August 17, 2000
CITRUS RESEARCH & EDUCATION CENTER
700 Experiment Station Road
Lake Alfred, FL 33850
STATE OF FLORIDA--DEPARTMENT OF CITRUS
IN COOPERATION WITH
FLORIDA CITRUS PACKERS
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COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE
INSTITUTE OF FOOD & AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE
REGISTRATION 8:30 AM
PROGRAM 9:30 AM
underlined Titles are Linked to their Respective Slide Presentations.
30 AM WELCOME (10 min.)
Dr. Harold W. Browning, Center Director, Citrus Research and Education Center,
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INTRODUCTORY REMARKS (10 min.)
Dr. Mohamed A. Ismail, Scientific Research Director, Fresh Fruit, Florida Department
Citrus, Lake Alfred
PRESIDING (10 min.)
Bobby Sexton, Oslo Citrus Growers Association, President, Florida Citrus Packers,
President, Indian River Citrus League
10:00 AM CITRUS PACKINGHOUSE WASHWATER RECYCLING USING
ELECTRO-PULSE TECHNOLOGY David Lester, General Manager, Waverly
Regulatory Associates (WRA), Waverly, FL
10:15 AM STATUS OF CITRUS CANKER IN FLORIDA AND STATEWIDE
REQUIREMENTS FOR HARVESTING, HAULING, PACKING AND
SHIPPING FRESH CITRUS Leon Hebb, Chief, Bureau of Pest Eradication and Control
(Winter Haven), and Ken Bailey, Program Director, Dade-Broward-Palm Beach County Citrus
Canker Program (Miami and Plantation)
10:45 AM "GREEN RING" -- OCCURRENCE AND CONTROL Mark A.
Ritenour, University of Florida, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL and
Huating Dou, Florida Department of Citrus, Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred, FL
10:55 AM SANITATION AND HACCP Steven Pao, Florida Department of Citrus,
Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred, FL
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11:10 AM VOLUME FILLED PACKAGING Steve Maxwell, Vice President/Fresh
Fruit Division, Ben Hill Griffin, Inc., Frostproof, FL
11:25 AM FACTORS TO MINIMIZE CHILLING INJURY Huating Dou, Florida
Department of Citrus, Citrus REC, Lake Alfred, FL and Mark A. Ritenour, University of Florida, Indian
River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL
11:35 AM REFRIGERATION CONDITIONS IN STORING FLORIDA
CITRUS William M. Miller, University of Florida, Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake
Alfred, FL and Huating Dou, Florida Department of Citrus, Citrus Research and Education Center,
Lake Alfred, FL
11:45 AM INTERNATIONAL MOVEMENT OF FRESH FLORIDA CITRUS -
Suzanne Thornsbury, University of Florida, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort
"The Old and The New" is the theme for the Thirty-ninth Annual Citrus Packinghouse
ay. While things change and new issues and techniques are always arising, we also
ntinue to encounter many of the previous issues and techniques that need to be
visited. The start of the new millennium has brought with it many potential
Iportunities for new business, but as we know, there are both continuing and new
stacles that we must overcome. We will touch on some of these key issues facing the
trus packinghouse industry during this day's proceedings.
Among the continuing but expanding threats is the spread of citrus canker. A group of
ople from the Florida Department of Agriculture, Animal Health Inspection Services
est Eradication and Control) will be here to present the latest information concerning the
read and eradication efforts for citrus canker. They will also be available in the lobby to
swer individual questions and concerns.
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Industry and academic presenters will address a number of continuing and new issues
r packinghouse procedures. First of all, the performance of a new water recycling
stem used in a commercial packinghouse will be discussed. In addition, an argument
ill be made for the implementation of mechanized volume filling of citrus and a
ccessful example presented. Fruit quality, storage life and disorder development (e.g.
tting) are profoundly affected by temperature. Research results will be presented
owing the relative effectiveness of forced air and room cooling. Current information
guarding a new peel disorder (green ring) will be presented and an increase in the
cidence of an old peel disorder (chilling injury) brings an update on its cause and
evention. Because many packinghouses are taking a proactive approach to
implementing and documenting their sanitation programs, the latest methods to reduce
microorganism populations on citrus fruit will also be presented.
New business opportunities for the citrus industry include expanding domestic and
:port sales. Dr. Suzanne Thornsbury will present on opportunities and challenges that
ist through trade with countries such as China. As has been observed in the rapidly
pendingg fresh-cut produce sector, the delivery of ready-to-eat citrus also holds promise
r expanding citrus sales. To meet these market opportunities, the Department of Citrus
s developed and will demonstrate a prepeeler for citrus fruit. Lastly, over 30
imlmercial exhibitors will provide valuable information for your business. Check out
liat they have to offer after lunch. An exhibitor list is provided including the names,
dresses, telephone numbers and products sold.
One of the notable differences this year at Packinghouse Day will be the absence of
r. Will Wardowski following his retirement June 30th. After 31 years of excellence in
ordinating Packinghouse Day (including a major role in preparing for this year), Dr.
ardowski has made a positive impact on Florida's citrus packinghouses. As the new
ogram coordinator, I am excited about the contributions I can make promoting the citrus
dustry through Packinghouse Day. To give due credit, however, Packinghouse Day is
e result of a team of dedicated people: Dr. Bill Miller coordinates the exhibits, Dr. Renee
oodrich oversees the local arrangements, Jane Wilson handles the abstracts and lunch
arrangements and a host of other people contribute in various capacities. As a team, we
ill continually evaluate our efforts and look for ways to improve the effectiveness of
ickinghouse Day. BUT WE NEED YOUR HELP! Please take advantage of the
aluation forms to give us valuable feedback on how we can improve Packinghouse Day.
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Mark A. Ritenour
Indian River Research & Education Center
:30 AM REGISTRATION
:30 AM WELCOME (10 min.)
Dr. Harold W. Browning, Center Director
Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred
INTRODUCTORY REMARKS (10 min.)
Dr. Mohamed A. Ismail
Scientific Research Director, Fresh Fruit
Florida Department of Citrus, Lake Alfred
PRESIDING (10 min.)
Oslo Citrus Growers Association
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President, Florida Citrus Packers
President, Indian River Citrus League
10:00 AM CITRUS PACKINGHOUSE WASHWATER RECYCLING
USING ELECTRO-PULSE TECHNOLOGY David Lester, General
Manager, Waverly Regulatory Associates (WRA), Waverly, FL
Why should you be concerned about the cost of water, and what impact it has on
ickinghouse operations? Fifteen years ago regulatory agencies began issuing permits for
Ie use of water and the discharge of wastewater. Consumptive use permits are issued by
Ie Water Management District to packinghouses that pull water from wells. The Florida
department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) issues industrial wastewater permits for
trus packing washwater discharges. There are three methods used today to discharge
iuts wastewater. Perc ponds, the standard for many years, spray fields which in most
ises are land limited, and sewer discharges, the preferred method where available.
hckinghouses are faced with a wastewater discharge plan that is significant in terms of
>st. The migration from perc ponds to a spray field is quite expensive and is an option
lat is not available to everyone. First it takes dedicated land and an elaborate
maintenance free) spray system. Daily reports and monitoring of water discharges are
so required. Sewer on the other hand requires connection fees and monthly sewer bills.
annual sewer costs can run as high as $40,000 and are increasing. There are increasing
lgulatory pressures to limit or restrict the use of well water and at the same time, reduce
id/or eliminate discharges to the ground, all to protect the groundwater aquifer.
One of the obvious solutions to water conservation is water recycling. Washwater
!cycling will dramatically reduce the amount of fresh water usage and at the same time,
mnit the discharge. Due to the fresh water rinse requirement, there will always be some
management of excess water, however, to reduce consumption and discharge by 80% to
)o is a significant cost savings. The history of recycling attempts have also generated
rge investments and in most cases less than satisfactory results. First generation systems
ere strictly mechanical filtration. They were expensive to install and resulted in high
maintenance. Second generation systems were typically chemical injection systems.
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4ese systems were expensive to purchase and expensive to manage. It is not uncommon
r a first or second generation system to require dedicated staff to operate the system.
chemicals were also an ongoing cost factor. Finally, there were installations that after
me period of time, were discontinued.
The third generation of recycling technology was installed last year at a packinghouse
Vero Beach. The packinghouse faced many of the water cost factors discussed earlier
id elected to prototype an electrical water recycling technology. While this technology
as successful in many other application areas, it was never applied to citrus wastewater.
iere were anticipated start-up obstacles as the system is 100% automated and the
ogramming of the system requires a knowledge of citrus wastewater components and
ofile of water usage. The system was reprogrammed a number of times to accommodate
r packinghouse chemicals and flow rate requirements. After a few months of
:perimental adjustments, the system was finally "trained" and declared a success. As a
suit, the system processed nearly 1,000,000 gallons of water in the six months it was
):15 AM STATUS OF CITRUS CANKER IN FLORIDA AND STATEWIDE
REQUIREMENTS FOR HARVESTING, HAULING, PACKING AND SHIPPING
ESH CITRUS Leon Hebb, Chief, Bureau of Pest Eradication and Control (Winter
aven), and Ken Bailey, Program Director, Dade-Broward-Palm Beach County Citrus
ianker Program (Miami and Plantation)
The continued presence of Asian strain citrus canker in Dade, Broward, Palm Beach,
llier, Hendry, Manatee and Hillsborough has necessitated increased quarantine actions,
rather tree losses and new statewide requirements for decontamination of all personnel
id equipment between commercial citrus properties and regulation of fruit movement for
picking and processing.
Major portions of urban Dade and Broward counties are affected with residential
operties having been found infected in 348 legal sections. In Collier County, 77 square
iles in the Sunniland area containing 16,000 acres of commercial grove are quarantined.
Hendry County 18 sections in the Big Cypress Indian Reservation containing 1,700
'res of commercial grove, and in the Devils Garden area, 30 sections containing 2,559
res are quarantined. The Hendry County Starglo 25 square mile quarantine area has
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725 acres of commercial groves within the 25 square mile quarantine area. New
sectionn of citrus canker disease in two properties southwest of the Siboney quarantine
lea has resulted in a quarantine extension from 30 square miles to 84 square miles. In 60
juare miles of Northern Manatee County, where 1,358 acres of commercial and
landoned citrus have been destroyed 2,050 acres of commercial citrus remain under
,larantine. In Eastern Manatee County, in the 41 square mile Duette quarantine area with
050 acres of commercial citrus, 104 acres of commercial citrus has been removed.
In the regulated areas, all citrus plants and plant parts, including fruit, are restricted
om movement unless the plants have been inspected and found free of citrus canker
sease within 30 days prior to harvesting. The harvesters, haulers, and receiving
icklinghouses or processing plants must be compliance agreement to receive and handle
ie fruit from quarantined areas in accordance with FDACS Citrus Canker Rule 5B-58.
his rule requires the decontamination of personnel, trucks and equipment upon leaving
oves in established quarantined areas, covering of loads to prevent leaves and debris
om being disbursed during transportation, washing and surface decontamination of the
utit, using SOPP or hypochlorite solutions, and the decontamination of trucks, bins and
ick covers, with approved chemicals, prior to leaving packing or processing facilities.
11 culls and eliminations must move to processors, feed mills or approved dump sites.
Certificates of harvesting and limited permits for movement from quarantined areas to
ocessing facilities are required. Federal limited permits are required on all packed fresh
i it cartons restricting movement. "LIMITED PERMIT USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Federal
domestic Quarantine, NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION IN: American Samoa, Arizona,
rizona, California, Florida, Guam, Hawaii, Louisiana, N. Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico,
exas, and U.S. Islands."
Outside of quarantine areas all handlers, harvesters, groves caretakers are required
be under compliance. Sanitation to prevent the spread of citrus canker is now required
Latest information and requirements for harvesting, handling, packing fresh
trus will be discussed.
):45 AM "GREEN RING" -- OCCURRENCE AND CONTROL Mark A.
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itenour, University of Florida, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce,
and Huating Dou, Florida Department of Citrus, Citrus Research and Education
nter, Lake Alfred, FL
In previous years, there have been sporadic reports of peel damage (e.g. green or
-o\\n circles or streaks) developing after drenching the fruit. However, causal agents or
actors have never been identified. However, in both 1998 and 1999, the disorder was
)served with much greater frequency in loads of early-season, drenched fruit and caused
gnificant loss of product for the fresh market. The term GR was first coined because the
fected areas (ring patterns) did not degree properly. Symptoms now include fruit with
een or necrotic (brown) peel tissue that forms rings or streaking patterns and is usually
sible after degreening but before packing. We currently do not know if the different
Imptoms are all caused by the same factorss. Injured areas are generally associated with
intactt points with other fruit or the bin where drench solution remains longest before
raporating and where drench chemicals and dissolved solutes concentrate. Smaller fruit
nd to develop more GR than larger fruit.
During the 1998-1999 and 1999-2000 harvest seasons, GR was reported in drenched
allglo' tangerines, 'Navel' oranges and red and white grapefruit. Even on the east cost,
ost citrus that was drenched did not develop GR and those loads that did develop GR
ine from a variety of drenchers (both truck and bin drenchers), suggesting that the
oblem is not associated with a particular drench. However, product loss was significant
lien GR did occur. Furthermore, during both seasons, incidence of GR declined as the
ason progressed into November, with no known reports of GR by December. Thus,
leharvest/ developmental factors play a critical role in the development of GR.
Preharvest factors giving rise to the disorder have been difficult to correlate and could
clude any of a number of chemicals and/or weather-related events. Possible factors
ving rise to GR susceptible fruit could include excessive rain and/or poor drainage in the
ove, a large proportion of "off-bloom" fruit, preharvest chemical applications, and local
weather conditions. After harvest and when fruit are susceptible to GR, discontinuing
enching has been reported to virtually eliminate the disorder. However, unless other
ecautions have been taken (e.g. preharvest benomyl applications), postharvest decay
uld become a problem. There have been reports that drying fruit after drenching can
duce the development of GR and some of our preliminary data supports this. However,
pending on the relative humidity, drying fruit in the center of the bins without
hydrating outer fruit can be very difficult.
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To investigate postharvest factors on GR development, harvested grapefruit were
ated with combinations of different drench chemicals. Using susceptible fruit (from
oves where GR had been reported), we were able to reproduce the disorder (necrotic/
o\\ n tissue) using different drench chemicals. GR did not develop on fruit treated with
water or with water containing 125 ppm chlorine. However, significant GR did develop
hen drench solutions contained different combinations of surfactant, TBZ, chlorine and/
motor oil. Although the disorder is usually visible before packing, preliminary data
ggest that waxing may reduce GR severity after storage.
10:55 AM SANITATION AND HACCP Steven Pao, Florida Department
of Citrus, Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred, FL
Microbial contamination of fresh fruit and juice products is influenced by fruit surface
icrobial loads after final washing and sanitizing. Thus, an effective fruit surface
nitizing treatment should be incorporated in fruit handling procedures to achieve desired
contamination. Currently, sanitizing treatments are being utilized by citrus
ckinghouse and fresh juice processors to minimize microbial populations on the
rfaces of fruit. It is known that packinghouse procedures generally reduce surface
icroorganisms on citrus fruit. Alkaline washing applied with an adequate spray volume
fectively reduces the surface contamination of fruit and decreases the microbial loads of
.sh juice as well. Furthermore, mildly heated, high pH waxes may be utilized in the
ickinghouse to complement the overall sanitizing procedures. For fresh juice processor,
pid thermal treatments can be utilized to reduce fruit-surface and initial juice microbial
ads without altering the original sensory quality of fresh juice. These sanitizing
atments may be integrated into existing good manufacturing practices and/or hazard
alysis critical control point (HACCP) program to protect the integrity of fresh citrus
:10 AM VOLUME FILLED PACKAGING Steve Maxwell, Vice President/
esh Fruit Division, Ben Hill Griffin, Inc., Frostproof, FL
In the summer of 1999 Ben Hill Griffin, Inc. installed a fully automated Tangerine
ickaging System. The decision was made to go with this system after careful
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>nsideration of the history of our industry and also taking a hard look into the future.
In the late 1960's and early 1970's volume filled packaging was attempted on a small
ale and in short did not succeed. The concept was correct but, in our opinion, the timing
Since those days many dynamics have changed in our industry both on the shipper side
id the buyer side. These changes have given ample reasons to revisit the volume filled
Things have changed over the past 30 years:
)r the Buyer:
1. Our customer base has shifted from predominately wholesale (who request
place packed cartons) to retailers who demand quality and PLU's but do not demand
2. The computer has made drastic changes in operations and management of
grocery chains. Produce departments are managed by information generated by
computer. This creates a demand for profit, which manifests itself in a push for
lower FOB's by the buyer and smaller, controlled inventories.
3. Worldwide sourcing of fruit is now a reality. On any given day you can
purchase any kind of fruit from any region of the World and any retail chain or
wholesaler. (Try buying a watermelon in December 30 years ago!) This creates
competition for shelf space, which again puts pressure on the Grower/Shipper.
or the Grower/Shipper changes have also occurred, that have eroded our profit margins.
1. Specialized packaging and labeling.
2. Labor needed to place pack has become scarce and expensive.
3. Workers Compensation cost have skyrocketed.
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4. Worker Liability issues have taken center stage.
5. Our customers are asking for better quality for less money, squeezing profits
from the products we produce.
These changes are to name just a few and the bottom line is in order to survive long
ine, we must continue to eliminate cost from our packaging systems.
What can be done?
It's a given that volume filling is not the answer to all of our challenges, but we
lieve it has its place in today's market. We as packers must trim cost to survive. The
stem you are about to see will reduce cost.
After volume filling our tangerines for 17 seasons by hand we decided to automate our
ngerine operations. This decision has resulted in substantial savings and created more
Lun time" so that we can comfortably increase our volume while maintaining a quality of
'e our employees deserve, all the while reducing our packaging cost primarily due to
bor savings and operational efficiencies.
:25 AM FACTORS TO MINIMIZE CHILLING INJURY Huating Dou,
orida Department of Citrus, Citrus REC, Lake Alfred, FL and Mark A. Ritenour,
university of Florida, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL
Chilling injury of citrus is characterized by peel tissue collapse and requires
Iproximately 4-6 weeks to develop during cold storage. In contrast, postharvest pitting is
used by wax application and high temperature (e.g. >50 F) storage, where oil glands are
e preliminary site of collapse. This season, CI was frequently reported in 38 F
ipments of exported and domestic grapefruit. Storage/shipment temperatures lower than
F can cause severe CI with the highest incidence occurring at 38 to 40 F. Postharvest
tting occurs in storage temperatures higher than 50 F. Our studies indicate that both CI
d pitting can be controlled at 45 F storage and shipping temperature.
Wax application reduces CI incidence with shellac wax providing better control of CI
an carnauba wax. Fungicides such as TBZ, IMZ, and Benomyl reduces the incidence of
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[. Intermittent warming and relatively high storage humidity also minimize CI
development. An earlier recommendation of pre-treatment at 60 F for 7 or more days
duIces the CI, but increases the risk of postharvest pitting in waxed fruit. Storage in low
2 and high CO2 reduce the incidence of CI in citrus fruit. Dipping fruit in methyl
smonate and vegetable oils or sealing fruit in polyethylene film decreases fruit CI.
In Florida's climate, citrus are susceptible to CI in early (October-December) and late
larch-May) seasons, but more resistant during midseason (January-March). However,
e specific time of year when fruit become resistant to CI fluctuates from season to
ason. Exterior canopy fruit are reportedly more susceptible to CI than interior fruit and
e sun-exposed side of a fruit is more susceptible to CI than the shaded side of the same
Optimal storage and shipping temperature in combination with waxes is the best means
minimize fruit CI. The current Department of Citrus recommended holding
mperature for grapefruit is between 45-50 F, which controls both CI and pitting.
11:35 AM REFRIGERATION CONDITIONS IN STORING
FLORIDA CITRUS William M. Miller, University of Florida, Citrus
Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred, FL and Huating Dou, Florida
Department of Citrus, Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred, FL
The use of refrigeration in post-packing operations of citrus has become prevalent in
orida. However, current systems vary widely with respect to temperature, relative
timidity and air circulation. A review of commercial operations was undertaken to
termine a representative range of operating conditions. In monitoring cold rooms, pre-
olers and refrigerated trailers, temperatures were found to range from 12.5 deg C (54.5
g F) to 3.7 deg C (38.7 deg F). Relative humidity levels from 80.0 to 91.7% were
measured. A pilot-scale pre-cooling chamber was fabricated to evaluate cooling rates
uler forced air conditions. To reduce the fruit's center temperatures by /2, the time for
hgle layer cartons (forced air, 0.38 m/s or -75 fpm face velocity) was approximately 60
in. while fruit in a 2-layer carton depth required approximately 130 min. By contrast, a
ngle carton in quiescent room refrigeration conditions required 435 min. for coolingn.
ending patterns were important for forced-air cooling but did not alter cooling times
gnificantly in refrigerated storage rooms. Total vent areas of various carton designs
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ere measured and ranged from 90 to 200 cm2 (14 to 31 in2 ). In limited testing of wax-
frigeration interactions, no pitting was observed with any wax treatments when fruit was
red immediately at 7 deg C (45 deg F). However, at 21 deg C (70 deg F), minor pitting
i fruit treated with shellac wax treatments was observed.
:45 AM INTERNATIONAL MOVEMENT OF FRESH FLORIDA CITRUS -
izanne Thornsbury, University of Florida, Indian River Research and Education Center,
)rt Pierce, FL
Through June 4 in the 1999/00 season, 55,753,000 cartons of certified fresh Florida
truls were shipped, a decrease of 13 percent from 1998/99. Approximately 68 percent
2,532,000 cartons) of Florida grapefruit, 9 percent (1,157,000 cartons) of Florida
anges, and 6 percent (572,000 cartons) of Florida specialty fruit were exported. Total
truls volume exported decreased less than 2 percent from the 1998/99 season.
international shipments of both grapefruit and specialty fruit increased but there was a
ccrease in the volume of orange exports compared to 1998/99.
Fresh citrus was also imported into the U.S. including a record high level of imports in
)98/99, partially due to freeze conditions in California. Between 1994/95 and 1998/99,
Iproximately 641,200 cartons of grapefruit, 2,034,200 cartons of oranges, and 1,575,780
irtons of specialty citrus were imported on average each year.
Not only is a majority of Florida fresh grapefruit exported, but the U.S. remains a
iminant force in world grapefruit markets accounting for 43-54 percent of total world
-ports each year between 1994 and 1998. Other countries with significant volume in
apefruit export markets include Israel with approximately 7 percent of world production
d 9-12 percent of world exports; South Africa with approximately 3 percent of world
oduction and 4-7 percent of world exports; and Cuba with approximately 6 percent of
world production and less than 1 percent of world exports.
The European Union (EU) is the largest importer of grapefruit in the world, accounting
r approximately one-half of the total volume. Other significant importers are Japan (13-
percent), Canada (5-7 percent), Poland (2-3 percent) and Argentina, the Russian
derationn, and Switzerland (1.5 percent each). Given Florida's dominance in world
apefruit markets, it is not surprising that state trade patterns closely follow world
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tterns. In the 1999/00 season, 32 percent of all Florida grapefruit were exported to
pan, 20 percent to the EU, 7 percent to Canada, and 2.4 percent to other Pacific Rim
Fresh citrus exports account for a smaller, although not unimportant, part of the market
r Florida oranges and specialty fruit. In 1999/00, 6.1 percent of fresh Florida oranges
ere exported to Canada and 3 percent were exported to the Pacific Rim. Over the same
riod, 7 percent of Florida honeybells, 4.5 percent of temples, 4 percent of tangerines,
d 2 percent of tangelos were exported to Canada.
There were several important events in the international markets for Florida citrus in
e past two seasons. The bilateral Agricultural Cooperation Agreement was signed in
april 1999, formally lifting the ban on U.S. citrus exports to China. Continued
gotiations over removal of phytosanitary restrictions resulted in several direct shipments
citrus during the 1999/00 season. A March 1999 agreement opened citrus markets in
dia for mandarins, clementines, lemons, and grapefruit. In addition a protocol over
N tosanitary concerns was negotiated in 1999 with the Philippines to allow imports of
orida grapefruit, oranges, and tangerines. In June 2000, an agreement was signed that
would allow restricted imports of citrus from Argentina to the U.S. Lifting the ban on the
port of Argentinean citrus has raised the expectations that the ban on Florida citrus
ports to Argentina may also be lifted. A comparison of relative prices suggests that
rgentinean lemons are the product most likely to be exported to the U.S. and that U.S.
apefruits are the product most likely to be exported to Argentina. Due to differences in
owing seasons, shipments are expected to complement, rather than compete, with each
Despite the progress, some concerns remain over the international movement of
sh Florida citrus. Tariffs remain high in China, limiting unrestricted market access.
nice China accedes to the WTO, tariffs for priority U.S. agricultural products are
heduled to fall from a current average of 31 percent to 14 percent by January 2004.
Though Switzerland currently imports approximately 1.4 percent of world grapefruit
ded, no product enters directly from the U.S. Phytosanitary regulations continue to
strict Florida citrus from markets in Mexico and Australia and, while the entry of citrus
oducts to Argentina is anticipated, it has not yet been achieved.
Continuing economic research in three broad areas can assist in identifying
Iportunities for further expansion of Florida product into international markets. The first
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demand analysis; what products, and product characteristics, are consumers willing to
irchase and able to afford? Continued research into trade flow patterns is also important;
here do Florida products have a competitive advantage, are there adjustments that can be
ade to shift the competitive advantage of Florida citrus? Finally continued research into
itosanitary issues will be vital, not only to assess opportunities in additional markets but
maintain existing markets for Florida products.
LOBBY EXHIBITS, BEN HILL GRIFFIN HALL
CITRUS CANKER STATUS IN FLORIDA AND REQUIREMENTS FOR
OVING AND MARKETING FRUIT FROM REGULATED AREAS Leon Hebb,
chief, Bureau of Pest Eradication and Control and Kenneth Bailey, CCEP Program
director, Miami, FL, both with the Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of
agriculture and Consumer Services.
Citrus Canker Project personnel are located in the main lobby of the Ben Hill Griffin
auditorium with displays and handouts. These project representatives have experience in
trus canker regulations and will be available to address regulatory questions or discuss
Samples of certificates of harvesting and limited permits for movement from
larantined and non quarantined areas to packinghouses, for fruit originating in quarantine
eas to processing facilities will be available.
Maps of current areas will be on display. Note that the quarantine areas may change
tween going to press and Citrus Packinghouse Day.
DEVELOPING AN AUTOMATED PEELING SYSTEM FOR CITRUS FRUIT -
ohamed Ismail and Mark Thomas, Florida Department of Citrus, Citrus Research and
tucation Center, Lake Alfred, FL
Convenience is a driving force for the increased consumption of fresh fruits and
getables. To promote consumption of fresh citrus, a peeling system has been developed
id patented by the Florida Department of Citrus, Scientific Research staff. The prototype
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eling machine is capable of peeling 40-60 fruit per minute, following enzyme infusion
soften the rind. It features a washing line, peel perforation line, vacuum infusion tank
d a 2-head peeling machine. In cooperation with Heinzen Manufacturing International
Gilroy, California, the FDOC has developed and constructed a larger peeling system
uipped with four peeling heads and can accommodate four additional heads.
An ongoing research and development program is underway aimed at developing
trus peeling equipment for water infused fruit and for non-infused fruit.
NEW FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF CITRUS WEBSITE FOR POSTHARVEST
ITRUS INFORMATION Mohamed A. Ismail, Florida Department of Citrus, Lake
In April 2000, Fresh Fruit, Scientific Research Staff, launched the first Scientific
ebsite dedicated to Postharvest problems of citrus. The website can be accessed on the
orida Department of Citrus domain www.floridaiuice.com or www.fdocitrus.com. The
te, titled "Postharvest Florida Citrus Information Guide," presents information on:
Citrus Diseases & Decay Control
A section on Mechanical Harvesting is also featured discussing various harvesting
stems under development by the Florida Department of Citrus and private machinery
The site will be updated approximately every quarter with new research information
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d answers to frequently asked questions.
INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF CITRICULTURE, NINTH CONGRESS
december 3-7, 2000 Walt Disney World's Coronado Springs Resort, Orlando, Florida
C Website: http://www.lal.ufl.edu/ISC Citrus homepage.htm
ee display at Citrus Packinghouse Day, in the lobby of Ben Hill Griffin Hall.
or complete information on the IX ISC 2000 Congress visit our website or contact
ternational Society of Citriculture, Citrus Research and Education Center,
)0 Experiment Station Road, Lake Alfred, Florida 33850-2299, USA
The IXth Congress of the International Society of Citriculture will be at the
ronado Springs Resort, Walt Disney World, Orlando, Florida, USA, December 3-7,
The Program Committee has planned poster and oral presentations on all aspects
Citrus, from production to consumption. There will be daily oral sessions, workshops
id major Symposia on Monday, Tuesday and Thursday with tours on Wednesday. Late
ternoon poster sessions will be emphasized (15:30-17:00 hr). Oral sessions on Monday
id Tuesday will highlight topics of interest to growers, packers, processors, and
marketers. Invited speakers will share their experiences and expertise from citrus
dulstries in other countries.
A four-day tour to three regions of the Florida citrus industry will begin on
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ovember 28th and conclude on December 1st, 2000. Participants will see the East Coast
lea, a major fresh grapefruit production region characterized by interesting soils, water
management systems, and modern fresh fruit packinghouses; the Gulf region typified by
.any large citrus operations where oranges and other citrus types are grown for processed
ice and fresh fruit markets; and, the well-known Ridge area of central Florida where
range grapefruit, and mandarin trees are grown on deep, sandy soils. Abbreviated two-
ay tours will also be offered to the East Coast and the Ridge areas November 30th
Rough December 1st.
On Wednesday, December 6th, visits to a variety of local scientific and citrus
idustry sites will be conducted for Congress participants. These tours will conclude at
Ie University of Florida Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred, with a tour
this facility followed by a casual dinner and return to the Congress hotel in the evening.
A California delegation has organized a post-congress tour of their industry. More
tails and registration packets are available in the lobby display.
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