Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Commercial sail and Alternative...
 Speed comparison historical & modern...
 Modern sailing ships
 Current design approaches...
 Upcoming conferences on commercial...
 Gaps in knowledge and Acknowle...
 Major commercial sail and general...
 Historical survey of commercial...
 Cargo and passenger commercial...
 Commercial sailing fishing...
 Modern sailing fishing vessels
 Sailing work boats
 Economics of commercial sail
 Technological developments
 Advanced thrusters and sail...
 Performance prediction and wind...
 Miscellaneous applications

Group Title: Technical paper - Florida Sea Grant College Program ; no. 24
Title: Sail-assisted commercial marine vehicles
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074960/00001
 Material Information
Title: Sail-assisted commercial marine vehicles bibliography and abstracts
Series Title: Technical paper Florida Sea Grant College
Physical Description: 84 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Shortall, John W
Publisher: Marine Advisory Program, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1982
Subject: Sailing ships -- Abstracts   ( lcsh )
Sailboats -- Abstracts   ( lcsh )
Fishing boats -- Abstracts   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
abstract or summary   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by John W. Shortall III.
General Note: Partly supported by the University of South Florida.
General Note: Grant NA80AA-D-00038.
Funding: Technical paper (Florida Sea Grant College) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074960
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000990250
oclc - 09126825
notis - AEW7162

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Commercial sail and Alternative marine fuels
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Speed comparison historical & modern sailing vessels
        Page 3
    Modern sailing ships
        Page 4
    Current design approaches and thrusters
        Page 5
    Upcoming conferences on commercial sail/ Potential Tampa Bay international conference
        Page 6
    Gaps in knowledge and Acknowledgements
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Major commercial sail and general survey reports
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Historical survey of commercial sailing craft
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Cargo and passenger commercial sailing ships
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Commercial sailing fishing vessels
        Page 44
    Modern sailing fishing vessels
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Sailing work boats
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Economics of commercial sail
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Technological developments
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Advanced thrusters and sail rigs
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Performance prediction and wind routing
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
    Miscellaneous applications
        Page 84
Full Text



John W. Shortall III, NA


MAY 1982




John W. Shortall III, NA

Technical Paper No. 24
May 1982

University of South Florida
College of Engineering
Tampa, Florida 33620

Technical Papers are duplicated in limited quantities for specialized
audiences requiring rapid access to information and may receive only limited
editing. This paper was compiled by the Florida Sea Grant College with
support from NOAA Office of Sea Grant, U.S. Department of Commerce, grant
number NA80AA-D-00038. It was published by the Marine Advisory Program
which functions as a component of the Florida Cooperative Extension Service,
John T. Woeste, Dean, in conducting Cooperative Extension work in Agri-
culture, Home Economics, and Marine Sciences, State of Florida, U.S.
Department of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Commerce, and Boards of
County Commissioners, cooperating. Printed and distributed in furtherance
of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 14, 1914. The Florida Sea Grant
College is an Equal Employment Opportunity-Affirmative Action employer
authorized to provide research, educational information and other services
only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race,
color, sex, or national origin.


INTRODUCTION. . . . . ... . . 1




MODERN SAILING SHIPS . . . . ... .. 4




GAPS IN KNOWLEDGE . . . . ... .. .... .7

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . ... ... .. 7

REFERENCES. . . . . . . .... 8

ABSTRACTS . . . . ... .. . 13





SAILING WORK BOATS. . . . .... ... .59







This publication contains abstracts of 214 articles published on the
subject of commercial sailing vessels and sail-assisted work boats of all kinds.
his is part of a continuing project supported both by the University of South
Florida and the Florida Sea Grant College. Abstracts are compiled regularly,
and subsequent reports will be issued periodically. This report also contains
a brief discussion of modern and historical commercial sail, the reasons for
serious interest in same, commercial sailing fishing vessels, upcoming con-
ferences on commercial sail, potential Tampa Bay international conference
and information exchange.


In early, 1980, the Florida Sea Grant College aPProached
the University of South Florida, College of Engineering and
requested views on the holding of a conference on the subject
of commercial sail with financial backing from the Florida Sea
Grant College. After several discussions, it was agreed that it
first would be better to survey the literature thoroughly, seek
out gaps in information maKe a recommendation as to whether
such a conference should be held and outline the areas which it
might address. The literature was more extensive than first
believed. The attached abstracts were first logged on one of
the new Prime 750 minicomputers at the College of Engineering
of the University of South Florida by Peter Hilly a Master's
Degree candidate under the supervision of the author. They were
re-organized, rewritten and suPPlemented on a microcomputer
with word Processor for this report by the author.

For ease of usey the abstracts have been divided into the
following ten categories, each Preceded by a brief discussion:

1. MaJor Commercial Sail and General Survey RePorts
2. Historical Survey of Commercial Sailing Craft
3. Cargo and Passenger Commercial Sailing Ships
4. Modern Sailing Fishing Vessels
5. Sailing Uork Boats
6. Economics of Commercial Sail
7. Technological DeveloPments
8. Advanced Thrusters and Sail Rigs
9. Performance Prediction and Wind Routing
10. Miscellaneous APPlications


Out of the last 5000 years, the world has been without a
working sail fleet for only the past 50. This is not strictly
true, because kattumarams the. Progenitor of the modern
catamaran are the most widely used types of traditional craft
on the east coast of India. There are approximately 50,000
sailing Kattumaram fishing boats versus 15,000 fishing craft of
other types.(6)

As evidenced by the 64 Pages of abstractsy there is
considerable interest in the world in the Prospect of
commercial sail. Information available here indicates that the
following countries are actively Pursuing investigations into
the Practicality and economics of commercial sail: Australia,
England, France, Germany, Greece, Japan, Soviet Union and the
United States. The motivation, of course, is the rapid
escalation of Petroleum-based fuel Prices in recent years.
Figure 1, taken from Reference (5), illustrates the dramatic
rise in ship fuel costs and is summarized in the following


In early, 1980, the Florida Sea Grant College aPProached
the University of South Florida, College of Engineering and
requested views on the holding of a conference on the subject
of commercial sail with financial backing from the Florida Sea
Grant College. After several discussions, it was agreed that it
first would be better to survey the literature thoroughly, seek
out gaps in information maKe a recommendation as to whether
such a conference should be held and outline the areas which it
might address. The literature was more extensive than first
believed. The attached abstracts were first logged on one of
the new Prime 750 minicomputers at the College of Engineering
of the University of South Florida by Peter Hilly a Master's
Degree candidate under the supervision of the author. They were
re-organized, rewritten and suPPlemented on a microcomputer
with word Processor for this report by the author.

For ease of usey the abstracts have been divided into the
following ten categories, each Preceded by a brief discussion:

1. MaJor Commercial Sail and General Survey RePorts
2. Historical Survey of Commercial Sailing Craft
3. Cargo and Passenger Commercial Sailing Ships
4. Modern Sailing Fishing Vessels
5. Sailing Uork Boats
6. Economics of Commercial Sail
7. Technological DeveloPments
8. Advanced Thrusters and Sail Rigs
9. Performance Prediction and Wind Routing
10. Miscellaneous APPlications


Out of the last 5000 years, the world has been without a
working sail fleet for only the past 50. This is not strictly
true, because kattumarams the. Progenitor of the modern
catamaran are the most widely used types of traditional craft
on the east coast of India. There are approximately 50,000
sailing Kattumaram fishing boats versus 15,000 fishing craft of
other types.(6)

As evidenced by the 64 Pages of abstractsy there is
considerable interest in the world in the Prospect of
commercial sail. Information available here indicates that the
following countries are actively Pursuing investigations into
the Practicality and economics of commercial sail: Australia,
England, France, Germany, Greece, Japan, Soviet Union and the
United States. The motivation, of course, is the rapid
escalation of Petroleum-based fuel Prices in recent years.
Figure 1, taken from Reference (5), illustrates the dramatic
rise in ship fuel costs and is summarized in the following


1973 $ 2.70 Per barrel
1975 11.25
1977 13.60
1980 21.50
1990 200.00 est.

Engineers and others involved in the design and operation
of commercial marine vehicles have undertaken studies and
construction of vessels designed to utilize the wind and more
have been Proposed. The five major reports listed in References
1 through 5 at the end of this report contain a wealth of
information and opinions on the subject of the use of the wind
to propel commercial marine vehicles.


OnlY four alternatives to petroleum, have been identified
as being of possible economic and engineering practicality!
coal or its derivatives, nuclear fuel wind and other means of
utilizing solar energy. Coal has shown clear economic
advantsges, even over wind, for very large vessels in excess
of 25 to 30,000 tons, Due to governmental and private hysteria,
nuclear Propulsion will Probably not be implemented for
commercial propulsive use. There are no clearcut economic
applications of direct use of solar energy in the foreseeable
future for marine transportation. This leaves for consideration
a product of solar energy: the wind. The wind is free but
fickle. Often there is either too much or too little and
freouentlv it blows from the wrong direction. Nevertheless, its
application for marine transportation has been demonstrated
both by historical use as well as modern developments in
materials and thrusters. As compared to coal, use of the wind
is non-polluting, and there are no waste disposal Problems. The
mining of coal also wreaKs havoc with the environment. This
cost is often neglected by the economists who report favorably
on the widespread re-introduction of coal into the world's



PREUSSEN 407' 8000 56000 17 Kn. 370 N.M.

CUTTY SARK 213 1500+ 24850 15.1 363

THERMOPYLAE 210 1400+ 25510 14.9 358


ONDINE III 72 36.6 2650 12.2 293

KIALOA III 64 37.4 2880 11.3 270

EVIANE (12m.) 45.5 26.8 2200 9.8 235


MANUREVA 66.5 8.5 1480 13.6 326

SEASMOKE 48.5 9.5 1548 13.8 331

SEABIRD 35 3.2 880 14.4 345

PATTYCAT II 36.2 3.7 890 13.2 316

3 LEGS OF MANN 34 2.0 590 14.2 340


900 100,000 --- 15 360


Some of the pros and cons of such are given in the
following tables:


1. Minimize cost dependence on oil*
2. More freight capacity since less fuel storage space.
3. More stable sails inhibit rollins.
4. Can maintain service speed a higher Percentage
of time than conventional ships.
5. Have the Potential to fulfill 50-75% of the
ocean transport needs.
6. Environment


1. Scheduling for Port arrivals.
2. ApParent size limitation: 8000 15000 DWT.
3. Upwind tacKing denied Quadrant or more*
4. Ballast while empts gives extra weight to Propel
and takes space.
5. Bridge heights at major ports limit mast heights,
6. Resistance to "new" concerts b mranagen.enty
governments, operators, insurance firms and unions.
7, Overly restrictive licensing restrictions
particularly as regards stability.


There are three current design apProaches for :con.imercial
sail: 1. retrofit of existing vessels with auxiliary sail
Power. 2. adaptation of historical sailing ship technology
using modern materials. 3. totally new aPproaches to wind

Retrofit of existing vessels must be considered on a case
by case basis with a thorough evaluation of the economics
involved, All of today's boats and ships cannot be scrapped in
favor of wind technology. In some cases, retrofit can give
clear advantages where sail Provides extra horsePower to allow
engines to be run at lower RPM and hence lower gallons Per hour
of fuel useave. The advantage is clearly Proportional to the
length of the vessel's route and the Presence of sufficient
winds from favorable directions. Some argue that the mnillenia
of man's experience with sailing craft of all Kinds should be
utilized by returning to the designs of successful sailing
ships of 70 or more years ago with Perhaps the substitution of
dacron for canvas and nylon for hemp. Other groups Prefer to
consider all the ways in which energy in the wind miiht be
converted to useful ProPulsion. Some thruster systems for
possible wind ProPulsion are sketched in Figure 2*

The Reference (5) studs is Probably the most thorough that
has been done on the whole subject of commercial sail and
rePresents the finest examPle of conceptual design ever seen by
the authors of this report. One conclusion of n.ans of this
studs is that of eight thruster systems studied, hard wing
sails represent the most Practical and efficient at this ti.e.
Rotors and turbines were only ruled out because of lack of
data. See Figure 3 for a drawing of the solid wing mast as
advocated by the Uindship Corporation.


SAILA is a non-Profit organization formed in late 1981 to
Provide a voice and a forum for the international working sail
community. SAILA was founded by Captain Lane A. Brioss who
first added sails to his tuS in 1975. SAILA; 1553 E(aville
Street; Norfolk, VA 23503.


1. National Conference/Uorkshop Applications
of Sail-Assisted Power Technology
May 19-21, 1982; Omni International Hotel; NorfolK,
Virginia Waterfront. SPonsored by: 1. Sea Grant Marine Advisory
Service, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of
Uilliam and Mary. 2. College of Engineering, University of
South Florida. 3. Sail Assist International Liaison Associates,
Inc.: SAILA. Topics will include: financing, insurance,
Government regulation, maritime unions, reduction of energy
needs and sail area-uindspeed/horsepower-RPM conversion
formula, Write: Mr. Jon Lucys Sea Grant Marine Advisory
Service, VIMS, Gloucester Point, VA 23062. (804) 642-6131. or:
SAILA; 1553 Bayville Street; Norfolk, VA 23503.

2. SyrPosium on Winds of Trade
Maine Maritime Museum, Bath, Maine. October 8-10, 1982.

This is to be a maJor svyposium to illuminate contem.orary
work and encourage the engineering and economic rationale of
sail assisted technology through international dialog and
technical Papers. Papers are being solicited concerning!
transportation, fishing, oceanograPhy and defense, Write: Maine
Maritime Museum; 963 Washington Street; Bath, Maine 04530.
(207) 443-6311.


It seems reasonable to Project a date of Aumust or
September, 1983 for an international conference on co.rmmercial
uind-driven vessels as first conceived by the Florida Sea Grant
College. To that end, the enclosed information has been
collected via the literature and Personal visits. Sponsoring
institutions include: the Florida Sea Grant College, College of
Engineering of the University of South Florida, the Society of
Naval Architects and Marine Engineers: SNAME Southeast
Section, and the Virginia Institute of Marine Science of the
College of Uilliam and Mary. The steering committee to help
Plan such a conference includes at this time

1. Jon A. Lucy, Virginia Institute of Marine
Science, College of Uilliami and Marf,
2. Dr. Nelson A. Swartz, Texas A&M University
now at National Marine Fisheries Service
3. Jeffrey Fisher, Marine Agent, Kes West, Florida.
4, Dr. U.S.Bradfield, State University of New
York at StonybrooK.
5. I.C.Millar, National Maritime Instituter
Feltham, England.
6. Donald Sweat, Marine Agent, Laror Florida
7. Dr. John Sainsbury, Florida Institute of Technolo.s,
Melbourne, Florida.


It is unfortunate that details have not been Published on
the French experiments with advanced wind thrusters. It seems
abundantly clear that research should be undertaken in the
U.S.A. on such Potehtial high lift thrusters as Flettner and
Coanda rotors and wing sails. Even some modest static
experiments could Provide a solid basis for a full-scale test
on a small commercial craft. See Abstract 10 under thrusters
and Abstract 45 under commercial sailing fishing vessels.

Major gaps also includes the lack of reports on such
significant areas as: bankingS insurance, labor unions and
government, all of which will have significant impact on
commercial sail. As one example, insurance rates for sailing
fishing vessels in the Pacific Northwest are somewhat less than
those for motorized craft, about the same in Virginia, less in
Hawaii and Pacific Waters and more in one case in New
England.(7) Another example is the rather strict U.S, Coast
Guard stability criteria .for commercial sailing Passenger
vessels. Unlike mans other countries, the United States does
not enforce stability criteria for fishing vessels, Hopefullr,
the two meetings on commercial sail scheduled for 1982 will
help to clarify these major areas of concern.


The writer wishes to express his appreciation to Peter U.
Hill, an M.S. candidate in the College of EngineeringS for
Preparing the original abstracts in one of the College's Prime
750 minicomputers. Thanks are also due to the many who have
contributed difficult-to-locate articles and information such
as: Alan Adler of Stanford University, Cast. Jesse Briggs of
SAILA and the "Norfolk Rebel", Lloyd Bergeson of Uindship
CorPoration, Dr. James H. Mays consultant to Windship
Corporation Jon Lucy of Virginia Institute of Marine Science -
College of William and Mary, Cliff Goudey of MIT Sea Grant,
Chris Jones, Bill Seaman, Jeff Fisher, Jim Cato and Don Sweat
of Florida Sea Grant ColleSe, K.Lange of the
Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Fischerei Hamburg, GermanR P.W.
Ayling of the Royal Institution of Naval Architects, The
Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers Panel H13 for
Sailing Vessel and Sailing Yacht Research and mans others, Even
a brief perusal of the abstracts will reveal the mans articles
Published by the "National Fisherman", which long has been
Publicizing developments in commercial sail.


1. "Feasibility of Sailing Ships for the American Merchant
Marine"; Woodward, BecK, Scher and Cars. University of Michigan
Report No. 168; Dept. of Naval Architecture and Marine
Engineering; College of Engineering; Ann Arbor, MI 48109.
February, 1975.

2. "The Future of Commercial Sail A Selection of Papers
Presented at the Meeting of RINA Small Craft Group"; Royal
Institution of Naval Architects; 10 UPPer Belgrave St.; Lnond
SW1X 8BQ, England; Occasional Publication No.2; 27th November,

3. "Commercial Sail Proceedings of a Symposium Held at the
Royal Institution of Naval Architects -14th June, 1979";
Department of Industry; London; 1980.

4. "Symposium on Wind ProPulsion of Commercial ShiPs"; the
Royal Institution of Naval Architects; Londoni November, 1980.

5. "Wind Propulsion for ShiPs of the American Merchant Marine";
Wind Ship Development Corporation; PO Box N; Norwell, MA 02061.
Berveson, Clemmer, YorK, Bates, Mays, Glucksman; March, 1981.

6. "Improvement of Kattumarams Development of Small Scale
Fisheries in the Bay of Bengal"i P.Gurtner? Chief, FIIT; Food
and Agriculture Organization: FAO; Rome, Italy? February,
March, 1979.

7. Private Communications from Dr. James H.Mayss Capt. Jesse
Brigs, Cliff GoudeySNA, Bernard Arthur and Jon Lucy.

8. The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers Panel
H13 Meetings May and November, 1981 at MIT and New York City,
Presentations by the Windship Development Corporation and Lloyd

9. Trip reports to Seattle, MIT, Virginia, etc. on behalf of
Florida Sea Grant College*

Figure 1.

Oil Price Rise 1970-1981, Inclusive





I ,-- -LiR?,~~







.....--..- CONSUMER PRICE INDEX-_ -o0
| -. $ | \ | 100
1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980'.1981

Fr.gure z-

Rig Alternatives















Figure :3

Wing Sail
Schematic Arrangement Sketch

Key Items

1. Rotating Mast
2. Radial Roller Bearing
3. Radial/Thrust Roller
Bearing at Mast Step
4. Wing
5. Flap Segments
6. Turning Gear With
Feathering Release
7. Flap Actuators





- I

I. I


Figure 4:;

LO A. -51'7"
L WL. -48'0"
BEAM- 15'3"




Built for Captain Lane A. Briggs
Rebel Marine Service

Designed by Merritt N. Walter
Rover Marine

Master Builder, Howdy Bailey



(SWPCS)(The Royal Institution of Naval Architects, London,
November 1980, PP 250).

This is a compilation of 18 maJor Papers which are
abstracted separately. Topics include: economics, wind and
weather routine advanced thrusters, speed Prediction,
operations and sailcloth.

(Department of Industry, London, 1980, PP 185).

Another compendium of six major papers plus extensive
general discussion and written contributions. The Papers are
abstracted elsewhere in this report and cover historical
surveys, design engineering, training, energy conservation,
climatic factors, advanced thrusters and the Windrose
sauare-rigged shiP.

LONDON,27TH NOVEMBER 1975. (The Royal Institution of Naval
Architects, 1976, PP 88).

Six major papers are published in this work on topics
including a detailed description of DYNASHIP, a modern fore and
aft rigged sailing cargo ship, a commercial sailing ship for
the South West Pacific, sail for auxiliary propulsion of a VLCC
and economic analyses.

4. L.Bergeson, G.L.Clemmer, J.E.YorK, A.P.BatesJr.v J.HMa.s
MERCHANT MARINE (WPSAMM)(Wind Ship Development Corporation and
U.S.Department of Commercer Maritime Administration, Office of
Maritime Technology, March, 1981, PP 245).

This report presents the technical and economic rationale
for utilizing wind propulsion systems for commercial shipping -
specifically vessels of the American Merchant Marine.
Alternative rig configurations ranging from fore-and-aft and
square sails to wing sails and wind turbines are evaluated for
their aerodynamic efficiency, technical feasibility and cost.
An integrated, analytical computer model is described and
used for the parametric analysis of conventionally powered and
motor sailing vessels. U.S,-Foreign oceanborne trade routes are
evaluated for their sail-assist potential. The conceptual
design of a 20,000 CDWT sail-assist multipurpose dry cargo
vessel is Presented and discussed.
General conclusions of the report are:
1. Sail assist is technically feasible and economically
2. Motor sailing rather than pure sailing vessels provide the

greatest economic advantage in the current economic
3. Motor sailing can be used either to reduce fuel requirements
or to increase average speed without increasing fuel
4. The capital costs of sail-assisted vessels should be
comparable to conventional vessels.
5. The wing sail appears to offer the best combination of
aerodynamic efficiency, simPlicity of operation and cost.
6. Weather routing enhances the economic performance of
sail-assisted vessels.
An extensive bibliography is included of about 150 or so
references divided into the following categories' engineering
and economics, performance Prediction, Passage analysis and
general and review.

5. J.B.Uoodwardy R.F.B ecK, R.Scher, C.M.Cary FEASIBILITY OF
of Michigan, College of Engineering, DePartment of Naval
Architecture and Marine Engineeringe Report No.168. February,
1975. PP 98).

This studs was Performed for the U.S. DePartm.ent of
Commerce, Maritime Administration and Presents an economic
comparison of the Performances of several sizes of sailing
ships vs. those of comparable Powered ships, all on several
long trade routes from North American Ports. Ships are of
15,000, 30,000 and 45,000 tons cargo deadweight. Conclusions:
Deep sea commercial sailing ships are technically feasible
including updated configurations save Perhaps doubts about a
few details, chiefly in the sail-handling arrangements. A
significant technical Point is the apparent upper size limit on
commercial sailing ships, a limit far below that of Powered
ships. This is a consequence of the need for reasonable sail
aspect ratio which requires height and the need for deep draft
to develop needed side force for on-wind sailing. The limiting
size is about 50,000 tons cargo deadweight, though bigger ships
are Possible if poorer Performance is acceptable, The sailing
ship must have more ballast capacity for good Performance
without cargo. Channel depths are limiting for sailing ships.
For U.S. East Coast Ports, the draft limitation is 45 feet
which corresponds to a sailing ship of 45,000 DUT and a Powered
ship of 70,000 to 80,000 DWT. Centerboards were not considered
in this study. Discussed is the need to be able to Power at a
minimum of six Knots in calm water for maneuvering near Ports
and the difficulty of so doing in high winds. At this time the
detailed economic studies seem to favor the Powered shiP. The
conclusion is that the commercial sailing ship is not an
economically feasible alternative for the American Merchant
Marine in the near future. This is tempered by the fact that
the estimates do show the sailing ship Position to be close to
enual footing with Powered ships.

6. C.T.Nance, "Wind Power for Ships A General Survey",
Abstract (1) above, P 1-16.


The rise in recent years of interest in the possibility of
wind energy once more playing a Part in propelling commercial
ships is surveyed, and the Present status is briefly outlined.
The six Principal wind-Propulsion systems-seuare rig, fore and
aft rig, aerofoils, magnus effect devices, wind turbines, and
airborne sails (Kites) are briefly summarized, and
limitations frequently said to be imposed on such systems in
terms of size speed and Practcal Problems are considered.

OPPortunities for the reintroduction of windships are
reviewed, suggesting that the Possible range of use extends far
beyond the traditional limits of sail.It is deduced that the
central Problem at the outset of the 1980's is how to match to
each requirement the most suitable rig, ship size wind/fuel
engine Power ratio, and service speed; and that the Pressing
need is for the acquisition and organization of the necessary
data to enable this to be done.

ExPerience in the Government-funded wind turbine ship
studs is then drawn upon to suggest a rational methodology boh
for 'ouicK-look' and more detailed studies, aimed at Presenting
results in a form appropriate to the needs both of the marine
economist and the ship designer.

It is concluded that the need for investment in this field
of data collection and evaluation is now urgent.

7. G.Mearns, "The Large Sailing Ship-Dinosaur or Development".
Abstract Nol., P.37-50.

The recent oil crises and the increasing Price of fuels
has triggered interest in the development of large sailing
ships and wind Propulsion systems. The PaPer reviews the
development of the large sailing ship from 1824 to 1911 and
concludes that even by the mid-Point of this Period, the large
sailing ship could not be Justified on commercial grounds.

The Problems of analysing the Performance of sailing ships
are examined and factors affecting this Perfomance Presented as
well as an attempt to establish the horsepower Provided by
conventional sails. A simplistic aPProach is suggested to
Permit comparisons to be made and a practical example is

Some reasons for the demise of the large sailing ship are
suggested and disadvantages summarized. It is noted that many
of these disadvantages may have application to systems of wind
Propulsion or assistance. Finally, it is suggested that if fuel
economy is the Primars objective, there are a number of
alternative strategies which can be adopted by shipowners and
shippers which will be more attractive than the use of wind
Power as even today fuel costs are more favorable to the motor
ship vis a vis the sailing ships than they were to the steamer
of 1840.

8. A.D,CouPer, J.King, P.B.Marlow, "An Evaluation of Commercial


Sail". Abstract No. 2, P 6-41.

Commercial sail flourishes in many parts of the world. In
Indonesia, 10,000 sailing arhus, very few of then. motorized,
are a vital Part of the transport system. Similar, in other
Parts of Asia, the Pacific, Caribbean and Middle East sailing
vessels are engaged in the carriage of goods and Passengers. It
was the poor safety record of sail during its last days that
hastened its decline. Flettner's rotor ship BUCHAU which
entered service in 1925 was one attempt to revive wind-powered
ships, What has changed since the 1920's are the Possibilities
of better sailing ship design by advances in aerodynamics and
the increasing fuel costs. However, Lloyds Register of Shipping
concludes that sail is a very 'fringe candidate' for the next
decade since sailing ships 'would be too slow to meet the
general needs of international trade, and manning requirements
are high at a time when it is increasingly difficult to attract
ren to sea careers.'

Rapidly expanding fuel costs have made it necessary to
examine the case for sail in more detail. Commodities which
have a potential for being carried in sailing ships include:
copra, Jute, sisal, coconut oil, palm Kernels, rain, soft wood
Products, wool, cotton, fertilizers and Possibly vegetable

Problems of sailing vessels include the difficulty of
maneuvering in restricted waters, and tugs are advanced as one
solution. Pointing and the lee shore Problem are also
discussed. Detailed economic analyses are presented for eight
different cases comParing motor and sailing ships with varying
fuel costs in terms of the Reauired Freight Rate: RFR for two
different sized vessels: 15,000 and 50,000 DUT. This analysis
suggests that a larger sailing vessel has a greater advantage
over and eQuivalent motor driven vessel than does a a smaller
one but this advantage is reduced as the distance travelled
increases except in the case where the motor vessel operates at
the same average speed as the sailing ship.

9. General Discussion. Abstract No. 2v P. 149-185.

Wind power shippin- has one great advantage over almost
all other tyPes of 'alternative energy' in that it has been
historically demonstrated that the world's seaborne trade can
be carried in wind powered ships, The Soviet Union is also
developinS wind ships for use in the Black Sea. Also advocated
was the need to minimize consumption of non-renewable source of
energy, not necessarily their cost on a ton-mile basis. "We
Just will not have the energy at some time in the future."
(Cmdr* Ranken representing the Uatt Committee on Energy.) Mr.
Ellison commented that an auxiliary engine can be much lighter
and smaller for the same power output as an engine required for
continuous runningS because higher revolutions Per minute are
acceptable. This means that ouite high power can be available
for docking and for use in congested waters without having a
large engine room. Propeller drag is a major consideration and


variable Pitch is highly desirable and suited for ships of
3,000 to 5,000 tons.

10. Peter J. Rappa, "Sail Assisted Technology and Related
ToPic: A Bibliography," Hawaii Sea Grant Program, no date.
Probably 1981.

33 citations are given.

11. Cart. Ed Shields, "Veteran SKipper Sees Little Chance
Working Sail Will Regain Favor," (Letter) National Fisherm.an,
November, 1981, 7,224..

Sail was the only method for oPerating a vessel on the
ocean for many sears and did a good Job during that Period.
Life on the vessels was not as severe as some of today's
writers would indicate. The writer comments on the sailing
lumber ships of the Pacific which were small by today
motorized ship standards. The schooners with auxiliary engines
required such for operating in tight conditions around ice
PacKs and in shallow confined harbors, There was also
considerable Pressure from the crew to operate the engines in
Periods of calm and light airs. Engines will be necessary. Fuel
storage will limit cargo capacity. Crew wants steam heated
individual staterooms. Today's high Profile Power ships require
large engines to control them during high winds.

12. Lance Lee, "Is There WorKing Sail in Our Future- Exrerts
Eve Freight Potential," National Fisherman, June, 1980,

The author advocates the following guidelines for sailing
freighters! 1. both Public and Private funds should be used. 2.
modified rather than old fashioned rigs may be right. 3. steel
hulls or at least composite aPPear necessary. 4. critical
design factors include: hull and rig criteria economics,
viable routes, time of vear, nature of Paving cargo and the
important variable of seamanship. The article mentions some
details of the Windship study (Abstract No.4). Other Projects
mentioned briefly are: the scow sloop LILLY which runs general
freight to and from Martha's Vineyard, Massachussettsy Jacaues
Thiry's UNICORN destined for the Caribbean trade the VERNON
LANGILLE small lumber carrier, and Frank MacLear's design for a
330 ft. motorsailer with stsasail schooner rig.

12. F.S.Schaefer, "New Pioneers of an Old Idea The Comrmercial
Uindship," Sea Frontiers, Jan.-Feb.,1981, 2-12.

This survey of the entire field includes brief information
on the sail-eauipped oil riS ROWAN JUNEAU which travelled from
Texas to Nova Scotia, the 60 foot steel schooner CORNUCOPIA
which has been operated out of Honolulu, Hawaii for the Past
six years, the STEEL REBEL and NORFOLK REBEL of Norfolk,
Virginia which operate as sail-assisted tuSs, fishing vessels,
salvage craft and small freighters, the SHIN AITOKU MARU of
Japan, the CSY 44 sailing fishing boat, the JOHN F.LEAVITT,


SKooKum Marine's line of 53 to 70 foot sailing fishboatsy the
PATRICIA.A. 180 ft. schooner being furnished for the Caribbean
trade and various concepts suKch as: WESTERN FLYER, Frank
MacLear designs of a 97 ft. fishing vessel and 140 foot cargo
schooner, SAILINER bv Windrose ShiPs in England, Flettner rotor
investigations in England, DYNASHIP and the WindshiP
Corporation Study.

13+ MiKe Toner, "Sail Power- Interest in Sailing Ships
Rekindled by Cost of Fuel," Miami Herald, Aug.19,1981, P E-1
and 3.

This is another general survey which discusses fuel
Prices, the Windship report, the Japanese worKy the PATRICIA A.
et al. The Point is made that there are 25,000 merchant ships
plying the seas using an estimated 5 to 8 Percent of the
world's oil consumption. On smaller ships, under 400 feet in
length, there could be some savings on fuel. The average shrin.P
boat uses some 60,000 gallons of fuel Per year. There are 4500
shrimpers operating in the Gulf of Mexico, and fuel savings
from sail retrofit could be considerable. Research at the
University of South Florida is also mentioned.

14. Peter RaPPa, "To Sail or Not to Sail?y" MaKaiy Univ. of
Hawaii Sea Grant College Program, Dec.,1981, P 5.

This short article lists some 17 references to corm.ercial

15. R.Robinson, J.Ross, "Will the Wind Work," Sail Makaziney
Jan.,1981, P 92-99.

This is vet another general survey of the field. There are
well over 10,000 registered sailing vessels in Asia, India and
the Pacific, and they carry nearly 2 million tons of cargo
annually. However, total volume of goods carried by sea is
aproaching 4 billion tons, nearly half carried in vessels of
18,000 deadweight tons or greaer. Discussed are the Japanese
Projects, Windship Corporation, University of Michigan study,
DYNASHIP, Michael Willoughbv's SAILINER, Windship's Magnificent
Proposed construction of the PREUSSEN II and MacLear's and Dick
Carter's designs. The 190 foot luff on the oil rig sail
required a tension of 150 tons! Also described briefly are the
PATRICIA A., Hugh Lawrence's 170 foot Baltic trader,
D.C.(Sandy) Anderson's Sail Freight Interational, Ben Lsnne's
concept of a 100 knot hdyrofoil catamaran and Phil Bolger's
design for the New Alchemy Institute's 210 foot ark, a 50 foot
working model of which is now sailing out of Wood's Hole, Mass.

16. K.Leach, "Sailing Reaches into the Future," The Ensign
magazine, April, 1982, 14-15.

This short article discusses some of the r~ore con:cmonly
Known commercial sail Projects and emphasizes rig developments
with comments on the unstaYed mast and work by Garry Host and
the Gougeon Brothers. The latter have developed very high


Performance wing masts as an offshoot of work for NASA on
laminated wood turbine/windmill blades for electrical Power

17. W. Marx> "Seafarers Rethink Traditional Waus of Harnessing
the Wind for Commercer" Smithsonian Magazine, Dec,, 1981,

The following vessels are discussed#: ONIYAY CORNUCOPIAY
Jack-up oil rig equipped with twin sails by Ratsev and
LaPthorn. Mentioned also is Greg Brazier's PHOENIX which is to
be a "volksboat" a UPS of Long Island Sound.



The following 25 abstracts should be taken as merely
representative of a vast body of literature in maritime
history. Although some landmark authors and their works are
cited, there are notable omissions such as those bu Hornell,
Greenhill, Worcester, BaKer and many others. These are some of
the books in the author's collection and were abstracted
because of a close familiarity with their contents.
Particularly noteworthy is Needham's volume described in
Abstract No.20 which lists the accomplishments in ancient
Chinar not all of which have even vet been adopted in the West.
It might be that bow rudders, for example, would have a Place
in retrofit of Power vessels with sails where more lateral
Plane as well as rudder area was required. For a Particularly
accurate expression of the aPParent conflict between designers
espousing old and new ways, see Abstract No. 10 under
Technological Developments bu Mr. Priebe. There is much that
can be learned from Past accomplishments, and it would be
foolish to neglect the lessons of the Past.



UNDERWATER ARCHEOLOGY. (Thames and Hudson Ltd., 1972).

Based on information derived from underwater excavations,
12 authors have written chapters on such subjects as! "The
Maritime Republics: Medieval and Renaissance Ships in Italy",
"Traders and Privateers Across the Atlantic: 1492-1733", "The
Earliest Seafarers in the Mediterranean and the Near East", and
"Waterways Open the New World", among others, Illustrations are
excellent, and this work is Particularly good at inferring
methods of ship construction and emphasizes the need for trade
being the prime stimulus for the development of sailing ships.
Other stimuli for building and improving ships were for
military and exploration aPPlications* Unfortunately, the
book's title does not indicate that it is limited to the
Western world, Major ship developments from India? China and
the Pacific Basin are largely ignored.

SHIPBUILDING. (Adlard Coles, Ltd., 1968)

This work was first published in StocKholm in 1768. It is
certainly one of the first Known systematic, published books on
naval architecture and ship design. Chapman's later "Treatise
on Shipbuilding" which is also included in this republished
volume was considered of such signal importance that it was
translated into French in 1779 and into English in 1813.
Translations into Russian and German followed, There are
detailed, fold-out drawings of hull lines and rigging of
numerous vessels. Of more interest is the treatise on
shipbuilding which describes his resistance measurements of
hulls, ship proportions, mast and yard specifications, scaling,
test tank arrangement and more. He correctly approximates the
metacentric. height: GM and approximates by formula the
stability moment. His prescription for merchant ships is: "1.
To be able to carry a great lading in proportion to its size.
2. To sail well by the wind in order to beat easily off a coast
where it mas be embayed, and also to come about well in a
hollow sea. 3. To work with a crew small in number in
proportion to its cargo. 4. To be able to sail with a small
quantity of ballast. He correctly enunciates the naval
architectural principles to achieve these ends.


This is one of a series of classic works written by the
late curator of the Smithsonian maritime collection. It gives
hull lines, sail Plans and descriptions of some 69 inshore
sailing craft covering colonial and earls American boats such
as punts, bateaux and cutters, scows, shallops, skiffs, sloops,


catboatsy luggersy sloops, pinKies, GreeK sPoniing boat San
Francisco Dago boat ChesapeaKe Bay loS canoes, Gulf scow
shooners, skipjacKs, etc.

4. Howard I. Chappelle, AMERICAN SAILING CRAFT. (International
Marine Pub. Co.r 1975)

This work is often confused with the reference cited
above. It is a compilation of articles from "Yachting" magazine
in the earls Thirties. These were first collected and published
in book form in 1936. There were over a hundred types of
American sailing craft employed in the fisheries and in
commerce between 1800 and 1900. A few scattered pictures,
half-models and plans are all that remain of many of these
types. This book is an attempt to make a permanent record of
every tyPe Possible. As with all of Chappelle's books, detailed
hull lines drawings and sail plans are given. Fifteen classes
of boats are covered including: New Haven sharpier Skipjack,
Friendship sloopy Cape Cod catboat, Gloucester schooner,
Pinkies, Nova Scotia Tern Schooners, Bahama sharpshooters,
Bermuda sloops and dinghies and American Pilot Boats.

(U.S.Govt. Printing Office, 1960).

This is a comprehensive catalog of the watercraft
collection in the United States National Museum of the
Smithsonian Institution. Mans hull lines drawings and
PhotograPhs of half-hull and fully-rigged models are included.
The author describes a device to take off lines from a
half-model, comments on the difficulty of obtaining true
figures for displacement and discusses the construction of
lift, block and hawK's nest models.

6. Howard I. Chapelle, THE BALTIMORE CLIPPER. (Bonanza Booksy

First published in 1930, this book is a detailed appraisal
of the class of sailing ship Known as the Baltimore Clipper.
Numerous hull lines and sail plan drawings are included with
Photographs of Paintings of these vessels.

AND THEIR DEVELOPMENT. (U.U.Norton & Co.,Inc., 1949).

Although concerned with sailing warships, this
comprehensive work describes many American sailing vessels in
considerable detail from the Colonial period until 1855.

(WUWNorton & Co., Inc. 1935 and Bonanza Books).

With over 200 illustrations, this is vet another
exhaustive treatment of the history of American sailing ships.
Included are details on an 80 foot shoal drafty double
centerboard schooner used to suppress the slave trade: UNION.


Also covered are various frigat.es Privateers, slavers,
fishermen, schooners, PacKets and a barauentine as well as
sailing yachts.

1700-1855. (W.W.Norton & Co.Inc., 1967).

This work contains a good bit of naval architectural
information on designing for high speed sailing as ascertained
from detailed study of fast American sailing ships. The author
has attempted to discover the influence of hull shape on speed
by analysis of some of the faster vessels. His discussion of
the influence on speed of the straightness of the nuarter-beam
buttock and its angle with the design waterline is excellent.
Using lessons learned in the wind tunnel from aerodynamics, we
understand this now to concern flow separation. There is a good
discussion of earls Papers, articles and books on the naval
architecture of high speed sailing vessels. First chapter of
this book concerns the state of naval architecture and
shipbuilding in the 18th century. The next six chapters divides
the sears from 1700 to 1855 into six logical ti.e segments and
discusses mans vessels with the usual excellent drawings and
pictures. For the naval architect, this is Chapelle's most
interesting work.

1825-1935. (W.W.Norton & Co,Inc., 1973).

This is Chapelle's last Ereat book. Again his superb
draftsmanship and scholarly research are very evident. There
are 137 Plans of schooners with detailed descriptions including
such usually neglected items as fife rails, saddles, figure-8
links, grab hooks, fisherman sta~sail etc. etc. This is a
history of the commercial fishing schooner and its development
in design, function and construction.

11. A.D.Couper & J.King, "Commercial Sail Present OPerations
and Future Prospects," Symposium on Wind Propulsion of
Commercial Ships! SWPCS, The Royal Institution of Naval
Architects, 1980, 29-36.

This PaPer Presents some of the background against which
future sailing ship operations might take Place, The Present
status of the world's merchant fleet is summarized and
contrasted with sailing vessels in developing countries and in
historical times. Described are some of the Problems faced by
shipping companies and some Potential solutions. It is
maintained that mans ProPonents of commercial sail ignore the
actual Problems faced by the shipping industry. The authors
maintain that there man be a role for sailing vessels, but that
it is more liKelv to be in the operation of non-trading vessels
and in developing inter-island services rather than in the
mainstream of international seaborne transportation.

12. George Goldsmith-Carter, SAILING SHIPS AND SAILING CRAFT.
(Grosset & Dunlap, 1970).


This is a fine little book with color drawings and brief
descriptions of sailing vessels from ancient times through
medieval and modern Periods.

(Texas A&M University Press, 1981)

This is one of a number of Papers and books by this author
on Primitive watercraft. Perhaps the oldest seafaring race is
that located in the Pacific which PeoPle trace their origins
from a homeland somewhere in Southeast Asia. Before caravels
and Junks, Austronesian sailing canoes crossed oceans with
People and freight. There have been puzzling questions about
how the Pacific Islands were settled. Professor Doran has
measured the Performance characteristics of many surviving
sailing craft to determine exactly how well they do and did
sail, and thus migratory routes can be traced. This work
contains numerous drawings of native craft with sail Plans and
outrigger details Plus Polar curves of boat speed vs. angle to
the wind and even stability diagrams. "Wangka" may be the
earliest Austronesian word for boat. The book closes with
distributional migration information and a discussion on ages
and origins.

14. E+W.H.Gifford, "Improvement of Sailing Techniaues in
Tropical Countries," SWPCS, 241-247.

This paper traces the Path of the development of
traditional forms into more advanced sailing tyPes, capable of
giving improved performance and simPlicity of handling. It
demonstrates that there is scope for improvement in wind
Powered vessels without departing radically from traditional
concepts, but taKing note of modern Knowledge of sailing theory
and materials.

15. Basil Greenhill, ARCHEOLOGY OF THE BOAT. (Wesleyan
University Press, 1976).

The author is Director of the National Maritime Museum in
Greenwich, England, and he is well-aualified to trace the
development of the boat from its four roots: rafty skin, bark
and dugout boats. Much emphasis is given to Viking ships.

16. Bjoern Landstroem, SAILING SHIPS. (Doubleday & Co.,Inc.,
1969 and 1978).

This is another picture book with fine black and white and
colored drawings plus brief descriptions from Papyrus boats to

17. David R. MacGregor, FAST SAILING SHIPS 1775-1875. (Haessner
Pub., Inc., 1973).

The author is a maritime historian and used primary
sources in this comprehensive work from the National Maritime


Museum in Greenwich, England. There are many hull lines
drawings and coloured Plates. An excellent index makes this
work Particularly easy to use. Discussed in some detail among
hundreds of other vessels are the tea clippers: CUTTY SARK and
THERMOPYLAE, Probably the world's fastest sailing ships. The
CUTTY SARK is Preserved at Greenwich ashore and may be visited.
This monumental work is the first of its kind on fast British
sailing ships. Some of the hull lines drawings are not
internally consistent, and the author has the same problem as
mans in determining actual hull displacements. These carping
comments in no way should detract from the importance of this
book and its usefulness. Full-size blueprints of any of the
reduced drawings mas be obtained from the author for a small


Most of this work consists of detailed descriptions, with
few illustrations, of the history of trawling, trawling grounds
and fields, smack design, trawling gear, life on board,
disasters and various fishing stations. The latter quarter of
the book does have a large number of black and white drawings
including hull lines and specifictions of a number of sailing

19. George Mearns, "The Large Sailing Ship -Dinosaur or
Development, SWPCS, 37-50.

This paper reviews the development of the large sailing
ship from 1824 to 1911 and concludes that even by the midpoint
of that Period, the large sailing ship could not be Justified
on commercial grounds. Problems of performance and factors
affecting Performance are discussed in a simplified manner.
Some reasons for the demise of large sailing ships are
suggested and their disadvantages are summarized. Finally, it
is suggested that if fuel economy is the Primary objective,
there are a number of alternative strategies which can be
adopted by shiPowners and shippers which will be more
attractive than the use of wind Power as even today fuel costs
are more favorable to the motor ship vis a vis the sailing ship
than they were to the steamer of 1840.


NAUTICS* (Cambridge at the University Press, 1971).

This is the seventh volume of Needham's Projected life's
work done in collaboration with Uang Ling and Lu Gwei-DJen with
research conducted in China and in England. The latter half of
this volume concerns nautics. Needham correctly ascribes credit
for the following discoveries to the Chinese: nmanetic
Polarity, fore-and-aft luS sails, multi-masted vessels,
fully-battened sails, bulkhead built hulls, yulohs, biPod
masts, axial rudders, anti-hogging trusses, collapsible masts,
leeboards, centreboards, stem sliding centreboards, bow
rudders, watertight bulkheads, free-flooding forward
compartments for cushioning slamming shock loads, maximum hull
section aft of midships, scale models and scaling to full-size,
unstated masts, auick reefing sails, fenestrated rudders, Keels
and sails, Parrels, spritsail, triangular fore and aft sails,
Paddle boat, slung sliding rudder, balanced rudder, stern-post
rudder, dry docks, coPPer hull bottom sheathing, iron armor for
warships, bilge PumPs etc. etc. Needham compares EuroPean
developments in this field with Chinese and describes vouyaes
of Chinese to East Africa and Possibly South America which may
have lead to Propagation of these discoveries even before Marco
Polo's time. Needham also appears frustrated by the Problem of
discovering true displacements of hulls: "Perhaps the most
urgent need of naval archeology today is a systematic, sober
and definitive study of estimated tonnages in all historical
Periods and cultures."

21. Sam Svensson, SAILS THROUGH THE CENTURIES. (Macmillan Co.,

This little book is another which surveys sailing ships
from Roman times to the 1880's with brief descriptions and fine
colored drawings of outboard Profiles. As with many others
abstracted above, it concentrates on European and American
developments and ignores important contributions made in
Eastern countries.

22. E.Doran, Jr., "On the Lasuna Madre, Working Scous are
Nothing New," National Fisherman, March, 1982, 75-77,

The author reports on the continued use in northeast
Mexico of the Previously reported extinct scow sloops. Hull
lines taken from an abandoned craft are shown. The boats are
still being built in Matamoros, In 1976, 120 of these sailing
fishinS craft were counted in operation.

23. S.D.Orsini, "The Great Steel Scuare-Ritgers Thrived on
Gales, "; National Fisherman Yearbook 1981, 126-129.

The apex of commercial sail was reached in the years
surrounding 1900. The large sailing fleets were primarily
European. In 1900, the French had a fleet of 1,235


sauare-rigged sailing ships* The largest sailing vessel ever
built was the FRANCE II, launched in 1911. She was 419 feet
long, had a gross tonnage of 5,633 and spread 68,350 square
feet of sail. Sailing ships attained their highest degree of
technical advancement during this final era. Most were built of
steel. The PREUSSEN is described as a Prime example of the
later-day sailing ship. She was 407.8 feet long, had a gross
tonnage of 5,081 and could haul 8,000 tons of cargo. Sail area
was 59,000 so.ft.between 48 sails* When she was built the
science of aerodynamics was nonexistent. TanK tests years
later, showed that her sails developed more than 6,000 hp at
top speeds. At times, she could maintain speeds of 17 to 17.5
Knots. Over the 14 voyages of her career, she averaged 8 Knots,
She sailed in the days before anti-fouling paints, and the
author speculates on how well she might have performed with
such. She went on the rocks in 1910 after a collision and was

Also discussed in this article is the Unversity of
Michigan report, Wind Ship Development Corp., the Ocean
Carriers Group WESTERN FLYER, the Japanese work and the John

24. DE.BIrani, "India Has Never Stopped Using Sailing Vessels,"
ibid. 129. quotedd from "The Naval Architect, Sept., 1980.)

India has very sound maritime traditions under sail dating
back several centuries. Modern, mechanized sailing ships have
been developed of 150 tons: KOTIA type and 300 tons: BRIG type.
They are full decked, internally subdivided and fitted with
auxiliary engines to give a cruising speed of six Knots.

25. F.F.Kaiser, "Impressive Fore-and-Afters Showed Their Good-
And Very Bad- Points," ibid, 1980. 120-124.

Described is the 1902-launched steel schooner KINEO of
dimensions 295.5 x 45.3 x 22.9 feet and 2,128 Sross tons. She
had five masts and was rigged with fore and aft sails. She had
a Particularly rugged time in the Pacific with much riSSing
damage. Manning difficulties are discussed. Many difficulties
of operating the larger sailing vessels are detailed. The
author questions many of the new Proposals for going to sizes
beyond those found Practicable during the sailing era. The idea
of sail-assist also "leaves him cold."



All of the large commercial sailing ship projects known to
exists both building and planned, are described in the
following 60 abstracts. Mans of the smaller vessels are covered
as well. Perhaps the best known of these are: Bergeson's studs
and his retrofit of MINI-LACEY the DYNASHIP series, PATRICIA
A.Y the WINDROSE square riggery the excellent Japanese work on
DAIGH and SHIN AITOKU MARU> PREUSSEN II and some lesser-known
work in the U.S.S.R. Mans of the smaller modern cargo
schooners are described as well, Here again emerges the
controversy between those advocating the use of hulls and sail
rids from the turn of the century and those convinced that by
use of modern materials and aerodynamics, news more efficient
ships can be designed*



1. H.F.Morin Scott, "A Full Scale Experiment in Commercial
Auxiliary Sail." Symposium on Wind Propulsion of Commercial
Ships, The Royal Institution of Naval Architects, 1980.

It is Proposed that a full scale experiment be carried out
as soon as Possible by fitting an existing commercial vessel
with a number of simpler easily-worked sails and then gather
with care over a 12 month period, the appropriate data of wind
direction and strength, sea state, ship speed and fuel
consumption, man hours worked and cost of repairs and renewals
to the sailing sear. This information together with original
capital cost should enable a financial appraisal of the benefit
of auxiliary sail to be determined. It is the author's belief
that the fuel savings achieved in one year while maintaining
the ship's service speed will approximate half the cost of
fitting the sailing gear in a normal installation*

2. U.J.Hoodr "Using Wind Reliable Routes for Bulk Cargo
Transport," ibid. 17-28.

Some bulk cargoes from Australia have been shown to be be
suitable for transport in sailing ships along wind reliable
routes. Matching the cargoes and the routes remains a
significant problem. This Paper investigates the possibility of
using a traditional wind reliable route in the Southern oceans
to transport wheat along part of the distance between Australia
and Europe. Following trans-shipment, the cargo reaches its
ultimate destination by motor ship.

A much larder sailing vessel than any Proposed to date and
a tpe of rig using soft sails would be used. The rig is
suitable for sailing with the wind well abaft the beam. No
auxiliary engine would be fitted.

In spite of substantial savings in fuel consumption
compared to a pure motor ship Providing the same amount of
transport, the Paper concludes that the idea is not financially
attractive at present day fuel prices.

3. R.MWilloughby, "The Windrose Ship Whu Shuare Ris?"
Commercial Sail Symposium, Dept.of Industry, London, 1980.

A considerable part of this Paper examines various
thrusters and rig types including the fore and aft rig,
windmills and air turbines, rotor ship and the square riS, The
author concludes that a large sail cargo ship must be square
rigled, either of orthodox design or of the fully automated
DYNASHIP type. Discussers of this Paper differed Profoundly
with some of the conclusions, especially the restriction of
winds abaft the beam for sailing.



4. H.G.Lawrencer "A Modern Fore and Aft Rigged Sailing Cargo
Ship," The Future of Commercial Sail, RINA Small Craft Group
Meeting, London, 1975. 15-28.

The author discusses the design of a four masted, fore and
aft schooner equipped with a 600 hP diesel engine, Length on
deck is 96 meters (315 ft.) with a maximum of 4856 DWT. The
author comments that there has been no sailing cargo ship since
1957 when the German four-masted baraue PASSAT withdrew from
the seas. He also believes that there is no way to find out how
such a ship will operate without actually going to sea with her
which is what he intends to do.

5. P.R.Warner and W.J.Hood, "A Commercial Sailing Ship for the
South West Pacific Ocean," ibid. 29-46.

Presented are design details on a 240 foot long,
four-masted schooner of 2200 DWT in 110,000 cubic feet of hold
space* A double bottom for 600 tons of water ballast tanks is
Provided. The authors believe that sailing vessels can operate
Profitably on aPPropriate routes, and the ones chosen in this
studs seem pertinent.

6. J.B.Wynne, "Sails for the Auxiliarv Propulsion of a VLCC
Trading on the Northern Europe Persian Gulf Router" ibid.

The class of vessels studied was of 220,000 DWT tanKers
310 meters in length (1017 ft.) with 20880 kW of Power (28,000
hp.) The author assesses the ProsPects of sailing vessels in
this service as unliRely unless the Price of fuel oil rises
several fold in real terms or the cost of wind proPulsion can
be made considerably less than assumed in this study.

7. J.F.R.King, "A Technical Description and Performance
Analysis of the DynashiP," ibid. 1-14.

This Paper reviews the Present stage of development of the
DUnashiP Project. It is an advanced sailing vessel developed
over the Past 20 years. The PrototyPe Proposed for construction
is a 17000 DUT bulk carrier capable of 20 Knots in a Force 9
wind. Rig consists of six large-sectioned, elliptical, hollow
cantilever masts without stays. Thev are aerodynamically
Profiled and rotate to meet the aPParent wind* Sail control is
by hydraulics, remotely from the wheel house. Achieved are
remarKably competitive voyage times and costs Per ton of cargo

8. "Wind Blown Vessels," Motor Boating & Sailing magazine,
January, 1976. 21 & 26.

John Couch of DynashiP explains the modern concepts of
sailing freighters with all sail handling by Pushbutton
controls on the bridge, Wind tunnel test have proved the design
concepts. Prof. Shallenberger and Bill Warner mounted three
masts on a Shields One Design to further test the rig design on

a scale basis in San Francisco BaE. Dynaship Corporation is
located at 81 Encina Ave,Palo Altor California 94301.

9. M.Stuttaford, "A Return to Sail?"r South African Yachting
magazine, Sept., 1975. 32-35.

This is another Presentation of the DYNASCHIFF concept
(DynashiP in English) with details of the sail furling gear
into the masts, speed predictions and economics. The author
quotes Antoine de Saint Exuperyr "Every technical development
Proceeds from something Primitive via something complicated
back to something simpler and a technical development is not
Perfect until a stage is reached where it is impossible to
leave out anything else."

10. R.M.Engelbrecht, "DYNASHIP Economical Cargo Carrier with
Push-Button Sails," Popular Science magazine, August, 1976.

This is a PoPular Presentation of this concept. It is
claimed that DYNASHIP will burn only 10% as much fuel as a
conventional ship of the same size.

11. J.McCawley, "Return of the Tall Ships," Rudder magazine,
November, 1971. 29-31, 70-72.

Discussed are the sail thrusters, computer Performance
Predictions, wind tunnel tests at Hamburg

12. S.D.Orsini, "Wind-Powered Cargo ShiPs May Be On Horizon,"
National Fishermany ca. 1976. 76-81.

This is a detailed appraisal of commercial sail which
includes considerable details on DYNASHIP. Others discussed
include: WESTERN FLYER, and the Woodward report from the
University of Michigan.

13. "DynashiP Modern Wind-Powered Cargo ShiPs to 45v000 DWIT,"
brochure from the Dynaship Corporation, 1975. 12 PP.

In November 1974, the DynaShip Corporation in the U.S.
obtained the exclusive manufacturing and marKeting rights to
the DynaShip Patents and technolol5 in North and South America
and the Pacific Basin countries. The brochure gives economic
parameters, some details of rig design and overall layouts of a
527 ft. ship.

14. L. Bergeson, "Sail Power for the Uorld's Cargo Ships,"
Technology Review magazine (MIT), March./April, 1979. 23-36.

A detailed review of the Potential for sail Power is
Presented. The author Predicts the Possible doubling or
tripling of the Price of marine bunKer oil within the next
decade. At Present Prces of $15 Per barrels Potential savings
through use of sails could reach $5.5 to $22 billion Per year.
Uind energy could replace a significant Part of oil consumed in


sea transPort, but a conversion Program will require
governmental support. Tables are given of factors affecting
windage and consequent tacKing angles for ,maximum speed to
windward. The 1902 souare-rilged PREUSSEN had a tacking angle
of 70 degrees, DYNASHIP is Predicted to have 55 to 60 degrees
as did the 1902 THOMAS W.LAWSON. A MacLear designed boomless
1979 fore-and-aft rig under sail alone achieved 40 to 50
degrees and while motor sailing 20 to 40 degrees. The author
advocates consideration of a catamaran configuration because:
1. 50% of the cargo can be effective ballast. 2. When beached,
the catamaran gains stability with both bows grounded, while a
trimaran can lurch violently. 3* The catamaran is safer and
more Practical in larger sizes designed to carry heavy cargo
and water ballast. A Prototype might be about 220 feet long
Providing a cargo caPacity equivalent to a 180 foot long
single-hull Prototype, Maximum Potential catamaran speed of
this type is calculated to be 25 Knots in winds of 25 to 30

15. L.Dennis, "GreeK ShiPPers Catch Wind of Sail Power,"
Soundings, August, 1981. 14.

Wind Ship Corporation has been aPProached by Ceres
Hellenic ShiPPing Enterprises, Inc. of Piraeus, Greece, a
shipper with more than 50 vessels that wants to take the Plunge
- experimentally into sail Power. Single .ast rigs will be
mounted on two 3,000 ton (dead weight) motor vessels. One rig
was expected to finish sea trials with the sail rigs by the end
of August. The two, a general cargo vessel and tanker, were
being retrofitted with msts and two different types of sail rig
at Buzzard's Bavy Mass. The ships will carry a 3,000 square
foot sail on a single smst mounted near the bow to maKe room
for worKing cargoes through hatches midships. Two rits are
being designed: a rmst roller furling and reefing cat rig and a
wing sail rig. Both are to be fully automated and Pushbutton
controlled from the bridge.

16. "The New Ace of Sail Has Diesel Aboardv" Technology Review
(MIT), Aug./Sept., 1981. 80-81.

This is a summary report of the Uind Ship Corporation's
comprehensive concePtual study. See abstract under the General
Survey classification.

17. "MarAd Awards Contract for Sailing Ship Studb," Maritime
Reporter/Engineering News, January 1, 1980.

Announces the award of a $138,840 contract to the Wind
Ship CorPoration, headed by Lloyd Bergeson for a 12 month study
to expand on the 1975 Michigan study. Other members of the
contract team are: Frank MacLear, Prof. Henry S. Marcus, Dr.
James H. Mass, A.P.Bates, Dr. Petrus, A.M.Spierin~s and

18. J. Laitin, "Sail Power Still the Uay to Go, Says
Developer," Soundings c.asazine February, 1980. 11.


Announces the Maritime Administration award to the Wind
Ship DeveloPment Corp. and that Private industry has
contributed another $ 160,000 for the studies. Frank MacLear, a
Principal subcontractor and stocKholder is Quoted as stating
that freighters can burn as much as $10,000 worth of fuel each
day, accounting for 20 to 30% of their total operating costs.
He estimated that the cost of fuel will be up to $5 Per gallon
by the end of the decade. He further said that a catamaran
drawing less water may be the answer for shallow draft harbors,

19. "Harnessing the Windy" Yachting magazine, Novem.ber, 1981,

On August 24, 1981 Uind Ship Developm~ent CorPr. unfurled
the "world's largest single sail intended for continuous duts."
The Prototype consists of a Hodgson steel-spar and a 3,000
souare foot dacron sail by Hood* Furling and unfurling is
remote controlled from the bridSe using hydraulic winches. The
trial ship is the 200 ft. MINI-LACEs one of a fleet of 48
identical cargo vessels owned and operated by Ceres Hellenic
Shipping Enterprises of Piraeus, Greece. Fuel savings are
expected to be about 20%.

20. "MINI-LACEY" Technoloov Review (MIT), Nov./Dec.' 1981.

Announcement of completion of installation of the sail rim
on the 3000 DWT MINI-LACE with an unstated, rotating mast.
"It's the first suKbstantial, modern auxiliary sailing rim in
the world to be Put on a commercial vessel for regular

21. G.Murray, "Japan Returns to the Days of Sail," Christian
Science Monitor, undated.

With an urgent need for ener~s conservation, as well as
for cutting down on the oil-dominated transport costs of its
raw material imports, Japan has decided there is a definite
Place once again for the merchant sailing ship. The first
commercial vessel a 1600 ton coastal tanker, is now being
built and is scheduled to take to the seas this fall. The
shipbuilder, Nippon KoKan, at first thought of merely rigging
an existing tanker with sails, but he eventually decided it was
more sensible to specially design a vessel. An experimental
ship of the same class is already at sea. Plans have also been
drafted for a 14,000 ton gravel barge usins sail for auxiliary
Power. The barge will have to be towed, but sail-assist will
cut down on the engine Power required. Beins studied for
Potential auxiliary sail are automobile carriers plyinS the
Japan to U.S. route and large, ocean-going fishing boats.

22. "Are Sail-Assisted Tankers Feasible?", Ocean Industry,
February, 1980. 103-111.

The Japan Marine Machiners Development Association has
given Nippon KoKan: NKK, $ 60,000 to Perfor., feasibility


studies, including refitting the 3200 ton tanKer AITAKU MARU
with a pair of sails as the first con.puter-age sail-eGuipped
tanker in service. Completed are sea tests of the 77 ton DAIOH
equipped with three tyPes of sails. Auxiliary sails have
resulted in fuel savings of iore than 10%. Research began in
May, 1979 with wind tunnel tests. The three tyPes of thrusters
tested were: rigid, hinged sails, soft sails, and a triangular
soft sail behind a hard wing mast.

23. "TanKer to Use Sails," Tight Lines (Florida Sea Grant
Program-Key Uest), March, 1980. 1.

Sea tests of the 77 ton DAIOH are announced with cor.puter
controlled sails.

24. "Sailing Into the Future...", St. Petersburg Timres, Auuust
2, 1980. 2A.

The Imsamura ShiPbuilding Co. launched on August l1 1980
the first sail-Powered oil tanker, the SHIN AITOKU MARU with
two 39 by 26 foot metal sails. 50% fuel savings are hoped.

25. MIshihara, T.Watanabe, K.Shimizuy K.Yoshir.i H.NaR.ura
Nippon KoKan K.K., "Prospect of Sail-Eauipped MotorshiP as
Assessed from ExPerimental Ship 'DAIOH'," The Society of Naval
Architects and Marine Engineers, Shipboard Energv Conservation
Syvaosium, September, 1980. 181-205.

Tests were conducted in wind tunnels, on shore and at sea
on sail rigs and controls. The economic asPects of a 10,000 to
35,000 DWT bulk carrier equipped with sails were also studied,
This is a report on the successful termination of the first
stage in the development process. Sea trials concluded: Power
gain by the Practical sail on the ship can be estimated
accurately enough from wind tunnel tests and computation; the
wind force acting on the hull should not be neglected to
estimate the sailing ship speed more accurately; automatic sail
trimming equipment should be installed to set the sail at
optimum angle of attack, The rigid sail was more desirable.
Conclusions: 1. An efficient laminar flow rigid sail was
selected based on wind tunnel experiments. 2. Full-scale tests
on the DAIOH Proved estimations and studies were approximately
correct. 3. Performance and efficiency at full scale can be
Predicted. 4. 10,000 to 35,000 DWT bulk carriers can readily
accommodate auxiliary sail in an earls stage.

26. same authors, "Nippon KoKan's Experimental Ship Proves
Sail-Eouipped Motorship Feasibler" Maritime
Reporter/Engineering News, March 15, 1981.24-28.

Summarv of the Preceding report.

27, "Second Wind-Assisted Diesel Propelled Ship Building in
Japan," ibid, Nov.1, 1981.

A second coastal tanKer designed for wind-assisted diesel


propulsion will be delivered soon bu IRiamura Shipbuilding to
AitoKu Co.,owner of the first such commercial sailing vessel.
The second shiP* AITOKU MARU will be built initially as a
normal power-driven vessel with sails installed later, so that
realistic economic comparisons can be .ade. Hull design is
similar to the earlier SHIN AITOKU MARU. There will be tw6
masts with 160 square meters of rigid sails when spread. Length
is to be 217 feet with 1600 DWT.

28. MnMurata, M.TsuJi, T. Watanabey "Aerodynamic
Characteristics of a 1600 DWT Sail Assisted TanKer," Technical
Research Centre NKK. Summary: The Naval Architects, The Royal
Institution of Naval Architects, November, 1981. E276.

This Presents results of wind tunnel tests of sails and
hulls and sea tests of the 1600 DWT SHIN AITOKU MARU. The
investigation included the study of Presure distribution on the
sail surface and the effects of heel angle and surface
roughness. Wind tunnel tests using complete ship models showed
a significant interaction between the hull and sails in the
leeward direction.

29. B.Dooley~ "Wooden Ship, Iron Men Era Reborn", Boston Herald
American, Aug.2, 1979.

On August 8th, 1979, the 97 foot, 98 ton JOHN F.LEAVITT
will be launched. Built in the 19th century style of white and
red oaK, yellow Pine and hacKmatack or tamarack, will have a
capacity of 150 tons of cargo and six Passengers. The 37 year
old owner, Ned AcKerman will operate his vessel in true tramp
fashion from Port to Port. The Leavitt has no engine but
carries a 15 foot Push boat for docking. she carries 6441
square feet of canvas.

30. J.Freedman, "Success of a New Sailing Ship Hinges on the
Ill Winds of Oil", Soundings magazine, Sept.,1979.

Announces the launching of the JOHN F. LEAVITT on August
8th at Thomaston, Maine. AcKerman has invested three years and
several hundred thousand dollars in the vessel. He is a former
English teacher and medieval scholar. Not carrying auxiliary
Power exempts her from federal regulations. There will a crew
of three Plus the skipper.

31. M.Crowley~ "New Schooner Tests the Water for Carrying
Cargo,"; National Fisherman, Oct.,1979. 80-81.

Characteristics of the JOHN F.LEAVITT are given as well as
a summary of other Projects such as the DYNASHIP design.
Whether the scheme will succeed is anyone's guess. A tested
ingredient is the LEAVITT whose breed has been Proved front her
Keel to the tops of her trucks; another, her driver has not.

32. J.Laitin, "The Leavitt Failure -- Was It a True Test?",
Soundings Magazine, Feb., 1980. 10.


The JOHN F.LEAVITT was abandoned at sea on Decenber 27v
1979. Inexperience is blamed for the failure. Placement of
lumber and chemicals may have contributed. After launching, the
ship ran agrounds a compass that had not been compensated was
not bolted down, and the bowsprit snaPPed. There was no
shakedown cruise. After ten days at sea, high winds caused the
vessel to pitch, and a 40 foot cargo boom broke loose. Water
began to enter the cargo hold, and oil Poured out of a vent
over the donKey engine- the onlv source of Power for the
electrical system and bilge Pumps. The ship reportedly cost
$500,000, and it was Partially insured.

33. T.Sullivan, "Me.Coastal Schooner Leavitt Lost On First
WorKing Voyage," National Fisherman, March, 1980. 14.

This is another account of the loss of the JOHN F.LEAVITT.
First operation in the winter in the northwest Atlantic may
have contributed to the loss Plus an accidental Jibe, The yawl
boat broke loose from the stern davits and filled with water,
dragging down the stern.

34. "Leavitt's Loss Won't Deter Sail Experimentsy" National
Fisherman, March, 1980. 15 & 98.

Lloyd Bergeson's business-like approach to the Problenms of
commercial sail is contrasted with that of Ned Ackerr~an, owner
of the ill-fated Leavitt. "He took an old design? shunned
modern technology and tried to make a go of ity turning down a
less risky short but steady run from Maine to Boston for the
more romantically risky New England-to-the-Caribbean run on
which the Leavitt foundered on her maiden voyage." Greg
Brazier, owner of the Atlantic Coasting Schooner Co. of Long
Island, NY is building a 70 foot gaff riSged schooner for the
coastal trade. Ackerman chose to avoid Coast Guard
certification and regulations about engines, watertight
bulkheads etc. Ackerman chose to maximize his hold space
instead of installing watertight bulkheads that would almost
certainly have Kept her afloat long enough to install more
PumPs. Fran Morey, a designer for Hood Yacht Systems has
recently contracted for the design of a 96 foot swordfish
longliner and a 76 foot combination vessel both to be eQuipped
with sails and auxiliary engines.


35, T.Weber, "Reouiem for a Dream," Motor Boating & Sailing
magazine, April, 1980. 52-53, 120-122, 135-138.

Yet another summation of the loss of the Leavitt.

36. "A Sailing Oceanographic Vessel?"; Ocean Science News,
April 27, 1981. 1-2.

Summary of a 32 Page booklet from the Ocean Sciences Board
of the National Research Council. The idea for the studs
originated with Willard Bascom of the Southern California
Coastal Water Research Project. He formed a studs tean;
consisting of: Lloyd Bergeson of the Uind Ship Development
Corp., Corey Cramer of the Sea Education Assn., R.T.Dinsmore of
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Gustaf Arrhenius of
Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Frank MacLear of MacLear &
Harris Inc., and James Mass of Wind Ship Development CorP. A
sailing research vessel will have the following advantages:
quieter, less vibration, less roll and at times faster than
when under Power alone. The Proposed vessel will be of steel,
1400 DWT, retractable centerboards, fore and aft roller-reefed
sails, Power Plant which can also generate electricity, lenSth
of 250 ft., beam of about 50 ft., masts 160 ft. hish, crew of
18 and space for 24 scientists.

37. "The Use of Sailing Ships for Oceanoiraphj," Ad Hoc Panel
on the Use of Sailing Ships for Oceanography, Ocean Sciences
Board, Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, National
Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1981.
32 PP,

Detailed report summarized above.

38. J.Carson, "Sailing Bulk Carrier Design," New England
Section, The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers,
November, 1976. 34 PP.

This PaPer considers the Preliminary design of a series of
large souare-rigged steel sailing vessels. Primary emphasis is
on choice of hull Parameters rather than sail system design.
Maximum deadweight for such a vessel is 32,300 DWT based on a
limiting draft of 34 feet. The design of six vessels is
presented to act as a data set for later calculation of actual
sailing speed and trading economics. Methods for sizing
auxiliary equipment, the sail system, hull and outfit weights,
and manning are discussed. Stability calculations are shown,
and the effect of cargo density on vessel stability is shown to
be a limiting factor in choosing feasible trades for such a

39, B.Azarin, "In the WaKe of the Flying Cloud Ocean Shipping
Sets a New Course with HiSh-Tech Clipper Ships," Science 81
magazine, March, 1981. 81-85.

This is yet another survey of the state of the art


article. Covered are the Japanese experiments the PATRICIA A.,
DYNASHIP, and the WindshiP Development Corporation. Mentioned
is work in Germany.

40. Y.LuKasiK, "Wind-Powered Vessel Designs of the Soviet
Union," Sea Technology, Feb.,1982. 34-35.

Sail equipped research vessels are mentioned as the ZARYA
and the MAZUREK. Several Preliminary designs of modern sailing
ships have been completed at the NiKolayev ShiPbuilding
Institute on the UKraine's Black Sea Coast. One is a cruise
vessel of the river-sea type, OPtimum craft for this service is
a motor-eauipped trimaran. Cabins are located in all three
hulls. Foremast is 12 meters (39 feet) and mains.ast 20 meters
(66 feet) high. Draft is about one meter (39 inches). A sailing
ore carrier of 60,000 tons has been designed with 14,000 square
meters of sail area (150,695 so.ft,). Sic. A short sea vessel
has also been designed of about 200 tons deadweight with a
draft of not more than two meters (6,6 feet), In addition,
tests are to be conducted of a rotor wind Propelled ship
designed after the Pattern of the German engineer Flettner who
built the BARBARA in 1926. Other designs are also being

41. "Small Simple Sails Save Moneyu" The Naval Architecty The
Royal Institution of Naval Architects, Nov*,1981. E243.

160 square meters (1722 sc.ft.) of sail has been installed
on the 1300 DWT Danish coaster INGER M. During a ten day
voyage, fuel savings of 1500 liters Per day (396 U.S.gallons)
were recorded.

42. S.Renner-Smith, "Computerized High-Tech Sailing ShiPs,"
Popular Science, December, 1980. 78-80.

Although vet another survey article, it contains the best
description and drawings vet of the Japanese furling steel
airfoils and their controls. The needs of Micronesia, also
Known as the U.S. Pacific Trust Territories are described with
the ways in which sailing freighters can helP.

43. "ExPect Wind Powered Ship to Start Caribbean Cargo
Operation This Summer," Maritime Reporter/Engineering News,
March 1, 1982. 29.

Described is the 460 DWT PATRICIA A. which is expected to
enter the Caribbean trade this summer. She has been rebuilt for
$ 1 million in England according to her owner Hugh Lawrence,
President of Ocean Carriers, Inc. She was built in Germany in
1932 and refurbished in 1952. She will have four or five sails
of five to six thousand square feet total.

44. "Ship Designers Get Wind of Forgotten Fuels," South China
Morning Post, May 9, 1981, Business Section. 2

This is a summary of a report given by P.B.Joshi and



D.A.Talor, senior lecturers of the dePartrment of n.echanical
and marine engineering of Hong KonS Polytechnic University.

Nuclear Power holds little future scope for ship
propulsion, Diesel engines will continue, and coal-fired
vessels may complement diesel. There may be limited use for
sails. Fuel oil has increased from U.S. $13 in 1973 to U.S.
$218 Per ton at the beginning of 1981. Wind Power is used even
today in the South China Sea, around the South Pacific islands
and in the Arabian Sea. The Sailiner is described as a bulk
carrier of 15,000 DWT with 6200 square meters of sail (66,700
so.ft.). Described briefly are the Japanese experiments and
DYNASHIP. The Flettner rotor is discussed and the two ships
built in Germans in 1924 and 1926 utilizing the Magnus effect.

45. "Waertsilae Cruise With Sail," The Naval Architect,
Sept.,1981, The Royal Institution of Naval Architects. E219.

A 110 Passenger cruise ship is Proposed by a Helsinki ship
yard Powered by both sail and engines. The 88 meter (289 ft.)
ship is to be three masted carrying boomless sails of 1300
square meters area (14,000 so.ft.).

46. J.Stansell, "A Tall Ship for the Next Century," New
Scientist, 11 December, 1980.

This is essentially a sumiary and comm.nentarv on the RINA
November, 1980 Symposium on Wind ProPulsion for Commercial
Ships, The fine sketches illustrate the various Possible rig
types. Flettner -rotors are discussed as is the Possibility of
hydrofoils as advocated by Colin Herbert.

47. "PREUSSEN II Represents Modern Breed of Windships!" Sailing
Magazine ca. January, 1981. 11.

Windships Magnificent of Venice, California has announced
a two stage development program to construct a 480 foot, 17
million dollar commercial. cargo vessel using 88,000 square feet
of sail. She is scheduled to be launched March 15, 1982. She
will have five 200 foot masts carrying four head sails, 12
sta~sails and 30 square sails. Sails will be trimmed by

48. J.Mays, "Cargo-Carrying Windships Article Draws Fire for
Technical Naivete", National Fisherman, December, 1979. 7.

This refers to Michael Crowley's article on sailing
freight but differs with him strongly, especially on the
grounds of sailing experience and mathematical analysis and

49. J.Waller, "Tour Ship's Sails Spur Slight Flap," Soundings
Magazine, APril, 1980. 9.

Described is the conversion of a Poto.ac River tour ship
for the Hawaii cruise trade by retrofitting her with 6500


square feet of furling sails on four masts and a 42 foot
bowsprit. The RELLA MAE, formerly GEORGE WASHINGTON, is 283
feet long and will carry 1500 passengers. The masts are 200
feet from decK.

50. "Commercial Sail", Amateur Yacht Research Society
publication No.17, Feby,1958. 42 PP,

This booklet contains articles on: The Fan RiS, A Sailing
Coaster, A Sailing Ship Rig, The ToP's'l Gaff Bermudianr
Another Aft Dipping Lugsail, Sailins Ship Design, and the Kite
RiM among others.


51. "Va,-Built Schooner is Bound for Caribbean Cargo Trade,"
National Fisherman, Januarua 1980. 82.

In October, a 50 foot steel schooner was delivered which
is intended to haul fruit and Produce among Caribbean islands
and Possibly back to the East Coast. The gaff-rigged schooner
MEMORY was designed by Tom Colvin and carries 1600 square feet
of sail. She has a 30 hp diesel engine for auxiliary Power and
draws six feet of water.

52, "Wind and Sun-Powered Cargo Vessel BeinS Built for the
South Pacific," Maritime RePorter/Engineering News, May, 1980.

Nearing completion in New Zealand is the 112 foot, 146 ton
steel schooner MANUTES with 5500 square feet of sail and 5,000
cubic feet of cargo space. Most of the electronic navigation
and auxiliary gear will receive Power from wind driven
generators or solar-powered batteries,

53, B.Grant, "250 Tonnes...and a DecKwatch of Twor" Boat
Technology International magazine, no date. ca. 1981. 5-7,

This is a three masted schooner of steel with a length of
36 meters (118 feet), draft of 3.8 meters (12.5 ft.) with 560
so.meter of sail (6027 so.ft.) area. She will be used in the

54. "Development Plan Presented for U.S. Pacific Islandsy" Sea
Technology magazine, Oct.,1980. 19.

An ambitious five Sear plan for economic development of
the U.S.Pacific Basin Islands was presented to the Carter
Administration on August 7th. 150 Programs were ProPosed
costing over a billion dollars, and funding at this level is
unlikely. Projects were suggested in fisheries development,
port construction, coastal zone management, telecommunications
and other areas. Total gross annual product of the region is
estimated at $600 million only half the cost of the
recommended Projects.

55. T.E.Colvin, "Inter-Island Trade is Best for Small
Schooners," National Fisherman, August, 1980. 62.

Colvin has designed, built and sailed commercial sailing
vessels for 35 years. He believes such to be feasible but to
attempt to sail freight in the U.S. borders on the ridiculous
because of existing laws and regulations. Colvin's 15 ton cargo
schooner MEMORY is used for inter-island trade of Package
freight. He has designed several two and three-masted fishing
schooners. The Caribbean seems a much better area in which to
trade. The most economical size for a cargo schooner is between
15 and 20 tons since this can be manned by a small family crew.
This limits size to about 60 feet on decK.

56. "Schooner Being Built for Lake Champlain Servicev" Maritime


Reporter and Engineering News, Feb. 15, 1982.

Construction has begun in Portsmouth, NH on a 76 foot
steel hull schooner to carry Passengers on LaKe ChamPlain
beginning in the sPring of 1983. She will have a capacity of

57. JL.Shaw, "A Return to Sail in the Pacific?", Sea Frontiers
magazine, Jan*/Feb., 1981, 13-17.

The once self-sufficient Pacific islands have graduallS
become totally dependent on the outside world, Interisland
trading vessels usually of 200 to 500 ton capacity, play a
vital role. Ironically, the Pacific island trading fleet was
one of the most recent to give up the use of sail. Only two
decades ador sails were still used as the chief form of vessel
ProPulsion. Few of these craft are seen today.

58. L.Dennis, "Florida Contractor Built his Own Cargo
Schoonery" Soundings, APril, 1980. 13.

On Feb.21, 1980, Harold Haglund launched his 42,000 lb.,
64 foot, steel-hulled topsail cargo schooner, It is designed to
carry 3,000 sG.ft. of canvas and has two 120 hP auxiliary
diesel engines.

59. W.L.Warner, M.M.Kossa, "UPdating an Ancient Art- Research
and Development Toward Modern Wind Powered Cargo Ships,"
Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers STAR
SymPosium, San Franciscor May 25-27, 1977. 20 PP.

Some general remarks on modern sailing cargo vessels are
followed by a detailed description of the Proposed DynaMast
series- 16 different ProPosed riS arrangements. Included also
are characteristics of ten ProPosed DynaShip bulk carriers
ranging from 2950 to 68,900 tons deadweight. ExPeriments with
the Princeton Sailwing are described and compared with the
Proelss ri.g The evolution of the Present design for the
DynaShiP rig is described with Photographs of model rig
arrangements and Polar curves. Included are 28 references.

60. H.G.Lawrence, "The Western Flyer Project A Modern Sailing
Cargo Ship," The Society of Naval Architects and Marine
Engineers, Northern California Section, Sept.9, 1976, San
Francisco, Calfornia. 39 PP.

This PaPer describes the various criteria selection and
design Processes as thew relate to a Project which is intended
to construct the first ship to carry cardo under sail again.
The emphasis is on the expediency, efficiency and economy of
the various decisions to be made when considered in terms of
putting a new 4500 DWT sailing ship to sear rather than in
terms of the highest attainable hydrodynam.ic or aerodunan.ic
Performance of some future sailing vessel.

The WESTERN FLYER is modelled after older types which


successfully rounded CaPe Horn, almost routinely. She is to be
rigged as a four-masted Bermudian rig schooner with biPod
masts, She is 96 m.(315 ft.) on deck, and sail area can be
varied between 23,440 and 32,498 soGft. She has a 750 hp diesel
electric engine, The author concludes that sailing cargo ships
have greater competitive advantage in the smaller ship sizes
than in the larger, and that it is not realistic to start cargo
operations under sail in carriers of the size 15,000 DWT and
up. A reasonable size may be 8,000 DWT, A su;mmar is given of
the Argentine grain trade from the Rio de la Plata. 43
references are included*



Commercial sailing fishing vessels have existed almost as
long as man has been on Earth. Although not mans are now found
in Europe and the U.S., they are used in large numbers
elsewhere in the World. In the Past few years, such have made a
modest comeback in the so-called developed countries. Skookum
Marine in Port Townsend, Washington has constructed and sold 40
to 50 such craft for fishermen in nearby Alaskan and Hawaiian
waters. Others have been built in California by R.*.Davies.
Captains Lane and Jesse Brigas operate two such vessels which
also serve as tugs, salvage craft and freighters as shown in
Figure 4. The French and Germans are actively Pursuing sail
assist for fishing vessels as well. There are isolated
exPeriments in many Parts of the U.S. and other countries where
either sails have been added to Power vessels or yachts have
been converted to commercial fishing craft.

Major limiting factors on the use of sails by fishing
vessels are* bridge heights and distance to fishing grounds.
The farther the fisherman has to travel before he reaches the
fishing grounds, the more advantageous sail assist becomes. For
fishing grounds 200 or more miles out, fuel savings on a
sear-round basis of up to 40% have been forecast. Others are
not so optimistic. See Abstracts 44 and 46, for example. There
appears to be no uniform insurance Policy with respect to
sail-assisted fishing boats. In New England, one firm
threatened to increase premiums if sails were added using the
Justification that crew inJury and fatigue were enhanced. In
the Pacific Northwest, Premiums are less for sail-enuipped
fishing vessels and in Virginia no change was experienced in
retrofitting an existing craft with sails. Capt. Davies in
Hawaii cites a reduced Premium because of no need for towage
insurance. Sailing vessels usually can make it back on their



1. M.A.Jacouemin, "A Multi-Purpose Tuna Fishing Boat with
Combined Propulsion," SymPosium on Wind Propulsion of
Commercial Ships, The Royal Institution of Naval Architects,
London, 1980. 233-240.

A multi-PurPose tuna fishing schooner has been designed
for use on the Atlantic coastline of France to be Powered by
motor and sail. French statistics show that it costs about one
liter of fuel to land one Kilogram of fish (0.12 U.S.gallons
Per Pound). The vessel designed is 19.3 meters (63 ft.) long
with a light displacement of 60 tons and a loaded displacement
of 95 tons. Hull is double-chine steel. Main diesel engine is
160 hP with a secondary engine of 40 hp worKing an altenator
and hydraulic Pump. The boat will be fitted out with two 15
meter (49 ft.) masts. On the foremast, a boomed staysail will
be rigged to a roller stay of 52 so.m.(559 so.ft.) A large
genoa can also be set of 104 so.m. (1120 so.ft.) On the
mainmast is a staysail with boom measuring 48 sa.m.(517 so.ft.)
and a main sail of 50 so.m.(538 softt) each on a roller stay.
Sail rollers are driven by small hydraulic engines controlled
from the bridge. Sheets are controlled via winches from the

Tests on a scale model have been carried out in the
laboratories of nautical hydrodynamics at Nantes. With an
average wind of Force 4 to 5, the vessel should reach a speed
of eight to nine Knots. Calculations indicate an annual fuel
saving of 200,000 liters (52,834 U.S. gallons).

J.F.Fyson had a number of comments on this paper. Firstly,
the major difference between fishing vessels and most other
commercial craft is that they work all year round and take on
their cargo at sea. Looking at some of the designs ProPosed for
sailing fishing vessels, he doubts that this is always
appreciated. Sails and rigs must not interfere with fishing and
cargo operations. Consideration of worKing deck space
availability is all-important. Other considerations- time spent
getting to the fishing grounds, Power requirements during the
fishinS operation, expected catch and method of bringing it
aboard, auxiliary sources of Power necessary for the fishing
operation, conservation of catch and Power necessary for
refrigeratin and normal requirements for life on board.
Mr.FYson is in favor of high cut mainsails, spritsail rigs and
Junk rigs but not spinnaKers and rigid airfoils. Rotors might
be Possible, Mr. MacLear asked for a breakdown on the costs.
The reply gave such and claimed a benefit for 10% lower
insurance and PerhaPs 50% lower engine repair costs.

2. E.W.H.Gifford, "Improvement of Sailing Techniques in
Tropical Countries," ibid. 241-247.

See Abstract No.6 under Advanced Thrusters for a
description of this Paper which concerns beachable catamaran


and sailing canoe fishing boats.

3. B.Townes, "Behm-Desianed SharPie Deserves a Trial Run for
Inshore Fishing, National Fisherman, August, 1981. p.97

This is a 32 foot aluminum sharpie, gaff rigged,
freestanding Ketch Powered by a 10 hP engine and suitable for
hand trolling, trap fishing and longlining in sounds, rivers
and estuaries.

4. J.Fryer "Modified Bugeve Designed for Shrir.pingy" National
Fisherman, March, 1981. P.73.

This is another Proposed fishing vessels a 50 foot
modified bugeve with a staysail risI The architect, Bill Hall,
calculates she could tow two 35 foot shrimp trawls at four to
six Knots in 12 to 15 Knots of wind. A 130 to 140 hP engine
would be fitted linked to a sel-feathering Propeller. During
trawling operations, with engine idling for hydraulic deck
geary fuel consumption is estimated at 1*5 gallons Per hour.

5. J.Capps, "Fiberglass Combination Vessel Designed for Sail
Power Too," National Fisherman, Feb.l1981. 72-73.

SKooKum Marine molded the BELINDA V's fiberglass hull
which can become a two masted sailing vessel, Wheelhouse is of
one-euarter inch aluminum to Keep center of gravity low. She is
53 x 16 x 8 feet and is Powered by a 6-71 Detroit Diesel.

6. G.Wells, "Marine Tech's Sailing Fishboat Gets Hull Speed on
Little Power," National Fisherman, August, 1980. P.70.

Marine Tech has sold six 34 foot sail trollers of the True
North Design in four years, but all were delivered minus
optional sails. The new boat which is of the Hylebos schooner
designs will be delivered in October. She is 47 x 13.5 x 6.4
feet and is reminiscent of the turn-of-the-centurs halibut
schooners. She will be eauiuped with an 80 hP Dietroit Diesel
4-53. Cost will be $ 238,000. Fishermen will have to expect a
smaller Payload* A standard 47 foot fishing boat routinely
carries up to 300 hp, but it takes onlv 47 hp to move this
vessel at hull speed.

7. L.Cole and A.Sager, "46 ft. Sealing Schooner Can be Set UP
for Pleasure or Commercial Fishing," National Fisherman,
Jan.,1976. 14-C & 30-C.

Designed from memory by Francis Fredette, this beautiful
gaff-rigged schooner is 46 x 12.75 x 6 feet and measures 36,75
feet on the waterline.

8. K.BruecKmann, "SKooKum Sailing Fishboats Growing in
Popularity," National Fisherman, Feb.,1978. 16-C.

Bernie Arthur, President of SKooKum Marine in Port
Townsend, Washington states that 50% of his Production this


wear will be sailing fishboats. The SkooKum hulls are designed
by Edwin Monk with a capacity of uP to 20 tons of frozen fish
and a 3r000 mile range under Power alone, Sails increase range
and fishing options and decrease costs. At Present, the SKookum
47 and 53 are being used for sailing fishboats. Five of the
boats are already fishing, and eight are under construction. A
70 footer is being designed* Sail advantage is used to travel
to the fish- not when fishing. It does not seen Practical to
troll with sails set. SKooKum Marine is located at 2900
Washington St., Port Townsend, Washington 98368.

9. M,Miller, "Californian Copied Slocu~'s SPRAY to Build
Efficient Trolling Vessel," National Fisherman, Oct., 1980.

A 16 ton sailing fishing vessel was built in Morro Bay,
California by Bob White. She measures 36.75 x 14 x 4.5 feet.
Bowsprit is 16 feet main mast 43 feet with a 21 foot top mast
and 27 foot mizzen. She is Powered by a Perkins 108 delivering
55 hP. At Present the fish hold carries four tons of fish, and
there is no refrigeration other than ice. It is Planned to
double the cargo capacity and install electric refrigeration.

10. T.Lesh, "West Coast Commercial Men Find Sailing Fishboats
are Now Viable," National Fisherman, Sept., 1980. 80-82.

Capt. R.W.Davies fishes the 60 foot sailing schooner
CORNUCOPIA out of Hawaii for albacore tuna. The idea was to
develop a long-range vessel that could get to the increasingly
remote fish resource and get back to marKet. She is Patterned
after an 1890's schooner called a Gloucester sloop boat, often
called an East Coast ouster schooner or Grand Banks schooner.
She is built of steel and is now valued at $450,000. She is
gaff ringed and uses mast hoops of 10 oz. tightly woven Dacron
and no sizing. Two People can run and sail the craft. Davies
claims: "the reason there are not more sailing worKboats on the
West Coast is that most fishermen will buy fuel, regardless of.
how much it costs, as long as it's available. In other Parts of
the world, either the fuel is not available or the fishermen
can't afford to buy it. "These sailing worKboats are really
solar-Powered Protein Producers."

Davies' son Morean now operates the Davies Boat Building
Co.l in Sacramento and is building his own version of the steel
commercial sailing schooner. The basic boat measures 53 x 16.5
x 7 feet and cargo capacity is 20 tons. The Mobil vinwl system
is painted over zinc chromate Primer. In seven wearsv the
CORNUCOPIA has only needed minor touch-up. There is no fin
Keel. She is rigged as a gaff-headed schooner with aFPoximately
1500 so.ft, of lowers and 500 sQ.ft. of uppers. Morgan Davies,
Davies Boatbuilding, 2620 American Ave., Sacramento, California

11. B.Townes, "2 Sailinq WorKboats from the West," National
Fisherman, Dec., 1975. 1-C and 16-C.


Described is a George Buehler designed 42 foot sailing
workboat and a Jay Benford designed 36 foot sailing dory, both
suitable for commercial fishing.

12. B.Townes, "Tiare Debuts as State of the Art Sailing Fish
Boat," National Fisherman, March, 1981. 74,75 & 104.

Naval architect J*.P.Fartog of San Francisco designed the
steel 65 x 15.25 x 7.5 foot sailing fishing vessel for a
client. She is Ketch rigged with UP to 2400 sa.ft. of sail and
a hold able to Keep 60,000 to 65,000 Pounds of fish blast
frozen at -25 degrees F. She is due to be launched any day and
is the first of what is hoped will be a series from the Blue
Bahia BoatworKs.

13. T.Lesh, "Wind Energy Free to the Fisherr.any" National
Fisherman Yearbook, 1980. 113-117.

Since 1973Y the cost of fuel has risen 727%! Much of the
Gulf fishing fleet has been idled by the cost of fuel and the
U.S.fishing industry is suffering more than its neighbors. Last
fall marine fuel in Mexico was 17 cents a gallon and in Canada
36 cents while in the U.S. it was 93 cents.

More sailinS fish boats are seen every year in answer to
this Problem, but their number is few in comparison to the
number of Powered vessels. There is hardly a fishery that could
not benefit from sail. Sail is generally used to extend range.
In general, the farther a boat has to travel the more valuable
sail will be. To date, none of the U.S. fisheries has used
sails for trawling, but India and England have. Sailmaker Paul
Mitchell (2805 Canon St., San Diego, CA 92106) has been maKing
sails for commercial fish boats as well as yachts, He is an
advocate of simple rigs and opposed to furling gear. He
estimates costs of outfitting with sails at 2 to 5% of the
boat's cost (for sails alone). A sailing fishboat costing
$200,000 was Just outfitted for $4,000. This compares with
$20,000 for high-technology rigging New Dacron weaves, such as
Carolon are softer, easier to handle and last longer.

A traditional sailing fishing craft is the TIA MIA, a 27 x
9.25 x 5.75 foot FriendshiP sloop type. She is operated out of
Oregon. Bill James of Morro Bay, California has recently turned
out four designs for sailing fishing vessels. Larry Fulghen. is
a builder in Moss Landing, California has a gaff-rigged steel
fishing schooner 65 feet in length: FOURTH OF JULY. Also
mentioned are: SKooKum Marine, Marine Technical Services and
Morgan Davies.

On the East Coast, interest is increasing as shown by the
Northeast 77, designed by R.Uoodin and P.Marean and built by
Northeast Boat Co., Stonington, Maine 04861. In Australia, John
Clode has built the 54 x 15 x 5 foot Ketch CALIPH with 44 hp
diesel and variable pitch Propeller, Perhaps the smallest is
the Drascombe Fisher built in England for the Caribbean
fisheries. Its 21.5 x 7.25 x 2 foot DRIFTER model has been


modified for such. The most complicated built in this country
is the Bottom Line 44: CSY 44 which can carry 12,000 lbs. of
ice and fish.

14. K.C.SamPles, "The Cornucopia One Fisherman's Answer, to
the Fuel Price Saueeze," The Marine Advisory Program MaKai
Newsletter, Univ. of Hawaii Sea Grant Colleger June, 1981. P.1
& 5.

A detailed account of the CORNUCOPIA described above. On
an average, he Probably uses 7000 gallons of fuel Per season
less than a comparable size diesel Powered albacore boat. On a
recent 1500 mile trip from Honolulu to Midway, he used only
sail Power. Insurance cost is less because no extra Premium is
Paid for towage insurance to Protect against mechanical
breakdown. Annual average sail replacement cost is about $1000.

15. B.P.Brown, Jr., "An Evaluation of a Potential Use of Sail
Power in the Commercial Shrimp Fishery of Texas," M.S. thesis,
Texas A&M University, August, 1976.

See Abstract No. 10 under Economics.

16. "Almost Lost The Art of Fishing Under Sail," Coast Watchy
University of North Carolina Sea Grant, Feb.1981. P. 6.

Mike Alford hs begun a study of North Carolina's historic
boats for the Hampton Mariners Museum in Beaufort. "We almost,
but not Quiter lost the art of fishnS under sail. We need to go
back to the extremely efficient boats of a couple of
generations agor and Pick uP where we left off." There were
three mainstays of the old North Carolina sailing fleet:
sharpier sPritsail skiff and the Albemarle shad boat.

17. T.Sullivan, "Sail-Aided Power Could Save Some Fishboats
Plenty~" National Fisherman, Dec., 1979. 69.

Presented is a PrototyPe design for a 73 foot sailing
fishing trawler. Designer Fran Morey, of Hood Yacht Systems
says the hull design alone would make the vessel between 10 and
25% more efficient. She is equipped with Hood's Stowaway mast
and Seafurl gear. Icing of the mast is one concern, so a
Possible solution is advocated of venting engine exhaust UP the

18. N.Lucander, "Building a Good Sailing Fishboat is More Than
Just Adding Sails," National Fisherman, Oct.,1980. 76-77.

A commercial fishing boat is a small business all by
itself. Conventional sail rigs are criticized because of
interference with fishing gear. In 1976, the author designed a
29 foot fishing boat for the Dominican RePublic carry a single
roller-furling genoa fitted on a head stay. 21 of those boats
were built and are used, and others are being retrofitted to
use similar sail systems. A new 36 foot fishing boat for
Honduras will also have a roller furling *enoa. He has now


designed his Albacore Clippers, One illustrated measures 68 x
5.75 ft* and carries 3195 soft, of roller furling sails on
three eaual-height Basts. Sails are hvdraulicallv controlled
for furling and easy reefing.

19. T.Lesh, "Sail Power Gains Popularity in Pacific Fisheriesv"
National Fisherman, Oct., 1980. 78-80.

BORN FREE is a 65 foot sailing schooner to be used for
albacore fishing at Coos Baey Oregon. She is of steel from a
J.P.Hartog design. Gaff rig was chosen for 730 so.ft.
loose-footed mainsail of 13 oz. Dacrony 645 so.ft. foresail of
12 oz. Dacron and 315 soft, staysail of 8 oz. Dacron. SKookuF
Marine has delivered several 53 foot sailing fiberglass sailing
fishing boats as well as a number of 47 footers with 20,000 lb.

20. "DurbecK 50 ft. Fisherman" National Fisher-many no date

Described is a Ketch-rigged fishing vessel measuring 50.75
x 13.8 x 5.25 foot 15000 Ib displacement sailing fishing
vessel. DurbecK's, 4504 28th St., Bradenton, FL 33507.


21. "Third World Needs Stimulate Ideas for Boats and Gear,"
National Fisherman, Britsh Supplement, Oct.i1980. 53-54.

British engineer and vessel designer Edwin Gifford
introduced a 36 ft. beach sailing catamaran fish boat to Ghana.
He then designed a smaller and simpler catamaran called the
SANDSKIPPER to Sri LanKa. A 1978 cyclone destroyed 5,000
fishing boats in Sri Lanka. Gifford's idea to replace this
fleet was a 19 foot dory made of marine Plywood by a stitch and
glue technique. (tortured Plywood). They could be Put together
from Kits by the fishermen themselves. One boat and two Kits
were sent to Sri LanKa, where demonstrations made a good
impression. They can be sailed or Powered by a Petter 6 hp
air-cooled engine. They can carry three men, catching Sear and
a ton of fish,

22. P.O'Driscoll, "No Easy Was Back to Sail," ibid. p.58.

In Britain there are still a few sailing fishing boats
around, but thev are mostly museum Pieces. One exception is in
Cornwall where there still is a small ouster fishery worked by
sailing craft. At Grimsbn, there are a number of wooden inshore
boats operating of average length around 60 feet. They set a
trusail, mostly for steadying Purposes. If the wind is righty
even this small sail will add a Knot or two to the boat's

23. "He Hopes Shrimper with Sails will Sell, St. Petersburg
Timer Apr.12, 1981. 16B.

Master boatbuilder Oscar Ewing of Apalachicolas Florida
has built a model of a wind driven shrimp trawler at the
request of Bangladesh. Price of diesel fuel there ranges uP to
$6 Per gallon. It is hoped that two boats will be ordered, The
vessel is 56 feet long and could carry a regular load of 20,000
Pounds. It will have an auxiliary engine. "It takes $1,000 of
diesel fuel to go to Key West. With this, sou can Set there for

24. "Hood Makes a Sail for a 250 Ft. Freightery" National
Fisherman, Novr. 1981. 14.

In addition to discussing the freiShter sail, Hood said
that three sailing fishing vessels in the 60 to 96 foot range
have been designed and await serious buyers. The economic
feasibility of the new vessels can easily be Proven. Robie
Doyle commented: "commercial fishermen tend to think of their
vessels as extremely sturdy, while seeing yachts as frail, a
Perception that, until recently, may have been accurate. The
Push in yachting lately has been toward larger and larger
vessels for offshore racing and cruising. The trend came about
Primarily because of new developments in sailcloth and
equipment that made it easier for racing crews to handle a
greater volume of sail. Previously, everything was limited to
the ability of humans. The automation of handling equipment


allowed designers to So beyond this limitation in response to
everyone's wanting to go faster than the last one. This
development in turn led to stronger and heavier construction on
truly large racing yachts, This led to the development of self
furling sails, masts in which sails could be stowed and better
Powering systems that allowed Push-button control from the
Pilothouse. Andy these developments all have commercial

25, "No Dramatic BreaKthroughs for Wind Propulsion," Ship &
Boat International, Dec.,1981. 5-6.

Described is the research ProJect at the College of
Engineering of the University of South Floriday funded by
Florida Sea Grant College. The French work is described. The
catamaran concept was chosen as offering optimum. compromise
between stability draft and hull resistance. Hull design is bu
Rodney March. Described also are the EOLE and other French
concepts treated in a separate abstract. In Australia, Lock
Crowther a leading designer of catamaran and trimaran racing
yachts, has recently turned his attention to fishing vessels
and workboats. He has chosen the catamaran for both a 46 foot
biological research vessel and a similarly sized Pearl fishing
craft. Two 40 hp Lister engines are used driving full
feathering controllable Pitch Propellers. Hydraulic Power is
supplied bu a Pump off one of the engines. The riS is set aft
on a single mast. There are long, shallow skegs on the hulls
giving a draft of less than four feet.

26. H.Sekir AHamaday T.Iwamii R.JLeBrasseur, "HobiKian.i Sail
Trawling in JaPany Fisheries, V.6.No.6, tov.-Dec.y 1981,

Sail trawling of HobiKiami fishing consists of a boat
drifting sideways downwind while towinS a net. This picturesque
fishing method was invented about 100 sears ago as a means to
reduce the then labor-intensive methods. Hobikiami trawling is
analogous to flying a kite wherein Kiter tail of kite and man
correspond to sail, boat and net respectively. The wind must be
approximately Parallel to the long axis of the lake where it is
used and of moderate strength and frequency. Diesel trawlers
have replaced many of the sailing drifters. The fishing method
trawl nets, catch and bozts are well described in figures and

27. "Yacht Conversion to Sailing Fishing Vessel in Floridab "
Visit Report Oct.,1981.

In Port Richey, Florida? Don Sorenson is outfitting a 40
foot Sampson Marine designed ferrocement yacht for commercial
fishing. She has a 95 cu.ft. hold for 2000 2500 lbs. of fish.
All sail controls are led to the hel;. She is due to be fished
in the summer of 1982.

28. R.Brownings "The Wind is Free," Fishing Gazetter Marchr
1982, 42-52.


A 130 foot Bering Sea crabber takes on 50,000 gallons of
fuel. In the light of world conditions the sail-assisted
fishing vessel will Play a part no matter how small, no matter
how great, in the fisheries of all three coasts. Since 1974,
SKookum Marine of Port Townsend, Washington has built at least
47 sail-assisted fishing vessels uP to 70 feet LOA. SkooKum is
a Chinook word meaning good, well or excellent. (or well built)
Other firms have built sailing fishing vessels, and there may
be as mans as 200 such in use in the Pacificv under
construction or on the drawing board. One disadvantage is that
beam must be narrowed for economy and the fish hold is smaller
as a consequence. Load capacity is traded for economy. Icing
can foul uP furling gear in northern waters. The largest
sailing fishing vessel today is the 74 foot Ketch designed by
Bill James of Morro Bay~ California. Western tuna fishermen
travel routinely to West Africa while other albacore fishermen
have increasingly been moving farther into the Southwest

29. S.E.Barnes, "Shapely 50--footer Offers Flexibility for
Today's Fisheries, "i National Fisherman, Apr,. 1982. 82-83.

This Presents the results of a Freliminart studs for a 50
x 16.7 x 7.75 foot sailing fishing vessel with three chines,
Fish hold has a capacity of about 1320 cu.ft. or approximately
50,000 lbs. of iced fish. Power is to be a 280 SHP diesel. Sail
rig is a simple gaff Ketch*

30. "Wind-No Fuel Like An Old Fuel," MaKai Newslettery
University of Hawaii Sea Grant Colleger Nov., 1980. 6.

Dr. Edward Shallenberger is in Port Townsend, Washington
putting finishing touches on a 51 foot sailing ship designed
for fishing and research. Roy Yee has plans for a 38 foot motor
sailer that will use only 25% of the fuel used by a power boat
of this size.

31. C.A.Goudeyr "Fishing Vessel Sail Assist Feasibility and
Demonstration Project," MIT Sea Grant, August, 1980 and Apr.,
1981. 10 PP.

This is a Project summers with objectives: a. To study the
feasibility of using sail assist to reduce the energy
requirements of fishing boats. b. to determine what types of
boats and modes of fishing lend themselves best to sail assist.
c. to determine if a cost effective retrofit can be made on a
significant number of the existing small fishing boats in New
England. d. to delineate what steps should be taken by a boat
owner interested in a sail retrofit. Estimated completion date
is March, 1982. A demonstration project is part of this
Project. The 79 foot VINCIE N. was chosen for retrofit.
Drawings show a conservative sloop free-footed sloop rig set
well forward.

32. GCMiles, "Men of Sea Studying Sails for Commerce," Norfolk


Ledger-Stary Apr. 12, 1982. C-1 & 2.

Announcement of the Norfolk 19-21 May conference on
commercial sail. Jon Lucy is quoted as referring to these as
hybrid boats combining the best of sail with the best of
Power. About 100 vessels on the West Coast and a dozen on the
East Coast use the sail-assist concept said this representative
of Virginia Institute of Marine Science. Colvin's 72 foot cargo
vessel SHARON VIRGINIA will be tied to a Norfolk dock as well
as NORFOLK REBEL. Colvin is sailing from Miami to Hampton Roads
in his Chinese Junk to attend the conference. Also present will
be Merritt Walter who designed the 57 foot, 20 ton cargo
carrying PHOENIX due to be launched shortly. Studies at the
College of Engineering of the University of South Florida are

33. P.Griscti, "Sailpower Propulsion of the Future?" Commercial
Boating, Oct., 1981, 17-19.

This is a detailed interview with researchers at the
College of Engineering of the University of South Florida on
commercial sailing fishing vessels. The three sear research
program, begun in 1981, has the following phases: a. collect
data, write engineering analysis computer Programs. b. study
the technical, operational and economic feasibility of
retrofitting existing craft with sails on a fishers by fishery
basis, c. development of instrumentation to measure fuel
economy and Performance. d. Preliminary design of new vessels
optimized for sail-assist, e. full-scale experiments using the
instrumentation developed.

34. J.W.Shortall III, "Commercial SailinS Fishing Vessels,
Computer-Aided Design," SNAME Fishing Industry Energy
Conservation Conference, Oct., 1981.

The University of South Florida, College of En'ineering
has a continuing research Progran, concerned with the
comPuter-aided design of commercial sailing fishing vessels.
This research is also funded by Florida Sea Grant Colleger and
the Program is Projected to end in December, 1983. The Program
is described in the above abstract. Results are reported on a
detailed examination of the snapper-grouper fishing industry
and vessels used therein where minimum fuel savings of 30 or
40% are projected. Preliminary studies on stone crab lobster
boats are also reported where the situation does not seen. so
optimistic. Sail rigs Proposed are of the unstaved mast type
for minimum interference with the fishing operation and are
user-kindly and simple with a minimum of failure-prone gear.

35, C.J.Kibert, "Computer Analysis of the Economics of Sail
Assisted Commercial Fishing Vessels, Society of Naval
Architects and Marine Engineers! SNAME- Southeast Section,
Feb.,1981. 15 PP + 16 PP. aPPendices.

An interactive computer technique is described which
allows a rapid assessment of the Potential for retrofitting


existing commercial fishing boats with sails. This tool Permiits
a rapid Parameter analysis of a variety of retrofit cases and a
graphical display of the results. A listing of the computer
program is enclosed in Tektronix BASIC.

36. R.A.Johnsonr "Research on Commercial Sailing Fishing
Vessels at the University of South Florida," ibid. 5 PP.

An early description of the Florida Sea Grant College
funded research Program at the College of Engineering of the
University of South Florida. This is updated in abstract no. 34

37. A.X.Gares, "Performance Prediction of Sailcrafty" ibid 18

A computer graphics Program has been developed on the
Tektronix 4051 high resolution graphics computer to Predict
sailcraft Performance for all Points of sailing via generated
polar Plots. Speed and force equations are Presented, and the
associated algorithms are derived for both heeling and
non-heeling vessels. A test case using the catamaran
configuration is included to illustrate the capability and
effectiveness of the Program. Note: the algorithms used come
from the work of Piper Mason. This Program has been extended
and improved and a version has been Prepared for the Apple

38. C.Swenson, "Computer-Aided Desion of Freestandin. Sparsy,"
SNAME Southeasts Sept.,1981. 31 PP.

This Paper is a summary of recent work undertaKen to apply
the microcomuter to the design of freestanding spars for
sail-driven fishboats and large recreational watercraft. The
author briefly reviews the history of such spars in the
American fisheries and discusses the inter-dependence of spar
and hull design criteria. The engineering apprdach to the
design of the freestanding spar as a Poly-axis loaded
cantilever is Presented and the translation of the design
methodology into a highly interactive, iterative computer
Program is summarized by a flow chart. The author concludes
with a description of the program's limitation and Presents the
reader with several design alternatives for integrating new and
old technologies.

39. DR.BEreaulty "Computer-Aided Method for Detern;,in in
Stability Curves of Multi-Chine Hulls," SNAME Southeast
Section, March, 1982. 7 PP + appendices.

A method is described for determining curves of static
stability of one or more chines using a computer program
written in BASIC on the Tektronix 4051 high resolution graphics
computer. Except for the graphics Portion of the Program, this
is readily Portable to other dialects of BASIC. Major
limitation of this method is that calculations are Performed
only until deck edge is immersed. This Program is used to


determine stability Parameters for commercial sailing fishing
vessels in a Program funded by Florida Sea Grant College and
the College of Engineerng of the University of South Florida. A
ten degree heel criterion is used therein for sail area sizingv
so the deck edge criterion Poses no Problem in these
investigations. A Program listing in TeKtronix BASIC is

40. C.J.Kibert, "The Economics of Sail Power for
Snapper-Grouper Boats of the Florida West Coast Fishing Fleet,"
Florida Sea Grant Colleger Sept.,1981, 11 PP.

Described in detail is the use of an improved version of
the economic analysis computer Program as described in abstract
no. 35 above. Analyzed is the snaPPer-grouper fishery, and the
15 year life cycle costing method is described. With 30% of the
Power being supplied by sail, Predicted fuel savings for a
typical 44 foot snapPer-grouper boat amounts to 1440 Nallons
Per sear or a Projected savings over 15 sears of $ 540903 Per
boat. For the 40% case the figures are 1920 gallons Per year
and $72,204 saved over 15 years.

41. J.W.Shortall III, "Sailins Fishin Vessels Enwineerins
Economic Analysis An Interactive BASIC Computer Proaram.,"
Florida Sea Grant Colleger Jan., 1982, 5 PP. + 19 PP

The implementation of the life cucle costing method with a
BASIC Program by Charles J.Kibert is described with extensions
to the APPle microcomputer. This is the third in a series of
PaPers describing the engineering economic analysis of
commercial fishing vessels retrofitted with sails to effect
fuel economies.. This report describes the computer Program used
and Presents a listing together with screen outputs and
variable cross reference. The computer Program is written for
an Apple microcomputer but uses an esPecially uniform variety
of BASIC which should allow its conversion to most other
computers with a minimum of translation.

42. J.W.Shortall III, "Sail-Assisted Power for Florida Stone
Crab-Lobster Fishing Vessels," Florida Sea Grant Colleger
Feb.,1982. 31 PP.

Three vessels typical of the larder stone crab-lobster
craft are analyzed for Possible retrofit with sails for
wind-assisted Power as an aid in reducing fuel costs. A brief
description is included of this important fishery in Florida
with Pertinent references. The computer-aided analytical
methods are described. The application of sail-assisted Power
for this fishery is estimated to saver on the average 15% of
the fuel useaEe. Major limiting factors include severe bridge
height restrictions on Permissible sail area and the one to 70
mile range to the fishing grounds. Visualization sketches of
Possible sail rigs on typical hulls are included.

43. N.E.Sorenson-Viale, "Fishinn Under Sailv" Fishins Industry



Energy Conservation Conference The Society of Naval
Architects and Marine Engineers, Oct.,1981.

The concert of motor-and-sailing is adopted for the
Propulsion of a fishing vessel. The innovative design is
Primarily based on the author's experience in the design and
operation of motor-and-sailing fishing vessels in 1944 and on
the introduction of state-of-the-art sailing technology
developed for competition yachts since sail was abandoned as
Primary Propulsion for commercial fishing vessels. The design
combines bipod masts without shrouds, with fore-and-aft
boomless sails on roller furling struts, Power consists of two
engines in a father and son configuration driving a single
shaft with controllable Pitch Propeller. Hull was specifically
designed for Performance under sail. Dynamic routing will be
used to obtain the best wind conditions for motor-and-sailing.
The result is an energy efficient fishing vessel not intended
for character building but for highly competitive economically
feasible fishing in comparison with conventional
motor-propelled fishing vessels of the same pavload capacity.

Several in the audience took issue with one or more Points
in this Paper. Particularly questioned were the comments and
data on motorsailing,

44. A.G.Hopper, "Energy Efficiency in Fishing Vesselsy" ibid.

This Paper is largely devoted to energy economies Possible
for large, engine-powered fishing vessels. Sail Power was
commented on late in the Paper where two cases were examined.
"These cases studied only relate to the application of sail as
auxiliary Power for a modern trawler and show there is no
Justification for such a move at this time. This should not,
however, exclude sail as a long term option."

45. HS.Noel, "French Fishing Industry is Actively Devel.oins
New Boats," National Fisherman, Feb.01982.

A catamaran sailing fishing vessel 37 ft. 7 in. long hs
been built of aluminum by Dar-Mad with government aid. She has
two 55 hp engines and sail area of 613 so.ft. A 45 ft.
fiberglass Power catamaran fishing vessel: NOTRE DAME DE FOY
has twin trawl winches, net reel and two 215 hP diesel engines.
The owner states she will out-tow a 600 hp single hull craft.
Designer claims that a catamaran has generally 25% more speed
than a single hull vessel for the same Power and size. The
owner of a 39 foot steel Power catamaran states that the
catamaran is ideal because of the deck space available for crab
and lobster traps, Steel was too heavy, so he ordered the 38
ft. DIOGENE of AG4MC aluminum alloy. His fuel bill is 40% less
than a 53 foot single hull craft.

There are three new French sailing catamaran fishing
vessels. These are trap line or mill net boats. Each has Jib
and Bermuda main sail with roller reefing. In Brittany, the 63
ft. EOLE had her first trial run to the Atlantic albacore



grounds. She is the first of three steel boats Ketch ridged
and total sail area of 2173 sa.ft. without balloon Jib. Sails
are controlled remotely from helm with hydraulic winches. Price
was $450,000 Per boat. See the abstract under advanced
thrusters for information on Flettner rotor-Powered 100 ft.
fishing catamararan conceptual design.

46. KC.Samples and J.H.Prescott, "The Use of Sail-Assisted
Commercial Fishing Vessels in the Pacific: An Economic
Appraisal," International Conference on Ocean Resource
Development in the Pacific," Honolulu, Hawaii, 13-15 Oct.,
1981. 29 PP.

Over the past decade Pacific-based commercial fisherr.en
experienced and unprecedented 1,000 Percent escalation in
Prices Paid for diesel fuel, This upward Price spiral, which as
of vet exhibits no indication of reversion, has Proven
Particularly troublesome for fishermen who use significant
quantities of fuel. Adoption of sail-power technology has
recently been suggested as a was to relieve fuel dependence.
This Paper investigates the Projected Profitability of
operating sail-assisted commercial fishing vessels in the
Pacific Basin. Analysis focuses on the feasibility of Procuring
and operating two sizes of multiPurPose sail-assisted vessels
to fish in Hawaiian waters. For PurPoses of comparison,
investments in comparable size diesel-powered vessels are also
analyzed. For all four alternative vessels under study,
Projected costs and returns are calculated and Profitability
estimated. A sensitivity analysis of investment performance is
conducted using alternative assumptions about fuel Prices and
vessel acquisition costs.

Analysis of the financial results indicates that
investment in sail-assisted fishing boats is not econom.call
feasible given current fuel Prices, costs of borrowed capital
and vessel construction costs. A more attractive investment
alternative appears to be Purchasing used (and therefore less
expensive) diesel-Powered vessels. This holds true despite the
fact that diesel vessels generally incur 40 Percent higher
annual fuel expenses compared to sail-assisted boats.

Based on these findings, it appears that investment today
in a sail-assisted vessel similar to the Prototypes under study
is not financially Justified. However, with continued upward
fuel Price hikes, increased avaiilabilit of lower cost
sail-assisted vessels, and the Possibility of special
government sail-assist investment tax credits, this conclusion
could be altered. If so, wind-Power masy et be an important
energy source behind future fisheries development in the



The combination work boats of CaPtains Lane and Jesse
Briggs are Perhaps the best Known in this class: NORFOLK REBEL
and STEEL REBEL. The former is illustrated in figure 4. These
Tugantines(r) can serve as tu4 boats, salvage vessels and for
trawling and longlining in commercial fishing. The 2000 Pound
Payload SMALL IS BEAUTIFUL trimaran sailing PicKuP truck is a
fascinating concept. Other concepts appear in this category as



1. "Thev All Laughed When Cap'n Briggs Went Sailing," Coast
Watch, University of North Carolina Sea Grant, Feb.,1981. 1-2.

This is a light article giving the background on Lane
Briggs' sail-eauipped tug STEEL REBEL which first used
auxiliary sail in 1975. Naval architect Merritt Walter then
designed a sail-assisted tug for Captain Brisgs which could
double as a commercial fishing boat: NORFOLK REBEL. She is 51
feet long and was launched May 22, 1980. She carries 1200
square feet of sail including a foresail that can be used with
a retractable bowsprit. Main Power is from a 320 horsepower
diesel engine* In the first year of operating STEEL REBEL,
enough was saved on fuel to more than Pay for sails and
rigging* Capt. Briggs expects to use sails on NORFOLK REBEL 50%
of the timer saving about 40% fuel. The National Marine
Fisheries Service awarded a grant of $72,000 to rig the boat
with sail. The NMFS estimates that for trawlers about 57% of
overhead is spent on fuel. The average shrimPer burns one and
one-half gallons of fuel for each Pound of shrimp landed.

2. "Sail Power Will It Work?"; ibid. 3-4.

Discusses sail Power in general and refers to some of the
well-Known designs. Bill Hall has modified the design of a 50
foot ChesapeaKe Bay buSgee as a sail-assisted trawler. Bryan
Blake has modified two Fulcher sharpies which have small
engines and sails.

3. "Sailboats Built to Work (play! )" ibid. 5-6.

Discusses the sharpies 20 ft. TORTUGA and 30 ft.
SAKONNET which are commercial sailing fishing boats with small
auxiliary engines.

4. Capt. J.Briggs, "Sailing WorKboats Practical Propositions
Based on Experience with a Sailing Tug," Paper Presented at New
Orleans Work Boat Show, Januarr, 1980. 10 pp.

Tugantine(r) is a word coined to describe a sail-assisted
tug boat. The STEEL REBEL is 46 feet long and has a 225 SHP
engine with a cruising speed, light, of eight Knots. In 1975,
the addition of a simple square sail and Jib increased hull
speed 1.6 Knots. The most effective rig on this vessel is a
gaff-rigged schooner with souaresails. This combination gives
the most sail area with the lowest Possible mast height. When
towingS the sails do not 3dd much to the speed unless the
apparent wind is more than 50 degrees off the bow. This is due
to excessive leeway. A spinnaker is occasionally used in light
airs. On numerous occasions, towing speed has been increased by
20% and when running light by 30%. On a tow the craft was
making five Knots with engine alone. When sail was raised, boat
speed increased to six Knots in a 15 Knot wind. When runninS
light in an 18 to 22 Knot windy the boat made 5.5 Knots under


sail alone.

The NORFOLK REBEL was designed as a sailing tus boat with
engine assist and is a gaff-rigged souaresail schooner with
1400 square feet of sail. Fuel savings of 30-40% are expected.
Some of the advantages of using sail on workboats are: fuel
savings, less engine repair and maintenance due to operating at
lower RPM's, more Job satisfaction, come-home capability in the
event of engine failure.

5. B.Hardeny "A Tug With Sails is Christened bu Norfolk
Captain," Washington Post, June 24, 1980.B1&B3.

Describes the launching of Capt. Lane Briggs' tuS with
sails: NORFOLK REBEL. Some 17 articles have been written about
the two sail-assisted tugs, The Virginia Institute of Marine
Science estimates that up to six gallons of diesel fuel Per
hour can be saved. Among the advantages are a smoother ride in
rough water.

6, R.D*Gersh, "Sailing Tugboat is a First," St. Petersburg
Times, Mav 24, 1980. 4A.

Describes the Tuasntine(r) concept. The Virginia Institute
of Marine Science Plans to studs the vessel to detenine the
most efficient power-sail combinations under different

7. J.Waller, "Tugantine Best of Two Worlds--Tug, Sails,"
Soundings magazine, July, 1980. 36.

Describes the Tugantine(r) and the launching of the
NORFOLK REBEL. It is hoped to save as much as 1000 gallons of
fuel Per week while fishing under sail. The only ti.e the
engine is needed is to haul in the 10 to 15 mile longline. She
has a strong enough power plant for salvage and towinS. The
tugantine(r) has 10 tons of lead in the Keel for stability and
an 820 cubic foot insulated hold for fish or other cargo.

8. Merritt Walter, "TRADE ROVE:R" Rover MIriney Inc., 1651
Bayville St., Norfolk, VA 23503. 5 PP.

After having designed the NORFOLK REBEL, a 52 foot sailing
tusy naval architect Merritt Walter received a number of
enouiries about various types of sailing working vessels. He
has added the TRADE ROVER as a stock freighter to his Plans.
She is 57 feet long, displaces 66470 lbss. has a draft of 5 ft.
6 in. and carries 1285 square feet of sail on a gaff topsail
schooner rig. The cargo hold is 20 feet by her bean..

9. J.Dorsey, "Winds Blowint in His Favor in Sail Study,"
Norfolk Ledger-Star, May 24, 1979.

Merritt WalterE NA is quoted as saying that naval
architects hired to studs the modern use of sail for today's
cargo vessels should come down from the rigging. "They're


studying it. We're already doing it. He advocates the smaller
cargo vessels up to the 1000 ton, 200 foot class for small Mom
and PoP organizations.

10. John W. Shortall III, "The Wind-Powered Work Boat...'S.all
is Beautiful' SIBr" Multihulls magazine, Jan./Feb., 1979.

Designed by Jim Brown and Dick Newick and backed by Phil
Weld with the Gougeon Bros. and Dave Dana as consultants, SIB
is a 31 foot trimaran sailing freighter/water-borne Pickup
truck with a cargo capacity of 2000 Pounds, She uses two
unstaYed masts with wishbone boom on the after mast and
LJungstrom rig on the fore mast. She is designed as a day
sailer for 10 to 12 Passengers or enual capacity in freight and
has Particular aPPlication to Third World countries. She uses
the Constant Camber (tm) cold moulded method of construction.

11. John WU Shortall III, "Sailing Cargo Carrier CHANGEO, A
Unioue Design for Pleasure and Profit," Cruising World
masaziner March, 1972* 59-61.

Described is the design of a 5 ton cargo capacitys
cutter-ri~ded sailinS freighter with accommodations for a
cruising couple Plus one berth for crew. Cargo is contained in
two holds which may be used for People and/or for freiSht. The
craft is a shoal drafty centerboard type whose design was
modelled after the PRESTO type of Commodore Munro. She is 42
feet long and has moveable internal ballast to compensate for
various cargo loadings and the light ship condition.

12, Jim Brown, "Knock on Wood Part I: Plight of the Canoe
People," Woodenboat magazine, May/June, 1981. 78-86.

The author comments on sailing canoes and their Probable
demise on Lake Victoria, the Phillipines, Central America?
Kenya and the Pacific. Also discussed are dhows of the Indian

13. Jim Brown, "Knock on Wood Part II The Lam.inated Dugout
Caper," ibid, July/August, 1981. 50-57*

SMALL IS BEAUTIFUL IS described as is the Constant Camber
(ti) method of cold moulding hulls Particularly suited for
third world countries. This is a low technology, manufactured
craft with simple and reliable components.

14, Jim Brown, "Knock on Wood -- Part, III Wind Wagons of the
Future," ibid. Sept./Oct., 1981. 66-73.

The author emphasizes the ability of trim.arans to move
under sail efficiently and rapidly and discusses designs from
31 to 52 feet in length overall. He describes the application
of variable Pitch, full-featherinS Propellers and motor sailing
Plus a special down-wind sail termed the worKinS cargo chute
designed as a sail for working vessels.


15. "Can Sail Help Save an Island Resource?" National Fisherman
YearbooK, 1981. 130-134.

Maine has 1200 wooded islands with 269Y512 forested acres
with 2.2 billion board feet of saun lumber. The annual
continuous growth amounts to 135,000 cords of wood. The forests
are not being maintained and represent a fire hazard. A 28 foot
wooden sailing barge has been designed to facilitate
small-scale foresting and losing. Due to unreal conservation
restrictions, firewood now has to be delivered by ship to the
Maine islands. It is transported re-ularli by the LAURA B., a
Tancook whaler built at the Bath Marine Museum's
APPrenticeshoP. Delivered Price of firewood is $135 Per cord.



For some years, marine economists have attempted to assess
the practicality of commercial sailing vessels. The major
inhibiting factor appears to be that the current high interest
rates make it unlikely that any kind of new vessel can be
Purchased or built whether with or without sails. One author
has mentioned that even if the economics of sailing shiPs
appeared favorable vis-a-vis new motor vessels, this Probabli
would not be so if the Price of building a new sailing ship or
fishing vessel were compared against that of a buying a used
one. See various abstracts in the commercial fishing section as
well for economic analyses Pertinent to that field.



1. G. Mearns, "The Large Sailing Ship-Dinosaur or Development,"
SymPosium on Wind Propulsion of Commercial ShiPs, The Royal
Institution of Naval Architects, London, 1980. 37-50.

This PaPer reviews the development of the large sailing
ship from 1824 to 1911 and concludes that even by the midpoint
of that Periods the large sailing ship could not be Justified
on commercial grounds. Problems of performance and factors
affecting the Performance are discussed. Finally, it is
suggested that if fuel economy is the Primary objective, there
are a number of alternative strategies which can be adopted by
shipowners and shippers which will be more effective than the
use of wind Power alone. See this article abstracted in more
detail under the General Survey categoryv

2. E.P.Crowdyu "The Economics of Sail," ibid, 51-66.

The annual cost of Propulsion as a function of ship's
speed is examined, and fundamental economic relationships
between Propulsion cost, total cost and revenue earning
Potential of merchant ships is deduced. The economic
attractiveness of sail is shown to be totally dependent on the
cost of alternative means of Propulsion. Coal-fired and nuclear
comparisons are given. The Paper examines the factors which
should influence the installed Power of the mechanical
ProPulsion equipment, and its optimum output at sea in varying
wind conditions. The paper concludes with some observations on
the relative merits of various tyPes of wind-Powered Propulsion

3. RoC.TRainey, "The Wind Turbine Ship," ibid. 97-116.

The author analyzes the Potential of a vertical-axis wind
turbine on a 4,000 ton Passenger/cargo ship on the UK-Cape Town
and Care Town-Ascension routes. Based on official discount
rates and fuel price Projections, the Payback Period comes out
as 12-22 years on the former route and 5-7 years on the latter.
These figures give encouragement for future development of the

4 A.D.Couper, "An Evaluation of Commercial Sail," Comii.ercial
Sail Symposium, London, 1980. 6-77.

This is abstracted in detail under the General Survey

5. P.JJones, "Energy Conservation Perspectives," ibid. 97-111.

Oil Prices are expected to double by the year 2000.
Alternative sources of energy are not being developed
sufficiently ouicklyv cheaply and acceptably as set to taKe the
Place of oil. Energy PrinciPles are discussed. A man working at
a pump can work at the rate of about 30 watts; cranking he can


achieve 60 watts, and a cyclist can do spurts of 300 watts.
Watermills and windmills attained Powers of 4000 to 6000 watts.
Energy conservation and Pricing are covered.

6. J.Wellicome, "A Broad Appraisal of the Economic and
Technical Reauisites for a Wind Driven Mechant Vessely" The
Future of Commercial Sail, The Royal Institution of Naval
Architects, 1975. 57-80.

The current high level of bunKer fuel Prces and the
Prospect of dwindling oil supplies in the comparatively near
future may well lead to a reappraisal of the means of
propulsion used by commercial ships. If oil fuel becomes
uneconomic, the foreseeable alternatives are nuclear Power or a
return to sail. One could claim that the future of nuclear
Power is in doubt from long term Pollution and safety
considerations. It is also true for technical reasons that
nuclear Power is suited for large or fast ships requiring 30000
SHP upwards. Thus, there may well be grounds for considering a
return to sail, at least for the transportation of those
commodities which do not command a high freight rate. Square
and fore-and-aft riged vessels could be reintroduced along the
lines of those used at the turn of the century, but with design
changes to use auxiliary Power for sail handling. A number of
alternative means of achieving wind propulsion have emerged
which suggest the Possibility of a radically different form of
wind propulsion.

7. A.S.Miles, "The Economics of Commercial Sailv" ibid. 81-88.

The commercial sailing vessel was ousted by the Powered
ship as a result of a combination of technology and cheap
fossile fuel. This paper investigates the economics of
operating two hypothetical sailing vessels in co.metition with
Powered ships to determine comparative economic performances.
Future costs and comparisons are assessed. The largest vessel
ever to use sail Power was the GREAT EASTERN of 28,000 DWT,
although they were rarely over 4,000 DWUT The inference is that
even in the mid-nineteenth centre, the capability existed to
build and sail pure sailing vessels considerably larger than
the largest sailing vessels that were then in service.

8. L.Bergeson et cl, "Wind Propulsion for Ships of the American
Merchant Mariner" Wind Ship Development Corp., March, 1981.

See the abstract under the General category for more
information. Sections IV and V of this comprehensive report
deal with various of the Parameters and optimizations by RFR:
Required Freight Rate.

9. J.B.Uoodward et al, "Feasibility of Sailing Ships for the
American Merchant Marine," The University of Michigan,
February, 1975.

See the abstract under the General category. Economical
analyses are contained in Section VII, Pages 52 to 77,


10. B.P*BrownJry "An Evaluation of a Potential Use of Sail
Power in the Commercial Shrimp Fishers of Texas," M.S. Thesis,
Texas A&M University, August, 1976.

The fuel intensive Texas shrimping industry is
experiencing economic difficulties Partially due to the rising
cost of fuel. This thesis invesigates the economic feasibility
of using the wind as an alternative source of Propulsion.
Comparisons are calculated between a conventional 72 foot
steel, 340 hP diesel-Powered shrimper Pulling two 36 foot nets
and a hypothetical sailing shrimper with a smaller engine. The
sailing vessel has a 40% lower annual fuel consumption but its
catch is estimated at to be only 68 to 72% of the powered
vessel. The sailing shrimPer shows a Profit with shrimP prices
above $2.92 Per Pound. Higher fuel Prices favor the sailing
model, and higher catch Prices favor the powered vessel,

11. W+L.Warner, "Updating an Ancient Art," Society of Naval
Architects and Marine Engineers STAR Symposium, San Francisco,
25 May, 1977.

The economics of motor ships vs. sailing vessels are
compared. Analyzed are the effects of inflation on reQuired
freight rate and annual transportation costs.

12. "A Transportation Need Studs in the Trust Territories of
the Pacific Islands with Emphasis on the Potential for
Sail-Assisted Technology," U.S.Iept. of the Interior, 1981.

Described is the Political climate of the Marshally TruKY
Palau, Pogape and other Pacific islands which maKe up the Trust
Territories. Vessel operating costs are given. The Pacific
islands are totally dependent on the adequacy and regularity of
inter-island surface transportation. This is comPletely
dependent on uncertain supplies of increasingly exPensive
imported fuel. Recent developments in sail-assisted technology
offer the Potential for alleviating the dependence on imported
fuel for surface transportation, thereby improving the
capability for regular supply schedules to the various islands.

13. C. Mudie, "Reducing the Running Costs at Sea," Journal of
Navigation, May, 1977. 172-180.

The author Presents a number of wais to reduce the running
costs of existing ships by maKing use of Power sources freely
available. These considerations are addressed briefly: 1. ocean
currents. 2. buoyancy. 3. gravity. 4. magetisr,. 4. solar power.
6. wave Power. 7, wind Power. The latter is discussed in some
detail with thrusters reviewed: bermuda sail rig, Flettner
rotor, multiple serofoils, windmill and ducted fan.

14. "Capital Report: Matsunag- Enthusiastic Over Commrercial
Ship Sail Power," Sea Technology, October, 1980.

U.S.Senator, S.M. Matsunaga (D- Hawaii) is enthusiastic.


about encouraging sail-assisted technology* He chaired a
hearing of the committee on energy and natural resources on
August 26, 1980 on sail-assisted technology for the Pacific
Trust Territories. A bill he has introduced, S.22929 would
authorize a studs of sail-assisted technology. One Possiblitv
is an energy tax credit for use of wind Power on the high seas
which is enual to the tax credit for the use of wind Power on

15. M.Stuttafords "A Return to Saily" South African Yachtini~
September, 1975.

A detailed presentation is given of DYNASHIP with a
Personal Perspective on its conceiver and designer: Wilheli.
Proelss. Economic incentives are appraised. There are lower
interest rates for less expensive vessels and depreciation
would be extended over 20 sears instead of 12. Insurance
Premiums should be lower due to lessened fire hazard.



Weights and types of sail materials are discussed in more
than one abstract. Solar Power is treated. A Particularly
noteworthy Paper is that summarized in part in Abstract No.10
by P.D.Priebe. Mr. Priebe is to speak in October in San
Francisco on his latest work on rationalized sails using high
lift technology. His examination of historical vessels through
modern conceptions and comments on historical sailing ship
technology are well worth examining.




1. A. Farrar, "The Development of Sailcloth for Commercial
Vessels Symposium on Wind ProPulsion of Commercial Ships,
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects, 1980. 133-146.

The author reviews the history of sail materials claiming
that the earliest record of sail material is of the Phoenicians
about 500 B.C. obtaining their flax sail cloth from the
Eg~ytians. He states that the Egyptians are believed to have
used woven Papyrus strips as early as 3,000 B.C. Unfortunately,
he ignores the early Chinese use of fibres for sails. A number
of materials are discussed and their properties compared.
Ageing and other deteriorating factors are considered and
testing apparati are illustrated and described. Test data are
given for: a. flax at 26 oz./sovyd. (20.6 oz. U.S.); b.
Egyptian cotton at 27 oz./sG.yd.(21.4 oz. U.S.); c, Tervlene
(dacron) 21 oz,/se.vd. (16.6 oz, U.S.; d. Terylene 21.5
oz./sGayd. (17 oz. U.S.); e. Polypropylene; f. glass cloth,
teflon coated 25 oz./so.yd. (19.8 oz. U.S.). In the ensuing
discussion some other materials were mentioned such as
multi-laminates using mylar and Kevlar(r) and nylon for

2. C.C.Herbert, "The Design Challenge of the Wind Powered
Shipr" ibid. 199-214.

This Paper presents an attempt to sketch out the sort of
background against which wind-powered ships will have to be
designed both from the point of view of meeting sensible
economic targets and employing established Physical
principles. It is still a sadly sKetchy and innacurate system
and it draws very largely on the work of others. Nevertheless,
it may serve to -define what is possible, and what is
impossible and to direct the activities of the very
considerable range of talents currently looKing into wind Power
towards the most Promising areas of research and investigation.
Sectons deal with economics, wind conditions and the technology
of wind power. These are drawn together to define the envelope
of characteristics in particular speed and cost within
which a viable wind Powered ship design should lief with some
indication of how these might be met.

Wind speed profiles are Plotted, and a suggested standard
wind velocity curve and equation are advanced, Variation in
wind direction is shown for the Atlantic.

Three main classes of propulsion are compared and
evaluated: a, fixed aerofoils including sails and wing sails;
b. Flettner rotors as a sub-class of a+; c. windmill ships
Using rotors. Motor sailing is discussed,

3. R.M.,illouihby and E.C.B.Corlett, "Design Problems of a
Commercial Sailing Ship," ibid. 215-231.


Principles of square rig design are discussed and
illustrated, and the four hold bulK carrier SAILINER is
described in considerable detail. The latter is a 137 m. (449
ft.) long auxiliary five masted baraue with square sails and a
3900 BHP main engine. Sail area is 6200 so.m. (66736 so.ft.),
and DWT maximum is 16,600 tons.

4. C.T.Nance, "The Role of the Engineer in the Windship
Revolution," Commercial Sail Proceedings of a SymPosium,
Dept. of Industry, London, 1980. 42-92.

This is an in-depth appraisal of wind Propulsion systems
among other topics. Covered are: soft sail rigs such as square,
schooner, short-haul, and Ventian rigs; exotic systems as!
rigid and semi-rigid sails, Flettner rotor and Kites; and the
wind turbine. The need for a test facility is expressed.
Included are a Slossary of terms and 16 illustrations. An
extensive discussion follows.

5. L.Bergeson et al, "Ship Synthesis, Parametric Study,
Analysis of Opportunities for Sail Propulsion, and Conceptual
Designr" Wind Propulsion for Ships of the American Merchant
Marine, Wind Ship Development Corp., 1981. Sections IV, V, VI
and VII.

Weight and stability estimates are included as well as
engine use strategy, hull form optimization, Parametric
analysis of 2000, 20,000 and 38,000 CDWT vessels, Parametric
design optimization of wing sail rig for 20,000 CDWT ships,
weight and cost sensitivity, Port Parameters, and conceptual

6. "Auxiliaru Sail Rig Passes Sea Tests on Cargo ShiP,"
Maritime Reporter/Engineering News, October 1i 1981.

An auxiliary sailing rig installed on a 3,000 DWT cargo
ship successfully completed sea trials. The rig was developed
by the Wind Ship Development Corp. of Norwall, Mass. The riS is
a triangular Dacron sail of 3,000 square feet attached to a 100
foot unstated, rotating mast for furling. Mast and boom weigh
over 40 tons. The sail was Produced bu Hood SailmaKers of
Marblehead Mass. and ws specifically desiSned, woven and
finished for this rig. The fabric is in excess of 20 ounce
sailcloth with a minimum of five years useful life. Sail clews
were tested to withstand 30 to 35 tons.

7. T.Sullivan, "Hood MaKes a Sail for a 250 ft. FreiShterv"
National Fisherman, Nov., 1981. p.14.

On August 24th, tests were completed n a sail system
designed and built by Hood in conjunction with Lloyd Bergeson,
President of Wind Ship Development Corp. ThKe sail is over 100
ft. tall.

8. C.Mudie, "The Practicability of Commercial Sail. VIII -o Some
Reflections on the OPtimal Use of Wind Power," The Royal


Institution of Navigation, London. Journal of Navi~ation? May,
1977. 203-206.

Mentioned here are applications of new developments in
aerodynamics, sail development and materials. A factor which
may be ignored is that there is a difference in building new
sailing ships in direct economic competition with new motor
ships and in building them in competition with a surplus suPPly
of the latter.

9. J.Frye, "Will Boats Run on Solar Power in Far Future?",
National Fisherman, ca. Jan.,1982. P.95,

Discussed is the Potential use of solar collectors and
transducers for fishing craft. The article is essentially a
review of the book: "A Golden Thread," by K.Butti and
J.Perlin, Van Nostrand, New York.

10. P.D.Priebe, "The Evolution of Commercial Sailing Ship
Technology," Ancient Interface XI, The Aero- Hydronautics of
'Sailing, SNAME and AIAA, 1981.

The evolution of American sailing ships is discussed with
Kev individual contributions to their development. Mentioned is
the inadequate technology carryover into current developments.
A news Powerful sail system is described with Potential
application to modern, large bulk cargo vessels. It was Judged
not to be suitable for commercial semi-submerged vessel

In the mid-19th century, designers of commercial sailing
vessels utilized a technologS which was very nearly optimum
within the limits of the PurPose of the vessels and the
building materials available. No formal theory or mathematics
could be applied, \so the Knowledge could not be formalized.
Consequently, very highly developed sailing ship technology was
Partially lost with the death of the designers. In the earls
20th century, builders were forced into ship design errors
which would otherwise not have occurred. The historically very
short glut of cheap energy Prevented anv serious design of
commercial sail for over half a century.

Meanwhile leapfrog or step function evolution has
occurred in aerodynamics, one of the four maJor sailing ship
disciplines. Since sailing ships were dead they did not
Participate in this accelerated evolution. Constructive
spillover from sport sailing into commercial sailing has been
near absolute zero with racing rating rules having the effect
of preventing radical progress. Thus, the weakened effort at
aPplication of airplane aerodynamics to sailing, either sport
or commercial, has so far been largely misdirected. The author
tries to show where we may splice in some advanced technology
to the broken sailing shi tradition.

Discussed are: slave travel vessels revenue cutters? small
American schooners, large merchant vessels, barouentines,


brigantines and large multi-masted schooners. DYnaship is
covered in some detail as is the Woodward report and the
Bergstrom 1981 reports. Leadership has shifted to the Japanese
with their small tanker using sail as auxiliary Power.

The author proceeds to describe his development of
"rationalized" sails using high lift technology developed by
NACA/NASA during the last 50 years, Polars are compared to
those in the Woodward, Bergeson and DunashiP reports.

The following Parameters are advanced for commercial sail
design: a. maximum or useable lift coefficient of sail system;
b. equivalent Parasitic drag coefficient; c. friction drag
coefficient of wetted hull surface; d. effective aspect ratio
of sail system which controls aerodynamically-induced drag; e.
wave drag induced by hull; f. leeway drag corresponding to
aspect ratio of hull draft to length ratio; g. aerodynamic
drag of ship's hull.

A table is shown of 11 sailing vessels from historical
through modern conceptions including: estimated lift
coefficients, estimated sail system drag coefficients,
estimated effective aspect ratio and drag coefficients sail
area dimensions, length, displacement, an sail area to weight
ratio. The studs concludes with an overall assessment and
stating that very good hull forms were developed in the 19th
century, but newly developed sails must still be optimized.

11. J.Fryer "Sun-Driven Sloop Lends Concept to Small Work
Boats," National Fisherman, Aug., 1981. P.88.

An 18 foot sailboat has been developed with a solar
powered auxiliary drive. Two 105 amp., deep-discharge batteries
are mounted in the Keel. The batteries are charged from two
Photovoltaic solar collectors recessed under plastic shields in
the cocKPit seats. A DC motor provides the thrust, in forward
or reverse. The 2000 lb. hull may be run for two hours at four
knots or eight hours at low speed. By installing two additional
batteries, range increases to six hours at four Knots, 24 at
low speed. Price, weight and Performance data are given for
small work and other boats.



Figure 2 illustrates eight types of thrusters to collect
wind energY and convert it to useful propulsive thrust ranging
from conventional soft sails to rotors. Figure 3 shows a
schematic sketch of a hard wing sail with slot and flap as
conceived bu the Windship Development Corporation. Not covered
in Figure 2 is the Kite sail concept discussed in Abstract

There is considerable interest in Magnus effect rotors
such as the well-Known Flettner rotor, and research is
Proceeding in England, France and the U.S.S.R. It is
unfortunate that details have not been Published on the French
experiments with rotors. It seems abundantly clear that more
research on these and other potential advanced thrusters is
needed* Even some modest static experiments could provide a
solid basis for full-scale tests on commercial craft. Rotors
are appealing for retrofit of commercial fishing craft, as the
French have apparently recognized.

Concerning more-or-less conventional sail rigs, there is a
considerable difference of opinion as to whether fore-and-aft
or square sails are the way to go for large vessels, Just as
for small crafty there are those who advocate the inefficient,
but low heeling moment gaff rigs against the high pointing
Bermudian sail Plans. There is also controversy concerning the
merits of automated furling gear for the smaller vessels vs.
simple, mechanical ways of sheeting, reefing and dropping
sails. The latter school wants simplicity, minimum deck clutter
and maximum reliability* They complain of the icing problems of
complicated gears as well. Proponents of the former school can
point to minimum crew sizes larger sail areas which can be
handled Per crew member and ease of reefing and furling.



1. R.C.T.Rainey, "The Wind Turbine Ship." Sumposium on Wind
Propulsion of Commercial Ships, The Royal Institution of Naval
Architects 1980. 97-116.

The appeal of the wind turbine for ship propulsion is that
it provides an efficient source of Power for voyages in any
direction to the wind and does not require a large crew. This
Paper brings together the various propulsion schemes with and
without a marine propeller, that have been suggested over the
years, and presents a unified theory of the subject. The use of
a wind turbine worKing with an auxiliary diesel is analysed
with reference to the fuel saving that can accrue.

The analysis is used to make a rational appraisal of the
Potential of a vertical-axis wind turbine for saving fuel on a
4000 ton Passenger/cargo ship on the UK-Cape Town and Cape
Town-Ascension Routes. On the basis of official discount rates
and fuel price projections, the Payback Period comes out as
12-22 years on the former route an 5-7 years on the latter.
These figures give encouragement for future development of the

2. G.WSchaefer and K. Allsopp, "Kite-Sails for Wind-Assisted
Ship Propulsion." ibid, 117-132.

This paper compares Kites and sails as power generators
for ship propulsion, either as additional to motorised
Propulsion or as the sole Propulsive power.. Several papers
about sail-assisted propulsion are presented to this Symposiums
but the case for commercial sail is not obvious, for
engineering and financial reasons. If this is so, then there is
an even larger credibility gaP to be overcome if Kite-sails are
to be considered seriously. Additional incredibility is created
by the common Prejudice that Kites are very difficult objects
to launch and controls that they fly largely downwind and so
would be of little general user and that they are too small.

However, there are very attractive advantages if such
objects can be made and controlled. This Paper Quantifies the
expected advantages; (i) higher vessel speeds, of the order of
35%, due to considerable windspeed increase with altitude in
the lower 250m (820 ft.)i (ii) more flexibility of vessel
course due to the ability to choose wind directions other than
those at deck level, offered by windveer; (iii) much increased
vessel stability and safety, due to traction forces being
attached at deck level, with almost no overturning moment or
heeling; (iv) ease of attachment to vessels, including large
existing fleets; (v) the need for little deck space compared to

These potential advantages have provided the stimulus for
the Ecological Physics Research Group to enter upon a research
and development Program for Kite-sails. To overcome the


credibility Napy the basics of a science of Kite serodynamics
are Presented, together with Performance calculations for a
general Kite-ship and a corresponding sailing-shi-. Finally,
the Present state of development of a suitable Kite-sail is
discussed. The system deserves more attention, Primarily
because of the obvious advantages.

3. N.Boser "Windmills- Propulsion for a Hydrofoil Trimaran,"
ibid. 147-158.

The design of a windmill for the Propulsion of a 5 m,(16.4
ft.) trimaran is described. A method is Presented for the
calculation of the Performance of windmills. This method has
been adapted from screw vortex theory and aPPlied to the
special case of a windmill mounted as a ProPulsive device on a
moving vehicle. A study is made usinS this theory, to ascertain
the optimum geometry for the windmill. Considerations include
windmill solidity, blade sections and Pitch/diameter settings.
Performance curves are Presented for the windmill under
consideration. Finally, a comparison is made between the
Predicted Performance of the windmill when applied to the
trimaran and the Performance realized when the boat operates
using cloth sails. The last study Provides a means of
asssessing the value of a windmill against the well Proven
success of cloth sails. The theory and arguments used in this
Paper are believed to be applicable to larger installations
which may be considered for the Propulsion of commercial ships.

4. WUt..SBradbury, "An Investigation of Graduated Trim for an
Aerofoil Rigy" ibid. 159-172.

The advantages of symetric aerofoil sails for wind
Propulsion of large ships are discussed. Practical
realizations of an aerofoil rit and associated Problems are
considered. The Proposed aerofoil shiP, investigated in this
apaer, is described. A simple two dimensional analysis usinS a
Potential flow representation of wind flow through an aeerofoil
rig is discussed. This analysis is used to Produce various
arrays of graduated sail trSi angles. Uind tunnel tests of a
model aerofoil ship are described. Sail force coefficients are
obtained for various graduated and Parallel trims. A simple
Performance model is derived and used for comParative analysis
of wind tunnel data.

5. C.C.Herberty "The Design Challenge of the Wind Powered Ship,
" ibid. 199-214.

Advanced thrusters are considered in this PaPer on P~aes
205 and 206. Aerofoils are mentioned with lift/dram ratios
aproschinS 10 and capable of maintaining this efficiency in
apparent winds between 5 and 40 Knots. Hydrofoils are

6. E.W.H.Gifford, "Improvement of Sailing Technioues in
Tropical Countries," ibid. 241-247.


For the Past several years the author has been develoPing
surf beach fishing boats, Primarily of the double-hulled forn
catamarana) for use in Uest Africa and the Indian Ocean. Due to
the increasing Price of diesel fuels in 1978 a sailing rig was
introduced on one. This has a standing lufsail on a biPod mast.
The rim has been further developed. Sprit sail and lateen rig
are also mentioned.

7, Various, "Cormercial Sail Proceedings of a Synmposium,"
Dept. of Industry, London, 1980. 171-185.

Several cormirents on the Papers of this syn.posiur, are here
assembled. Air Comnodore Nance re.arKs that there were two
Flettner rotor ships: the converted BUCKAU (later renan.ed the
BADEN-BADEN) and the specially designed and built successor:
BARBARA. He cites the following limi.itations! a. it cannot
Proceed head to wind; b. its windage when shut down is far
hither than a wind turbine with stowed or feathered blades; c.
downwind Perforriance is not good whereas the wind turbine with
it Probable ability to exceed wind speed with relatively small
inputs of engine Power to the wind turbines sees to have high
Promise on this Point of sailing; d. its efficiency in Practise
ray not be as high as theory suggests. Cited are reports fro.
NASA and the University of Oregon. Prof. Schaefer con.m.ents on
work on Kite sails. Mr. Uynne discusses the Dynaship rig. Capt.
Azad discusses four systems he feels are worth testing: a. the
Dynaship; b. the fore and aft rig; c. the louvre sail; d. the
Magnus drive (Flettner rotor). The University of Hamburg has
loaned the original DynashiP model to the LiverPool Polytechnic
for further testing? and it can be borrowed for the cost of
freight and insurance.

8. L.Berseson et alc, "Uind Propulsion for Ships of the Am.ericsn
Merchant Mariner" UindshiP Development Corp., 1981. Sect, II.

There is an excellent discussion with illustrations of
eight rim alternatives and technical evaluation of these: a,
stayed fore and aft ri; b. unstated cat rigi c. Princeton
sailuinS; d. square rig; e, wing sail; f. Flettner rotor; 9.
horizontal axis wind turbine; h. vertical axis wind turbine.
Rotors and turbines were ruled out because of insufficient
experimental data available at this tire. A flapped winS sail
emerged as the best choice when compared to all others, 33
references are included.

9. J.B.Uoodward et al, "Feasiblitw of Sailins Ships for the
American Merchant Marine," University of Michigan Report No.
168, 1975. Appendix II; "Some Conmments on Wind-Propulsion
Devices Other than Sails." 96-98.

Brief rearKs are included on the Possibility of using
Flettner rotors, windmill-electric Propulsion with screw
ProPeller and wing-sails. All were Judged to have too man
negative features to be worth considering at that time.


10. H.S.Noel, "French Fishing Industry is Actively Developing
New Boats," National Fisherman, February, 1982.

French experiments with the Flettner rotor to Power
fishing vessels are mentioned. Rotor calculations show large
Power economies within a range of wind strengths. But in more
than 35 Knots of windy the thrust turns into resistance. At 30
Knots of windy the propulsive effort is equivalent to 344 hp
for a power input of only 7 hp to rotate the cylinder. At 37
Knots of wind speed, equivalent thrust is minus 42 hp.

11. J.Clemnns, "Eight is Enough," Motor Boating & Sailing
magazine, March, 1982. p.12.

Discussed and illustrated is YOGHURTY an eisht-iasted
catamaran from Copenhagen. The twin hulls are 40 foot steel
pipes braced by steel beams. Both hull pipes have four 50 foot
revolving masts, each with a sail area of 215 square feet. The
designer claims this sail plan Provides 20% more Propulsion
than conventional sails of the same area.

See also abstracts under: Technological Developments.

12. T.C.Uarner, "Sail Power: A Cautious Appraisal," Ship & Boat
International, Dec., 1981. 9-1.

The author discusses in some detail traditional sails and
compares the sloop with the wing sail and the .manus effect
rotor. Older workboats had sail Plans concentrating driving
Power in the main sail with Jibs used for balance. Aerodynamics
has shown Jibs to be more effective than after sails, so
overlapping Jibs with smaller mains are used on present-day
yachts. Effectiveness increases with aspect ratio (span soured
divided by area), but there is little advantage in using an
aspect ratio of more than 4.0. Rigging must not obstruct deck
areas. A typical sloop side force coefficient is about 1.3. The
wing sail offers practical advantages. A side force coefficient
up to 2.2 nma be obtained. Use of a leading-edge slot and a
full span flap allows aerodynamic force to be varied to suit
conditions, thus minimizing the reefing problem. Changing tacK
is simplified, and deck area is essentially free. Magnus effect
rotors may achieve side force coefficients of 9 or 10 and have
been successfully employed. It has several advantages: smaller
sail area for a given driving power, smaller demand on the hull
for Power to carry sail and simple reversal of thrust direction
by drive motor reversing fear. It is Possible to conceive of a
wind generator battery charter being used to supply Power for
the motor drive. Included are tables of driving power for
various vessel types and power to carry sail as well as plots
of sail area to wetted surface area as a function of length to
beam ratio, length and tyPe of Keel. The author is not very
optimistic about the Possibility of a return to wind Propulsion
in the foreseeable future.



Since speed of any sailing vessel is a function of angle
to the wind, wind strength and hull and rig characteristics,
speed Prediction is no simple matter. Fortunately, the reads
availability of computers has made this tedious iterative
Process considerably easier and computer Programs for such
have been PrePared in various Parts of the world* Sailing
vessels are subject to the vagaries of the wind strength and
direction, so wind routing has become important to all such, A
common criterion for sail-assisted vessels is that the engine
will always be turning the Propeller(s) both to minimize
Propeller drag and to guarantee a constant service speed. Thus,
it becomes important to the economics to be able to forecast,
with some measure of accuracy, the geographical locations of
the wind strength and direction at any time of year* Mr.Mays is
a specialist in this field, and his Paper is a fine Piece of

While naval architects and those concerned with the
science of sailing are reasonably confident of being able to
Predict sailing vessel Performance, and much work has been done
on Predicting Power boat and ship Performance, it is not so
clear that Performance under Power and sail motorsailing -
can be Predicted accurately~ If the engine is operated while
sailing, apparent wind velocity is increased giving more
thrust, but apparent wind angle is changed as well. If that
angle (of attack ) becomes too small with respect to the sail,
the sail will give rise to more resistance than thrust
generated and should be lowered. If at an optimum attack angle,
the resulting speed is often more than the algebraic su; of the
speed under engine' alone and the speed under sail alone.
Abstract No.9 relates some recent German motor sailing
experiments but without analyzing them.

Similarly, while it is now not too difficult to Predict
the speed of a sailing craft under sail, it is not at all easy
to Predict such for a retrofitted Power vessel. Speed
Predictions for the addition of sails to conventional motorized
fishing vessels are only very approximate at best.



1. W.JHood, "Using Wind Reliable Routes for Bulk Cargo
Transport," SymPosium on Wind Propulsion of Commercial Ships,
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects, 1980. 17-28.

Results of analyses of routes, distances and speeds for
the Capetown to Sydney run are given. A Possible route around
Antarctica is advanced. Frank MacLear commented on high shock
loads Produced by Jibing.

2. J.E.AtKins and D.J.Paintin~v "U'ind Propulsion of Ships -
Climatological Factors," ibid. 67-76.

A very large amount of data on surface wind over the
oceans has accrued from the weather observations made from
ships on Passage over more than a century. Traditionally these
data have been summarized diagrammatically for the benefit of
the mariner in Publications such as marine climatological
atlases and routing charts* (Pilot Charts) The variations of
wind climate over the oceans of the world are described in
general terms with illustrations.

Such diagrammatic Presentations are useful, indeed
essentials for an initial aFFraisal of any proJect involving
sailing vessels. Sooner or later, though, the Practicalities
and economics must be assessed by close numerical analyses of
the geograPhical and temporal variations of wind. Such analyses
are facilitated by existing computer archives of the marine
observations. Appropriate Proaramming needs, detailed Knowledge
of the relevant operational and design characteristics-
Knowledge, for example of the optimum wind speed range for
sailing, as to how close to the wind the vessel can sail.

Frank MacLear commented that in addition to velocity and
direction, we are also interested in air temperature. The
colder the air the denser and hence the faster sailing vessels
can go.

3. J.H.Mays, "Sailing Ship Weather Routing," ibid. 77-96.

The present status of sailing ship weather routinS is
discussed. Although a sailing ship's Performance can be
reasonably well specified by the wind and wave field, this
information is not sufficient to Plan and execute a Passage
over a body of water with least cost or time. The author takes,
as given, a sailinS ship speed Polar and statistical
climatological weather data for the North Atlantic Ocean to
generate an array of feasible voyages between New York and the
English Channel. The technique of dynamic Programming is used
to determine the optimal Passage as specified by an objective
function embodying criteria such as time and fuel consumed.
Optimal Passages are solved using a Monte Carlo simulation of
the weather expected en route. Comparisons of performance and
routes across the Atlantic in different seasons are made to


great circle routes and among different choices of minimum ship
speed. 23 references are given to this excellent Paper.

The discussions included a ouers about ice forecasting and
Frank MacLear disputing the use of mathematical modelling and
Pilot Chart data for this case. O.LJunstroem discussed an early
Swedish Project to study a 2000 ton motor sailing freight ship.

4. P.Schenzle, "Standardised SPeed Prediction for Wind
Propelled Merchant Ships," ibid. 173-188.

The prediction of weather-dependent ship speed under sails
(speed diagram) is based on wind tunnel and towing tanK test
results. For this deterministic Prediction of the equilibrium
of drag and cross forces as well as of yawing and heeling
moments has to be established, including forces due to hull
roughness, seaway and helm adjustment. Under stronger wind
conditions, heeling angle and rig loading must be limited, if
necessary by reefing or feathering the sails, which means not
only reducing the area but also influencing significantly the
aerodynamic Performance of the wind ProPulsion system. Based on
assumed criteria for the employment of an auxiliary drive in
cases of low speed undr sail, auxiliary speed and Power can be

In order to Provide statistical information for service
considerations, it is common Practise to simulate voyages using
deterministic speed predictions and real weather data and to
evaluate a treat number of simulations statistically. Here it
is suggested to apply statistical methods to weather data in
order to evaluate a standardized statistical environmental model
uith a limited number of Parameters. A statistical speed
Prediction based on the standard environmental model appears
especially suitable for comaring alternative wind Propulsion
systems. Examples comparing deterministic as well as
statistical speed predictions for some of the Proposed systems
are Presented.

M. SEunders commented with retard to motor sailing as did
A.R.Claughton. The latter states that at Southampton they are
in the Process of extending their sailing ship Performance
Prediction program to include turbine ship operation and hence
motor sailing.

5. C.C.Herberty "The Design Challenne of the Wind Powered
Ship," ibid. 199-214.

See the abstract under Technology for a complete summary
of this Paper. Motor sailing is discussed, and a 100 year old
formula for Predicting speed is advanced as valid. J.H.Mays
comments that Performance Prediction for conventional ships is
difficult enough. For sailing vessels, a considerable increase
in complexity is introduced. He disputes the simplifying
assumptions required to accept this formula such as constant
upright hull drag coefficients. C.A.MarchaJ comments that the
author's assumption of a Key requirement being lift to drag


ratio approachins 10 does not compare with the experience of
the highly efficient C Class catamarans. A chart is Presented
of the varying speeds made good to windward of historical craft
vs. a modern 12 meter yacht. A table of average sailing speeds
of historical vs. modern vessels is also Presented tending to
show that sailing vessel technology advanced not at all from
Columbus' SANTA MARIA to the fast cliPpers when speed is
compared on a size basis. The author replies that on a Plot of
ship speed vs. wind speed, the Poor efficiency of ships like
the SANTA MARIA is obvious.

6. D.JPF'aintinr "The Meteorolovical Office Marine Archive and
Its Use to Describe Ocean Climate," Commercial Sail Symposium,
DePt. of Trade, London, 1980. 112-128.

The author describes the data banK and computer Programs
available in the Marine Archive for Predicting wind and weather
on a worldwide basis from over a hundred years of observations.
The exponent for wind shear- variation of wind velocity with
height- is taken at 0.12,

7. J.B.Woodward et al, "Feasibility of Sailing Ships for the
American Merchant Marine," Section VI 35-51 and APPendix I
78-95. 1975.

Voyase mean times are Predicted on a number of ocean
routes. Speed Polar curves are described together with some of
the functional dependencies and a simplified flow chart of the
solution Process. Some representative values are tabulated and

8. L.Bernstrom et al, "Wind Propulsion for Ships of the
American Merchant Marine," Wind Ship Development Corp., Section
III: Performance Analysis, 30 PP. 1981.

The most basic objective of Performance analysis is the
Prediction of the average voyage speed and fuel use one can
expect for a given ship on a given route. In order to develop
these "voyage statistics," the Performance Problem is
approached in three steps: a. models are developed of the
hydrodynamic and aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the
ship; b. using these models, ship speed and Power setting are
determined for a range of wind conditions Performance
prediction; c. a statistical model of the route wind applied to
these performance Predictions fields expected voyage speed and
fuel use. The influence on sail force coefficients of five
factors is discussed including inter-mast interference. A
number of Plots are given, and 20 references are cited.

9, KL.anme and P.Schenzle, "Full Scale Trials with Wind
Propulsion on a Small Fishing Vessel, International Council
for the Exploration of the Sea, Fish Capture Committee, 1981.

This report relates some 1980 experiments with a 100 ton
displacement Baltic fishing vessel equipped with sails of 160
soem.(1722 so.ft.) and 150 hp main engine. Ship speed under a


variety of wind strengths, angles and engine speeds was
measured and Plotted. These were compared with model propulsion
tests and calm water runs without sails. Selected results are
shown for true wind speeds between 19 and 21 Knots vs. relative
course angle to the true wind. At a ship speed of nine Knots,
the Power requirement under motor is 100 Kw (134 hp) at Force 5
wind (17-21 Knots) and 80 Kw (107 hP) in calm weather. When
motorsailins with full sails in Force 5 windy the reQuired
engine Power is 40 Kw (54 hP) at 150 decrees to the true wind
and only 8 Kw (11 hp) at 90 degrees. If the full engine Power
of 100 Kw (134 hp) is maintained after setting sails, ship
speed is increased from 9 to 10 Knots at 150 degrees and to
10.8 Knots at 90 degrees. It is obvious that considerable Power
reductions are Possible when maintaiinin ship sPeed in the
motorsailing mode, but only small speed increases when
maintaiinin full engine power. At 9 Knots ship speed and Force
5 windy the maximum Power saving is about 80 Kw (107 hp) at
about 90 degrees relative course. Average Power saving assuminS
eoual freouency of all courses relative to a Force 5 wind would
be about 40 Kw (54 hP) thus saving 200 K9 (62 U.S.9allons) of
fuel Per 24 hours -roughly 40%.

10. C.Goudey "Results of Towins Tests of the Vincie N.";
Private communication. 1981.

The Vincie N. is a 79 foot waterline offshore fishing
vessel being studied at MIT for Possible retrofit with a sail
rig. The report details a full-scale towing test made with the
aid of the U.S.Coast Guard.

11. F.Schenzle e.t al, "Ein F'rouram,u.sYstem, zur Berechnuns der
Schiff GeschwindinKeit unter Dienstbedingungen," (A Program for
the Calculation of Ship Speed Under Service Conditions)
Institute fuer Schiffbau der Universitaet Hamburg, Bericht
No.303, November, 1974.

Outlines a standard method for the computation of sailing
vessel Performance,



1.D.M.Tavlor, "Sails Assist JacK-UP Rio on 2,400 Mile Tow,"
Ocean Industry, SePt.,1980. 11-13.

Due to its ungainly shape in the air and in the watery a
Jack-up rim requires vast amounts of horsepower to move it. The
rim's hull is 200 ft.wide. It costs between $80,000 to
$100,000 Per das in tug costs to move a rim 130 to 150 miles
Per day, Thus, an increase of only one-half Knot in towing
speed can save an estimated $160,000 to $230,000 on a 6,000
mile move. On July 13, 1980, rising and two sails were
installed in a Period of five days on the JacK-up oil drilling
rim: ROWAN-JUNEAU. Two, 215 foot long, rotating, furling masts
were erected with hydraulic tension rams maintaining 125,000
Ibs.tension on each mast. On a Previous voyage, it was
determined that it took Just over a minute to furl a sail if
unexpected weather were encountered.

Instrumentation included: Loran C for speedy load cells on
sheet blocks for sail load, electronic Pitch and roll
clinometers and an anemometer. The saily designed and
manufactured by Ratsey and Lapthorn, is 80 x 75 feet. In a 27.5
Knot wind from a favorable direction, a sail will Produce a
thrust equivalent to 20,000 Ibs. of bollard Pull. Developing
and testing the sails and rig cost between $250,000 and
$300,000, which will be amortized in one or two long moves.

Savings on long moves were found to be between $6000 and
$9500 Per day. It required only a minim.u number of crew to
handle the two sails. The most important economic factor is
frequency of utilization. Ordinarily, long tows where sails
could be utilized may occur only once every five or six years
in the life of a rig. The Portability of sails to other rigs is
a definite Plus.

2. "Sail Assist Texas Drilling Company Moves Offshore Rigs
Using Experimental Hethod," Compressed Air Manazine, December,
1980. p.31.

The Rowan Comipny Planrs to move a 200 by 250 foot drilling
rig 2575 miles from Galveston, Texas to Nova Scotia using two,
180 foot tall sails. Experiments began in 1977. Sails tended to
increase the rig's speed by stabilizing it and also by sheer
propulsion. Two full-scale trials were held before the long
Journey. Ingersoll-Rand air winches are used to maintain sheet
tension. The masts are mounted on two rotary tables Powered by
I-R air motors.


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