, could be moulded like wax, and slices cut from it resembled the
section of a truffle. Some hundreds of yards from the mound is what is termed a
" muck pond," and from this was probably taken the material which, with an
admixture of clay and sand formed the stratum.
The point at which the various strata reached their highest, with the excep-
tion of the outside covering of brown sand, was distant 8 feet east of the termina-
tion of the trench, at which point these strata had considerably descended from
said apex. At the base was a shell ridge (K), probably an irregularity of the
shell deposit previous to the formation of the mound.
About 5 feet from the surface, above the apex of the shell ridge (K), were
found two balls (L), nearly round and about one foot in diameter. They were
apparently composed of a mixture of sand and clay, with an intermingling of bits
of charcoal and fragments of calcined shells of Unio. The balls had appar-
ently been subjected to heat, having a hard outside coating varying from -25 to '5
of an inch in thickness. They were broken with great difficulty.


With the exception of intrusive burials which were frequently met with at a
short distance below the surface, no human bones were found during the entire
excavation. From intrusive interments three humeri were obtained, all perforated.
Two tibise belonging to one body had marked anterior curvature. Their indices
were 73-8 and 75-8


Three broken arrow heads, superficial and probably belonging to the period of the
burials; a tubular bead of shell 2-1 inches in length, 3 feet from the surface (Fig.

fie-: /.



24); three flint flakes, various depths; implement
of deer horn 5"5 feet down, much resembling the
Swedge of elk horn figured in Plate XVIII, Smith-
sonian Report, 1886, Part I.
FIG. 21. Tubular bead of shell (full Pottery.-With the exception of two frag-
size). ments on the immediate surface, no pottery was met
with during the entire excavation. The shell deposit
of Bluffton is the largest in area of any on the river, covering in all about 35 acres,
attaining at one point a thickness of 25 feet. In the shell deposits north of the
mound, pottery is sparingly met with. It is abundant in the great orange grove to
the south. In the immediate neighborhood of the mound a number of excavations
had a negative result in respect to the pottery. A natural desire on the part of the
owner to avoid injury to his trees prevented a more extended excavation, or a total
demolition of the mound subsequent to which conclusions could be more accu-
rately drawn. The entire absence of pottery and of burials other than superficial
in a stratified mound would be an anomaly on the river.


Immediately opposite Bluffton about a quarter of a mile from the western bank
of the river is a small mound of white sand. Previous investigators have made
exploration useless.


This interesting mound has been four times investigated by us, the results of
the first three investigations having been embodied in two articles in the American
Naturalist, February and July, 1892, respectively entitled "A Burial Mound of
Florida and Supplementary Investigation at Tick Island." In all sixteen entire
days have been devoted to Tick Island, exclusive of considerable time given to the
shell deposits in the vicinity of the mound.1
Tick Island is reached from the St. John's River by turning east and crossing
Lake Dexter to the mouth of Spring Garden Creek, and by following the course of
this creek until a tumble-down wharf of palmetto logs is reached, whence a
path half a mile in length leads to the burial mound.
Tick Island is separated from the mainland by a narrow waterway, its other
boundaries being Lake Woodruff and Spring Garden Creek. The Island presents
in parts a wild appearance, covered as it is with gnarled live oak and towering
palmetto, with trailing vine and tangled undergrowth, where the presence of the
rattlesnake imparts a certain risk to exploration. With the exception of one small
house upon the island, at intervals occupied by the hired man whose care it is to
look after the orange grove, the nearest point where quarters can be secured is at
Astor, eight miles distant on the river.
1 The description of Tick Island and of the earlier investigations are condensed from the articles referred
to above.



The burial mound, 17 feet in height (spirit level and tape line measurement),
in circumference 478 feet, is conical in shape, save to the East, where from the
summit a gradual slope extends into a winding causeway or breastwork.
The base of the mound is composed of shells, apparently brought from the
neighboring shell-fields to serve as a foundation in the marshy soil.
Across the center of this layer of shells from north to south runs a ridge of
pure white sand. Above this ridge of white sand is a stratum of dark brown loamy
sand mingled with shells, while the sides of the ridge are rounded out with brown
sand in which shells are wanting, thus forming a symmetrical mound. At the cen-
ter of the mound the brown sand layer was 6 feet 2 inches in depth and the
white sand layer 5 feet 8 inches, leaving to the shell base a thickness of 5 feet
5 inches above the level of the margin of the base of the mound. In the northern
trench the white sand layer was encountered almost at the start. On the western
side it was found at a distance of 30 feet from the margin, while on the southern
side it began at 20 feet.
As has been stated, a long and winding causeway joins the Tick Island mound,
which on this side, sloping to meet it, is much less steep than elsewhere.

Mound and Causeway, Tick Island.

In the rainy seasons, the territory surrounding the burial mound becomes soft
and swampy, and a causeway to the place of sepulture would prove of great con-
venience, and for this purpose the causeway probably served. The raised pathway
terminates at a large bean-shaped shell, or refuse heap, upon which and the adjacent
acres of shell-fields the Indians doubtless lived.


The length of the causeway, following its curves, is 392 feet, its average height
4 feet; the average breadth of base 25 feet, and average breadth of summit 15 feet.
Leaving one end of the bean-shaped shell heap is a less well defined causeway
228 feet in length. It skirts a portion of the base of the mound, but its point of
union, if it ever existed, has disappeared.
In addition to numerous shafts, three trenches were made:
1.-From the northern margin, 46-5 feet long, 13 feet broad and 9 feet deep at the
2.-From the western margin, 54 feet in length, 8 feet broad, diverging to 14 feet,
and 10 feet deep at the end.
3.-Beginning on the southern slope of the mound, 12 feet from the margin of the
base, 53 feet broad, converging to 11 feet in breadth, 43 feet from the start.
These trenches all followed the convex base of shell which attained a height
of from 5 to 7 feet at and near the center of the mound.


The great Tick Island mound as an ossuary exceeds any other on the St.
John's of which we have cognizance; for while at Ginn's Grove probably, and
at Mulberry Mound certainly, more human remains are found on an average in the
same area, yet the size of these mounds, in nowise comparing with that of Tick
Island, renders much less numerous the total burials contained in them.
Superficially in the brown sand layer were skeletons in anatomical order, possibly
intrusive. Throughout the entire brown sand layer were disconnected bones and
portions of skeletons in anatomical order. At one place, for example, lay a pelvis,
one humerus, one clavicle, one unbroken femur, one in fragments, a piece of the
shaft of a tibia, an os calcis, three cervical vertebrae, a fragment of another
humerus and a piece of a radius. The breaks were ancient. Jaw bones lay
some feet away from other portions of the skeletons. It was evident
that remains taken from the bone house had been interred without any
attempt at order.' Some skeletons, however, probably original, were found in ana-
tomical order in the brown sand, or upper layer. At four feet from the surface,
not far from the base of the mound, was the skeleton of a young person, as shown
by unattached epiphyses. The skeleton was in anatomical order throughout. One
wisdom tooth, had made its appearance, while the other three were still embedded
in the jaw. The first left lower molar was much worn through the dentine, the
second was so in places; while the right first molar showed dentine in spots. In the
upper jaw also dentine was apparent in the first molars. This excessive wear,
remarkable in one so young, has been noticed by us previously in the mounds, and
is probably attributable to the nature of the food. If the men of Tick Island were
identical with the makers of the shell heaps, the worn condition of the teeth can
1The skeletons from which, after exposure, the flesh had rotted or been stripped were stored in the bone
house against the next date for general interment.


be really understood, a percentage of sand being contained in the shell fish which
formed their principal article of diet.1
In the white sand layer, burials, save at the top and along the shell base of
the mound, were very infrequent, though toward the center a few were found.
Both in the shell and above it burials were contiguous at times, and at no point
were they widely separated. But one layer of bodies extended into the shell.
The bones were usually in anatomical order, though bunched skeletons were met
with. The mingling of forms of burial is common on the St. John's as in other
portions of the United States.2
Crania.-No crania were saved, all being crushed and decayed beyond hope
of recovery. No signs of decay were observed in any teeth, though the marks of
an alveolar abscess were in one case apparent. In the four mandibles preserved
the teeth are all present.
Humeri.-During our first two investigations at Tick Island, no notes as to
human remains were taken, the bones being sent direct to the Peabody Museum,
During the third investigation 46 humeri were recovered; of these, 16 were
perforated, giving a percentage of 34-8.
In the course of the fourth investigation (March, 1893) extreme care was
taken. In. no case was an instrument3 used in the removal of sand from the fosse,
while a magnifying glass was called into requisition where a shadow of a doubt
existed as to the nature of the perforation. During the entire investigation a
trained anatomist was on the ground, and, with three exceptions where determina-
tion was impossible, all humeri found were included in the classification.
In the determination of sex, comparison with other portions of the skeleton
was sometimes employed. In other cases, where the structure of the bone left room
for doubt, the humerus was uniformly placed in the uncertain class.
We have thought it well to keep separate the lists of the bones found in the
upper and lower strata, not through the belief that the upper layer was a later
addition to the mound or that we consider all its human remains intrusive, but it
seems best to keep apart the bones from the base which are beyond suspicion.

Male. Female.4 Uncertain.
Perforated. Not. Perforated. Not. Perforated. Not.
Rights 7 5 4 1 3 4
Lefts 3 5 3 1. 4 4

10 10 7 2 7 8
Total humeri 46 ; perforated 25 ; a percentage of 54-3.
We have eaten both Paludince and Ampullarice in the form of soup.
2 Fifth Annual Report, Bureau of Ethnology, page 108.
SGentle motion in water readily disengages sand from the fosse.
4The crushing in transit of one perforated humerus precludes data as to its side and size of perfora-
tion. The side of one unperforated humerus has been overlooked. These perforated humeri can be seen
at the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia.



Male. Female.

Perforated. Not. Perforated. Not.

0 8 3 2
2 7 2 0


5 2


Perforated. Not.

4 3
4 3

8 6

Total humeri 38; perforated 15 ; a percentage of 39-5.
Grand total of humeri 84 ; perforated 40 ; a percentage of 47*6.

Size of Perforation. White Sand. Measurements are given in mm.

Average Maximum
Diameter. Diameter.






Brown Sand.

Measurements are given in mm.

Perforated. Diameter.

Uncertain .



For details as to the perforation of the septum between the olecranon and cor-
onoid fosse the reader is referred to Dr. Topinard's ZElments d'Anthropologie Gin-
drale, page 1015, et seq., and to an interesting paper by Dr. D. S. Lamb in the
American Anthropologist for April, 1890, entitled "The Olecranon Perforation,"
from which we have borrowed the subjoined table:

1 (Translation from "Anthropologische Methoden," by Dr. Emil Schmidt, pages 303-304).
S* "The extent of the mean deviation of every member of the list from the generalaverage. For the calculation of
the same the difference between the general average and each member of the list is determined, considering it of like value,
whether negative or positive; the sum of all these differences is then divided by the number of individuals in the list. If one
indicates theindividual difference by d, the sum of the individual differences by Sd and the number of the members in the list by
n, the oscillation exponent corresponds to the formula Sd
To demonstrate the significance of the oscillation exponent in estimating the value of a list, we shall assume that we
are dealing with two lists having the same number of members and the same sum, therefore, also the same average; but which
are very dissimilar. One of the lists consists of the members 1, 2, 3, 11, 12, 13; the other of the members 8, 8, 7, 7, 6, 6. The sum
of each of these lists is 42; the average for ea'h is therefore -y = 7. But the differences between the individual membe rs of
the first list and the average are 6, 5.4, 4, 5. 6; the sum of these differences is 30; the oscillation exponent is therefore 1 = 5.
Inthe second list the differences are 1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1; their sum = 4; their oscillation exponent = t = 0'67. The size of the oscil-
lation exponent shows us, therefore, how closely the members of a list group themselves about the mean: the greater the os-
cillation exponent, the less uniform (typical) the list, and vice versa."
2 In this list is included as one the sum of a double perforation.



: : :


No. of No. of Per
humeri. foramina. cent.

89 48 54
150 69 46
30 . 32
32 34-3
80 .. 312
20 6 30
62 17 28
67 18 28
122 ... 2.5-6
156 . 21-8
97 . 21-7
61 12 20
28 14-1
30 . 12-1
66 . 10-6
388 . 10-6
288 22 7-5
27 2 7
.16 1 6
200 . 55
96 5 5
150 . 46

*218 . 4-1
52 . 3-8
*218 7 3-2
30 0 0

A. M. M. coll., . Prehistoric Arizona Indians.
Bull. Anthrop. Soc., Guanches, Canary Islands. (Verneau).
Topinard, Yellow and American races.
IIndian Mounds of U. S. Wyman, Peabody Museum.
The author, Private collection, mainly negro and mulatto.
A. M. M. coll., . Indian mounds, U. S.
Pruner-Bey, From Vaureal, France.
Topinard, .. Guanches of Canary Islands.
Dolmens and grottoes around Paris. Polished stone.
African negroes.
A. M. M. coll., . Prehistoric Indians, ancient cities, New Mexico.
Topinard, Melanesians.
.Dolmens. De Quibfron.
Caverns of 1'Homme mort, Lozere. Polished stone.
Dolmens, Lozere. Polished stone.
A. M. M. coll., . Mostly white soldiers.
Anthrop. Soc. Paris, Bulletins. From Chamont, stone age.
A. M. M. coll., . Negroes and mulattoes.
Topinard, Parisians from IVth to XIIth centuries.
A. M. M. coll., . Contemporary Indians.
Topinard, Parisians of Cemetery of Innocents. (Hamy and Sauv-
iParisians of Middle-Ages. (Brocaand Bataillard).
... 'Europeans of America. Wyman, Peabody Museum.
Bull.Anthrop.Soc.Paris, Paris cemetery of XVIIth century, Broca.
Topinard, iLong barrows of England, bronze age.

Probably same collection.

Length and Torsion of the Humerus.-It is quite evident that comparatively
few humeri can be recovered suitable for measurement for length and for torsion,
owing to the necessity for the preservation intact of the articular portions.
All measurements for length of long bones are made with the planchette and
In determining the degree of torsion we have followed the method of Schmidt2
with a slight variation. This modification has to do with the determination of the
transverse axis of the elbow joint. To fix this line the bone is held perpendicularly
with the lower end uppermost, the inner margin presenting itself to the eye. A
thread, one end of which is held against the inner surface of the bone by the thumb
of the hand grasping the humerus, is carried over the center of the inner margin
of the trochlea, stretched along the middle line of the articular surface, and carried
down the opposite-side of the bone to be retained by a finger. The articular sur-
face is then held directly beneath the eye, and the exactness of the line determined.
The points at which the thread crosses the articular margins are marked with
ink and in the subsequent measurement are made to coincide with a straight line
across the base of the instrument. The head of the bone passes above into a notch
1 See Topinard's Itlments d'Anthropologie G6nurale," page 1033.
2 "Anthropologische Methoden," page 204 et seq.


in a sliding shelf which holds the protractor with margin parallel to the base line,
and a needle made to coincide with the line previously drawn across the head indi-
cates the degree of torsion.
The results obtained by this method vary from those of Broca, who made use
of the inter-epicondilar axis in place of the axis of the elbow joint. An objection
to the use of the epicondyles is their variability in size and direction.


AMeasurements are given in mm.









Not Perforated.



Measurements are given in mm.

Sex. Side. Length. Torsion.

Male Right 292 1420 Not Perforated.
Male Left 320 115 "

Femurs.-The index of diameter is taken with the caliper square at the mid-
dle of the shaft. The percentage is derived at -by dividing the antero-posterior
measurement by the lateral measurement.
No femurs were measured as to index where the shafts were incomplete, an
accurate determination of the center of the bone being thus assured.


Number. Average Index. Index.

22 124-3 153
18 114 121
9 115-7 123

Minimum Oscillation
Index. Exponent.

108 8"18
109 2-72
106 5



Male 9
Female 9
Uncertain 8

Average Index.



Minimum Oscillation
Index Exponent.

110 7-2
104 3.5
108 3*5



For the purpose of comparison we give a table of indices of the femur given
by Dr. Topinard in his "T laments d'Anthropologie 'Ginirale," page 1019, where, in
addition, can be found full details as to the pilastered femur.
1 Anonymous femur 158-0
1 Cro-Magnon 128-0
5 Great Canaries, No. 5 117-5
5 No. 1 975
1 Minimum of the latter 90-9
9 Cavern de l'Homme Mort (polished stone) 1096
1 Minimum of same 95-6
15 Grotto of Bray (polished stone) 1067
15 Grotto of Orrouy (polished stone) 109-3
15 Parisians 109.2
20 African negroes 105-8
1 Minimum of same 718
13 New Caledonians 127-6
2 Rachitic femurs .. 111-1
8 Anthropoids 79-7
Attention is.called to the maximum index of one femur found at Tick Island;
namely, 153. Its mate has been submitted to Dr. Topinard who has kindly fur-
nished the following note: (translation).
"Description of a diaphysis of a femur, submitted to me by Mr. Clarence B.
Moore, from a mound at Tick Island, Florida.
Femur from the right side, originally about 45 centimeters in length, belong-
ing to a subject, male in all probability, about 1"67 meters in height.
"It has a slight inward curve or bend, the center of incurvation corresponding
to the junction of the upper and the middle thirds where the two lips of the line
aspera begin to separate.
The lower end of the specimen is circular, or rather oval, with maximum
diameter antero-posterior, showing that a good extent of the bone is lacking at this
The upper end terminates below the trochanters, and shows' the usual flatten-
ing from before backward.
"The middle two-thirds of the diaphysis are compressed laterally, thus losing
the prismatic, triangular form ordinarily found at this level. Nevertheless three
faces and three borders present themselves: an anterior face, narrow, rounded and
limited by the two anterior borders also rounded; an external face plane or slightly
convex; an internal face concave longitudinally ; and a thick posterior border drawn
out into a pilaster.
The breadth of the linea aspera is notable, measuring 8 millimeters. Below,
the margins separate for their course to the condyles; above, the separation is still
greater, the internal margin passing toward the lesser trochanter, the external
toward the greater.


To judge by the eye one .would place the degree of pilaster at 5 in a table
limited by the terms 0 and 6. But in the absence of the extremities a misjudgment
is easy.
By determining the minimum width and the maximum antero-posterior diame-
ter of the bone in the middle region where the femur shows the least thickness the
following figures are obtained: width 23 millimeters, antero-posterior diameter 35
millimeters, giving as the index of the transverse section of the femur 152-2, the
width being taken as 100.
The method of the minimum and of the maximum is the one which I employ.
One might present the objection that it is necessary to take the two measurements
at the same level. But what level shall we choose ? The mimimum width does not
occur at the same point as the maximum antero-posterior diameter; it is found at a
point 45 millimeters higher up. If both measurements are taken at this level we
have, width 23, antero-posterior diameter 34, index 147-8. If, on the other hand,
we make both measurements at the level of the maximum antero-posterior diameter
we have, width 24, antero-posterior diameter 35, index 146-6. The difference is
appreciable. To escape the difficulty we could take the level midway between these
two, giving, width 23, antero-posterior diameter 34-5, index 150.
"I believe this last mentioned point was the one adopted by Mr. Clarence B.
Moore, as I perceive that it is indicated by a transverse scratch of the finger nail.
He is perhaps right in principle, but in practice I believe my process the better:
What is really sought ? The relationship of the most marked transverse flattening
to the greatest antero-posterior development, the two being in inverse ratio and the
effect of one and the same case.
"For that matter the result is practically the same in the present instance
whether we regard the index as 150 or 152. The femur from the mound at Tick
Island has one of the most marked linese asperse of which we are cognizant; it sur-
passes the femur of Cro-Magnon and approaches the exceptional femur which
we have cited, in our Elements of Anthropology. If the remaining femurs from the
same mound are as flat, we could say that it is an important characteristic of the
race to which they belonged.
In conclusion I would remark:
"1. It would be well to arrange a convenient nomenclature for this character;
to find a term to express it.
"2. In my Elements of Anthrqpology I. followed the method introduced by
Broca for the determination of tnis index, taking the width as 100.
The reverse would be more rational, taking the antero-posterior diameter as
100. In the case of the femur at hand this would give 65-7, which shows at a glance
by what percentage the width is exceeded by the antero-posterior diameter."1
Five measurements for length have been taken. Two are projections -on the
axis of the shaft, one from the head, the other from the great trochanter; two give
the same measurements with the bone in natural position, while the fifth includes
SDr. Topinard's judicious suggestions were received as we went to press, too late to avail ourselves
of them.


the distance between the tip of the great trochanter and the articular surface of the
external condyle.
Brown Sand Layer. Measurements are given in mm.

Projected on axis. Oblique Position.
_- ___. - Great Troch. to
Sex. Head. Great Troch.. Head. Great Troch. Ext Condyle.
Male 469 451 461 434 440
S. 50 438 445 425 430
Female 409 406
420 411 414
White Sand Layer. Measurements are given in mm.

Projected on axis. Oblique Position.
Great Troch. to
Sex. Head. Great Troch. Head. : Great Troch. Ext. Condyle.
Male 467 452 465 446 447
440 ii 437
Tibice.-The platycnemic (sabre-shaped) or laterally flattened tibia, has long
been considered a racial characteristic. Its occurrence was reported among the races
of caves, barrows and mounds, and among early and unmixed races. 'It is, how-
ever, notably wanting in the skeletons of Spy.1 Dr. Manouvrier in his Mimoire
sur la Platycndmie ckez I' Homme et chez les Anthropoides,"' an able and exhaustive
paper, maintains that platycnemia results from the need of a surface upon the
tibia, broader, more extended, more advantageous for the insertion of the posterior
tibial muscle. It results from the marked activity of this muscle, and is in no
wise due to the relative predominance of the muscles of the anterior region of
the leg, a predominance invoked without proof by various authors.
Platycnemia favors the resistance of the tibia to an antero-posterior flexion,
but it is not produced through need of this resistance alone.
The function of the posterior tibial muscle, which by its marked activity pro-
duces or maintains platycnemia in the human species, is not its direct function, which
is the flexion-adduction of the foot, but, in fact, its inverse function, the immobiliza-
tion of the leg in those movements in which the weight of the body tends to tilt it
The inverse action of the posterior tibial is called for particularly in running
and in walking over rough and hilly ground. Platycnemia, then, should be looked
for principally among peoples living in countries more or less mountainous,
people following the chase."
* (page 542) Thus platycnemia in man could be a character transmitted
by a climbing anthropopithecus, but it is not a character of either evolution or func-
tional inferiority. The resemblance to the monkey is a purely morphological char-
acter retained, be it observed, by a function essentially human; it tends to disappear,
among civilized people, only through a diminution of this activity." (Translated).
1 La Race Humaine de Neanderthal ou de Canstadt en Belgique, Recherches Ethnographiques sur
des Ossements Htmaines, decouverts dans les dep6ts quaternaires d'une grotte Spy et determination de
leur Age geologique, par Julien Fraipont et Max Lohest." Extrait des Archives de Biologie, tome VII,
1886, page 656 ; et. seq-See also Dictionnaire des Sciences Anthropologiques," page 1058.
2 Memoires de la Societe d' Anthropologie de Paris. Tome troisieme, deuxibme serie. Paris, 1883-
1888.-Page 469 et. seq.


It is evident that Dr. Manouvrier is a believer in the transmission of acquired
characteristics, and through this he -would doubtless partially explain the marked
platycnemic character of tibiae from the mounds and shell heaps of Florida, a sec-
tion the monotonous evenness of which is proverbial; In addition, in a discussion
on platycnemia following an analysis of the above quoted paper given in advance,1
to an objection raised as to the level nature of the country where many American
platycnemic tibiae are found, Dr. Manouvrier explained that the act of climbing
could not always by itself be considered the cause of platycnemia, and that this
modification of the tibia was more probably due to the inverse action of the poster-
ior tibial muscle in connection with running and jumping. According to Dr. Man-
ouvrier, platycnemia is of somewhat less frequent occurrence and less marked in
very large tibiae and in the tibiae of women.
The measurement of the tibia for platycnemia is made at the level of the
nutrient foramen. The index is ascertained by dividing the transverse diameter by
the antero-posterior diameter, the reverse of the method employed in the case of the
femur. Dr. Manouvrier considers-as markedly platycnenic all tibiae with an index
below 55; as hardly perceptible from 65 to 69, and of the ordinary form with an
index of 70 and over.2 Dr. Schmidt considers within the limits of platycnemia all
indices under 65.3
During our second exploration at Tick Island 55 tibiae were measured, giving
an average index of 63-9. Two tibiae, the most platycnemic, were mates, their
indices being 51 and 51-7. Unfortunately, these data were obtained by the aid of
ordinary calipers, which allow in some cases a certain obliquity of measurement.
On our fourth visit to Tick Island the following results were obtained:
Brown Sand, or Upper Layer. Measurement with caliper square.
Maximum Minimum Oscillation
Tibise. Total. Average Index. Index. Index. Exponent.
Male 19 62-4 70-4 511 2-76
Female 23 644 736 548 -. 4-67
Uncertain 4 62.8 66 8 59.9 2-15
White Sand, or Lower Layer. Measurements with caliper square.
Maximum Minimum Oscillation
Tibia. Total. Average Index. Index. Index. Exponent.
Male 11 60-4 71-8 535 4-6
Female .11 63-9 1 744 57 6 4-1
Uncertain 10 603 65-' 57- 2-2.
From the surface to the base of the mound, associated and unassociated with
human remains, were found ten arrow heads and two lance points. Of the lance
points one was rude and massive; the other slender, somewhat resembling what is
sometimes termed a drill. The material of these points is chert, hornstone and
chalcedony. Upon two occasions, three arrow heads were found in association each
time with human remains, once superficially, twice, six feet below the surface.
'Bulletin de la SociWte d'Anthropologie de Paris-Tome dixibme; IIIe serie, Paris, 1887, page 136.
Op. cit., page 130.
3 Op. cit., page 289.

FIG. 25. Implement
human bone (full size)


Ten and one-half feet from the surface, with a small horn-
stone arrow head and human remains, was a sheet of mica 3
inches by 5 inches. This mineral, of comparatively frequent
occurrence ini mounds to the north of Florida, is very infre-
quently observed'in that State. Upon no other occasion, with
the exception of a minute fragment in Mt. Royal, has it been
found by us; while Mr. Douglas, in 40 mounds on or near the
east coast, met with it in but one. There are mines of sheet mica
in North Carolina.
But two of the instruments known as "celts" were found
in the mound at Tick Island. Both were superficial and appar-
ently unassociated.
Great numbers of small shell beads were found in connec-
tion with human remains, almost invariably near the skull.
Eighteen inches from the surface, near the skeleton of an infant,
was a barrel-shaped bead wrought from the columella of a large
marine univalve. Its length was 1-4 inches, with a maximum
thickness of "8 of an inch. In the perforation at one end still
remained a small bead of the kind so numerous in the mounds,
leading to the belief that these larger beads sometimes served as
central ornaments in strings of smaller ones. Mr. Thruston figures
a large bead in this association as the probable method of arrange-
In the white sand layer, with no human remains in associa-
tion, was a rude pendant ornament of shell, grooved for suspen-
In a mass of brown sand, a "cave from above, was a sti-
letto-shaped instrument of bone (Fig. 25). Its length was 9-25
inches; its diameter at the top, from which the articular portion
of the bone had been removed, was 1-22 inches. Below the
upper margin it was encircled by an incised line while on one
side, running longitudinally, were three perforations extending
to the central cavity of the shaft. These perforations had each
a diameter of -25 inch, and were from -50 to -75 of an inch
apart. The implement tapered to a flat point. With the excep-
tion of a fragment, doubtless belonging to a similar object, we
have met with nothing recalling the stiletto in any of the
sand mounds of the'river, though at Mulberry Mound, a shell
heap of Orange County, two wrought from the canon bone of
the deer were found by excavation.2
Implements of the stiletto shape are by no means infre-
quent in other sections of this country or in Europe. At the
National Museum are three implements of bone somewhat
resembing the implement from Tick Island. They are about
7-5 inches in length, with rounded points and have but one lat-
eral perforation. They are decorated with three sets of three
encircling lines and were found by Dr. J. C. McCormick in a
of Op. cit., page 317.
S American Naturalist, Aug., 1893. Mulberry Mound.


mound in Jefferson Co., Tenn. Professor Haynes is of the opinion that objects of
this type were used in the weaving of baskets.1
In some of the western mounds we learn of their manufacture from the bone
of the elk. A peculiar interest attaches itself to the specimen at Tick Island.
Professor Cope is of the opinion that in all probability this implement was made
from the delicate femur of a young person or of a woman, from which continued
scraping has removed all traces of the line aspera.
We have seen that objects, probably used as gorgets, were made from the human
skull, but the record of implements wrought from the shaft of human long bones is
meager indeed in this country. Professor Wyman reports2 the finding of a worked
humerus in a Massachusetts shell heap. Professor Haynes exhibited to the Boston
Society of Natural History3 an implement made from the upper half of a human
humerus. The ball of the joint forms the handle, while the shank has been cut
down one-half and sharpened to a point."
The use of human bones as implements was not unknown in pre-historic Europe.
During the first excavation two portions of the human skull were found, one
with two perforations of about the diameter of an ordinary lead pencil, the second
with a similar hole in the center and the evidence of another on its margin.
These perforations are too small to suggest trephining. The fragments were
probably portions of gorgets or head ornaments. We are told of perforated por-
tions of crania found in Canada, of one of which we read that it may have been
interlaced with brightly dyed grasses, feathers or porcupine quills, and thus worn on
the breast, or it may have formed a base of adornment for head gear.4
Six and one-half feet from the surface, in the white sand layer, with a
quantity of shell beads, was a lump of galena, coated with carbonate. One foot
above in the brown sand layer was an interesting deposit of long pins and bodkins
of bone. With one exception, all were in fragmentary condition, though three per-
mitted of subsequent restoration (Figs. 26-31).
One long pointed implement, broken near the head, had been repaired by the
aid of perforations drilled in either fragment near the fracture, for the purpose of
attachment through the medium of a cord or sinew for which a groove had been
worked on either side (Fig. 26). The head of one needle, the point of which was
unfortunately missing, showed considerable artistic taste (Fig. 27).
Six feet seven inches from the surface, beneath human remains, was a large
Fulgur erversum, fashioned into a drinking cup by the removal of the columella
and the inner whorls. The aperture was turned toward the surface of the mound,
while above it, as if a species of cover, was a large sherd in fragments. Carefully packed
within the shell were two small marine shells; a Fulgur, species canaliculata, and
a young Murex spinacostata from which the spines had been carefully removed by
grinding; one bone awl, grooved around the head; a pendant ornament fashioned
1 Proceedings Boston Society of Natural History, Feb. 15, 1893.
2 Op. cit., foot note, page 51.
3 Feb. 15, 1893.
4 Annual Report of the Canadian Institute, 1887, page 53, fig. 107.


Fi' 30.
FIF. 26.

Piercing implements of bone (full size).
8 JOUR. A. N. S. PHILA., VO. X.
Frm. 31.

FrI. 28.

FIG. 26.
Piercing implements of bone (full sihe).
8 JOUR. A. N. S. PHILA., VOl.. N.


from the axis of the
(fig. 32); two pieces

Fulgzr, grooved at both ends and partially cut away
of fungus; a pear-shaped pebble, grooved for sus-

FIG. 32. Pendent ornament from
axis of Fulfgr (full size).

FIR. 33. "Sinker" of
quartz (full size).

FIG 34. Pendent ornament of
shell (full size).

pension (fig. 33) ; a flat pendent ornament of shell 2'6 inches in length, grooved
at the upper portion with central perforation in the groove (fig. 34), and a small
fragment of pottery.
Along the top of the white sand, with the bones of a child and a quantity of
small shell beads, was a pendent ornament fashioned from the lip of a marine uni-
valve, having a length of 4-12 inches, a width of 1-4 inches. One end was perfor-
ated. This pendant doubtless served for personal decoration in connection with
the beads. In association with it were eight marine shells-one Area pexata, one
Arca incongrua, one Pectunculus, and five specimens of Pecten with a fragment
of another. These shells were all perforated and probably served as a necklace.1
Pottery.-Twenty-seven feet from the margin of the base in the southern
trench, 7 feet beyond where traces of the white sand layer were first apparent, was
the first burial in the white sand layer. At this point the brown sand, or upper
stratum, was 5 feet 3 inches, and the white sand below, 2 feet 4 inches, in thick-
ness. Immediately above was a pot with a rounded unperforated base, 7-4 inches
in height, with a maximum diameter of 7'5 inches midway between the base and
aperture. Its diameter at the mouth was 5-5 inches. Below the aperture was an
incised line encircling the pot, surmounting a line of semi-perforations -25 of an
inch below, while beneath these was a circle of red paint. Near the margin of the
aperture on either side was a small perforation for suspension.
'Necklaces of shells were used by primitive man both in Europe and in this country. See M. Riviere,
"De Antiquit6 de l'Homme dans les Alpes-Maritimes," plate XXI. and C. C. Jones, op. cit.. page 518, and foot
note, 519.


The finding of an entire vessel of any size in the mounds of the St. John's is
of such rare occurrence that special stress is laid upon this discovery.
Not far distant from the vessel above described, with human remains, was an
elongated bowl of graceful pattern, 7-75 inches in length with a maximum width
of 6"5 inches. Its depth was 3 inches. A portion of the bottom had been
knocked out. At either end the rim became concave to the extent of -25 of an
inch. When inverted the pot much resembled in shape the carapace of a turtle.
In immediate association was a fragment of human skull, calcined, and the crown
of a human molar blackened by fire.
On the base of the mound was a bit of pottery, the fragmentary condition of
which was a matter of regret. In shape it strongly suggested the beak and canal
of the Fulgur when given the form of a cup (Plate XV, fig. 1). Reproductions
in clay of drinking cups of shell are reported from other sections. In this speci-
men the curve was peculiarly graceful.
Twelve feet from the surface on the base of shell was a fragment of a small
jar with curious ornamentation (Plate XV, fig. 2).
In former excavations three small pots were found by us at Tick Island. All
were unperforated as to the base and lay with original burials. Two were undec-
orated, one of a design previously unreported is figured in the American Naturalist,
July, 1892.
On the base also in the various trenches were sherds of excellent material and
artistic decoration (Plate XV, fig. 3), quite unlike any met with in numerous
excavations in the adjacent shell heaps.
Many small bits of pottery placed with bodies had been intentionally given the
form of an arrow head. We shall refer again to this custom.
It will be noticed that at the Tick Island mound the perforation of the bot-
toms of vessels, either by intentional fracture or in construction previous to baking,
did not obtain to the same extent as in certain other mounds of the river.

During our extended investigations in the Tick Island mound absolutely
nothing indicating contact with the whites was met with, nor were objects of pol-
ished stone found other than superficially. In comparison with the mass of mate-
rial handled the objects discovered were but few, and when we consider the results
yielded by the mounds at Dunn's Creek, at Norwalk Landing, in the pine
woods near Blue Creek, and at Mt. Royal, we are led to believe that poorer and
probably earlier Indians piled up the sand mound at Tick Island.


To reach De Leon Springs it is necessary, after leaving the St. John's, to pur-
sue a somewhat devious course as shown by the map. A considerable shell deposit
borders the Springs.


In the pine woods, three-quarters of a mile to the north, is a sand mound in
the form of a truncated cone. Its height is 9 feet, its circumference 450 feet. It
is unstratified and is composed entirely of white sand, with the exception of
pockets of shell, mostly Unionidae, found along the base, and of a shell ridge in the
center having a height of 4 feet.
A trench 9 feet in breadth and 35 feet in length was dug along the base
through the center of the mound. During the entire excavation, with the excep-
tion of one superficial burial, neither human remains, pottery nor implements of
any sort were found, though small bits of charcoal were abundant.


This mound was visited by us during the winter of 1892 and 1893. It lies on
the east bank of the St. John's one-half mile north of Lake Beresford, immediately
opposite the shell bluff of Huntoon Island. But 50 yards from the water it is hid-
den from view by oaks and palmettoes, while on it grow giant live oaks, one 12 feet
3 inches in circumference 5 feet from the base. A causeway of shell connects it
with a shell ridge bordering the river. It is the property of Mrs. L. P. Thursby,
of Blue Spring, favorably known in connection with antiquarian research in Florida
since the time of Professor Wyman. Permission was readily granted to investigate
the Thursby mound and the large shell deposits bordering the famous Blue Spring
some miles farther south.
The mound is very symmetrical. Its height above the surrounding level is 11
feet, its circumference 300 feet, its form the usual truncated cone.
On the northern side was started an excavation 9 feet from the margin and at
that point vertically 3 feet from the base. Its width at the start was 8 feet, diverg-
ing to 13 feet and converging to 9 feet at the end, at which point the trench was 14
feet in depth. Throughout its course, a distance of 25-5 feet, it followed the base.
The mound lies upon a deposit of shell which extends beyond it on the south and
west, but is not traceable toward the swamp on the northern side. Upon this shell
deposit, around the mound, a layer of dark colored sand had formed to a thickness
of 3 feet, thus encroaching upon the height of the mound which, from the summit
plateau to the base of shell, upon which were bones, has a vertical height of 14 feet,
as shown by the excavation. 'This shell base, it is worthy of remark, did not
have an ascending slope, as is the case at Tick Island, at Bluffton and at Ginn's
Grove, but seemed to be perfectly level.
Upon the base lay about 6 inches of dark brown sand, differing greatly from
the pure white sand above. At a distance of 22 feet from the margin of the base
of the mound and 8 feet from the surface began a second layer of shell, with 4 to 5
inches of brown sand on top, and having 3 feet of white sand between it and the
layer of brown sand lying upon the shell base. The second layer of shell upon
which burials were made in the brown sand extended but 6 feet towards the center,
where all traces of it were lost.


This stratum was in its turn surmounted by white sand which lay beneath the
brown sand composing the surface of the mound.


Superficial skeletons in anatomical order were numerous. Original interments
were mainly confined to the shell base, the first being encountered 22 feet from the
margin and 9 feet from the surface, and to the shell layer above, though some badly
decayed skeletons were found in the white sand. Their infrequency of occurrence
is in marked contrast to the quantities of bodies met with at Ginn's Grove and at
Tick Island. The bones lay in anatomical order, though it is not impossible that a
different form of burial exists in other parts of the mound.
During the first investigation no crania were saved.
Three humeri from the original burials were imperforate; eleven from super-
ficial burials showed seven perforations, a percentage of 63-6.
Five tibise from original burials gave an average index of 62. An equal num-
ber from interments near the surface showed an average index of 64.
Our second investigation was confined to superficial portions of the mound.
Four crania and two calvaria were saved.
Humeri (superficial).-Of 21 humeri 13 showed perforation, a percentage of
Measurements are given in mm.

Total. Average Perforation.

3 6-1
3 7-8
7 5 3




10 5

Oscillation Exponent.


Of the 13 perforated humeri 7 were from the right side and 6 from the left.
Grand total of superficial humeri 32, perforations 20, or 62-5 per cent.

Leng-tz and Torsion of Humeri. Measurements are given in mm.

Sex. Side. Length. Tor-ion.

Male Right 302 1260 Not Perforated
Uncertain Left .304 1270 Perforated





Average Index.





Oscillation Exponent.


Uncertain .

Uncertain .


Length. Measurements are oiven in mm.

Projection on shaft. Oblique position.
S. Great Troch. to Ext. Condyle.
Sex. Head. G. T. Head. G. T.
Male 450 436 442 419 427


Minimum Maximum
Total. Average Index. Index. Index. Oscillation Exponent.
Male 15 63 55"1 77-1 5-1
Female 2 592 53-7 64-9
Uncertain . 1 64-9


With the original burials lay bits of pottery of good material, some showing
traces of a red pigment. With the exception of a lance head of chert 5 inches in
length (Fig. 35) nothing of interest was found with the remains other than super-

"' ,, '. "A .
-- -~s ~L4~

FIG. 35. Lance head of chert (full size).
Eighteen inches from the surface in the northern slope of the mound was found
the point of an implement of bone, recalling the entire implement met with at Tick
Island. Unfortunately, this one was too fragmentary for identification.
SSuperficially, with a skeleton in close association, was an axe of iron (Fig. 36),
and a polished "celt" 3-25 inches in length. It has been thought by some writers
that inasmuch as no allusion to these implements of stone can be found in the early
Spanish chronicles, and as the celt" escaped the vigilance of the Huguenot writers
and the pencil of Le Moyne, the supply in Florida had disappeared by inhumation
prior to the coming of the whites. The finding of a "celt" associated with iron
leads us to a different conclusion.
Axes of iron of the type discovered in the Thursby mound are of wide distri-
bution. They are reported from California,' from New York,2 and we read that no
1U. S. Geographical Surveys west of 100th Meridian, Vol. VII, page 275.
2 Aborig. Mon. of State of New York, E. G. Squier, page 78, fig. 21.


FIo. 36. Axe of iron (half size).
less than 300 iron tomahawks were ploughed up in a field in Canada.1 We have
met with them in Florida, also, at Dunn's Creek, at Raulerson's near Lake Harney
and at the Indian Fields on Lake Ruth.
With intrusive burials were two small polished hatchets of stone and a small
"sinker or pendent ornament, grooved at one end for suspension, wrought from a
Precious Melals.-Superficially, with the skeleton of a woman, in close proximity
Sto a cervical vertebra, associated with beads of shell, was an ornament
o of sheet gold, oblong in shape -6 of an inch by -77 of an inch. Its
weight was 18 grains. Around the margin on one face were indenta-
\ tions, while a deeper and larger one occupied the center at the inter
F 37. Ornament section of two diagonal lines. Near the center of the margin of one
Flm. 37. Ornament
of gold (full size.) of the narrow sides was a perforation for suspension (Fig. 37).
With a skeleton 6 inches from the surface, in close proximity to the cranium,
was an ornament of sheet silver. In shape it somewhat
SI resembled a crescent though the inner border lacked suf-
'ficient concavity. Its length was 1-58 inches, its maxi-
Q 0 o I. mum breadth -72 of an inch. Its weight was 50 grains.
Fr. 8. Ornament of sr In the center was a large indentation made by repeated
Frm. 88. Ornament of silver
(full size). impact of a pointed implement. Around the margin
were small indentations, of which three, perforate, doubtless served as means of
attachment to a band or a garment. It was greatly oxidized (Fig. 38).
Pots and Effigies of Pottery.-It was reserved for the Thursby mound to
reward our labors by a find hitherto unreported, we believe, not alone in Florida
but in any part of the United States. In an oblong space, 6 feet in breadth and
about 25 feet in length, beginning 18 feet from the center of the summit plateau
on the southeastern slope and extending to the margin of the base, from 4 inches
to 1 foot below the surface was a deposit of pottery amazing in number and variety
of specimens, including pots, dishes, bowls, effigies of animals, of plants and of
1Annual Report Canadian Institute, 1867, page 11.


various other objects. The vessels of pottery, probably with but one exception,
were of the coil method of manufacture which, it will be remembered, consisted of
welding together coils of clay. These vessels varied in diameter between 1-35 inches
and 4-75 inches. All but two had a perforation in the bottom made previous to
baking. Many contained coils of clay upon the inner surface of the base from
which a projection extending along and above the side served as a handle to the
vessel (Figs. 39-41). Others had parallel bars of pottery along the base, the use

Fi;. 39. (full size)

Fri. 40 (full size).

FIG. 41 (full size)


FIG. 42. Pottery vessel (full size).


FIG. 43. Imperforate vessel representing section of gourd (full size).
of which it is difficult to determine (Fig. 44). In all 75 specimens of vessels of
pottery were recovered, of which.but 4 were decorated. In two cases larger ves-
sels contained smaller ones inverted.
No less than 48 animal effigies, ranging from 2 to 7 inches in length, were
recovered in almost unbroken condition. Among these were 8 fishes and 10 turtles.
Many showed perforations as for suspension. Some were of spirited design, giving
evidence of considerable artistic feeling. These effigies were submitted to Arthur
E. Brown, Esq., to whom we are indebted for suggestions as to the identification of
some of them. Among them were recognizable two species of turtle, probably the
logger-head and the snapper; several species of cat, including probably the puma
and the wildcat; bears; squirrels; a wild turkey; possibly a dog, and in all prob-
ability a beaver. Several otters, also, were identified, while one effigy somewhat
resembling that animal, held in its mouth a round object in no wise suggesting the
fish diet of the otter (Fig. 45). One effigy, though unbroken, offered no clue
for identification and must be put down as a freak of fancy. The snout closely
resembled that of a tapir, but in other respects the effigy had nothing in common


FIG. 41 (full size).

FIG. 45 (full size).

FIG. 47. Small pot (full size).

Fr(.. 46 Decorated pot (full size).

FIG. 48. Vessel suggesting turtle (full size).

FIG. 49. Pottery plate (full size).


FIr. 50. Probably bear (full size).

Fri. 51. Probably bear (full size).
with that animal. It cannot be considered a representation from life of any mam-
mal of Florida past or present (Fig. 52).
Included among representations of the vegetable kingdom were twelve acorns,
some exceedingly natural and cleverly represented; a gourd; an ear of corn, very
life-like; possibly the bud of a water lily, and several other vegetables of uncer-
tain attribution.
Among the unidentified were 41 specimens, including a large class of objects,
some resembling a potato covered with knobs (Fig. 53), others with numerous spines
somewhat resembled the sea urchin or possibly a shell (Fig 54). Their attribution
is a mystery. Other unidentified specimens were a large bead-shaped object per-
forated longitudinally (Fig. 63), and an article having the form of a dumb-bell
(Fig. 64),-possibly intended to represent an ear plug similar to those figured by Le
In all 292 objects of pottery, whole or but slightly damaged, were taken from
the Thursby mound, the work being done by hand, owing to the close association of
the various pieces. In addition to these, 62 fragments representing distinctive por-
tions of animals and of vessels of especial interest were saved, while 408 sherds,
mainly portions of bowls and pots showing perforation previous to baking, were
added to the collection. Innumerable fragments were left upon the surface of the


FmI. 52 (full size).

FIo. 53 (full size).

FI. 54 (full size).

FIG. 56. Squirrel (full size).

FIG. 57. Possibly wild cat (full size).

FrI. 60. Possibly wild cat (full size).

Fmr. 55. Squirrel (full size).


FIG. 62. Unidentified (full size).

Fio. 58. Wild turkey (full size).

FIG. 59. Possibly puma (full size).

Fri. 61. Possibly puma (full size).


It is interesting to note that while the discovery of a deposit of small perfora-
ted animal effigies of clay is hitherto unreported within the limits of the United
States their occurrence in Mexico is mentioned. Clay images from Georgia figured
by C. C. Jones1 bear no resemblance to the effigies from the Thursby mound. A
turtle of pottery has been taken from a Tennessee stone grave.2
Whether the animal effigies from the Thursby mound are representative of the
fauna of Florida or not it would be difficult to decide. The panther is still met with in
unfrequented places; the bear is not uncommon; skins of the otter are a consider-
able item among the exports of the State; the wild cat makes the raising of domes-
tic fowl precarious; the wild turkey (a separate variety in Florida) still gobbles
in the woods; squirrels are seen on every side. The beaver was an article of diet
in the time of De Soto3 and some remained so late as the journey of William Bartram.4
The existence of the dog on the St. John's in prehistoric times is a matter of
uncertainty. On the north the shell-heaps of Georgia hold its remains,5 while
Mexico on the south had a domestic animal resembing it.6
During the winter of 1892, the writer discovered a portion of the mandible of
a dog in a shell-heap near the St. John's River, Florida. Its species has not been


FIG. 63. (Full size).

FIG. 64. Dumb-bell shaped object (full size).

FIG. 67. Probably snapping turtle (full size). FIG. 66. Unidentified (full size).

Op. cit., page 430, et seq.
2 Thruston, "Antiquities of Tennessee," page 165.
:"Narrative of the Career of Hernando de Soto," Buckingham Smith's translation, page 132.
" Travels," Dublin, 1793, page 277.
C. C. Jones, op. cit., page 196.
" Explorations of the Aboriginal Remains of Tennessee," Joseph Jones, M. D., page 26.


FrG. (65. Possibly beaver (full size).

FIG. 68. Probably snapping turtle (full size).
identified. Full particulars, including a note by Professor Cope, can be found in the
American Naturalist, July, 1893,.from which we make the following extract :
Professor Wyman's searches yielded no canine remains,1 nor has the writer
hitherto upon any other occasion found, to the best of his knowledge, any portion
of the skeleton of the dog in the river mounds. Wyman was aware of no evidence
to show the presence of domestic dogs on the river in early times,2 and cites Le
Moyne's list of animals supposed to have been seen by the French3 (1565), from
which the dog is omitted. On the other hand, Cabeca de Vaca, Treasurer of the
expedition of Pamphilo de Narvaez (1527) found dogs4 among the natives during
his wanderings along the coast of northwestern Florida, and in other portions of his
journey. He makes no comment as to their origin, as he doubtless would have done
had they been pointed out as curiosities, and it is hardly reasonable to suppose that,
at so early a period, their derivation can have been from a European source. The
bones of dogs are reported from a shell-heap at Tampa." The writer learns, how-
ever, that this discovery was superficial. De Soto, who landed at Tampa, had
numerous fierce dogs, and found great quantities of dogs among the Indians cf
Georgia. Bones supposed to be of the dog are in the stone graves of Tennessee."6
'" Fresh Water Shell Mounds of the St. John's River, Florida," page 80.
SLoc. cit.
S" The Narrative of Alvar Nunez CabeCa de Vaca," translated by Buckingham Smith, Washing-
ton, 1851, page 41, et al.
Loc. cit.
5 Tampa Sunland and Tribune," November 18, 1876.
6 Joseph Jones, M. D., Antiquities of Tennessee," page 9.

rd -


FIG. 69. Unidentified (full size).


FIG. 72. Possibly alligator head
(full size).

FIG. 70. Possibly dog (full size).


FIG. 73. Possibly otter (full size). .FIG 78. Fish.(full size).

FIG. 74. Unidentified (full size).

FIG. 75. Probably loggerhead turtle (full size).

10 JOUR. A. N. S. PHILA., VOL. X.


.,,,,,,,,__1^ ., -, T ' s- .

Fi;. 76. Fish (full size). FId. 77. Fish (full size).

Dr. Dall regards it as presumable that the coyote has been domesticated along
our southern border from time immemorial, though perhaps as an occasional curi-
osity in many tribes rather than as a usual companion. During nine years' explor-
ation he found one dog's skull in an Aleutian shell heap, a prehistoric deposit, and
only one.'
The dog has never yet been found fossil in Florida, though the fossil fauna of
the State would suggest its presence.2
The late Colonel Jones," referring to the Florida Indians as represented by Le
Moyne,4 speaks of "the flesh of fishes, deer, alligators, snakes, dogs and other ani-
mals previously smoked and dried on a scaffold."
As we have stated, the dog is omitted from the list of animals seen by the
French, nor is it referred to in any description of the plates. Colonel Jones' state-
ment, therefore, is based upon no authority beyond a resemblance noticed in cer-
tain animals represented in the plates. It would be difficult in the work of Le
Moyne to distinguish a dog from a grey wolf, or from some other quadrupeds of
Florida, especially as the carcass represented is skinned.


FIG. 79. Ear of corn (full size).
'W. H. Dall, private letter.
Op. cit., page 12.
4Brevis Narratio, plates XXII, XXIII, XXIV.

FIG. 81. Unidentified (full size.)



FIG. 80. Unidentified vegetable
(full size).

FIG. 84. Acorn (full size).

FIG. 82. Unidentified vegetable
(full size).

FIG. 85. Acorn (full size). FIG. 86. Acorn (full size).

FIG. 83. Unidentified vegetable
(full size).

FIG. 87. Acorn (full size).


FIG. 88. Acorn (full size). FIG. 89. Acorn (full size). FIG. 90. Unidentified (full size). FIG. 91. Unidentified (full size.)


FIG. 92. Unidentified (full size).

FIG. 93. Unidentified (full size).

FIG. 94. Unidentified (full size).

FIG. 95. Unidentified (full size).

FIG. 101. Unidentified (full size).

t, ri,


FIG. 96. Unidentified(full size)

99. Unidentified (ullsize).
FiG. 99. Unidentified (full size).

FIG. 100. Unidentified (full size).

FIG. 97. Unidentified (full

FIG. 98. Unidentified (full size).

FIG. 102. Unidentified.(full size).

FIc. 103. Unidentified (lull size).



During the progress of the investigation a number of sherds were met with
from vessels of much greater size than any discovered by us in perfect condition.
They were stamped in squares or in diamonds and were not in association with the
remainder of the vessels to which they belonged. It was evident that these and
innumerable fragments of small pots were interred with uninjured objects.
Beneath a portion of the deposit were found 10 to 12 skeletons of adults.
They were covered by about one foot of sand which included the pottery. They
were apparently a continuation of the interments with which were the gold and the
silver ornaments. The iron axe was found in a different portion of the mound.
It will be noticed that nothing indicating intercourse with the civilization of
Europe was found other than superficially in the Thursby mound.


Immediately opposite the Thursby mound on the west bank of the St. John's
is Huntoon Island. At this place are great shell deposits, a section being laid bare
by the action of the river. A short distance from the river bank are two symmetrical
mounds of shell with a certain admixture.of sand. Their nature has not been deter-
mined, though a superficial examination was made by Professor Wyman.' Unfor-
tunately for the cause of science, Mrs. Thursby, the former owner, has recently dis-
posed of the property to Mr. G. A. Dreka of De Land, who refuses permission to


On the southeastern shore of Lake Beresford is Stark's Grove. Near the water's
edge is a small deposit of shell, while about 400 yards from the =dwelling is a
mound of sand about 200 yards east of the lake. Its height is 8 feet, its circum-
ference. 370 feet. On the south a marked depression exists from which the mate-
rial of the mound was probably taken. The mound bears no mark of previous
investigation, its owner, Mrs. Stark, to whom we are indebted for permission to
explore, having carefully preserved it from unsystematic search. An excavation in
the center showed the mound to be formed of various strata, including shell. At a
depth of 2 feet lay a skeleton immediately under a 9 inch stratum of shell. With
it lay a few fragments of pottery roughly ornamented in squares. From the lower
jaw every tooth was missing and the alveolar process had been entirely absorbed.
Neither humerus was perforated, while the one tibia recovered gave an index of 84.
This mound was not sufficiently investigated to admit of final conclusions.

' Op. cit. page 26, et .eq.



Fort Florida, the residence of D. G. Bartola, Esq., is situated on the eastern
bank of theSt. John's, about a mile south of the mouth of the Wekiva River. The
mound lies in the hammock about 300 yards northwest of the river and a quarter
of a mile northeast of the residence. Its circumference is 240 feet, its height 6-5
feet. Shell fields bordering the river are referred to by Wyman. This mound,
however, escaped his notice, though one opened by him1 is not far distant on the
river's bank. On the northwestern side of the mound, 11 feet from the margin of
the base, a trench was carried through the center of the mound at the level of
the base. The mound was stratified, though the individual layers varied in
thickness at different points.
Thirty-one feet from the margin of the base on the west side of the excava-
tion, where the strata were clearly defined, above the dark brown sand upon which
the mound was built, were the following layers:
White sand, 8 inches.
Muck, 7 inches.
White sand, 1 foot 11 inches.
Paludine mingled with brown sand, 4 inches.
White sand, 1 foot.
Black loamy sand, 2 feet 5 inches.
A deposit of loam on the surrounding territory will account for the apparent
discrepancy in height.
Throughout the excavation, sherds of good quality, plain and stamped in
squares, were met with.
In the center of the mound were found portions of a human skeleton disturbed
by a shaft sunk by a previous investigator.



Near the railroad bridge crossing the St. John's at its exit from the lake is an
unsymmetrical mound of sand. It lies back of the hammock land bordering the
river on the eastern bank. It is not visible from the channel. Its height is 8 feet
5 inches; its circumference, 275 feet. It is composed of pure white sand unstrati-
fied. No shell deposit is in the immediate vicinity. Six feet from the margin of
the base of the southwestern portion of the mound a trench was dug 13 feet in
breadth, converging to 10 feet at the end and 37-5 feet in length. At a depth of 9
feet water was reached. Beyond one piece of charcoal, absolutely nothing was
found denoting human agency in the erection of the mound. An observer, in the
absence of trees, could, from its summit, sweep the river and the adjacent lake
SOfp. cit., page 21.



The burial mound at Ginn's Grove, known as Speer's Landing in the time of
Professor Wyman, lies on the left bank (going down) of a lagoon, in full view of the
river, about three miles from Sanford overland, or seven miles by water. It is built
upon a shell-heap, and shell-heaps and shell-fields lie adjacent. It has twice been
investigated by us (January 28, 29, 30, 1892; January 22-27 inclusive, 1893).
Upon the first occasion, the mound was the property of Dr. A. C. Caldwell, of San-
ford; upon the second, of J. N. Whitner, Esq., of the same place. To both these
gentlemen our thanks are tendered for cordial permission to investigate.
The mound which has been superficially dug into by tourists and excursion
parties from Sanford, is oval in shape. Its circumference is 300 feet, that of the
summit plateau 140 feet. Its height is 10 feet measured from the northern side,
though a decided depression on the opposite or swamp side would make the height
somewhat greater. The shell-heap upon which it is built has an upward slope, so
that between the central portion of the summit plateau and the shell base there are
but 5-5 feet of sand. The mound is composed of two distinct layers of sand rising
at about' the same angle, the stratum immediately above the shell being of pure
white sand absolutely free from shell, while the layer above the white is of brown-
ish sand with shells intermingled. Investigation of the subjacent shell-heap showed
it to be composed of the ordinary refuse of the shell deposits of the river. It
extends beyond the mound and was doubtless selected as a point of vantage for the
erection of the burial place.
A trench was dug on the northern side, 22 feet horizontally from the margin
of the base, 14-5 feet in length, 5-5 feet in breadth, with a maximum depth of 10-5
feet, and another on the eastern side beginning at the margin and extending along
the shell base 60 feet in length, 16 feet in breadth converging to 10 feet at the end.
Eight men were engaged upon the investigation which, through the white sand
layer, was carried on mainly with the trowel.


Remains, undoubtedly original burials, lay in the shell in one layer and in
the white sand immediately above. In nearly every case, the long bones lay
horizontally in connection with the cranium, though upon several occasions the
skeletons were in anatomical order.
While aware that various forms of burial are sometimes met with in the same
mound, we are of the opinion that certain skeleton at length or flexed, with all the
bones of the body in anatomical order, may be the remains of those deceased within a.
short period prior to the time selected for emptying the dead houses or pens.
Skeletons when deprived of flesh, hold together by means of the ligaments. We
have seen in Siam, in a walled inclosure, where the bodies of the poor were exposed


to vultures and to dogs, human remains, though denuded of flesh, sufficiently ad-
herent to permit of elevation on a pole. It is probable also that those dying about
the period of a general interment, were placed without exposure among the bunch-
ed bones.
In numbers of cases, vertebra were found in regular, order near the skull.
Again, many of the smaller bones were present in anatomical order, foot bones in
connection with the tibia and fibula. In many cases, however, the smaller bones
were entirely wanting, while at times, single bones wholly isolated were met with.
Near the center of the mound were 7 crania, some in actual contact, all within
a radius of 3 feet, while one yard distant were four others in close association.
With these crania were a certain number of bones not in anatomical order, and by
no means the full complement-of so many skulls.
While in bunched burials, bones of one individual seemed, as a rule, to be kept
together, such was not always the case, for upon occasions not only.were discrepan-
cies in size noticeable, but long bones in pairs belonged to the same side of the body.
Immediately below the surface of this mound were flexed burials in anatom-
ical order. These we took to be intrusive.
A number of disconnected bones, ignored in our tables, were found in the brown
sand at points where considerable disarrangement had taken place through previous
superficial investigations.
Crania.-Though heated glue and solutions of shellac were at hand during the
greater part of our investigation no crania were preserved. No decay was noticed
in any tooth.
Humeri.-During the first investigation of 42 humeri, 9 were perforated, a
percentage of 21"4
In the course of the second investigation of 73 humeri beneath unbroken strata
in white sand or in shell, 28 were perforated, or 38-3 per cent.1
Four humeri belonging to superficial burials showed one perforation.


Measurements are given in mm.

Average Minimum Maximum Oscillation
Perforated. Diameter. Diameter. Diameter. Exponent.
Male 9 6-6 4 11 2-5
Female' 7 6-8 5 9 1-
Uncertain I 12 62 2 10 2-

Of the 28 perforated humeri, 12 were from the right side and 16 from the left.

1 We have stated elsewhere the great precautions .taken by us as to the determination of the perforation of the humerus.
11 JOUR. A. N. S. PHILA., VOL. X.



Measurements are given in mm.

Sex. Side.

* .1





Length. Torsion.


Femora.-Forty-four femora found during the second investigation in the white
sand stratum or in the shell showed an average index of 112, the lowest 89, the
highest 132, the oscillation exponent 7-8.


Original Buiials.

Projection on Shaft.

Head. Great Troth

Normal Position.

Head. Great Troch.

Great Troch. to
Ext. Condyl.

Male 450 428 447 418 421
443 435
458 436 432
"452 440 447 429 433
Uncertain. 418 409 416 399 402

Tibice.-Our first investigation yielded 36 tibia from all depths, giving an aver-
age index of 64-9.
Forty-two tibiae from original burials, exhumed during our second visit, gave
an average index of 65-2, the lowest being 57, the highest 74, the oscillation expo-
nent 3-3.



Measurements are

Original Burials.


given in mm.







Not Perforated
K6 i*

Sn n








No implements of stone of any sort were found.
With superficial burials at length were two scrapers of shell.
With many of the bodies were fragments of pottery to which. the triangular
shape of the arrow head had been given.
In disturbed and undisturbed strata were fragments of pottery decorated
with red pigment.
Seven feet from the margin of the base and 3 feet 10 inches from the surface
,was found what presumably had served as the handle of a vase. The fragment, 3
inches in length from tip of beak to back of head, probably represented the head of
a vulture, (Plate XV, fig. 4). The lined decoration was clearly incised. Por-
tions of the head, represented by shading in the figure, were colored crimson. In
our experience of technical work in pottery in the river mounds this head represen-
ted the limit of aboriginal endeavor. Unfortunately, as the white sand layer did
not extend to the point where this relic was found, it cannot be said positively to
have lain under unbroken strata, and therefore to be definitely identified with the
period of the construction of the mound; but as a fragment of a vase similarly
colored and lined (Plate XV, fig. 5) was discovered upon the base with undisturbed
layers above, the head is probably contemporary with the mound.
Six feet from the surface lay 3 skulls in actual contact, forming a species of
triangle. In association was a fragment of a pot, including a handle terminating
in the head of a bird, (Plate XV, Fig. 6). Somewhat similar patterns are figured
from Arkansas.1


In this mound, though the work was largely done with the trowel, nothing indi-
cating contact with Europeans was met with.
Dr. Brinton, it is true, found beads of glass in this mound,2 which led him to
attribute to it an origin comparatively modern, and this opinion has been widely
disseminated by Colonel C. C. Jones3 who quotes it on page 236.
We are inclined to believe the beads to have been superficial:
"1. From analogy. Several mounds in the same section have beads on the
surface similar to those described by Dr. Brinton. A very careful search by us has
failed to discover any at greater depth in any of them.
2. From negative testimony. If the builders of the Ginn's Grove mound
had possessed such beads, we think some would have been placed with the scores
of burials exhumed by us.
3. No mention is made.by Dr. Brinton of bunched burials. This form large-
ly predominates along the base.
'Fourth Annual Report Bureau of Ethnology, 1882-1883, Fig. 379, page 386.
1" Floridan Peninsula," page 170.
3Op. cit.


4. Dr. Brinton states (page 173) that a class of Florida mounds is unstrati-
fied, citing Ginn's Grove as in that class. In point of fact the Ginn's Grove mound
affords a good example of stratification. Its lower stratum, it is evident, was not
reached by him.
In the same field where the mound at Ginn's Grove stands is a much smaller
one. A trench run partially through it showed a shell layer 3 feet from the sur-
face. No implements nor human remains were found.


The name, Black Hammock, is given by Professor Wyman to a shell deposit
and small mound on a lagoon on the western side of the river, about half a mile
south of the entrance to Lake Jessup. The name is not now in use. The' sand
mound was superficially dug into by Professor Wyman. Its height is 3 feet
9 inches, its circumference 170 feet. A spear point or knife of chert, and several
arrow heads were obtained by excavation. At the base of the mound lay quanti-
ties of bog-iron. Numerous unsystematic investigations have rendered this mound
valueless for scientific research.


A short distance south of Black Hammock a small creek (see map) leading t6
Thornhill Lake enters the St. John's on the eastern side of the river. Bordering
the small sheet of water is a sand mound, symmetrical in shape with the usual
summit plateau. Upon it grow a number of palmettoes. Previous investiga-
tions have been superficial in character. The mound is 11 feet in height, measured
from the north; a marked depression on the south would make it appear of con-
siderably greater altitude. On the north side, 30 feet from the margin of the base,
a trench 28 feet long by from 8 to 10 feet wide was dug. At the centre of the
mound the excavation attained a depth of 10 feet, where lay a base of shell, the
surface of the shell-heap on which the mound was built. The southwestern corner
of the trench seemed to be at the apex of the mound, and at that point the strat-
ification was as follows:
6 inches-Surface layer of brown sand.
1 foot 6 inches-White sand.
5 feet-Brown sand with slight sprinkling of shell.
3 feet-Pure white sand.
Below was a conglomerate of charcoal, calcined shell and sand, as hard as
stone, beneath which was the ordinary debris of the shell-heap.

Skeletons were in anatomical order, but 7 in all being met with. These lay
in the brown sand layer and in the white sand layer below. Several skeletons lay
upon the back with hands crossed upon the abdomen. In one case the legs were


drawn up and stretched widely apart. In another they were flexed and turned to
the side.
No crania were saved.
Five tibiae, all believed to be original, gave an average index of 63.
Of 9 humeri, 6 showed perforation, or 66-6 per cent.

With the skeleton of a woman 5-5 feet below the surface were fragments of
bones of edible animals, one flint flake and a number of shell beads near the
Unassociated at a depth of 6-5 feet was a rude three-sided lance or arrow point
of chert, 3 inches in length.
Four feet below the surface, far removed from the other human remains, was
the lower third.of a human humerus, much charred by fire. During the entire
investigation, no pottery, fragmentary or otherwise, was met with. We consider
the excavation at this place insufficient to allow any conclusion.
Fifty yards north of the large burial mound is a smaller one 8 feet 10 inches
in height, with a circumference of 295 feet. The mound is composed of brown
sand with a sprinkling of shell, and like its neighbor is built upon a shell deposit.
We hope to give full details of these mounds in the second part of this report.

Cook's Ferry is on the west, or left bank of the river going down, about five
hundred yards north of Lake Harney. A large shell heap rises from the water's
edge, and in the neighboring orange grove is a mound of sand in shape the usual
truncated cone. The height of the mound is 11 feet 8 inches measured from all
sides save the S. E., where ground of a -higher level reduces the height to 10 feet.
The trench at its base, described by Dr. Brinton', is no longer apparent. The
present circumference of the mound is 245 feet. This mound has been superficially
dug into in many places, and its surface until recently offered an abundant harvest
of beads of glass. One of a number of beads from this place was covered with
pure gold leaf; some others resembled those from Santa Barbara, California, pre-
sumably derived from the early Spaniards'. From the owner of the mound
we obtained a number of beads superficially found there, with an ornament of sil-
ver (Fig. 104), and a disc of metal centrally perforated and encircled near the
margin by a line of indentations. Quite unexpectedly, an application
of nitric acid proved the disc to be of gold (fig. 105). These orna-
ments of precious metal were probably contemporary with the beads,
and derived from Spanish sources.
FIc. 104 Orna- From the southern portion of the mound sand has been hauled
ment of silver for fertilizing purposes, leaving bare a portion of the base extending
(full size). inward 10 feet from the margin. At this point a trench 31 feet
"The Floridian Peninsula," page 171.
'Professor Putnam in letter.


broad at the beginning, converging to 12 feet across at the end a distance of 31 feet
-from the starting point, was made. Its depth at the cen-
*~-* tre of the mound was somewhat over 11 feet. In addi-
tion a considerable portion of the surface of the mound
was gone over superficially. The mound was not markedly
Stratified. It was mainly composed of brown sand, with-
out admixture of shell, though rising from the level of
Sthe base was a mottled layer, composed of an admixture
;-.. of white and of brown sand At the centre of the mound
Frm. 105. Disc of gold this layer was 5-5 feet from the surface.
(full size).


Superficial burials were met with, and a limited number on the base. Of the
base burials virtually nothing remained, while disconnected bones met with in the
body of the mound were in an equally bad state of preservation. No crania were
Four tibim gave an average index of 64-8; lowest index 61"6; highest 67-1.
Five femurs gave an average index of 115; lowest index 105; highest 119.
One humerus saved was unperforated.


With the base burials were several arrow heads of chert, while near the base
unassociated, was a flake of yellow chert slightly serrated (fig. 106).

FIG. 106. Cutting implement of chert (full size).

Superficially was found, in connection with human remains, a crescent of chert,
smooth on one side, with a convex chipped surface on the other. A portion of one
horn of the crescent was missing, as was an apparent former projection from the
centre of the outer margin. The present length of the implement is 3-9 inches.
It is impossible to determine its nature, the projection formerly extending from the
outer margin probably excluding it from the category of stone crescents found in
various portions of the country. Figures 107 and 108 represent both sides of this
curious object.
Absolutely nothing indicating contact with Europeans was found on or near
the base of the mound.


Fro. 107. Crescent of chert (full size).

FIG. 108. Same, opposite side (full size).


On the eastern shore of Lake Barney, near the palmetto cabin of Mr. Mans-
field, is an unstratified mound about 2-5 feet in height. Its circumference is 120
feet. It has been under cultivation. Excavation revealed nothing of importance.


At the southeastern end of Lake Harney, near where the river enters the
lake, surrounded by palmettoes are two cultivated shell fields belonging to a man
named Raulerson. One of these fields is in the form of a ridge, the southern ex-
tremity of which is a mound 6 feet in height above the level of the marsh to the
south, and 180 feet in circumference. Its height above the remainder of the shell
ridge is but 1 foot 3 inches. Its shape is regular, save to the south where it slopes
to the adjoining marsh not over a hundred yards from the shore of the lake.
The mound has entirely escaped the notice of all previous investigators, and
in 1875 the writer killed a wild cat in its immediate neighborhood without becoming
aware of the existence of the mound.. It was then thickly covered with palmettoes and
its presence, or at least its nature, was certainly unknown to a man named Tanner,
whose cabin formed the only residence on the borders of the lake. At Tanner's
death the house was occupied by a man named Mansfield, who also was unaware
of the presence of an artificial formation upon the place. In the summer of 1891
Mr. Singleton, the tenant, cut down the palmettoes with a view to the cultivation
of the spot, since shell hammock is highly prized in Florida; but neither plow nor
grubbing hoe was used upon the surface of the ground, which was, previous to the


investigations of the writer, filled with the roots of former trees. The mound,
then, was absolutely virgin. In digging a post hole at the southern margin of the
mound, Singleton threw out a considerable number of bones. Near these lay a
gorget of shell scalloped around the edge, with three perforations and three concen-
tric circles on the face. (Fig. 109).

FIG. 109. Shell gorget (full size).
A careful search with trowels was made in the upper portion of the mound,
where alone were burials, during several days of the winter of 1892, and again in
the succeeding year.
The composition of the mound is as follows:
A-1 ft. 3 in. Composed of a mixture of sand and loam filled with human
remains. With them were fragments of plain pottery.
B-1 ft. 9 in. Composed of powdered shell, mainly Unios, and sand; with
fragments of plain pottery and broken bones of edible animals,
chiefly the deer.
C-1 ft. 6 in. Crushed Unios, some showing marks of fire, with plain pot-
tery and an implement of shell.
At a depth of 4 feet the artificial portion of the mound ended. Continued
excavation showed it to have been.built upon a small eminence of white sand and
minute fragments of marine shell, dating their origin from the period of the sub-
mergence of the peninsula, and having no connection with the artificial portion of
the mound. It was apparent that numbers of burials had been made upon the
rounded extremity of a shell ridge which doubtless considerably antedated the super-
ficial portion of the mound.
The second visit to Raulerson's was exhaustive. Two preliminary excavations,
each 9 feet by 4 feet by 2 feet 3 inches- deep to shell base showed quantities of
human bones, often broken and in the greatest disorder without-the slightest anato-
mical connection. In the first excavation not a fragment of a tibia was met with, a
fact clearly indicating the very unequal distribution of the bones. In a second ex-
eavation, near a cervical vertebra were found 19 beads of glass.


Next a considerable portion of the surface of the ground was carefully gone
over with trowels, laying bare great numbers of split, broken and shattered human
bones, with fragments of pottery. With disconnected human remains was found a
handsome carved circular gorget of shell, with a diameter of 4-25 inches
(Fig. 110).

I i

FIm. 110. Shell gorget (full size).
It consisted of a cross in the centre surrounded by a circle within an eight
pointed star, the star surrounded by a circle scalloped at the edges. In the centre
of the gorget was a perforation, while near the margin of the outer circle were two
others, evidently for suspension. This beautiful ornament, unique for Florida,1 or
at all events for the river, was slightly broken during the digging, while certain
portions were wanting through earlier breakage.
Gorgets of shell, with circles, stars and half moons were worn in historical
I In this connection the reader is referred to "Art in Shell," Second Annual Report of the Bureau
of Ethnology, 1880-1881, page 185, et seq.
Mr. Andrew E. Douglass, whose familiarity with the antiquities of Florida and long continued
personal researches among the mounds of the east coast lend great weight to his opinion, writes as follows :
I have quite a number of shell gorgets, but not one from Florida, nor have I seen any from that
State in any collection. Still this is but negative evidence as to their existence as I have not seen so large
a number in collections, though so far as they have been figured by Holmes and others I have no recollec-
tion of any attributed to that State. Your find, therefore, appears to be quite unique. Indeed, I remem-
ber exhuming but one gorget (and that of slate) from any of the mounds I have explored in that State."
12 JOUR. A. N. S. PHILA., VOL. X.


times by Indians of Virginia.1 We are told that certain gorgets sometimes sold for
three or four buckskins already- dressed.2
Excavations on the southern, eastern and western slopes of the mound showed
large numbers of bones entirely unassociated, and in addition burials in anatomical
order with certainly one of the bunched variety. This interment consisted of the
cranium with one femur immediately below it. At a short distance on the same
level, lay the lower jaw, the chin towards the skull. Below this jaw was a
humerus, while on the other side of the cranium, parallel to each other, were a
radius, an ulna ahd a humerus. With one burial in anatomical order were two
steel or iron fish spears, a chisel of the same metal with a curved cutting edge, and
a small earthenware pot, undecorated and somewhat crushed. All these lay near
the cranium, as did a large number of glass beads with one of shell. With another
skeleton lay the blade of a knife; a portion of an implement resembling an adze;
two chisels with curved edge; two fragmentary chisels; a fish spear and a spike,
all of iron or steel and all greatly affected by rust.


Crania.-A number of crania were saved.
Humeri.-Of 37 humeri, 13 were perforated, a percentage of 35.



Average Index.

Minimum Maximum Oscillation
Index. Index. Exponent;
93-9 138- 9-4
107-3 109 3
102-3 1125 3-6


Measurements are given in mm.





Not Perforated.



S" History and Present State of Virginia," cited by C. C. Jones, page 502.
2-" History of Carolina," cited by C. C. Jones, page 503.











Measurements are given in mm.

Projection on axis.



G. T.


Oblique Position.



G.T. i


Great Troch. to Ext.


Tibia.-On the first visit 7 tibive gave an average index of 63.9.
The final investigation yielded the following results:

S Total.

Male 6
Female 5
Uncertain 2

Average Index.




Ieasurements are given in mm.







About two miles north of the Indian Fields on the right hand side of the river
going down is a large lagoon 400 yards distant from the channel (see map). On
the bank of this lagoon is a shell deposit covering about 5 acres. This field has
been under cultivation. At its eastern end is an eminence not differing in composi-
tion from the remainder of the field. On this knoll an excavation 8 by 9 feet was
made. Its depth was 7 feet through the shell deposit. One foot below the surface
at the northern side of the excavation a layer of white sand 3 inches in thickness
at this point sloped to the southern side, increasing in thickness until at 3 feet be-
low the surface its diameter was 1 foot. At the southwestern corner it dis-
appeared. Upon this sand lay about eight skeletons, though the close pack-












i, (


ing of the shell around them prevented an exact determination either of
their number or, in every case but one-an ordinary flexed skeleton-of the posi-
tion of interment. During the entire excavation not a single fragment of pottery
was found, nor was an implement of any sort brought to light.


Four humeri showed one perforation.
Four tibim gave an average index of 58.3.
No crania were saved.
It is perhaps hardly fair to class as a burial mound a shell knoll but slightly
raised above the level of the surrounding shell, as was the case with Persimmon
Mound. The conditions of interment in many respects recalled those in the great
shell-heap at Orange Mound not far distant, an account of which we have given
in the American Naturalist for July, 1893.


Some ten miles south of Lake Harney in a direct line, but fully double that
distance by the winding stream, the only means of access, are the Indian Fields, a
large shell deposit said to have been cleared and cultivated by the Indians.
At this spot is a burial mound of sand 5 feet in height and 375 feet'in circum-
ference at the present time. It is probable that frequent excavations made at vari-
ous times have increased the circumference at the expense of the height. The sur-
face of the mound showed many beads of glass. No serious investigation was at-
tempted, as the search of casual explorers had rendered it of little value.


Long Bluff, on the west bank of the St. John's, has an extensive shell deposit
of no great depth. Some distance from the water is a mound of sand 3 feet in
height and 75 feet in circumference. Partial examination yielded nothing of in-


Mulberry Mound is an island lying on the west bank of the St. John's but a
few hundred yards below where the river leaves Lake Poinsett. The island is
mainly composed of a large shell-heap rising abruptly from the river's edge. It
has been fully described by us in the American Naturalist, August, 1893.
In connection with the shell-heap, 45 feet northwest is a burial mound of sand
and shell having a circumference of 300 feet and a height of 8 feet 3 inches.
Six days (1892-1893) were devoted to this mound with a party of eight, work-
ing mainly with the trowel, the portion of the mound containing burials being vir-
tually demolished. The mound was composed of the following layers:


Three feet three inches-Brown sand with a certain intermiinglng of shell
containing skeletons.
One foot-Layer, black in color, river mud and sand intermingled, with vir-
tually no shell. The river mud was not a deposit, being above high water mark
and was evidently brought to start the burial mound, probably from the strip of
black loam connecting the two mounds. On the upper surface of this layer were a
certain number of burials, or rather bodies placed upon it had sunk in. There
were no bones in the lower portion of the layer.
Two feet-Shell, crushed and whole, with a certain percentage of sandy loam,
the regular debris of the shell-heap. No human remains.
Two feet-Shell, crushed and whole, same as layer above in composition, but
percolation of water had rendered the mass almost a solid conglomerate. In this
layer were found four or five human bones.
Two feet-Under water; crushed shell and sandy loam; plain pottery.
Beneath a summit plateau 35 feet in diameter were the greater number of skele-
tons, all in anatomical order though in various forms of flexion. Beginning at 6
inches from the surface, skeletons lay in a matted mass intertwisted above and below
each other until at places it was impossible to distinguish bones belonging to one
skeleton from those surrounding it (Fig. 111).

F. Stratum of termens, burial mound, Mulberry Mound. (From photograph by author).

-J_ --e

~i~,TEt;6r /


Interments did not continue throughout the mound, the sides of which had
been extended and raised to protect the burials from the river at high water.
With a female skeleton, somewhat over 4 feet from the surface was a number of
fragments of human bones charred and calcined, including portions of the upper
maxillary, of the femur, a metacarpal bone, one of the phalanges and other frag-
ments unidentified. As cremation previous to interment was not practised in the
case of any burials met with in the mound, this case can hardly be considered as be-
longing to that form. The skeleton in immediate association was unaffected by fire.
To illustrate one of various forms of flexion we quote from our field notes:
"Skeleton C. lay 4 feet from the surface in a dorsal position with head turned to
one side, arms parallel with body, forearms flexed upward with bones parallel with
humeri, thighs flexed over abdomen, legs flexed on thighs, making tibie parallel
with femurs; vertebra and ribs beneath with pelvis in proper position. To a casual
observer this skeleton would have seemed to be a bunched burial as the bones of
the extremities lay side by side."
Tibie (first visit ).-During our first visit 66 tibim gave an average lateral in-
dex of 66-2.
Humeri (first visit) -Seventy-six humeri from all parts of the mound showed
40 perforations, a percentage of 52-6. Of these 23, coming from a depth of 2-5
feet from the surface or less, showed 13 perforations, or 56.5 per cent.
Fifty-three humeri, believed to be undoubtedly original burials, contained 27
perforations, a percentage of 50-9.
Crania.-During our second investigation two calvarias were saved, one super-
ficially and one of especial interest being from the very base of the mound. As
previously stated, all crania will be described by Dr. Harrison Allen in Part II of
this report.
H-umeri (second visit).-Upon our second visit (February, 1893), if possible
more care was taken than before in respect to determination of the olecranon per-
foration. Fossa? were cleared by the aid of water. A magnifying glass was called
into requisition, and three perforations of doubtful origin were discarded from the
list. All perforated humeri may be seen at the Museum of the Academy.
Of 41 humeri possibly intrusive' 20 were perforated, giving a percentage of
48-8. The perforations were distributed as to sex as follows: Male, 6; female, 6;
uncertain, 8.
Of 23 humeri from original burials, 11 showed perforation, a percentage of
47-8; the perforated humeri being male, 7; female, 3; uncertain, 1.
SAmong these humeri are included many doubtless from original burials, since, as we shall see, no
certainly intrusive interment was found at a depth greater than 18 inches, while all bones within 2-5 feet
from the surface are classed as possibly intrusive.

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