Title Page

Title: Annual citrus packinghouse day
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074972/00006
 Material Information
Title: Annual citrus packinghouse day
Physical Description: v. : ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Agricultural Research and Education Center (Belle Glade)
Florida Citrus Commission -- Dept. of Citrus
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: Agricultural Research & Education Center
State of Florida, Dept. of Citrus
University of Florida, IFAS.
Place of Publication: Lake Alfred Fla
Lakeland Fla
Gainesville Fla
Frequency: annual
Subject: Citrus fruit industry -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began in 1960s?
General Note: Description based on 19th (1980); title from cover.
General Note: "Sponsored by Lake Alfred AREC, State of Florida - Dept. of Citrus, and the Institute of Food & Agricultural Sciences at the University of Florida in co-operation with Florida citrus packers".
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074972
Volume ID: VID00006
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 70269625
lccn - 2006229200


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September 2, 2004

700 Experiment Station Road
Lake Alfred, FL 33850-2299

Lakeland, Florida


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Packinghouse Day Coordinators:
Mark Ritenour, Ph.D. Program Coordinator
Bill Miller, Ph.D. Exhibits Coordinator
Ren6e Goodrich, Ph.D. Local Arrangements Coordinator


Welcome to the Forty-Third Annual Citrus Packinghouse Day! Throughout the day,
leading members of industry and scientists from the University of Florida, the United
States Department of Agriculture, and the Florida Department of Citrus will present
practical information of interest to your business. This year, in addition to the many
important issues to be addressed, we will also be providing concurrent training sessions
for packinghouse management and workers. These training sessions will cover: 1) Food
Safety Worker Health and Hygiene, 2) Forklift Driving Safety, and 3) Packinghouse
Postharvest Treatments Safety. A Certificate of Completion will be awarded to each
person completing the training.

This year's keynote speaker is Juan Muniz from PrimusLabs.com who will discuss how to
pass a 3rd party food safety audit, with brief information about EurepGap and BRC
(British Retail Consortium) requirements. Other topics presented will include:

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Update on Issues of Packinghouse Biosecurity
Prospects for Good Fruit Quality This Year
Color Separation of Florida Citrus Prior to Degreening
Prospects and Progress for Robotic Harvesting of Fresh Florida Citrus
Potential Uses of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Tags in the Produce
Prospects and Prevention of Physiological Disorders of Fresh Citrus

Because of a generous donation from DECCO/Cerexagri, Inc., an excellent lunch will
again be provided to the first 200 people to register. Be sure to stop by DECCO's exhibitor
booth to say thanks! Representatives from more than 25 companies will be on hand to
provide valuable information for your business. Check out what they have to offer after
lunch. An exhibitor list will be provided including the names, addresses, telephone
numbers and products sold.

Be sure to stick around for the door prize drawings. We will again be giving out $250 in
door prizes. The only catch is that you have to be present to win. One of the door prizes
will be given out in the exhibitor area. Also, please complete and turn in an evaluation
form, they provide valuable feedback on how we can improve Packinghouse Day. One of
the door prizes will be awarded only to participants who turn in a completed evaluation

Mark A. Ritenour
Program Coordinator
Indian River Research & Education Center

Forty-Third Annual Citrus Packinghouse Day

Thursday, September 2, 2004


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Dr. Harold W. Browning, Center Director
Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred

Dr. Carla McGill, RD
Director of Scientific Research
Florida Department of Citrus, Lakeland

Mr. Richard Kinney
Executive Vice President
Florida Citrus Packers, Lakeland

10:00 AM HOW TO PASS A FOOD SAFETY AUDIT Juan Muniz, Primus Labs,
Santa Maria, CA

Many retailers and foodservice companies are requiring the production of Safe Production
Manuals and Third Party Audits as a verification of food safety practices. This
presentation will:

Review the important components of a good food safety program

Good Manufacturing Practices.
Food Safety File Requirements.
HACCP Program (Sometimes required by a Buyer).
Food Security (evolving).

Provide instructions for accessing online tools for evaluating a company's food safety

Discuss the steps that are involved in a PrimusLabs audit

Discuss practical tips on how to pass a food safety audit (including common pitfalls and

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misunderstandings about the requirements)

* Facility Audits Guidelines


And briefly discuss the general differences between domestic food safety standards and
EUREPGAP and BRC requirements.

The online, food safety program evaluation tools mentioned can be accessed from the
PrimusLabs.com website (www.primuslabs.com) free of charge. These include materials
to assist in developing safe production/packing/shipping/ receiving manuals, and in
conducting self-audits. The self-audits use the same exact questions that are used by
PrimusLabs.com auditors when conducting independent third party audits.

For more information, contact Jackie Alvarez or Chelsea Felix at (805) 922-0055 or by e-
mail at jalvarez@primuslabs.com or cfelix@primuslabs.com.

BIOSECURITY Renee M. Goodrich, UF/IFAS Citrus Research and Education Center,
Lake Alfred, FL 33850, rmg@crec.ifas.ufl.edu

Starting with the President's Food Safety Initiative in 1997, there has been a heightened
interest in produce-related food safety issues. An increase in per capital fruit and vegetable
consumption in the past decade, coupled with several high-profile foodborne disease
outbreaks related to produce, has led to continued regulatory and scientific focus on fresh
and fresh-cut fruit and vegetable food safety and security.


Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) have been the cornerstone programs in produce food
safety for the past 5 years. Since 1998, when these federal guidance documents were
issued by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), most major producers and
packers have adopted GAPs programs. Impetus for change was the realization that

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produce food safety was a real concern for consumers and regulators alike. Additionally,
many producers/packers instituted GAPs programs to achieve and/or maintain preferred
vendor status with important customers.

Important components of GAPs programs include assessing the following aspects of
production and packing, as appropriate for a given operation:


Agricultural water source and distribution
Historical use of land
Wells properly maintained
Processing water is tested regularly
Cooling water and ice are clean and sanitary

Worker Health & Hygiene

Employees properly trained in good hygienic practices
Re-assignment of ill employees to non-food handling duties
Proper use of gloves
Proper management and stocking of field toilets
Be familiar with laws and regulations that might apply to field sanitation facilities
such as state laws and OSHA

Field & Packing Facility Sanitation

Storage facilities and bins cleaned before use
Do not re-contaminate produce that is washed, cooled or packed
Maintain temperatures that promote optimum produce quality and minimize
pathogen growth
Assign responsibility for equipment cleaning and maintenance
Remove as much dirt as possible outside packing area
Establish and maintain pest control program in packinghouse

Transportation & Traceback

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Transportation vehicles inspected for cleanliness, odor and debris before loading
Maintain proper transport temperatures
Be able to trace produce containers from the farm, to the packer, distributor and
Document date of harvest, farm identification and who handled produce

Much useful and practical information regarding produce safety and GAPs can be found at
the following FDA website: http://www.foodsafety.gov/-dms/fs-toc.html

Food Security and the Bioterrorism Act of 2002

September 11, 2001 was a wake-up call for American citizens and businesses. The nation's
food supply has been identified as a critical network and a possible target for terrorist
activities. This portion of the presentation will focus on summarizing the Bioterrorism Act
of 2002 as it relates to fresh fruits and vegetables, including citrus. Some producers, and
all packers, face new record keeping requirements in light of this recent legislation. The
specific requirements of Facility Registration and Prior Notice will be reviewed, and some
food security self-auditing information will be provided. A detailed discussion of the very
recent (August 2004) "Questions and Answers Regarding Registration of Food Facilities -
Edition 4" will cover the packer-specific aspects of this latest guidance. This document
can be found at:


Finally, a valuable resource for background information regarding food security,
bioterrorism, and the specific requirements of the Act can be found at the main FDA food
biosecurity website:


Increasingly, 3rd party audits will address the food biosecurity issues pertinent to
producers, packers and shippers; these audits are becoming necessary to sell product to
major customers. Therefore, it is good business to both learn and implement appropriate
food safety and security practices at your individual facility; this talk will discuss some of
the resources available for that purpose.

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Albrigo, Citrus Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Lake Alfred, FL
33850, albrigoA(crec.ifas.ufl.edu

In recent years, internal fruit quality has been relatively poor. Fruit has matured early
based on sugar to acid ratio and this past year fruit developed internal drying granulationn)
early, especially in navel oranges but even in 'Hamlin'. Granulation is associated with low
soluble solids and acidity contents. Characteristics of these poor quality years include
early bloom, high spring and fall temperatures with a variety of crop loads. An analysis of
weather and other characteristics suggests that early maturity is primarily weather related
and leads to low solids. This year bloom was still early, but spring temperatures were
cooler than previous years. However, the previous year's crop and this year's heavy set are
leading to small fruit size. Other factors may also contribute to fruit quality limits. The
general balance of good and unfavorable factors for fresh fruit quality will be discussed.

Any production, harvesting, or shipping recommendations? e.g., possibly hasten harvests
from some crops, while others might be allowed to hang on the tree longer?

DEGREENING William M. Miller, University of Florida, Citrus Research and
Education Center, Lake Alfred, FL, wmm@crec.ifas.ufl.edu

One potential scenario to operate a packinghouse more efficiently is to process only fruit
lots where a high percent of the fruit is of a packable grade. Obviously, the first step
would be to select groves that have been maintained to produce fresh market quality citrus
and that have a previous history of yielding high packouts. A new step that packers may
want to consider individually or in a cooperative arrangement is to pre-grade fruit before
degreening. Electronic camera-based grading systems have been implemented in
numerous Florida packinghouses. However, a high percent of non-marketable fruit are de-
greened and handled through the initial dump, trash elimination and washing unit
operations. An electronic sizing/grading step before de-greening could eliminate under
and over-sized fruit, severely blemished fruit and fruit of low density (i.e. freeze-damaged

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or granulated fruit). Inclusion of color separation would reduce de-greening time and
provide some fruit for immediate packing. Herein, preliminary results are presented on
such initial color separation.

Fallglo tangerines were classified based on color only with a machine vision based
automatic grading unit (Colour Vision Systems, Vero Beach, FL). The fruit were
segregated into either 4 or 5 classes based on a hue-saturation-intensity color space with
defined color regions ranging from yellow-orange to dark green. Although the fruit had
not been washed, they were readily separated into color grades for subsequent de-

Initial tests in Fall 2003 on three harvest dates of Fallglo tangerines, indicated that 14 to
44 percent of the fruit had satisfactory color for immediate packing. The amount of fruit
considered dark green was 8 to 58 percent dependent upon harvest date. A de-greening
time increase from 24 to 48 hours resulted in a small decrease from 4 to 2 percent, in dark
green fruit.

Initial grading and separation of Florida citrus fruit before degreening would allow more
efficient use of de-greening room space. Some fruit with sufficient natural color could be
processed immediately. Secondary advantages of the above approach would include
minimum fruit exposure time to ethylene treatments and better utilization of packingline
equipment. The shortening or eliminating of degreening time should noticeably increase
fruit quality and provide more uniformity in packing operations.

(The author would like to acknowledge the contributions of Ms. Sherrie Buchanon, Sr.
Engineering Technician at CREC and Mr. Guillermo Moreda, Ph.D. student in
Agricultural Engineering at Polytechnic Univ. of Madrid in conducting this study.)

FRESH FLORIDA CITRUS Dr. Thomas F. Burks and Dr. Michael Hannan,
Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville

In the summer of 2001, the Florida Department of Citrus began an investigation into the
potential for using robotics to harvest citrus. Current mass harvesting programs have

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proven viable for process citrus, but cannot be used for fresh fruit markets, and questions
remain with regard to mass harvesting late season Valencia. During the course of this
investigation, a Fact Finding Team evaluated past horticultural robotics efforts, talked to
experts in the area of robotics, agricultural mechanization, horticulture, and economists to
determine if there had been sufficient advances in technology, and changes in the
economic potential for robotic harvesting to suggest that a renewed effort was warranted.
The consensus opinion of a Forum on Robotic Citrus Harvesting, April 2002, was that
there was an urgent need for harvesting solutions for the fresh fruit market, that significant
long-term financial commitment would be required, and although it is a difficult problem,
enough technical progress has been made in the past decade to warrant a new robotics
program. Initial optimistic estimates have suggested that a 7 to 10 year program will be
required to bring forth a market ready system, which would require budgetary levels
beyond that of most agricultural commodity groups. There is a growing interest among
national researchers and commodity group leaders to seek federal funding for supporting a
national initiative to promote automation of horticultural production.

Through the funding and support of the Florida Department of Citrus, a research program
was began at the University of Florida in the summer of 2002, which is seeking to address
the fundamental technology barriers which have prevented past citrus robotics efforts from
being successful. The following research projects are currently in progress at the
University of Florida; 1) fruit detection systems, 2) manipulator development, 3) fruit
handling systems, 4) vehicle guidance, 5) visual servo control, and 6) grove design and
tree genetics for optimized harvesting.

11:30 AM RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION J. P. Emond, Agricultural and
Biological Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a method of identifying unique items using radio
waves. Typically, a reader communicates with a tag, which holds digital information in a
microchip. Already large organizations such as Wal-Mart, Albertsons and the U.S.
Department of Defense are now committed to using RFID technology in open supply

As the produce industry, we are faced with many challenges related to RFID. RFID

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signals have trouble traveling through water (basic component of produce) and
environmental conditions found in warehouses such as high humidity and dust.

The UF/IFAS Center for Food Distribution and Retailing, equipped with the most
advanced RFID laboratory for food products in the country, is proposing to use a large
part of their resources to solving these problems. This presentation will detail recent
results of RFID testing with produce in the supply chain. It will also present the
importance of forming a collaborative partnership between key produce industry leaders in
the supply chain, retail, academia, and technology.

CHILLING INJURY Huating Dou, Florida Department of Citrus, Lake Alfred, FL

The most significant physiological peel disorders in Florida fresh citrus are postharvest
pitting (PP) and chilling injury (CI). The former is characterized by the collapse of clusters
of oil glands 1-2 weeks after packing; the latter develops as general peel damage during
cold storage, needing at least 4-6 weeks storage at low temperatures before symptom
development. Occurrences of these two disorders are reported each season and may cause
tremendous losses for growers, packers, and shippers. Production conditions and cultural
practices influence the susceptibility of citrus fruit to both PP and CI development but are
not the primary factors. Symptoms of these disorders are much more likely to occur if
postharvest handling practices are not optimal. Transit and storage temperatures, relative
humidity from harvest to shipping, and type of wax formulation are three key postharvest
factors influencing the occurrence and severity of PP and CI disorders.

Preharvest conditions which influence the development of PP and CI include fertilization
rate, water availability, and fruit size. Previously, we found that PP is most severe with
trees exposed to low potassium and high nitrogen conditions. Irrigation at 60% depletion
of available soil moisture also increases PP occurrence. PP is higher in large grapefruit
than in small grapefruit, and canopy position has little influence in PP incidence. PP
develops most severely in 'Fallglo' tangerines, Navel oranges, and grapefruit. White
'Marsh' grapefruit is particularly susceptible to PP development compared to 'Ruby' red,

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Flame, or 'Rio' red grapefruit. CI can occur in all varieties, particularly in white 'Marsh'
grapefruit. CI is more severe in sun-exposed grapefruit growing on the outer canopy,
compared to inner-canopy, shaded fruit. Both disorders are more prevalent in early- and
late-season fruit, than in mid-season fruit.

If transit and storage temperatures are optimal, both PP and CI can be greatly reduced.
With shellac-waxed fruit, the recommended temperature is 45-48 F for grapefruit, and 34-
40 F for tangerines and oranges. These temperatures should be maintained as closely as
possible, especially in grapefruit where CI can become severe at 38-42 F. Generally, high
storage humidity is recommended from harvest to shipping. Use of trailers with
temperature and humidity control is recommended for transit durations longer than 2
hours. Recent studies from Dr. Burns' group show that PP can occur if stored fruit are
transferred from low (30%) to high (90%) relative humidity. Fruit quality is optimized if
fruit internal oxygen concentration is higher than 10-12% after the coating application.
Application of shellac wax, while protective against CI, causes the lowest gas permeability
of the waxes (shellac, carnauba, polyethylene) and results in the highest incidence of the
PP. Carnauba wax is less protective against CI but develops less PP because it provides
good gas permeability. Polyethylene wax has better gas permeability than shellac wax but,
in most cases, permeability is less than carnauba wax.

In summary, the best production practices and postharvest handling, especially,
temperature and humidity management in combination with wax selection prevents fruit
from developing PP and CI. Leaving waxed fruit at ambient temperature with low
humidity can cause severe PP development. Consistently maintaining the optimal
recommended temperature along with high humidity throughout the postharvest chain
minimizes the development of PP and CI.

More information regarding the prospects of PP and CI prevention can be find in the
Packinghouse Newsletter No. 194 and 195, in "Update on postharvest pitting and its
control" (available at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/CH081), and in "Chilling injury of grapefruit
and its control" (available at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/HS191).

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