• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Major statements
 Research needs
 Contributed statements: North...
 Contributed statements: South...
 Contributed statements: Georgi...
 Contributed statements: Florid...
 Contributed statements: Missis...
 Contributed statements: Louisi...
 Contributed statements: Texas
 Office of Sea Grant
 National Marine Fisheries...
 List of participants






Group Title: Technical paper - Florida Sea Grant College Program ; no. 27
Title: Current activities and research needs in marine economics for the Gulf and South Atlantic states
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074958/00001
 Material Information
Title: Current activities and research needs in marine economics for the Gulf and South Atlantic states summary of a workshop January 24-25, 1983, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla
Series Title: Technical paper Florida Sea Grant College
Physical Description: 46 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Sea Grant College
National Sea Grant College Program (U.S.)
Florida Sea Grant College
Publisher: University of Florida, Florida Sea Grant
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1983
 Subjects
Subject: Marine biology -- Research -- Finance   ( lcsh )
Marine resources -- Research   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Grant NA80AA-D-00038.
Funding: Technical paper (Florida Sea Grant College) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074958
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002199016
oclc - 22724872
notis - ALD8896

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Major statements
        Page 2
        Page 1
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Research needs
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Contributed statements: North Carolina
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Contributed statements: South Carolina
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Contributed statements: Georgia
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Contributed statements: Florida
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Contributed statements: Mississippi
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Contributed statements: Louisiana
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Contributed statements: Texas
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Office of Sea Grant
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    National Marine Fisheries Service
        Page 45
    List of participants
        Page 46
Full Text


TECHNICAL PAPER NO. 27
FEBRUARY 1983


CURRENT ACTIVITIES
AND RESEARCH NEEDS IN
MARINE ECONOMICS FOR
THE GULF AND SOUTH
ATLANTIC STATES












GRANT


I









CURRENT ACTIVITIES AND RESEARCH NEEDS IN MARINE ECONOMICS


FOR THE GULF AND SOUTH ATLANTIC STATES


Technical Paper No. 27
February 1983










University of Florida
Florida Sea Grant
Gainesville, Florida



Summary of a workshop
January 24 25, 1983
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida



Technical Papers are duplicated in limited quantities for specialized
audiences requiring rapid access to information and may receive only limited
editing. This paper was compiled by the Florida Sea Grant College with support
from NOAA Office of Sea Grant, U.S. Department of Commerce, grant number
NA80AA-D-00038. It was published by the Marine Advisory Program which functions
as a component of the Florida Cooperative Extension Service, John T. Woeste,
Dean, in conducting Cooperative Extension work in Agriculture, Home Economics,
and Marine Sciences, State of Florida, U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S.
Department of Commerce, and Boards of County Commissioners, cooperating.
Printed and distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and
June 14, 1914. The Florida Sea Grant College is an Equal Employment Opportunity
Affirmative Action employer authorized to provide research, educational infor-
mation and other services only to individuals and institutions that function
without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.








TABLE OF CONTENTS


INTRODUCTION . . . . . .

MAJOR STATEMENTS . . . . . .

Estuarine Productivity: Valuing Changes in Water Quality.

Economic Values Related to Allocation Issues . .

Structure and Performance in the U.S. Seafood Industry .

Statement on Fishery Data Needs . . .


RESEARCH NEEDS


Fisheries. . . . . .

Coastal Processes. . . . .

Aquaculture. . . . . .

Wetlands . . . . .

CONTRIBUTED STATEMENTS OF PARTICIPANTS

North Carolina (Easley, Blomo) . . .

South Carolina (Hite). . . . .

Georgia (North, Lyda). . . . .

Florida (Prochaska, Milon, Bell). . .

Mississippi/Alabama (Hosking). . . .

Louisiana (Roberts, Thompson). . . .

Texas (Griffin). . . . .

Office of Sea Grant (Schuler). . . .


National Marine Fisheries Service (Raulerson).


. . . 45


LIST OF PARTICIPANTS . . . ... .. .... .46


Page

S 1

S 1

S 2

3

S 4

6


. 10-13

.-14-15

.16-17

. 18-21

. 22-23

. 24-25

. 26-30

. 31-44








INTRODUCTION


During the last half of 1982, there was discussion among the Sea Grant
Directors from Gulf and South Atlantic states regarding the need to examine
and agree upon emerging economic issues associated with the use of our coas-
tal and marine resources. The same discussion emerged at a December, 1982
meeting attended by NMFS economists from all regions and again during a Dec-
ember, 1982 Southeastern Region NMFS/Sea Grant retreat. As a result, the
nine Sea Grant Directors (Texas through North Carolina and Puerto Rico)
agreed to sponsor a workshop of Sea Grant affiliated economists to address
that need.

The workshop was held during January, 1983 and resulted in this document
outlining the results. Three major work products resulted. First, four major
statements were developed to guide Sea Grant and other economic research and
advisory activities. One statement dealt with fishery data needs and the other
three statements outlined major areas of priority research for the coming
years. Second, specific research needs or "items" were outlined in the areas
of fisheries, coastal resources, aquaculture and wetlands. Third, many par-
ticipants brought statements outlining their current activities and research
needs within their own states. Each contributed statement is outlined in
this report.

It should be noted that some areas of needed research do not appear in
this statement. Economic activities in such areas as marine transportation,
ports, offshore mining, etc., do not receive much attention. They remain
important but most of the activities of those attending the workshop focuses
on living marine resources. This report reflects that interest.
MAJOR STATEMENTS

Three of the four major statements resulted from the discussion that
there is a regional effort needed to address several research topics. The
group indicated that these needs could be addressed by proposing actual region-
al projects with interested participants taking the responsibility for certain
objectives. This follows the format of regional projects historically funded
through the Agricultural Experiment Stations. Another way to address the needs
would be to formulate regional research need statements and then interested
participants could simply use them as guides without being part of a formal
project. Both these options could be used with the following work statements
as guidelines. The fourth statement pointed out the need for improved fishery
data. The statement was distributed to the appropriate data management groups
to express the concern of the economists who use the data in research activities.








Estuarine productivity: valuing changes in water quality


Increasing use of various resources in the coastal plain has increased
concern with externalities in fisheries associated with different water uses.
Examples are freshwater intrusion from drainage of wetlands for agricultural
and other uses, coastal plain development that results in more peak runoff,
and in some areas, saltwater intrusion in estuarine areas resulting from re-
moval of freshwater upstream for irrigation and/or municipal uses. Masking
the potentially negative effects on production of these activities have been
increased catches, for example of shrimp, resulting from higher effort
expended.

A major question from a public policy perspective is "what is the effect
on productivity of small changes in these activities?" Valuing these changes
will be helpful in devising corrective policies (e.g., assessing drainage,
storage and diversion of freshwater, and charges or taxes associated with water
policies).

An outline of proposed work follows. A key requirement is that biologists
and ecologists generate the types of data required in a production function
framework, preferably with an economist (or team of economists) working with
these other disciplines.

I. Assessment of Problem by State and Southeast

A. Estuarine and/or marsh loss due to development
B. Alteration in water quality
1. Drainage
2. Development
3. Pollution
C. Saltwater intrusion into freshwater system

II. Methods for Valuing Estuarine Productivity

Assessing methods used would be an appropriate part of a project.
As a minimum, we might discuss

A. Linking nursery stocks to harvest
B. Production function estimation, using environmental variables
C. Comparing altered with unaltered estuarine production

III. Data required for Economic Analysis

A. Measures of stocks by species and growth
B. Measures of major environmental variables (e.g., water temperature,
salinity, freshwater flow, rainfall)
C. Measures of contribution to harvest (commercial and recreational
of a given nursery area)
D. Estimates of "ideal" salinities, etc., from controlled experiments
for major species
E. Estimate variability of production








INTRODUCTION


During the last half of 1982, there was discussion among the Sea Grant
Directors from Gulf and South Atlantic states regarding the need to examine
and agree upon emerging economic issues associated with the use of our coas-
tal and marine resources. The same discussion emerged at a December, 1982
meeting attended by NMFS economists from all regions and again during a Dec-
ember, 1982 Southeastern Region NMFS/Sea Grant retreat. As a result, the
nine Sea Grant Directors (Texas through North Carolina and Puerto Rico)
agreed to sponsor a workshop of Sea Grant affiliated economists to address
that need.

The workshop was held during January, 1983 and resulted in this document
outlining the results. Three major work products resulted. First, four major
statements were developed to guide Sea Grant and other economic research and
advisory activities. One statement dealt with fishery data needs and the other
three statements outlined major areas of priority research for the coming
years. Second, specific research needs or "items" were outlined in the areas
of fisheries, coastal resources, aquaculture and wetlands. Third, many par-
ticipants brought statements outlining their current activities and research
needs within their own states. Each contributed statement is outlined in
this report.

It should be noted that some areas of needed research do not appear in
this statement. Economic activities in such areas as marine transportation,
ports, offshore mining, etc., do not receive much attention. They remain
important but most of the activities of those attending the workshop focuses
on living marine resources. This report reflects that interest.
MAJOR STATEMENTS

Three of the four major statements resulted from the discussion that
there is a regional effort needed to address several research topics. The
group indicated that these needs could be addressed by proposing actual region-
al projects with interested participants taking the responsibility for certain
objectives. This follows the format of regional projects historically funded
through the Agricultural Experiment Stations. Another way to address the needs
would be to formulate regional research need statements and then interested
participants could simply use them as guides without being part of a formal
project. Both these options could be used with the following work statements
as guidelines. The fourth statement pointed out the need for improved fishery
data. The statement was distributed to the appropriate data management groups
to express the concern of the economists who use the data in research activities.







Economic values related to allocation issues

The workgroup responsible for these issues developed a time sequenced out-
line of tasks which must be accomplished to produce valid measures of impacts
associated with decisions to reallocate fishery resources among user groups
and with decisions to levy charges for use of the marine environment. The
tasks shown beJow can be considered as an overall necessary research program to
reach the goal of measuring impacts. The tasks are not considered to be titles
of individual research projects because some tasks could possibly be accomplished
without a formal project while other tasks might require several coordinated but
independent research efforts.

Recreational/Commercial Allocation


User


o Identify management objectives to be accomplished through reallocation
of the resource.

o Provide a descriptive analysis of the resource and the user group.

o Estimate the fishing effort and harvest by competing user groups.

o Determine the ways user groups are impacted, the nature of the impacts
and impacts beyond the user groups.

o Review and evaluate methodologies available to measure impacts.

o Design new surveys or modify existing surveys to generate data required
to measure impacts.

o Determine the impact of alternative marine management measures.

Fees

o Provide an historical perspective of the development and basis for the
user fee concept.

o Determine federal, state or local objectives in assessing user fees.

o Determine the administrative costs associated with different user fee
structures.

o Assess the methodologies available that would be useful in determining
the impact of different types of user fees.

o Determine allocative and distributive impacts of user fees and expected
net revenues from levying user fees.








Structure and performance in the U.S. seafood marketing system

Background:

The Gulf and South Atlantic Seafood Industry is made up of about 38,600
individual fishermen in the states of Texas through North Carolina. Ap-
proximately 1,510 processing and wholesaling plants employing about 25,800
workers in these eight states processed $1.1 billion in seafood products
in 1980. The dockside value of seafood products landed in these eight
states was $701 million or 29 percent of the nation's total. In addition,
the tuna canning industry in Puerto Rico is quite large. Improvements
in marketing structure and efficiency will benefit the seafood industry.

Objective:

To study and evaluate seafood marketing in the following dimensions:

1. Structure from harvesting to retail
a. Horizontal structure at each stage
b. Vertical organization
c. International dimensions
d. Industry-wide institutions
2. Spatial and product form dimensions
3. Conduct and behavior of firms
a. Pricing: contracts and integration
b. Sales 'and advertising
c. Market development activities
d. Other services: packaging, transportation, storage, etc.
4. Performance of the systems)
a. Pricing efficiency: how well does the system reflect consumer
demand (or changes) back to the production level.
b. Technical efficiency: how well is the system organized to
provide all marketing services at the least possible cost.
c. Issues in marketing margins, quality, and system responsiveness.
d. Equity or distributional effects: are returns in the system
equitably distributed among participants.







Procedures:


This regional project will reach its objective through a several stage
approach.

1. Conduct a workshop which will provide an overview or "state-of-the
art" review of existing research results and information. Proposed
agenda follows:

I. Purpose of workshop

II. Case studies of market structures, channels, behavior and perform-
ance for important species and systems.

A. Southeast

1. Shrimp
2. Mackerel
3. Reef Fish
4. Other species to be identified

B. Other selected species

1. Northeast groundfish
2. Salmon or other west coast example

(Each of these case studies are to follow a common outline corres-
ponding to the items 1-4 under the objective above.)

III. Research Methodologies

An invited paper which outlines the current state of research meth-
odology in assessment of the behavior of firms in marketing and the
performance of marketing systems for food commodities and products.

IV. Discussion and evaluation across species to identify primary focus
of further research efforts.

A. Species gaps

B. Data gaps within species

C. New or adapted methodologies

D. Important issues

2. Specific research efforts will be undertaken to address specific topics
identified above. These will be selected and conducted by individual
researchers or groups as appropriate.

3. Periodic (biennial) workshop to be held to report research results and
evaluate emerging issues in market structure and organization affects
seafood industries and ultimately marine resource managers.







Statement on fishery data needs


Fishery economists in the Southeast recognize short term and long term needs
for data collected by or under the control of the NMFS. In the short run there
is a universal recognition that data currently being collected by the NMFS is
either not available in hard copy or via computer or is not timely enough to
meet current research needs. It is felt that confidentiality problems, inade-
quate data management systems and a lack of understanding of the needs of users
all contribute to the lack of current data. Correction of short-term problems
is the immediate concern. Specific suggestions to work toward a solution of the
problems are listed below:

1. Provide Sea Grant Directors with an interpretation of confidentially
problems faced by the NMFS.

2. Re-establish the monthly landings and value data by states.

3. Provide a forum for further discussion of the problems and to begin
providing solutions to the problems.

4. Provide Sea Grant Directors with a list of current data bases and the
available means of access.

Long term needs involve whether or not the correct data are being collected.
It is felt that this need should be discussed at the highest data management and
statistics level in the NMFS.







RESEARCH NEEDS


Each participant in the workshop outlined those topics or areas considered
to be of highest priority during the next few years. All these comments were
listed and summarized into the four categories of fisheries, coastal resources,
aquaculture and wetlands. These are listed below. In addition, the group ex-
pressed a desire that all funding agencies recognize the available research
talent in each institution in addressing research needs and projects funded and
attempt to optimize research results based on that talent.
Fisheries

1. Develop investment strategies for both potential and developed fisheries.
Emphasis could be placed on both new and upgraded harvest and on-shore
facilities.

2. Determine economic benefits from developing non-traditional fisheries.

3. Determine consequences of changes in the menhaden stocks on the menhaden
industry. Determine market potential for alternative uses of menhaden.

4. Determine and/or update capital and financial budgeting requirements for
traditional and non-traditional stocks.

5. Apply existing risk and uncertainty methodology to marine industry
problems and firm decisions.

6. Estimate supply response equations for important fisheries considering
both economic and biological inputs.

7. Determine the economics of scale in processing seafood for selected
species.

8. Determine assembly costs and alternatives to current assembly and market-
ing methods.

9. Determine the impact of expanding foreign fisheries on U.S. industry
and markets.

10. Define market structure and channel needs for developing fisheries.

11. Determine potential for a more developed seafood industry within the
overall U.S. food industry.

12. Determine net return such as price incentives from improved quality
standards.

13. Determine costs and benefits from new fishery products.

14. Determine economic strategies for handling seafood processing plant
wastes.

15. Devise demand curves for major species and potential for non-traditional
species. Determine the role of non-traditional species as substitute
for imports.








16. Estimate demand (and thus user fees) for shellfish leases and
dockside facilities.

17. Provide guidance in generic seafood advertising through measuring its
effectiveness.

18. Derive methodology useful for developing comparable values of recrea-
tional and commercial use of fishery resources. Also point out non-use-
ful methods.

19. Examine economic consequences of fishing management regulations.

20. Determine optimum capitalization level in fisheries using bioeconomic
models.

21. Test alternative methodology and apply to evaluate costs and benefits
and economic impact of artificial reefs.

Coastal resources

1. Understand supply relationship of waterfront facilities such as marina
slips given alternative uses of waterfront resources.

2. Determine optimum use of water resources. This would include the
economic and social impact of water resources management on the marine
industries.

3. Estimate demand (and user fees) for water and submerged land leases.

4. Estimate future labor demand to result from the marine industries.

5. Define interaction of all marine sectors in the overall economy.

6. Determine impact of oil and gas exploration on local marine communities.

7. Determine impact on coastal economies as traditional industries decline
and new opportunities arise.

8. Develop management strategies for use of limited resources in the
coastal zone.

9. Define appropriate land use patterns relating to estuarine areas.

10. Define economic impact of alternative development policies regarding
barrier islands.

11. Determine changing waterfront access patterns as reflected through
land value changes.

12. Estimate economic impact of improved marine transportation systems.








Aquaculture

1. Determine and/or update capital and financial budgeting requirements
for potential and existing species.

Wetlands

1. Determine value of estuarine areas in varied uses and costs of wetland
losses.

CONTRIBUTED STATEMENTS OF PARTICIPANTS

Many of those attending the meeting distributed a statement of past and
current research activities and needs. These are included in this section.






Research Activities
J. E. Easley, Jr.
N.C. State University


Economics of Fishery Management

Much of my work the last few years has emphasized specific fishery manage-
ment problems. These include the following:

1. Analysis of the Pamlico Sound, N.C., pink-brown shrimp discard
problem. This problem briefly stated is the discard of juvenile
pink shrimp while harvesting adult brown shrimp during a short
period, usually in early fall. Findings were that discard abate-
ment policies are not justified in normal years.

2. Development of fishery management models. Past and current work
is emphasizing three fisheries: scallops, shrimp, and clams. A
preliminary computerized control model of the bay scallop fishery
has been developed for our fishery management agency. Various
simulations are possible, but the most important use may be that
of estimating the optimal season dates, given past bay scallop
seasonal price patterns. Preliminary simulations are showing
5-10 percent improvements in the present value of net harvesting
returns from delaying the season opening. Future work will incor-
porate the processing sector into the model. Other work includes
the ongoing development of models (using control theory) for use
in evaluating alternative management policies for shrimp and hard
clams. Two Ph.D. dissertations are underway that are complemen-
tary to this work.

Economics of Aquaculture

Past work includes feasibility analyses of processing N.C. mountain
trout, trout production budgets (updated one to be off the press soon),
and a production budget for eel culture. Future work will include some
cost budgeting of alternative clam culture techniques and perhaps examina-
tion of optimal grow-out periods for white bass-striped bass hybrids.

Property Rights in Shellfish Management

Movement of shellfish from polluted waters to clean, public waters for
later harvesting is a current N.C. management practice. I have, in a highly
applied research project, looked at potential gains to relaying these shell-
fish to leased areas rather than to public areas. It appears that so far
we are missing the boat!?









Emerging Research Needs
J. E. Easley, Jr.
N.C. State University


Unless and until fishery management agencies try policies designed to limit
effort, frustration by fishermen will likely grow. One of the most effective
policies for improving income in the short run may be setting season dates.

In North Carolina and probably in other states, I suspect more fishery
management issues will be modeled in the future, especially using dynamic
optimization techniques. Two areas of additional research will improve these
models and our ability to assist in "fine tuning" fishery management. One of
these is modeling the supply of effort in various fisheries; the other is
improved demand estimates. Effort supply is evidently fairly elastic in most
N.C. fisheries and including appropriate cost functions would improve our
modeling efforts. Ditto for estimates of demand parameters, especially seasonal
changes in demand.

Regional "umbrella" projects might make a lot of sense for estimating
both supply and demand functions for a number of species. For some of our
species, Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regional work would make sense.

Fresh water intrusion into estuaries is an issue in North Carolina. Amidst
the agricultural drainage/fisheries production.tradeoff debates, we are woe-
fully ignorant of estuarine production functions from the perspective of both
biologists and economists. A "demonstration" drainage diversion project is
being planned that may allow some estimation of these functions.

One last point that I would assert that we all will be concerned with in
the future is the question of improved NMFS data and the accompanying question
of how we might quickly gain access to data NMFS does have. We have been
promised a tape of some data that were originally requested in September 1982.
Let's discuss this issue.









COASTAL AND MARINE ECONOMICS RESEARCH ITEMS

Vito Blomo, ECU

1. Regional economic impacts from fishery activities

Value added
Income
Employment

2. Market assessment/update for existing important products

1. shrimp 2. spiny lobster 3. stone crab
reef fish billfish shark
mackerel swordfish

3. Market barriers to.development of underutilized species

"Bycatch" Triggerfish Herrings
Squid Tilefish

4. Feasibility analysis of diversification of existing fishing activity to
other species.

5. Production function approach to measure supply response in various fisheries.

6. Processor and retail level (in)efficiencies

handling
advertising
distribution

7. Valuation of estuarine areas for fishery production








DETERMINATION OF COMMERCIAL AND RECREATIONAL FISHERY VALVES


Vito Blomo, ECU

A discussion of commercial and recreational fishery valves should begin
with to what end the information will be put, or, put another way, who is the
intended audience for such information.

A determination of this question may affect the amount of information,
its presentation, and care the researcher must exercise in offering it for
consideration.

Putting a value on commercial and recreational fishery valves requires
recognition of several important points:

1. The measures of value for commercial and for recreational uses
must, of course, be of comparable methodologies.

2. Where information on one type of fishery is available, e.g.,
commercial or recreational, via a particular methodology, but
not on the other fishery, all other information should be pre-
sented, with appropriate caveats.

3. The most appropriate methodology for measuring such values is
consumer surplus, and its counterpart on the producer side.
Consumer surplus -
For recreational: user of resource
For commercial: consumer of seafood product, or derived
demand curve

Producer surplus -
For recreational: marginal cost to provide most fish,
on the part of user or government (?)
For commercial: private firms

4. Consideration of the exvessel value of a seafood product is in-
appropriate in the context of the surplus methodology.

5. Estimation of a producer surplus on the recreational side may be
difficult especially if, assuming it is the marginal cost to users,
there is a simultaneity problem with the recreational users' demand
curve and an interrelationship with the commercial supply curve.

6. In the situation where consumer and producer surplus are available
on the commercial side, but only consumer surplus is available on
the recreational side, it would be appropriate to only compare the
two consumer surplus values.

7. If exvessel values should be presented, such information should be
balanced by presenting gross expenditures by recreationists, or vice
versa.

8. Other dimensions to the value issue can be presented such as
sociological and equity considerations.









THE SOUTH CAROLINA SEA GRANT CONSORTIUM


221 FORT IOHNSON ROAD
IAMES ISLAND
CHARLESTON, SC
29412
TEL: (8031795-9650


WARD Of TRUSTEES
Dr. B,11 L. Atchiey
Presidenl
Clemwon Unrivewv
Dr. Edward M Colhnl. Jr
Prresden
College o, Chjresfon
r. james Holderman
President
UnLverts of South Carolina
Dr. lames 8. Ed*wrds
President
Medilc; LUniersity of
South Carolna


Dr. Maceo Nance
Pre,,dent
South Carotna State College
MapOr General lames A Grim r.
Chairman
President
The Citadel
Dr. James A. Timmerman
Executive Orrecor
South Carohna Wildlie and
Marine Resources Departmen


Jim Hite
SUMMARY OF ECONOMICS RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

1979 1983


The S. C. Sea Grant Consortium has invested in marineeconomics research
in a number of program areas aquaculture, fisheries, wetlands evalua-
tion, and coastal development although the total amount of economics
research has not yet been a major component of the Consortium's
research program.

To date, the Consortium has supported three major Sea Grant economics
research projects:

o "Economics of Pond Culture of Prawns in South Carolina" -
headed by Larry Bauer at Clemson University from September,
1977 to August, 1980.


O "User Fees for Coastal Resources: Issues of Application and
Implementation" begun by Mark Tompkins at the University
of South Carolina in September, 1982.

0 "Projection of the Commercial and Private Development to
Result from Changes in Availability and Cost of the Federal
Flood Insurance Program" commencing in September, 1982
under the direction of Gary Griepentrog of the University
of South Carolina.


In addition to these projects, the Consortium provided support through
the use of development funds to assist the state and localities in
addressing economic problems. The following research efforts have been
completed:

o "Analysis of the Shem Creek Fishery for Incorporation in
the S. C. Coastal Council's Special Area Management Plan" -
conducted by John Brown, the Consortium's fishery economist,
and Charles Neufeld of The Citadel from January to March,
1981.

o 'State-of-the Art of Wetlands Evaluation" undertaken by
Mark Tompkins at the University of South Carolina from
February to June, 1981.

G "Economic Impact of Sewer Problems on the Fisheries in Horry
County, S. C." the results of which were incorporated into
an EPA application for sewer construction funds examined
by Mike Polen of the University of South Carolina and John
Brown of the Consortium from May to June, 1981.







RESEARCH, ADVISORY SERVICES, AND EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN MARINE AND COASTAL RESOURCES









THE SOUTH CAROLINA SEA GRANT CONSORTIUM


Jim Hite


221 FORT IOHNSON ROAD
jAMES ISLAND
CHARLESTON. SC
29412
TEL: (8031795-96SO


BOARD OF TRUSTEES
Dr. Bill L. Atchiey
Presiden
Clnemon Univelsv
Dr Edward M. Collins. Jr
President
Col!eft oi Charleston
Dr. lames Holderman
President
Unlverivv oi Souuh Caroln
Dr lamn B. Edwards
Presdent


STATEMENT OF EMERGING ECONOMICS RESEARCH

NEEDS IN MARINE AND COASTAL ISSUES


Several major marine and coastal issues have emerged which will
require an increased level of support by the Sea Grant Consortium in
economics research.

The Consortium is playing a major role in the development of aquaculture
in the State. For aquaculture to be accepted as a legitimate coastal
activity relative to the many other potential users of a coastal area, it
must be recognized as an activity which will produce income for the State.
To date, few economic studies of aquaculture and aquacultural species
have been conducted: the Consortium considers future studies to be of
paramount importance to the growth of aquaculture in South Carolina.


,ed,cai umn.r.tro, The health and well-being of the state's fishing industry may depend on
Souih C' the ability of the industry to fish offshore for continental shelf species.
Dr.MaceoNance One of the major issues to be resolved is the costs associated with
Prient
s5o0tromaon.acote directing the near-shore fishermen to the potential resources offshore.
Economic research, in collaboration with the State's Wildlife and Marine
clr. cn'ai n.ctRiesources Department and the National Marine Fisheries Service, will
Pres*c provide in part the information necessary to properly advise the State's
rThe Ce fishermen on the potential of the offshore fishery.


Dr. lames A. Timmerman
Executive Drector
South Caroina WdifdLe and
hAfann, Resources Oepatmen


Although the Consortium is now supporting an effort to evaluate the
implications of user fees, it only constitutes a generic study. Further
economic research will be necessary to evaluate specific user fee concepts -
i.e., associated with leasing of state waters and associated bottoms,
dredging of navigation lanes for ports, and other uses of public coastal
and marine resources and services.


RESEARCH, ADVISORY SERVICES, AND EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN MARINE AND COASTAL RESOURCES









Economics Research Needs in
Marine and Coastal Issues
Ronald M. North
University of Georgia


(1) Financing Facilities. There is a continuing need to identify and
quantify the facilities' needs with respect to marine and coastal activities.
These include, among others, such diverse facilities as recreational marinas,
commercial ports and harbors, designated recreational areas, recreational
fishery enhancement projects. Some of these are particularly acute with the
increasing need to match sources of funding with facilities provided.
Additional effort must be made to evaluate the benefits from some of these
investments and to discover ways of shifting more of the cost directly to
users. Such shifts in national policy produce significant impacts on coastal
economic activities.


(2) Estuarine and Coastal Zone Management. This is a very general area
of research, but the key element is management. As a result of the Coastal
Zone Management Act significant structural and institutional changes have been
put in motion. The implication is that we will intensify public sector
management of all resources in the coastal zone. It has been about 10 years
since the Coastal Zone Management Act came into being. How much research has
been done on developing a management strategy with respect to balancing the
environmental and economic attributes required for resolving conflicts in the
coastal zone? In many fields we are just getting around to thinking about
"management strategies" with respect to such natural resources as water and
wildlife. What should be the structure of a management strategy for the
coastal zone? I do not believe we, in the economics profession, have done as
much as we could in furthering the adoption of modern operations research
techniques to managing the coastal zone. Basically, a management strategy
must be defined as a process which focuses on the ability of the resource to
supply given levels of demands (objectives). This is far removed from our
existing approach which looks at benefits and costs or feasibility studies on
a project by project basis. In other words, we are still in the horse and
buggy age by focusing decision making on every single project as opposed to
developing an overall management strategy based on the available resources'
sustainable capability.

(3) Dr. North also distributed a five-page list of research publications
and projects ccnpleted since 1967. Copies are available from Dr. North.









EMERGING ECONOMICS RESEARCH NEEDS IN THE COMMERCIAL FISHERY

Fred Lyda Georgia Sea Grant College Program

Feasibility of the Development of a Soft Shell Crab Industry in Georgia


Feasibility of Nearshore and Offshore Fishing with Traps, Longlines and Trawlers

Feasibility of Developing a Conch Industry in Georgia

Feasibility of Establishing a Filleting Facility for all Types of Finfish




CURRENT ECONOMICS RESEARCH ACTIVITY IN THE COMMERCIAL FISHERY


1983 Economics of Bottom Longlining for Golden Tilefish and Other Offshore
Species

1982-83 Economic Feasibility of a Freezer Facility for a Processor of Under-
utilized Seafood Products

1981-83 Production and Proforma Financial Forecasts for a Shrimp Producers
Cooperative

1977-79 Financial Analysis of Trawling for Offshore Finfish with Modified
Shrimp Trawlers








MARINE ECONOMICS PROGRAM


Fred Prochaska
Food and Resource Economics Department
University of Florida


Analytical research is grouped into three categories; (1) Marketing and
demand, (2) production and supply, and (3) industry and public policy. A fourth
category includes basic descriptive research. Major past and current activities
in each of the categories is listed below.

Marketing and Demand. Formal demand models have been developed for mullet,
blue crabs, spiny lobsters, king and spanish mackerel, shrimp, and scallops.
Most demand analyses have been at the ex vessel level but current emphasis in-
cludes international dimensions. Econometric models are used to analyze the
transmission of prices and quantities through the vertical dimensions of market.
Emphasis is given to shrimp, grouper, snappers and the east coast finfish in-
dustry. Consumption parameters have been estimated for aggregate seafood cate-
gories and currently are being analyzed for individual seafood products. Market
development research has been applied to expansion of both domestic and export
seafood markets.

Production and Supply. Costs, earnings and investment levels have been
analyzed in budgeting models for lobsters, mullet, blue crabs, grouper, snapper,
king and Spanish mackerel, charter and party boats, and stone crabs. Analyses
have been stratified by economic, physical and biological criteria with analysis
of variance applied in recent studies. Similar analysis is projected for the
oyster fishery. Production and/or bioeconomic models have been developed for
the snapper-grouper, lobster, blue crab, and oyster fisheries. Related research
has been concerned with topics such as taxation and credit.

Industry and Public Policy. Bioeconomic analyses have been conducted to
analyze fishery management alternatives for the spiny lobster fishery and the
snapper-grouper fishery. Economic impact estimates have been developed for both
the production and processing sectors of Florida fisheries. Applications have
been made to local fisheries. Extensive port development studies have been
carried out on both a regional and county basis..

Descriptive Research. Trends in landings, values and resources used have
been estimated. A profile of commercial fishermen has been developed describing,
employment, income age, education etc. Other descriptive materials have been
developed in areas such as credit institutions, consumption tips, etc.

Note: Dr. Prochaska also distributed a twelve page list of publications
resulting from.previous work in the described area. Copies are available
from Dr. Prochaska on request.










SEA GRANT RESEARCH
WALLY MILON, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


The following is a brief statement of Sea Grant sponsored research during
the past four years. Copies of publications from the projects are available
on request.

-- Analysis of Barrier Island Amenity Values around App. Bay
using Hedonic Pricing Techniques Masters' Thesis

-- Developed handbook and conducted workshops for coastal planners
on "Economic Analysis for Coastal Recreation Project Planning."

-- Economic impact evaluation of sportfishing tournaments and
handbook for local planners to use in evaluating local impacts
of sportfishing tournaments.

-- Survey and report on financial operating ratios and performance
statistics for recreational marinas and boatyards in Florida.

-- Input/output analysis of Florida marine recreation industry
using primary data from boat manufacturers, accessory manufac-
turers, marine retailers, and other marine recreation businesses.


EMERGING COASTAL ECONOMICS RESEARCH NEEDS
WALLY MILON


ARTIFICIAL REEFS .-- While there are data available on the biological charac-
teristics of different artificial reef structures and sites, virtually no
information has been collected on the economic characteristics of these
public investment projects. In addition to providing information about the
benefits and costs of different artificial reefs, research in this area
could provide useful comparisons of alternative benefit estimation methodol-
ogies (i.e., travel cost and contingent valuation). The major limitations
are funding for data collection and integration of research methodologies of
the project encompasses reef sites in several states.

BARRIER ISLANDS -- In 1982 Congress limited coverage of Federal Flood Insur-
ance coverage on barrier islands. The effects of these changes on barrier
island property owners and development around barrier islands should be
evaluated for future debates affecting national and state coastal policies.
Since the majority of barrier islands are in the Southeastern U.S., a regional
project would be appropriate.

MARINE RECREATION IMPACT -- More attention is being given to developing marine
recreation opportunities but little data exists (except for a few states) on
the national and state impacts of these activities. A national effort to develop
marine recreation sectors as part of the national input-output model would provide
information for recreation planners and economists.









Fred Bell
Florida-Sea Grant
Meeting of Eonomists

January 24-25, 1983

Suggested Economic Research Priorities

1. Economic Valuation of Florida Beaches
(or Gulf or South AtTantic Beaches)

With recurring oil spills and public pressure to acquired additional

beach resources to supply recreational opportunities to tourists and

residents, we are faced with no systematic data set or applicable techniques

to estimate the value of a user occasion. It is proposed that beach value

estimation be given a top priority because of the critical role these

resources play in tourism and residential enjoyment.

2. Projecting the Demand for Outdoor Recreation in the Coastal Zone

The DNR currently makes projections of "demand" for outdoor recreation in

Florida for a variety of activities in the coastal zone (i.e., saltwater

beaches, fishing, swimming). These projections could be substantially refined

by estimating a participation function and using it to project the

participation rate on the basis of future shifts in demographic variables.

Combined with valuation studies, this would become a method to estimate

recreational property values for the state's land acquisition programs.

3. Input Output Comparison of Recreational Versus Commercial Fisheries
EconomTc impact on the Florda Economy

To solve some of the debate over the above subject, it is suggested that

the state I-0 model be used with the data developed by Bell and published NMFS

data on commerical landings and imports for 1980.

4. Economic Criteria To Use in Designating Certain Species as Exclusive Game
Fish

Economics has made very little contribution to this problem. We could

look at snook in Florida and red drum and seatrout in Texas.

20










5. Economic Data Needed (Social Accounts) to Implement a Florida Fishery
ManagementAct (probably immediate response)

Socioeconomic data on Florida's commercial and recreational fisheries

should be consolidated for the state fishery management plans. This need

lagged considerably after FCMA in 1977.









PRIOR ECONOMICS RESEARCH ACTIVITY


Mississippi-Alabama Sea Grant Consortium

Gainesville, Florida January 24-25, 1983


The Mississippi-Alabama Sea Grant Consortium has encouraged and
funded economic research in the two-state area. The program has
evolved from a resource assessment orientation to a resource develop-
ment and utilization emphasis in the recent past. Due to the prior
program orientation and limitations on available funding, economic
research has begun to assume a more important part of the total
program in recent years.

It has become an accepted and common practice for an economic eval-
uation component to form a part of research proposals in other
areas, when applicable. Thus it has become increasingly difficult
and perhaps less necessary to segregate economics research.

Shown below is a representative listing of economics research that
has been conducted in Mississippi and Alabama in recent years.
Although these have been primarily Sea Grant efforts, several
University-sponsored studies are included.

The Economic Structure of Mississippi's Coastal Region.

The Economic & Environmental Structure of Alabama's Coastal
Region, Part I: Economic Structure.

The Economic and Environmental Structure of Alabama's Coastal
Region, Part II: Environmental Structure.

Economic-Ecological Model for Mississippi-Alabama Coastal Com-
munities.

Economic Value of the Seafood Processing Industry in Missis-
sippi.

Feasibility of Supply and Processing of Northern Gulf of
Mexico Groundfish in Alabama.

Oyster Depuration Facility: Economic Assessment.

Preliminary Economic Assessment of Algae for Feed

A Linear Programming Model of Economic Growth and the Envi-
ronment.

In addition to economics research efforts, the Advisory Service Pro-
grams in both Mississippi and Alabama have been involved in econo-
mics-oriented projects that have resulted in Advisory Service publica-
tions. These are not included in the above listing because they are
not to be construed as research activities.










MARINE AND COASTAL ECONOMICS RESEARCH NEEDS


Mississippi-Alabama Sea Grant Consortium

Gainesville, Florida January 24-25, 1983

Due to the complexity of many emergent issues and questions, and
the mobility of the Gulf fishing fleet, the very fact that this confer-
ence was convened serves to reinforce the need for cooperation, coor-
dination, and a regional approach to many problems. This is not to
imply that all economic research should be forced into a regional
mold. When appropriate, concerted efforts should be made to adopt
similar methodologies and techniques capable of being interpreted in
a manner that allows aggregation of results.

The concept of total utilization of the catch of Gulf trawlers is one
area that might be explored. The need for economic analysis and
development of cost-efficient methods of handling, storage, proces-
ing, and marketing of the many under-utilized species that would
be considered in such an undertaking would provide a formidable
task. Consideration of both domestic and foreign markets is required.

If total utilization of catch were to become feasible it would also
be necessary to investigate the potential for centrally located
seafood industrial complexes. The number, size, and location of
such complexes could be a critical factor in determining the long-
term viability of the Gulf seafood industry.

The Gulf fisheries are extremely energy intensive. Increased fuel
prices have adversely impacted the entire Gulf fishing industry.
For maximum effectiveness, it is necessary that economic analysis
be an integral part of any changes and modifications in vessel and
power plant design, gear modification, and changes in fishing strat-
egy. Additional economic analysis of vessel operation is highly desir-
able and will be required as changes occur.

Increases in oil and gas exploration and production activity in
both state and federal waters with the accompanying impact on
coastal regions is an area that might benefit from Sea Grant
economics research. The increased demands that will be placed on
communities to provide services because of this activity include
police and fire protection, schools, roads, and other generally
accepted public services. In addition to these demands, the need to
protect the environment from the possible adverse effects of both
exploration and production activities should be weighed against the
beneficial impacts in terms of employment, tax revenue, and general
economic development.

Although seafood market development activities have been conducted
for a number of years and have been quite successful, an increase
in the resources devoted to these efforts could provide a main
thrust area for Sea Grant economists. Both domestic and export
markets could be substantially increased with a concerted long-term
effort. To a large extent this would require an educational process,
an area in which Sea Grant is particularly well suited.










Sea Grant Economics Research
at
Louisiana State University

The Sea Grant funded marine economics research at Louisiana State
University was first funded in 1978. Funding has been continuous since
that initial project. Research projects change somewhat annually, but
exist within a program concept. That concept is to develop information
for use by the marine advisory program in conducting educational programs
and responding to unsolicited requests. There is no graduate training
either through classes or preparation of theses involved. Research is
conducted through commitment of 1.4 faculty FTE.

The 1978-81 period involved micro level research on the characteris-
tics of commercial fishermen and the harvesting aspects of the marine
fishing industry. During the period the fisheries analyzed were inshore
shrimp, offshore shrimp, the combination inshore-offshore shrimp and blue
crab. The research on the blue crab fishery included both production and
marketing. Crabbers were shown to participate in direct marketing to
such a large degree that landings in one watershed could exceed reported
landings by a factor of six.

In 1982 two new research efforts were initiated. Both projects
represent departures from the previous harvest level research of commer-
cial fisheries at LSU. An econometric model of the US shrimp market was
developed to identify market changes and their role in price determina-
tion. Future emphasis is anticipated in using the model to forecast
shrimp prices. The second project involved analysis of the use of off-
shore petroleum structures as sport diving sites. Use patterns, travel
costs, equipment investment, and other elements of diver use were iden-
tified. Willingness to pay for use of structures as dive sites was esti-
mated through the contingent valuation method.

The oyster industry is the next fishery to be researched. Inten-
tions are to compare economic factors between leased grounds and public
grounds.

Reports are available on all the completed projects referred to
above.


Contact: Kenneth J. Roberts
Mark E. Thompson
504-388-1558


r










Emerging Economics Research Needs: Marine and Coastal


prepared by: Kenneth J. Roberts
Mark E. Thompson
Center for Wetland Resources
Louisiana State University


Given the limited manpower and funding support, base research needs
in the southeast do not have to be lengthy to cross the dividing line
between the practical and abstract. There are opportunities in recrea-
tional use of fisheries, commercial harvest and marketing, the public
management involved with both, aquaculture, use of wetlands and water-
ways, and the relationship of marine based industries within communities.
Priority setting within and between these categories should occur at the
point where all opportunities can be weighed simultaneously at the point
a decision is faced. Some research should have priority for reasons other
than current needs. Reasons for this approach include building an exper-
tise base, developing an analytical method or anticipating a need that
will emerge in the future.

With no implication of priority intended by the order of the following,
a few of the interesting issues include:

A. Commercial and recreational interaction
1. less emphasis on species or issue by issue analysis
and more emphasis on grouping of speices: a) those
that are exclusively gamefish, b) those that are
exclusively commercial, c) multiple users,
2. identify the similar and unique techniques of analysis
applicable to the users,
3. enter into normative analyses of new alternatives:
a) under what conditions would limited entry of com-
mercial fishers be preferable as a means to reduce
catch than gear regulation or total exclusion of
commercial harvest, b) specify gear by which jointly
used commercial-sport resources can be harvested and
then allow anyone to sell the fish.
B. Commercial harvesting and marketing
1. much of the research on major fisheries is ten years
old, updates will be needed,
L. small boat fishery and part-time fishery aspects of
resource use need analysis because of the different
response to cost and revenue stimuli than traditionally
analyzed commercial fisheries;
3. the astounding growth and certain expansion of shrimp
culture in Central and South America needs to be in-
corporated in shrimp supply structure, prices, etc.
research.
C. Wetlands loss and proposed remedies along with the certain
yet subtle changes in water quality.
D. Studies of coastal economies as competition for fishery
resources increases, traditional industries decline and
new opportunities arise.







WADE GRIFFIN
RECENT RESEARCH IN FISHERIES ECONOMICS
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY

1979 1982


Research in fisheries economics

that time, 58 publications have been

series and aquaculture. In addition,

their M.S. or Ph.D. theses related to

Eight graduate students are presently

tural Economics with special emphasis


has been carried on since 1971. Since

produced related to commercial fish-

10 graduate students have completed

commercial fisheries or aquaculture.

working on their degree in Agricul-

in fisheries.


Computer Modeling

* A general bioeconomic fishery simulation model (GBFSM) has been devel-

oped to predict the effect of alternative management policies on a fish-

ery.

An aquacultural budget simulator system (ABSS) has been developed that

enables the user to build and operate an aquaculture or mariculture

facility. ABSS was developed to provide a tool for economic research

efforts concerning aquaculture.

* A vessel budget simulator system (VBSS) has been developed that en-

ables a user to select and equip a vessel to be operated in any fish-

ing ground normally frequented by U.S. owned vessels.



Commercial Fisheries

* The impact of alternative management schemes on the shrimp fishery of

the eastern Gulf of Mexico was analyzed using GBFSM. Demand equation

were estimated and incorporated into GBFSM.









* Using the GBFSM, six management alternatives proposed by management

plans or state legislation were evaluated for the Texas shrimp fish-

ery.

* Cost and return budgets for Texas shrimp vessels have been developed

using VBSS.

* An econometric analysis of shrimp imports was completed. This was

incorporated into a simulation model to determine the impact of import

restrictions on the shrimp industry.

* A survey of shrimp dealers documented the dockside pricing arrange-

ments for shrimp and concentration among buyers within ports.

* A survey of crab fisherman in Texas was designed and carried out.

Further data collection and analysis are underway including analysis

of consumption survey data.



Mariculture

* Growth equations incorporating harvest density were estimated for two

species of shrimp. Using simulation techniques these growth equations

were used to determine which stocking density and croping patterns are

most economically efficient.

* The ABSS was used to generate cost and returns budgets for maturation

and hatchery facilities.

* A bio-engineering-economic computer model was developed that incorpo-

rated water quality parameters into growth of pond raised shrimp. Using

this model, economies of size in shrimp farming were determined.


1









Fisheries Development

* An analysis of 40 species was conducted to identify those with some

potential or priority for development. Several of these were selected

for more indepth review.

* Swordfish longlining in association with shrimp trawling was examined.

Economic and biological considerations indicated a limited potential

due to variability in the available stock and market channel limita-

tions.

* Analyses of other fisheries opportunities are being completed in-

cluding tuna, bottom-longlining and blue crab.








WADE GRIFFIN
FUTURE RESEARCH PLANS IN FISHERIES ECONOMICS
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY

1983 1986


Commercial Fisheries

* Forthcoming research will be to analyze the Texas closure, both in .the

short run and long run and to determine its impact on all participants

in the Gulf of Mexico shrimp fishery. In addition to addressing ques-

tion on landings and value of landings, issues relating to discards,

costs, distribution of profits, and capital investment will be consid-

ered.

* The vessel budget simulation system (VBSS) will be used to generate

cost and return budgets for vessels by class of vessel and home port

for years 1981, 1982, and 1983.

* Probabilistic cash flows for investing in and operating a shrimp ves-

sel will be estimated using FLIPSIM IV to analyze management decisions

under risk and uncertainty.



Aquaculture

* The aquaculture budget simulation system (ABSS) will be used to develop

cost of obtaining seedstock from sourcing and then producing PL's in a

hatchery.

* Budget already developed for a maturation/hatchery will be updated.

The sourcing/hatchery system will be compared with the maturation/hatch-

ery system to determine which is the least cost system of producing

PL's.

* Growth equations will be estimated from the most recent data available.









The equations will be incorporated into a simulation model and optimum

control techniques will be used to determine optimum stocking density,

number of crops produced, number of ponds, and relative size of ponds

for different species, monoculture, polyculture, and type of crops pro-

duced.

* A simulation model (FLIPSIM IV) will be used to determine the probabil-

ity of a shrimp farm being an economic success and remaining solvent

over a ten year planning horizon.










NATIONAL SEA GRANT
ACTIVITIES
IN
MARINE ECONOMICS

Francis M. Schuler

Introduction

The goal of the marine economics program is to provide useful
economic information and analysis consistent with the Sea Grant mandate
to further the development and management of our Nation's ocean and Great
Lakes resources. This report examines the economics program in that
context. Historically, Sea Grant has supported marine economics research
at between eight and ten percent of the total research budget. Currently
the program is funded at the upper end of the historical range.

The Program

The FY 1982 marine economics program consisted of 57 projects, with
Federal support amounting to almost S1.6 million, a level nearly
identical to the FY 1981 figure. This total includes $155 thousand in
pass-through funding from other agencies which is about a one-third drop
from the previous year's amount. With matching funds of $892 thousand
added in, the total program actually showed a modest three percent
increase from last year. Twenty-three Sea Grant institutions currently
participate in the marine economics research program, and at least 15
institutions have an economics extension effort in their Marine Advisory
Service.

Sea Grant economists in the program are studying a range of resource
issues in fisheries management and development, aquaculture, marine
recreation, coastal zone resources, marine minerals and energy, marine
transportation, and marine pollution. Table 1 provides a full breakdown
of the marine economics projects by subject area, with a detailed listing
of the individual projects in each subject area given in the Appendix.

Trends

The economic program's total dollar level hasn't changed
significantly from the last year's, but the distribution within the
program by subject areas has. Sea Grant awarded fewer resources for
economic studies dealing with fisheries, aquaculture, and marine
recreation, and significantly fewer for marine economics education.
Three to four fold increases were registered in research support for the
economic evaluation of coastal resources, especially land and water use
issues, for marine minerals questions, and for marine transportation
studies.

Federal Sea Grant dollars in the economics category of fisheries
management and development are down by one-fifth from last year, and only
a large increase in the matching contributions kept the program funded
near last year's level. Aquaculture funding is half of what it was last









TABLE 1
MARINE ECONOMICS PROJECTS
BY SUBJECT AREA, 1982


SUBJECT AREA


1. Fisheries Management and
Development

2. Aquaculture

3. Marine Recreation

4. Coastal Zone Resources

5. Marine Minerals and Energy

6. Marine Transportation

7. Marine Pollution

8. Marine Economics Education


TOTAL


NO OF
PROJECTS


25


3

8

6

4

7

1

3


57


SEA GRANT
(Thou 5)

768.9


32.8

261.6

95.2

209.3

127.2

35.2

50.1


1,580.21/


1/ $154.5K Pass-through included in total

32


MATCH.
(Thou $*)
550.7


23.9

123.5

48.4

35.6

83.3

18.1

8.3


891.8









year, and the part of marine recreation research dealing with sports
fishing is off one-third. These three categories in past years amounted
to 75 percent of the economics program. This year they account for only
60 percent. This might reflect in part a response to guidance seeking to
extricate Sea Grant from routine studies done in support of the fisheries
management process. But the more likely reason is the growing
willingness of Sea Grant programs to pursue economics research in areas
outside of fisheries. Economists are using this opportunity to apply
economic analysis to the non-traditional areas for Sea Grant of land and
water use, transportation, and mining. And based upon my reading of
proposals under review for FY 1983 funding, I don't believe this to be a
one year anomoly.

Performance

Sea Grant has spawned a pattern in the area of fisheries which
continues to play a dominate role in shaping the economics program. Sea
Grant economists have received recognition within state and Federal
fishery management agencies for their contribution in providing economic
information and performing analyses useful to managing the harvesting
sector of the domestic and foreign fishing industry. This success often
leads to proposing further research needed for fisheries management and
justified on the basis of a growing involvement in the fishery management
process. Often the additional work speaks more to the trappings of the
management process, offering perhaps only marginal improvements over what
is already known or applying the same analysis to a succession of lesser
important species. The continuing development of the domestic seafood
industry is a goal consistent with the Sea Grant legislation and national
fisheries policy. Yet our research emphasis remains too heavily on the
harvest side of the industry, largely because of our entrainment with the
fishery management process, to make any real contribution to the very
large part of the seafood industry that exists beyond dockside. Sea
Grant needs to support more research which treats fish as a product of
commerce rather than as a natural resource of interest because of its
common property nature. Fewer than one-third of the current Sea Grant
projects in fisheries economics extend beyond dockside, and even the
majority of these have their center of gravity in the harvesting sector.

One exciting development along these lines spured by Sea Grant is
the establishment of an International Institute to facilitate cooperative
research in seafood trade. For several years Sea Grant funded a project
at Oregon State to study seafood trade issues through the cooperative
efforts of economists from seafood-trading countries. Economists from
several European countries, Canada, Japan, and the United States funded
by their respective institutions undertook to improve our understanding
of the way in which international seafood markets work and of factors
which influence trade flows and world prices. Membership in the
cooperative research effort continued to grow, and in September, 1982,
the Pacific Sea Grant Colleges sponsored the First International Seafood
Trade Conference. Attendees, 150 in all, from 21 nations gathered in
Anchorage, Alaska to discuss research issues related to the seafood trade
situation in'various countries. The Conference gave rise to the
International Institute, a network of economists and other researchers
from countries around the world organized to exchange data and









in cooperative research efforts. Plans are underway to put the Institute
on a firm footing independent of Sea Grant support.

Aquaculture is receiving only minimal attention by Sea Grant
economists. Of the three projects funded, only the shrimp mariculture
economics work in Texas is actually associated with an on-going
mariculture development effort. The Sea Grant Aquaculture Plan
recognizes the need for economic input in three related areas -
feasibility analyses, production, and marketing. Feasibility analyses
are broad scale looks early-on at the commercial viability of proposed
mariculture development efforts. The objective should be to separate the
hopeful proposals from the hopeless, and for the hopeful ones, to help
identify research areas with the greatest potential to reduce costs or
increase revenues. Mariculture development projects that move into the
early technical and later pilot scale development should be associated
with an economic analysis of production. At these stages research aimed
at incremental improvement of technical subsystems must consider the
economic gains from expected improvements vs. the anticipated costs of
achieving the gains. Analysis of prawn farming in Hawaii suggest some
real gains from mechanization of feeding and harvesting. Also, at this
stage, new technical information might bear on the earlier assumptions of
the feasibility study. In Delaware, for example, data on the cost of
algae production and results from growth studies clearly suggest that the
seed oyster market rather than the adult oyster market is a more sensible
concept to build the production system around. In some aquaculture
ventures, market development rather than technical problems will be the
limiting factor. Here studies of market infrastructure, product demand,
and market growth potential are duly applicable.

The economics of marine recreation, covering sports fishing,
boating, and recreation and tourism continues to be an important research
area. A full discussion of the current program can be found in the
report on the Sea Grant marine recreation program.

The real growth areas in the marine economics program are in marine
transportation, coastal resource use, and marine mining areas; this
reflecting a shift into new areas of opportunity. Sea Grant is currently
trying to structure a program in marine transportation, an area which has
not received much Sea Grant support in the past. Recognizing the poor
financial shape of much of the industry, and of the inadequate ports and
harbors infrastructure, Sea Grant economists are beginning to take a new
look at this industry particularly on the West Coast and the Great
Lakes. The kinds of research now supported represent a reasonable step
in helping to get a Sea Grant transportation program underway, although
the set of economics projects lacks direction. A Sea Grant Marine
Transportation Workshop to be held in the early part of 1983 should help
to give direction to this subprogram. An early observation, stemming from
review of the FY 82 projects and reading of the FY 83 proposals, is that
we have been asked several times to support research on the competitive
position in domestic and world markets of locally available commodities
(such as lumber and coal) where marine transportation questions are only
incidental to the analysis. Sea Grant support would be better used to
focus on the economic and technical questions related to handling the
commodity in water-borne commerce. Where a complete analysis of a









commodity's competitiveness is needed, it should be done cooperatively
with the interested industry.

The economics program in marine minerals is developing nicely, with
work currently underway looking at OCS accelerated oil and gas leasing,
deep sea polymetallic sulfides, and the institutional and industry
structure of the early seabed nodule mining industry. Sea Grant should
continue to support this research, especially that dealing with
polymetallic sulfides despite the very long lead time anticipated before
commercialization. Sea Grant's early work with the economics of
manganese nodules provides a standard that seems applicable here. There,
the calibration of economic models of the potential industry went through
several iterations, each based on input from industry, government, and
interested researchers. The resultant product was a very useful tool for
policy analysis in both international and domestic deep seabed mining
deliberations.

The coastal resources subprogram area in the economics program is
relatively small, but one of recently renewed interest dealing mainly
with water and coastal land use issues. This subprogram has not taken on
a distinct focus, except that all the studies deal in some way with
questions related to the valuation of land and water resources as now
allocated or under alternative uses and different property rights. For
example, what will be the likely development patterns for barrier islands
with the removal of federal flood insurance; or what is the value of
Great Lakes water redistributed to other regions relative to its value to
the Great Lakes region. Studies of this genre face difficult
methodological problems, and often the contributions come from developing
innovative analytical techniques and less from definitive results. This
isn't a problem, and along with marine recreation economics, represent
areas where Sea Grant should be willing to support economics as a
discipline.

The marine pollution subprogram in economics is phasing down,
perhaps mirroring a similar but less rapid decrease in Sea Grant's marine
pollution technical research program. This reduced emphasis seems
appropriate, although we should be alert to opportunities in the still
unsettled question of the value of the ocean for solid waste and
hazardous materials disposal. The sharp reduction in marine economics
education currently leaves mostly outreach activities in this category
rather than formal curriculum development support. This is as it should
be.

Future Directions

The major need of the economics program is a shift to give emphasis
to the non-harvesting sectors of the seafood industry. Questions about
the effectiveness of techniques to shift demand to fish products such as
generic advertising, and to expand markets through export promotion; the
economics of instituting industry standards and price premiums for
quality; domestic market and world seafood trade issues; and research
analyzing the performance of the seafood industry within the context of
the U.S. food industry are a few examples of the kind of studies that
might take us in a new direction. And without question, there will still
be room for supporting innovative studies of the harvesting sector.








In aquaculture we should look for a better coupling between our
major aquaculture development efforts and economic evaluation, although
the best time to bring an economist to the team will vary depending upon
whether the effort is technology limited or market limited or both. The
economics subprogram in marine mining is sound and on track, as is marine
recreation, especially recreational fishing. A priority for the coming
year will be to get a clearer direction for the marine transportation
economics subprogram area.










MARINE ECONOMICS


TITLE/INVES./INST.


1. FISHERIES MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT

A SPATIAL EQUILIBRIUM TRADE MODEL FOR THE KING AND
TANNER CRAB FISHERIES
GORHAM, A.H. (14)
UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA, FAIRBANKS

AN ECONOMIC PROFILE OF THE SOUTHEAST ALASKA SALMON
INDUSTRY
LARSON (14)
UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA, FAIRBANKS

ANALYSIS OF INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION OF COMMERCIAL
PACIFIC MARINE FISHERY MARKETS
GAROYAN, L. (14)
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS

STATISTICAL FORECASTING METHODS FOR FISHERIES
MANAGEMENT
WILEN, J.E. AND R.E. HOWITT (48)
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS


THE DISTRIBUTION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE 1980 CIF $
MODEL AND THE REFINEMENT OF USER-ORIENTED COMPUTER
PROGRAMS
KING (14)
SAN DIEGO STATE UNIVERSITY


THE INFLUENCE OF MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES AND
REGULATORY POLICIES ON THE PRODUCTION AND MARKETING
OF LONG ISLAND SOUND OYSTERS
HUFFMIRE, MADELYN AND LANCE STEWART AND (14)
MARILYN ALTOBELLO
UNIVERSITY OF CONNECTICUT, GROTON

SIMULATION OF UNIFIED AND MULTIPURPOSE FLEETS IN
MULTISTOCK FISHERIES
ANDERSON, L. (14)
UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE


9,070 $


44,082


10,000 $


$ 22,294 $ 25,931



$ 12,586 $ 12,554


12,749 $


5,360


$ 41,603 $ 22,869


$ 83,152 $


35,780


FED
FUNDS


MATCHING
FUNDS


------~-------- 1











FED
TITLE/INVES./INST. FUNDS


ECONOMICS OF SEAFOOD AND FISHING INDUSTRIES IN
FLORIDA
PROCHASKA, FRED AND JAMES CATO
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE

ECONOMICS OF FISHERIES UTILIZATIN FOR USE IN
MANAGEMENT AND EXTENSION PROGRAMS
ROBERTS, K.J. AND M.E. THOMPSON
LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY


$ 71,200


72,900


(14)


$ 37,910 $ 23,064


(14)


LIMITED ENTRY: ISSUES OF EFFICIENCY AND EQUITY
WILSON, JAMES A. AND RALPH E. TOWNSEND (14)
UNIVERSITY OF MAINE/UNIVERSITY OF NEW HAMPSHIRE SEA

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SHRIMP OPERATION,
MISSISSIPPI-ALABAMA COASTAL COUNTIES
NISSAN, E. AND D. WILLIAMS (14)
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI

EVALUATION OF SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF TWO
INNOVATIONS IN NEW JERSEY COMMERCIAL FISHERIES
MCCAY, BONNIE J. (14)
RUTGERS UNIVERSITY

COSTS AND RETURNS IN THE OTTER TRAWL FLEET ON LONG
ISLAND, NEW YORK
CONRAD, J.M. (14)
CORNELL UNIVERSITY

THE ROLES OF COOPERATIVES IN FISH MARKETING
EVIDENCE FROM MAINE AND NEW HAMPSHIRE
HESSER (14)
STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK / CORNELL UNIVERSITY


MODELS FOR FISHERY MANAGEMENT
EASLEY, J.E.
NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY, RALEIGH

ECONOMIC VALUE OF OHIO'S LAKE ERIE FISHERIES
HUSHAK, LEROY J. AND DOUGLAS D. SOUTHGATE
OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY-

MARKET ANALYSES FOR PACIFIC GROUNDFISH
RETTIG, R.B. AND R. JOHNSTON AND F. SMITH
OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY


(14)



(14)


(14)


$ 26,856 $ 9,322

GRANT PROGRAM

$ 20,888 $ 11,240


$ 13,000 $ 7,600


15,014 $ 76,011


$ 5,550 $


$ 40,571 $ 23,033


$ 26,100 $


13,100


$ 44,000 $ 5.9,000


MATCHING
FUNDS










FED
TITLE/INVES./INST. FUNDS


ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL
MARKETING OF PACIFIC COAST SEAFOODS
JOHNSTON, R.S. AND F. SMITH AND B. RETTIG
OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY


$ 23,200 $


6,300


(14)


MONITORING DEVELOPMENTS IN U.S. AND CANADIAN NORTH
ATLANTIC FISHERIES.
DIRLAM (14)
UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND


ECONOMIC MODELS FOR FISHERIES DECISION MAKERS
GATES, JOHN AND JON SUTINEN
UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND


(14)


5,265 $


$ 77,794 $ 34,802


IMPACTS OF GROUNDFISH IMPORTS ON THE DOMESTIC
GROUNDFISH INDUSTRY: AN IMPLIED WELFARE ANALYSIS
CRUTCHFIELD, STEPHEN (14)
UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND


ECONOMICS OF TEXAS COMMERCIAL FISHERY
GRIFFIN, WADE L. AND WILLIAM E. GRANT
TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY, COLLEGE STATION


(14)


ALTERNATIVE FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR VIRGINIA'S
CHESAPEAKE BAY FISHERY: AN ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT
SHABMAN, LEONARD A. AND ORAL CAPPS, JR. (14)
VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE AND STATE UNIVERSITY

SALMON FISHERY MANAGEMENT IN WASHINGTON UNDER
LICENSE LIMITATIONS: EFFECTS AND POLICY OPTIONS OF
LIMITED ENTRY.
WOOSTER (14)
UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, SEATTLE


WORLD FISHERIES AFTER 200-MILE ECONOMIC ZONE
KACZYNSKI, WLADZIMIERZ
UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, SEATTLE


SUBTOTAL -----------


(14)


$ 34,500 $



$ 78,080 $


0



37,981


$ 40,000 $ 27,796



$ 6,500 $ 2,000


$ 11,010 $


$ 768,892 $ 550,725


2. AQUACULTURE


ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF AQUACULTURE ON
COMMERCIAL FISHERIES
JOHNSTON ET AL (14)
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS


$ 10,461 $


MATCHING
FUNDS


11,490









FED
TITLE/INVES./INST. FUNJOS


ECONOMICS OF COMMERCIAL SHRIMP MARICULTURE
GRIFFIN, WADE L. AND WILLIAM GRANT
TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY, COLLEGE STATION


PROPOSAL FOR EVALUATING THE FEASIBILITY OF A SALMON S
AQUACULTURE COOPERATIVE.
NORBY (14)
UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON SEA GRANT COLLEGE PROGRAM


SUBTOTAL ------------------------------ $


$ 18,950 $ 10,065


( 1)


3,350 $


2,300


32,761 $ 23,855


3. MARINE RECREATION


AN ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF RECREATIONAL SALMON
FISHING IN THE KENAI/RUSSIAN RIVER REGION
LARSON, D.M. (1,
UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA, FAIRBANKS

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE GREATER JACKSONVILLE KING
MACERAL FISHING TOURNAMENT.
MILON (1
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE


$ 48,005 $


$ 1,090 $


4)


AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF FLORIDA'S RECREATIONAL
MARINAS AND BOATYARDS
MILON, J.W. AND D.W. MULKEY AND J.R. GORDON (14)
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF ANGLING FOR GREAT LAKES FISH IN
MICHIGAN
TALHELM, D.R. AND SCOTT JORDAN (19)
MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY

MICHIGAN GREAT LAKES RECREATIONAL BOATING--DEMAND,
SUPPLY, MARKETING, ECONOMIC IMPACT
STYNES, 0. AND D.F. HOLECEK (19)
MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY

RECREATION INDUSTRY-ACTIVITY CLUSTER ASSESSMENTS
FOR RECREATION RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
MAKI, WILBUR R. (19)
UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA, TWIN CITIES


$ 69,300 $, 59,800


29,014 $


31,000 $ 17,570


$ 13,145 $ 3,511


MATCHING
FUNDS


5,474


2,800


L


4)










FED
TITLE/INVES./INST. FUNDS


FACTORS AFFECTING TOURISM POTENTIAL ON THE GREAT
LAKES COAST
BROWN, T.L. AND H.B. BRUMSTED (1
CORNELL UNIVERSITY

RECREATIONAL FISHING IN THE SOUNDS OF NORTH
CAROLINA: A SOCIOECONOMIC ANALYSIS
FRICKE, P.H. (1I
EAST CAROLINA UNIVERSITY, GREENVILLE


$ 12,933 $ 6,597


9)


$ 57,072 $ 27,778


$ 261,559 $ 123,530


4. COASTAL ZONE RESOURCES


THE SOCIAL VALUATION OF WETLANDS
WINGO
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA


(38)


SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF COASTAL ZONE
DEVELOPMENT ON THE HARD CLAM AND OYSTER FISHERIES
IN NORTH CAROLINA
MAIOLO, J.R. (20)
EAST CAROLINA UNIVERSITY, GREENVILLE

VALUATION OF UNDEVELOPED LAND AROUND THE RHODE
ISLAND COASTAL PONDS: ESTIMATION AND POLICY
IMPLICATIONS.
ANDERSON (14)
UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND

PROJECTION OF THE COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE
DEVELOPMENT TO RESULT FROM CHANGES IN AVAILABILITY
AND COST OF THE FEDERAL FLOOD INSURANCE PROGRAM
GRIEPENTROG, GARY L. AND JAMES P. GAINES (38)
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA


$ 3,319 $


$ 14,132 $


6,889


$ 9,593 $


$ 18,900 $ 15,100


USER FEES FOR COASTAL RESOURCES: ISSUES OF
APPLICATION AND IMPLEMENTATION
TOMPKINS, MARK E.
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA

MANAGEMENT OF GREAT LAKES WATER
JOERES, ERHARD AND M. DAVID AND K. POTTER
UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN, MADISON


$ 10,700 $ 5,900


(38)


(20)


$ 38,517 $ 20,555


SUBTOTAL ------------------------------


MATCHING
FUNDS


SUBTOTAL ------------------------------


)


$ 95,161 $


48,444











FED
FUNDS


TITLE/INVES./INST.


5. MARINE MENERALS AND ENERGY

EXPLORING OPTIONS IN THE ACCELERATED OCS OIL AND $
GAS LEASING PROGRAM
LESCHINE, THOMAS M. AND PRICE AND SILVA (39) *$
WOODS HOLE OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION

AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE AND $
BEHAVIOR IN THE EMERGING SEABED MINING INDUSTRY
BROADUS, J.M. (14)
WOODS HOLE OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION

ECONOMIC AND LEGAL ASPECTS OF DEEP SEA POLYMETALLIC $
SULFIDES
BROADUS, J. AND R. BOWEN AND K. SHUSTERICH (10)
AND M.J. MOTTL
WOODS HOLE OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION

OCEAN MINING ALTERNATIVES $
FLIPSE, JOHN E. (28) *$
TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY, COLLEGE STATION


0 $ 20,609

34,500


24,900 $


29,900 $ 15,003


0
120,000


209,300 $ 35,612


SEA GRANT FUNDS: $ 54,80(

*PASS-THROUGH FUNDS: $ 154,501

6. MARINE TRANSPORTATION

COASTAL TRANSIT SERVICE OPTIONS AND POLICY $
BANKS, J.H. AND F.P. STUTZ (19)
SAN DIEGO STATE UNIVERSITY

PACIFIC RIM TRADE RELATIONS AND MARITIME COMMERCE $
ON THE COLUMBIA/SNAKE NAVIGATION SYSTEM
JONES, J.R. AND K.L. CASAVANT (37)
UNIVERSITY OF IDAHO

IMPACTS OF PORT USER CHARGES ON DULUTH SUPERIOR AND $
SURROUNDING REGIONS
FRUIN (14)
MINNESOTA SEA GRANT INSTITUTE


0

0
3


30,505 $


26,680


27,800 $ 23,500


4,995 $


4,193


MATCHING
FUNDS


SUBTOTAL


$











FED
TITLE/INVES./INST. FUNDS


ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE COMPETITIVE POSITION OF
NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS COAL EXPORTED THROUGH GREAT
LAKES PORTS
FRUIN, JERRY E. AND CHARLES L. ELDRIDGE (14)
UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA, TWIN CITIES

AN ANALYSIS OF PROPOSED CHANGES IN U.S. SHIPPING
LEGISLATION; THEIR GENERAL EFFECTS AND THEIR
EFFECTS ON TRADE IN THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN
MILES, EDWARD AND STEPHEN GIBBS (20)
UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, SEATTLE

MANAGEMENT INSTITUTIONS OF THE COLUMBIA RIVER
WATERS
WANDSCHNEIDER, P.R. (20)
WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY


GREAT LAKES TRANSPORTATION IN THE 1980S
SCHENKER, ERIC AND H. MAYER AND R. HEILMANN
UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN, MILWAUKEE


SUBTOTAL ----------


(37)


$ 20,053 $ 7,516


$ 6,902 $


$ 11,800 $ 7,200


$ 25,152 $ 14,217


$ 127,207 $


83,306


7. MARINE POLLUTION


TRANSFERABLE DISCHARGE PERMITS: IMPLEMENTATION
STUDIES
DAVID (20)
WISCONSIN SEA GRANT COLLEGE PROGRAM


$ 35,232 $ 18,051


8. MARINE ECONOMICS EDUCATION


THE APPLICATION OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY IN MARINE
ECONOMICS
SMITH, F.J. AND D. LANGMO AND J. STANDER AND (77)
R. JOHNSTON
OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY

WORKSHOP ON UNCERTAINTY AND FISHERIES ECONOMICS
SUTINEN (74)
UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND


$ 35,600 $ 8,300


$ 8,000 $


MATCHING
FUNDS


I











FED
FUNDS


TITLE/INVES./INST.


APPLIED-MARINE ECONOMICS
BRAY, JAMES N.
UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, SEATTLE


(14)


SUBTOTAL -----------



GRAND TOTAL

TOTAL SEA GRANT FUNDS: $ 1,4

*TOTAL PASS-THROUGH FUNDS: $ 1


$ 6,472 $ 0




$ 50,072 $ 8,300



$ 1,580,184 $ 891,823


25,684

54,500


MATCHING
FUNDS


r












Richard Raulerson
Summary of Economic Activity

in the Southeast Regional Office of NMFS


Economic activity of the Southeast Regional Office is mainly an advisory
or staff effort. Three people with economics training are currently available
in the Regional Office and they have the following duties in the economics
area.

Mike Justen works for the Associate Regional Director for Fisheries
Management (Paul Leach) and writes or assists in the writing and/or evaluation
of Regulatory Impact Reviews of Fishery Management Plans (FMP's) and associated
documents or parts of FMP's.

Richard Raulerson works for the Associate Regional Director Fisheries
Development (Jack Greenfield) and provides internal feasibility analysis of
in-house fishery development projects and programs and some overview analysis
of the economic implications of the S-K grants program. Formal comments are
made on FMP's from an economics viewpoint for the purpose of pointing out
inadvertent or avoidable negative impacts on stable or developing fisheries
which could result from fishery management measures. An ad-hoc manuscript
or project review service is provided for any interested party on a time-
permitting basis.

John Brown is an IPA formally contracted from the South Carolina Sea
Grant Consortium and works for the Chief, Fisheries Development Analysis
Branch (Richard Raulerson). He provides benefit/cost analyses and economic
feasibility analyses for all food process-related research of the Charleston
Laboratory, Southeast Fisheries Center, and is located on-site. Analyses
are provided during the project selection process for all proposals, during
the life of projects and following the termination of projects. The purpose
of the analysis is to help in the efficient allocation of a fixed research
budget, to provide guidance at key decision points during the life of a
project and to provide a determination of the economic feasibility of the
application of research results by the seafood industry or others. Occa-
sionally, a specific project analysis results in a publishable output or
paper with little additional effort. Some effort is also devoted to economic
analysis of joint industry/NMFS or Sea Grant/NMFS efforts associated with the
Experimental Processing Laboratory located at Charleston.








LIST OF PARTICIPANTS


Each Sea Grant Program was represented by economists nominated by
the Sea Grant Director from that state. In addition, the Office of
Sea Grant and the National Marine Fisheries Service sent representatives.
All are listed below.

Chairmen

James C. Cato Florida Sea Grant
B.J. Copeland North Carolina Sea Grant

Sea Grant

James Easley North Carolina State University
Leon Abbas North Carolina State University
Vito Blomo East Carolina University
Jim Hite Clemson University
Ron North University of Georgia
Fred Lyda University of Georgia
Walter Milon University of Florida
Fred Prochaska University of Florida
Fred Bell Florida State University (unable to attend)
William Hosking Auburn University
Ken Roberts Louisiana State University
Mark Thompson Louisiana State University
Wade Griffin Texas A&M University
John Nichols Texas A&M University
Ron Grulich Virginia Institute of Marine Science
Frances Schuler Office of Sea Grant

National Marine Fisheries Service

John Poffenberger Southeast Fisheries Center
Mort Miller Washington Office
Richard Raulerson Southeast Region




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