August 21, 2003
CITRUS RESEARCH & EDUCATION CENTER
700 Experiment Station Road
Lake Alfred, FL 33850
STATE OF FLORIDA-DEPARTMENT OF CITRUS
IN COOPERATION WITH
FLORIDA CITRUS PACKERS
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD & AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE
REGISTRATION 8:30 AM
PROGRAM 9:30 AM
Packinghouse Day Coordinators:
Mark Ritenour, Ph.D. Program Coordinator
Bill Miller, Ph.D. Exhibits Coordinator
Ren6e Goodrich, Ph.D. Local Arrangements Coordinator
welcome to the Forty-Second Annual Citrus Packinghouse Day! This year we again have many
Important issues that will be addressed. Leading members of industry and scientists from the University
Florida, the Florida Department of Citrus, and the University of California will present practical and
pIlied information of interest to your business.
is year's keynote speaker is Dr. Mary Lu Arpaia from the University of California who will discuss
ent changes in the California citrus industry. Other topics presented will include:
New citrus varieties for the fresh market.
Factors influencing fruit shape (e.g. sheepnosing).
Factors influencing the arrival quality of early season citrus.
Fungicide options for the future.
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Food safety issues for Florida citrus packinghouses.
Fresh citrus overview: what's the market, who's the competition and where's the future?
cause of a generous donation from DECCO/Cerexagri, Inc., an excellent lunch will again be provided
the first 200 people to register at the door. Be sure to stop by DECCO's exhibitor booth to say thanks!
.presentatives from more than 30 companies will be on hand to provide valuable information for your
isiness Check out what they have to offer after lunch. An exhibitor list will be provided including the
mes, addresses, telephone numbers and products sold.
Sure to stick around for the door prize drawings. We will again be giving out $250 in door prizes.
ie only catch is that you have to be present to win. One of the door prizes will be given out in the
Inhibitor area. Also, please complete and turn in an evaluation form, they provide us valuable feedback
how we can improve Packinghouse Day. One of the door prizes will be awarded only to participants
ho turn in a completed evaluation form.
ark A. Ritenour
ddian River Research & Education Center
30 AM REGISTRATION
30 AM WELCOME (10 min.)
. Harold W. Browning, Center Director
trus Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred
ITRODUCTORY REMARKS (10 min.)
. M. Joseph Ahrens
rector of Scientific Research
orida Department of Citrus, Lake Alfred
RESIDING (10 min.)
. Brian T. Scully, Center Director
dian River Research and Education Center, Ft. Pierce
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:00 AM CHANGES IN THE CALIFORNIA CITRUS INDUSTRY Mary Lu Arpaia, University
California Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier, CA. Keynote Speaker
:30 AM NEW VARIETY OPTIONS FOR THE FRESH MARKET Richard Kinney, Florida
trus Packers, Lakeland, FL and Harold Browning, University of Florida, IFAS, Citrus Research and
location Center, Lake Alfred, FL
oosing new cultivars: What does the consumer want? Satsumas, Clementines, navel or Valencia, a
ss between a grapefruit and banana? Industry is at a crossroads... do we continue to try to "sell" what
have or develop products or cultivars that the consumer wants? And, what "system" will help us meet
notified near or long-term goals.
our attempt to answer these questions, we will present new variety selection criteria and quantify new
riety options. Such criterion includes brix-acid-ratio, ease of peeling, production, size of fruit, disease
sceptibility or resistance, packability, color (on tree), marketable peel color, ease of section separation,
d flesh color. Audience comment and discussion will be encouraged.
:45 AM WHAT ARE THE ENVIRONMENTAL AND TREE CONDITIONS THAT CAUSE
EEPNOSING IN GRAPEFRUIT? J.P. Syvertsen1, L.G. Albrigol, M.A. Ritenour2, J.M. Dunlopi,
R. Pelosi2 and M.S. Burton2, University of Florida, IFAS, 1Citrus REC, Lake Alfred, FL and 2Indian
ver REC, Ft. Pierce, FL
isslhaped fruit, which are often predominantly sheepnosed, can reduce the packout of grapefruit by
re than 20% in some years. Sheepnosing undoubtedly occurs while fruit are still on the tree but the
derlying causes are not clearly understood. Many growers have different ideas as to what causes
eepnosed fruit but subsequent management practices to reduce sheepnosed fruit have not been
insistent Since not all sheepnosed fruit are elongated, the fruit height to width ratio was not a good
antitative measure of the shape of fruit that were visually rated as sheepnosed. Although there were
-re fruit borne singly than in clusters, clustered fruit had a higher percentage of sheepnosed fruit.
Ius.. sheepnosing may be related to high crop load since there are relatively more fruit borne in clusters
an singly in high crop years. Shape rating in July was maintained until Nov in the majority of fruit.
-erall fruit shape changes from oblong towards round or flat as it develops so very few round or flat
it in July become sheepnosed by Nov. We have yet to evaluate changes in grapefruit shape from Nov
.rouhUi May. Elevating early season temperature in tree canopies by placing clear plastic tents over
es from before bloom until July, increased the percentage of sheepnosed fruit (14%) above that of the
covered control trees (4%). Ruby red grapefruit trees fertilized at 250 lbs N/Ac per year had more
eepnosed fruit (14%) than trees that received 100 lbs N/Ac per year (3%). There were only small
ferences in the percentage of sheepnosed fruit in different grapefruit cultivars, rootstocks and canopy
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sitions If we can understand the mechanisms by which misshapen fruit occur, we may be able to
inimize the problem or at least predict the onset of misshaped fruit as early as possible in a season.
:00 AM FACTORS INFLUENCING QUALITY OF EARLY SEASON FLORIDA CITRUS -
oharned A. Ismail and Huating Dou, Florida Department of Citrus, Citrus Research and Education
nlter.. Lake Alfred, FL
orida's hot, rainy summers and warm winter nights contribute to the production of sweet early-season
rus fruit with high Brix to acid ratio. Such fruit meet legal maturity standards while the peel is still
eei and immature. Cultural practices such as frequent irrigation, fertigation, high rates of nitrogen
rilization and high density planting may also result in early fruit maturation. Early season fruit are,
wever, more susceptible to physiological disorders, decay and mechanical injury; all of which reduce
ck-out arrival quality and grower returns.
lile climatic and environmental conditions' impact on fruit maturity cannot be fully controlled, some
Itural practices can be managed to reduce external blemishes, decay and disorders. The following
leharvest measures are recommended to help improve pack-out and arrival quality:
Control melanose and rust mites to enhance external appearance.
Reduce nitrogen fertilizer to promote color development.
Apply appropriate fungicides prior to harvest to reduce disease pressure.
Avoid excessive irrigation prior to harvest.
a rvesting and Postharvest Practices:
Allow development of sufficient color break prior to harvest in order to minimize degreening time and
duce peel injury. Poorly colored fruit are more susceptible to Anthracnose and require prolonged
ngeenil which increases Stem-End Rot (SER).
Avoid harvesting after heavy rainfall and test fruit turgidity using a suitable penetrometer. Peel injury
sults in oil spotting and reduces pack-out.
Clipping of tangerines and some varieties of Tangelos eliminates plugging.
Closely supervise harvesting and never pick fruit off the ground.
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ecooling and Drenching:
Drench with suitable fungicide to control SER and maintain pH and chlorine in the drench mix to
Immediately cool fruit after picking to approximately 500F if packing is delayed beyond 24 hours to
oid excessive decay caused by Anthracnose and SER.
Minimize degreening time, temperature and ethylene concentration. Degreening time varies with
riety and degree of color break.
Maintain high relative humidity in degreening room to avoid shriveling and weight loss.
Allow one full fresh air exchange per hour and one full air circulation per minute.
minimize injury to fruit between dumping and packing, the following measures are recommended:
Condition new brush beds to reduce mechanical injury to early season fruit.
Assess physical injury potential of the packing line using the instrumented sphere or the Triphenyl
ra-zolium chloride (TTC) method.
Apply suitable fungicides, separately and in the wax.
Maintain dryer air temperature below 1400F.
Apply carnauba or polyethylene wax to promote better gas exchange and prevent off-flavor
Immediately store or ship fruit at low temperature to reduce peel pitting and decay.
'r additional information on maintaining quality of early-season fruit, see articles by J. Zhang and H.
bu in the FDOC Postharvest website, www.fdocitrus.com.
:15 AM POTENTIAL NEW FUNGICIDES FOR FRESH CITRUS John Zhang and Patricia
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\ ingle, Florida Department of Citrus, Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred, FL
i effective postharvest decay control program is critical for maintaining fresh fruit quality, reducing
stiharvest losses, and ultimately increasing net returns to fresh citrus growers. Currently in Florida,
rus postharvest decay control is achieved through an integrated procedure using synthetic fungicides
the core component. Imazalil, thiabendazole (TBZ) and sodium o-phenylphenate (SOPP) are the only
nthetic fungicides available to the citrus industry for the control of a wide array of postharvest fungal
eases These three fungicides have been periodically reviewed by the EPA and their future
ailability will be affected by increasingly restrictive regulations and the development of pathogen
distance. Obviously, it is important to look for alternatives to Imazalil and TBZ.
recent years, three new fungicides with different modes of action have been in process for EPA
'istrations for postharvest treatments of various fruits including citrus. They are PH066
vrimethanil), Scholar (fludioxonil), and Abound (azoxystrobin). The EPA has classified these three
w chemicals as reduced risk compounds. PH066 is from Janssen Pharmaceutica Inc. which also
Iinifactures Imazalil, and Scholar and Abound are both from Syngenta Inc., the manufacturer of TBZ.
066 is scheduled to be reviewed this year by the EPA and labeled next year. Abound and Scholar are
lieduled to be reviewed by the EPA in 2004 and labeled in 2005.
sts on these three new compounds were conducted by the FDOC to determine their potential for
stliarvest decay control of Florida citrus using different varieties and methods. The tests showed that
th Abound and Scholar significantly reduced stem-end rot (Diplodia natalensis) and green mold
enicillium digitatum) using simulated drench and packingline application methods. Scholar appears to
a good alternative to TBZ since its decay control spectrum and efficacy are similar to those of TBZ.
ench application of Scholar at low rates (100 to 500 ppm) was very effective for stem-end rot control.
addition, Scholar was the only compound showing a significant reduction of anthracnose
'ollcioirichum gloeosporioides) in one test using 'Fallglo' tangerines. The tests of PH066 were
inducted under a confidentiality agreement between the FDOC and Janssen, thus the results can not be
own at this time. However, the new chemicals appear to be less or slightly less effective than Imazalil
d TBZ for the control of green mold and stem-end rot, respectively.
e registrations of these three new fungicides will not replace the current fungicides (TBZ, Imazalil
d SOPP), but will provide additional chemical tools for postharvest decay control and the management
pathogen resistance. Since TBZ and Imazalil are excellent materials for effective control of both stem-
d rot and molds, and with no obvious pathogen resistance problems reported in Florida
ckinghouses, TBZ and Imazalil should still be the best choices for postharvest treatments. However,
new chemicals would obviously become important to our fresh citrus industry if either TBZ or
iazalil is removed due to new restrictive regulations or becomes less effective due to the development
severe pathogen resistance.
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:30 AM CITRUS PACKINGHOUSE FOOD SAFETY THE LATEST ISSUES Ren6e
odrich, University of Florida, IFAS, Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred, FL,
arting with the President's Food Safety Initiative in 1997, there has been a heightened interest in
oduce-related food safety issues. An increase in per capital fruit and vegetable consumption in the past
cade.. coupled with several high-profile foodborne disease outbreaks related to produce, has led to
ntinued regulatory and scientific focus on fresh and fresh-cut fruit and vegetable food safety and
od Agricultural Practices (GAPs) have been the cornerstone programs in produce food safety for the
st 5 years. Since 1998, when these federal guidance documents were issued by the U.S. Food and
ig Administration (FDA), most major producers and packers have adopted GAPs programs. Impetus
change was the realization that produce food safety was a real concern for consumers and regulators
ke. Additionally, many producers/ packers instituted GAPs programs to achieve and/or maintain
efe-red vendor status with important customers.
poritant components of GAPs programs include assessing the following aspects of production and
king, as appropriate for a given operation:
agricultural water source and distribution
historical use of land
ells properly maintained
iocessing water is tested regularly
cooling water and ice are clean and sanitary
worker Health & Hygiene
Employees properly trained in good hygienic practices
e-assignment of ill employees to non-food handling duties
Roperr use of gloves
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Roperr management and stocking of field toilets
e familiar with laws and regulations that might apply to field sanitation facilities such as state laws
eld & Packing Facility Sanitation
toraue facilities and bins cleaned before use
o not re-contaminate produce that is washed, cooled or packed
latintain temperatures that promote optimum produce quality and minimize pathogen growth
ssign responsibility for equipment cleaning and maintenance
emove as much dirt as possible outside packing area
establish and maintain pest control program in packinghouse
anlsportation & Traceback
transportation vehicles inspected for cleanliness, odor and debris before loading
Maintain proper transport temperatures
e able to trace produce containers from the farm, to the packer, distributor and retailer
document date of harvest, farm identification and who handled produce
uch useful and practical information regarding produce safety and GAPs can be found at the following
od Security and the Bioterrorism Act of 2002
ptember 11, 2001 was a wake-up call for American citizens and businesses. The nation's food supply
s been identified as a critical network and a possible target for terrorist activities. This portion of the
esentation will focus on summarizing the Bioterrorism Act of 2002 as it relates to fresh fruits and
getables, including citrus. Some producers, and all packers, will face new record keeping requirements
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light of this recent legislation. The specific requirements of Facility Registration and Prior Notice will
reviewed, and some food security self-auditing information will be provided.
valuable resource for background information regarding food security, bioterrorism, and the specific
quiirements of the Act can be found at: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/-dms/fsterr.html.
:45 AM THE ECONOMICS OF THE FRESH CITRUS INDUSTRY Tom Spreen, University of
orida., IFAS, Food and Resource Economics Department, Gainesville, FL
ie U.S. fresh citrus industry has been buffeted by several factors including increased imports,
creased competition from other fresh fruits, and adjustment to trade agreements. Recent events in the
esh citrus sector are discussed. The implications of emerging trends are highlighted.
is website is designed and maintained by: Dr. Mark Ritenour, Ph.D., Steve Sargent, Ph.D. and Jeff Brecht, Ph.D.
sign contributions also provided by: Mike Burton, Ryan Miller & Kenny Osteen. For questions or comments on this page or
e of the links, contact Dr. Mark Ritenour
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