SAIL-ASSISTED COMMERCIAL MARINE VEHICLES
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND ABSTRACTS
John W. Shortall III, NA ,
; *' -. .- /
TECHNICAL PAPER NO. 28
SAIL-ASSISTED COMMERCIAL MARINE VEHICLES
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND ABSTRACTS
John W. Shortall III, NA
Technical Paper No. 28
University of South Florida
College of Engineering
Tampa, Florida 33620
Technical Papers are duplicated in limited quantities for specialized
audiences requiring rapid access to information and may receive only limited
editing. This paper was complied by the Florida Sea Grant College with
support from NOAA Office of Sea Grant, U.S. Department of Commerce, grant
number NA80AA-D-00038. It was published by the Marine Advisory Program
which functions as a component of the Florida Cooperative Extension Service,
John T. Woeste, Dean, in conducting Cooperative Extension work in Agri-
culture, Home Economics, and Marine Sciences, State of Florida, U.S.
Department of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Commerce, and Boards of
County Commissioners, cooperating. Printed and distributed in furtherance
of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 14, 1914. The Florida Sea Grant
College is an Equal Employment Opportunity-Affirmative Action employer
authorized to provide research, educational information and other services
only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race,
color, sex, or national origin.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
COMMERCIAL SAIL A GENERAL DISCUSSION...................1
ALTERNATIVE MARINE FUELS.................................2
SPEED COMPARISON HISTORICAL & MODERN VESSELS.............3
MODERN SAILING SHIPS......................................4
MINI LACE AN EXAMPLE OF RETROFIT.......................4
CURRENT DESIGN APPROACHES AND THRUSTERS................. 4
GAPS IN KNOWLEDGE.......................................5
MAJOR COMMERCIAL SAIL & GENERAL SURVEY................12
HISTORICAL SURVEY COMMERCIAL SAILING CRAFT............19
CARGO AND PASSENGER COMMERCIAL SAILING SHIPS..........28
MODERN SAILING FISHING VESSELS........................44
SAILING WORK BOATS....................................64
ECONOMICS OF COMMERCIAL SAIL...........................72
TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS........................... 77
ADVANCED THRUSTERS AND SAIL RIGS...................... 84
PERFORMANCE PREDICTION AND WIND ROUTING...............92
RESEARCH VESSELS.... ................................. 98
SAFETY, STABILITY AND LEGAL...........................101
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SAIL-ASSISTED COMMERCIAL
FISHING VESSELS................... ..................... 104
The enclosed publication contains abstracts of 331
articles published on the subject of commercial sailing vessels
and sail-assisted work boats of all kinds. This is part of a
continuing project supported both by the University of South
Florida and the Florida Sea Grant College, and is an update of
the previous publication of abstracts, Florida Sea Grant
College Technical Paper No.24, May, 1982. Abstracts are
compiled regularly, and subsequent reports will be issued
periodically. This report also contains a brief discussion of
modern and historical commercial sail, the reasons for serious
interest in same, and commercial sailing fishing vessels.
In early, 1980, the Florida Sea Grant College approached
the University of South Florida, College of Engineering and
requested views on the holding of a conference on the subject
of commercial sail with financial backing from the Florida Sea
Grant College. After several discussions, it was agreed that it
first would be better to survey the literature thoroughly, seek
out gaps in information, make a recommendation as to whether
such a conference should be held and outline the areas which it
might address. The literature was more extensive than first
believed. The of
For ease of use, the abstracts have been divided into the
following twelve categories, each preceded by a brief
1. Major Commercial Sail and General Survey Reports
2. Historical Survey of Commercial Sailing Craft
3. Cargo and Passenger Commercial Sailing Ships
4. Modern Sailing Fishing Vessels
5. Sailing Work Boats
6. Economics of Commercial Sail
7. Technological Developments
8. Advanced Thrusters and Sail Rigs
9. Performance Prediction and Wind Routing
10. Research Vessels
11. Safety, Stability and Legal
11. Miscellaneous Applications
COMMERCIAL SAIL A GENERAL DISCUSSION
Out of the last 5000 years, the world has been without a
working sail fleet for only the past 50. This is not strictly
true, because kattumarams the progenitor of the modern
catamaran are the most widely used types of traditional craft
on the east coast of India. There are approximately 50,000
sailing kattumaram fishing boats versus 15,000 fishing craft of
As evidenced by the large number of abstracts, there is
considerable interest in the world in the prospect of
commercial sail. Information available here indicates that the
following countries are actively pursuing investigations into
the practicality and economics of commercial sail: Australia,
England, France, Germany, Greece, Norway, Netherlands, Sweden,
Japan, Soviet Union and the United States. The motivation, of
course, is the rapid escalation of petroleum-based fuel prices
in recent years. Figure 1, taken from Reference (5),
illustrates the dramatic rise in ship fuel costs and is
summarized in the following table:
BUNKER C FUEL OIL COST
1973 $ 2.70 per barrel
1990 200.00 est.
Engineers and others involved in the design and operation
of commercial marine vehicles have undertaken studies and
construction of vessels designed to utilize the wind and more
have been proposed. The major reports listed in the references
at the end of this section contain a wealth of information and
opinions on the subject of the use of the wind to propel
commercial marine vehicles.
ALTERNATIVE MARINE FUELS
Only four alternatives to petroleum have been identified
as being of possible economic and engineering practicality:
coal or its derivatives, nuclear fuel, wind and other means of
utilizing solar energy. Coal has shown clear economic
advantages, even over wind, for very large vessels in excess
of 25 to 30,000 tons. Due to governmental and private hysteria,
nuclear propulsion will probably not be implemented for
commercial propulsive use. There are no clearcut economic
applications of direct use of solar energy in the foreseeable
future for marine transportation. This leaves for consideration
a product of solar energy: the wind. The wind is free but
fickle. Often there is either too much or too little and
frequently it blows from the wrong direction. Nevertheless, its
application for marine transportation has been demonstrated
both by historical use as well as modern developments in
materials and thrusters. As compared with coal, use of the wind
is non-polluting, and there are no waste disposal problems. The
mining of coal also wreaks havoc with the environment. This
cost is often neglected by the economists who report favorably
on the widespread re-introduction of coal into the world's
SPEED COMPARISON HISTORICAL
NAME DWL DWT SAIL AREA
PREUSSEN 407' 8000 56000
CUTTY SARK 213 1500+
THERMOPYLAE 210 1400+
ONDINE III 72 36.6
KIALOA III 64 37.4
EVIANE (12m.) 45.5 26.8
MANUREVA 66.5 8.5 1480
SEASMOKE 48.5 9.5 1548
SEABIRD 35 3.2 880
PATTYCAT II 36.2 3.7
3 LEGS OF MANN 34
MODERN ENGINE DRIVEN FREIGHTER
900 100,000 ---
& MODERN SAILING VESSELS
SPEED 24 HR.RUN
17 kn. 370 N.M.
24850 15.1 363
25510 14.9 358
2650 12.2 293
2880 11.3 270
2200 9.8 235
890 13.2 316
2.0 590 14.2 340
MODERN SAILING SHIPS
Some of the pros and cons of such are given in the
1. Minimize cost dependence on oil.
2. More freight capacity since less fuel storage space.
3. More stable sails inhibit rolling.
4. Can maintain service speed a higher percentage
of time than conventional ships.
5. Have the potential to fulfill 50-75% of the
ocean transport needs.
1. Scheduling for port arrivals.
2. Apparent size limitation: 8000 15000 DWT.
3. Upwind tacking denied quadrant or more.
4. Ballast while empty gives extra weight to propel
and takes space.
5. Bridge heights at major ports limit mast heights.
6. Resistance to "new" concepts by management,
governments, operators, insurance firms and unions.
7. Overly restrictive licensing restrictions
particularly with regard to stability.
MINI LACE AN EXAMPLE OF SAIL RETROFIT
The Wind Ship Corporation in 1981 retrofitted the Greek
freighter MINI LACE with one 279 sq.m. (3000 sq.ft.) cat-rigged
sail on a free-standing, unstayed, rotating mast some 30.5 m.
(100 ft.) tall. The ship has already travelled some 10,000 sea
miles and has proven to have 20% or more fuel economy as
compared to identical vessels with engines only. The sail may
be trimmed and furled from the bridge or manually. MINI LACE
showed an unexpected side benefit: the ability to maintain full
service speed in wind and wave conditions which force
conventional ships to reduce speed. No increase in crew size
was necessary, and training in operation of the manual sail
controls was not a problem. A rigid wing sail is now being
designed for installation on a second ship, and if it proves
successful will be automated so it can also be controlled
remotely. It is expected to improve fuel economy at least
another 15 per cent. The figure illustrates the freestanding,
CURRENT DESIGN APPROACHES AND THRUSTERS
There are three current design approaches for commercial
sail: 1. retrofit of existing vessels with auxiliary sail
power. 2. adaptation of historical sailing ship technology
using modern materials. 3. totally new approaches to wind
Retrofit of existing vessels must be considered on a case
by case basis with a thorough evaluation of the economics
involved. All of today's boats and ships cannot be scrapped in
favor of wind technology. In some cases, retrofit can ve
clear advantages where sail provides extra horsepower to allc.
engines to be run at lower RPM and hence lower gallons per hour
of fuel useage. The advantage is clearly proportional to tha
length of the vessel's route and the presence of sufficient
winds from favorable directions. Some argue that the millenia
of man's experience with sailing craft of all kinds should be
utilized by returning to the designs of successful sailing
ships of 70 or more years ago with perhaps the substitution of
dacron for canvas and nylon for hemp. Other groups prefer to
consider all the ways in which energy in the wind might bu
converted to useful propulsion. Some thruster systems for
possible wind propulsion are sketched in Figure 2.
The Reference (5) study is probably the most thorough that
has been done on the whole subject of commercial sail and
represents the finest example of conceptual design ever seen by
the authors of this report. One conclusion of many of this
study is that of eight thruster systems studied, hard wing
sails represent the most practical and efficient at this timC.
Rotors and turbines were only ruled out because of lack of
data. See Figure 3 for a drawing of the solid wing mast as
advocated by the Windship Corporation.
GAPS IN KNOWLEDGE
It is unfortunate that details have not been published on
the French experiments with advanced wind thrusters. It sees
abundantly clear that research should be undertaken in the
U.S.A. on such potential high lift thrusters as Flettner and
Coanda rotors and wing sails. Even some modest static
experiments could provide a solid basis for a full-scale test
on a small commercial craft.
Originally, it was intended to include a cnatcory on
design engineering aspects of commercial sailing vessels. It
was decided to divide that field into wind thrusters and
technological developments, due to the potential significant
advantages of rotors and wing sails over conventional soft
sails and hence on the economics of commercial sail. Rotors
would likely be more advantageous for the retrofit of such
vehicles as commercial fishing boats. These subjects, and
others are to be discussed at the Reference 11 conference.
Major gaps also includes the lack of reports on such
significant areas as: banking, insurance, labor, unions and
government, all of which will have significant impact on
commercial sail. As one example, insurance rates for sailing
fishing vessels in the Pacific Northwest are somewhat less than
those for motorized craft, about the same in Virginia and more
in one case in New England. Another example is the rather
strict U.S. Coast Guard sLabiity criteria for commercial
sailing passenger vessels. Unlike many other countries, the
United States does not enforce stability criteria for fishing
vessels. These topics were addressed at the Reference 10
The writer wishes to express his appreciation to the many
who have contributed difficult-to-locate articles and
information such as: Alan Adler of Stanford University, Kathy
Hill and Captains Lane and Jesse Briggs of SAILA and the
"Norfolk Rebel", Lloyd Bergeson of Windship Corporation, Hugh
Lawrence of Ocean Carriers Corp., Dr. James H. Mays consultant
to Windship Corporation and now at Ocean Routes Corp., Jon Lucy
of Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Virginia Sea Grant
Program College of William and Mary, Cliff Goudey of MIT Sea
Grant, K.Lange of the Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Fischerei -
Hamburg, Germany, P.W. Ayling of the Royal Institution of Naval
Architects, Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers
Panel H13 for Sailing Vessel and Sailing Yacht Research and
many others. Even a brief perusal of the abstracts will reveal
the many articles published by the "National Fisherman", which
long has been publicizing developments in commercial sail.
1. "Feasibility of Sailing Ships for the American Merchant
Marine"; Woodward, Beck, Scher and Cary. University of Michigan
Report No. 168; Dept. of Naval Architecture and Marine
Engineering; College of Engineering; Ann Arbor, MI 48109.
2. "The Future of Commercial Sail A Selection of Papers
Presented at the Meeting of RINA Small Craft Group"; Royal
Institution of Naval Architects; 10 Upper Belgrave St.; London
SW1X 88Q, England; Occasional Publication No.2; 27th November,
3. "Commercial Sail Proceedings of a Symposium Held at the
Royal Institution of Naval Architects -14th June, 1979";
Department of Industry; London; 1980.
4. "Symposium on Wind Propulsion of Commercial Ships"; the
Royal Institution of Naval Architects; London; November, 1980.
5. "Wind Propulsion for Ships of the American Merchant Marine";
Wind Ship Development Corporation; PO Box N; Norwell, MA 02061.
Bergeson, Clemmer, York, Bates, Mays, Glucksman; March, 1981.
6. "Improvement of Kattumarams Development of Small Scale
Fisheries in the Bay of Bengal"; P.Gurtner; Chief, FIIT; Food
and Agriculture Organization: FAO; Rome, Italy; February,
Oil Price Rise 1970-1981, Inclusive
CRUDE FORECAST 50
CRUDE FORECAST (9) -j
_-..-. ---. CONSUMER PRICE INDEX-
~ t--- i
i I- ..-
91 %) 1971 19b 1973 1974
1975 1976 1977 1978 1979
-*~x loz A :
A. STAYED FORE AND AFT RIG
B. UNSTAYED CAT RIG
E. WING -SAIL
F FLETTNER ROTOR
C. PRINCETON SAILING
G. HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE
H. VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE
0. SQUARE RIG
Schematic Arrangement Sketch
1. Rotating Mast
2. Radial Roller Bearing
3. Radial/Thrust Roller
Bearing at Mast Step
5. Flap Segments
6. Turning Gear With
7. Flap Actuators
Built for Captain Lane A. Briggs
Rebel Marine Service
Designed by Merritt N. Walter
Master Builder, Howdy Bailey
MAJOR COMMERCIAL SAIL AND GENERAL SURVEY REPORTS
1. SYMPOSIUM ON WIND PROPULSION OF COMMERCIAL SHIPS.
(SWPCS)(The Royal Institution of Naval Architects, London,
November 1980, pp 250).
This is a compilation of 18 major papers which are
abstracted separately. Topics include: economics, wind and
weather routing, advanced thrusters, speed prediction,
operations and sailcloth.
2. COMMERCIAL SAIL PROCEEDINGS OF A SYMPOSIUM HELD AT THE
ROYAL INSTITUTION OF NAVAL ARCHITECTS ON 14 JUNE 1979.
(Department of Industry, London, 1980, pp 185).
Another compendium of six major papers plus extensive
general discussion and written contributions. The papers are
abstracted elsewhere in this report and cover historical
surveys, design engineering, training, energy conservation,
climatic factors, advanced thrusters and the Windrose
3. A. Millward ed., THE FUTURE OF COMMERCIAL SAIL A SELECTION
OF THE PAPERS RESENTED AT THE MEETING OF RINA SMALL CRAFT GROUP
LONDON,27TH NOVEMBER 1975. (The Royal Institution of Naval
Architects, 1976, pp 88).
Six major papers are published in this work on topics
including a detailed description of DYNASHIP, a modern fore and
aft rigged sailing cargo ship, a commercial sailing ship for
the South West Pacific, sail for auxiliary propulsion of a VLCC
and economic analyses.
4. L.Bergeson, G.L.Clemmer, J.E.York, A.P.Bates,Jr., J.H.Mays
and M.A.Glucksman, WIND PROPULSION FOR SHIPS OF THE AMERICAN
MERCHANT MARINE (WPSAMM)(Wind Ship Development Corporation and
U.S.Department of Commerce, Maritime Administration, Office of
Maritime Technology, March, 1981, pp 245).
This report presents the technical and economic rationale
for utilizing wind propulsion systems for commercial shipping -
specifically vessels of the American Merchant Marine.
Alternative rig configurations ranging from fore-and-aft and
square sails to wing sails and wind turbines, are evaluated for
their aerodynamic efficiency, technical feasibility and cost.
An integrated, analytical computer model is described and
used for the parametric analysis of conventionally powered and
motor sailing vessels. U.S.-Foreign oceanborne trade routes are
evaluated for their sail-assist potential. The conceptual
design of a 20,000 CDWT sail-assist multipurpose dry cargo
vessel is presented and discussed.
General conclusions of the report are:
1. Sail assist is technically feasible and economically
2. Motor sailing rather than pure sailing vessels provide the
greatest economic advantage in the current economic
3. Motor sailing can be used either to reduce fuel requirements
or to increase average speed without increasing fuel
4. The capital costs of sail-assisted vessels should be
comparable to conventional vessels.
5. The wing sail appears to offer the best combination of
aerodynamic efficiency, simplicity of operation and cost.
6. Weather routing enhances the economic performance of
An extensive bibliography is included of about 150 or so
references divided into the following categories: engineering
and economics, performance prediction, passage analysis and
general and review.
5. J.B.Woodward, R.F.Beck, R.Scher, C.M.Cary, FEASIBILITY OF
SAILING SHIPS FOR THE AMERICAN MERCHANT MARINE, (The University
of Michigan, College of Engineering, Department of Naval
Architecture and Marine Engineering, Report No.168. February,
1975. pp 98).
This study was performed for the U.S. Department of
Commerce, Maritime Administration and presents an economic
comparison of the performances of several sizes of sailing
ships vs. those of comparable powered ships, all on several
long trade routes from North American ports. Ships are of
15,000, 30,000 and 45,000 tons cargo deadweight. Conclusions:
Deep sea commercial sailing ships are technically feasible
including updated configurations with perhaps doubts about a
few details, chiefly in the sail-handling arrangements. A
significant technical point is the apparent upper size limit on
commercial sailing ships, a limit far below that of powered
ships. This is a consequence of the need for reasonable sail
aspect ratio which requires height and the need for deep draft
to develop needed side force for on-wind sailing. The limiting
size is about 50,000 tons cargo deadweight, though bigger ships
are possible if poorer performance is acceptable. The sailing
ship must have more ballast capacity for good performance
without cargo. Channel depths are limiting for sailing ships.
For U.S. East Coast ports, the draft limitation is 45 feet
which corresponds to a sailing ship of 45,000 DWT and a powered
ship of 70,000 to 80,000 DWT. Centerboards were not considered
in this study. Discussed is the need to be able to power at a
minimum of six knots in calm water for maneuvering near ports
and the difficulty of so doing in high winds. At this time the
detailed economic studies seem to favor the powered ship. The
conclusion is that the commercial sailing ship is not an
economically feasible alternative for the American Merchant
Marine in the near future. This is tempered by the fact that
the estimates do show the sailing ship position to be close to
equal footing with powered ships.
6. C.T.Nance, "Wind Power for Ships A General Survey",
Abstract (1) above. p 1-16.
The rise in recent years of interest in the possibility of
wind energy once more playing a part in propelling commercial
ships is surveyed, and the present status is briefly outlined.
The six principal wind-propulsion systems-square rig, fore and
aft rig, aerofoils, magnus effect devices, wind turbines, and
airborne sails (kites) are briefly summarized, and
limitations frequently said to be imposed on such systems in
terms of size, speed and practical problems are considered.
Opportunities for the reintroduction of windships are
reviewed, suggesting that the possible range of use extends far
beyond the traditional limits of sail.It is deduced that the
central problem at the outset of the 1980's is how to match to
each requirement the most suitable rig, ship size, wind/fuel
engine power ratio, and service speed; and that the pressing
need is for the acquisition and organization of the necessary
data to enable this to be done.
Experience in the Government-funded wind turbine ship
study is then drawn upon to suggest a rational methodology boh
for 'quick-look' and more detailed studies, aimed at presenting
results in a form appropriate to the needs both of the marine
economist and the ship designer.
It is concluded that the need for investment in this field
of data collection and evaluation is now urgent.
7. G.Mearns, "The Large Sailing Ship-Dinosaur or Development".
Abstract No.l, p.37-50.
The recent oil crises and the increasing price of fuels
has triggered interest in the development of large sailing
ships and wind propulsion systems. The paper reviews the
development of the large sailing ship from 1824 to 1911 and
concludes that even by the mid-point of this period, the large
sailing ship could not be justified on commercial grounds.
The problems of analysing the performance of sailing ships
are examined and factors affecting this performance presented as
well as an attempt to establish the horsepower provided by
conventional sails. A simplistic approach is suggested to
permit comparisons to be made and a practical example is
Some reasons for the demise of the large sailing ship are
suggested and disadvantages summarised. It is noted that many
of these disadvantages may have application to systems of wind
propulsion or assistance. Finally, it is suggested that if fuel
economy is the primary objective, there are a number of
alternative strategies which can be adopted by shipowners and
shippers which will be more attractive than the use of wind
power as even today fuel costs are more favorable to the motor
ship vis a vis the sailing ships than they were to the steamer
8. A.D.Couper, J.King, P.B.Marlow, "An Evaluation of Commercial
Sail". Abstract No. 2, p 6-41.
Commercial sail flourishes in many parts of the world. In
Indonesia, 10,000 sailing arhus, very few of them motorized,
are a vital part of the transport system. Similar, in other
parts of Asia, the Pacific, Caribbean and Middle East sailing
vessels are engaged in the carriage of goods and passengers. It
was the poor safety record of sail during its last days that
hastened its decline. Flettner's rotor ship BUCHAU which
entered service in 1925 was one attempt to revive wind-powered
ships. What has changed since the 1920's are the possibilities
of better sailing ship design by advances in aerodynamics and
the increasing fuel costs. However, Lloyds Register of Shipping
concludes that sail is a very 'fringe candidate' for the next
decade since sailing ships 'would be too slow to meet the
general needs of international trade, and manning requirements
are high at a time when it is increasingly difficult to attract
men to sea careers.'
Rapidly expanding fuel costs have made it necessary to
examine the case for sail in more detail. Commodities which
have a potential for being carried in sailing ships include:
copra, jute, sisal, coconut oil, palm kernels, grain, soft wood
products, wool, cotton, fertilizers and possibly vegetable
Problems of sailing vessels include the difficulty of
maneuvering in restricted waters, and tugs are advanced as one
solution. Pointing and the lee shore problem are also
discussed. Detailed economic analyses are presented for eight
different cases comparing motor and sailing ships with varying
fuel costs in terms of the Required Freight Rate: RFR for two
different sized vessels: 15,000 and 50,000 DWT. This analysis
suggests that a larger sailing vessel has a greater advantage
over and equivalent motor driven vessel than does a a smaller
one but this advantage is reduced as the distance travelled
increases except in the case where the motor vessel operates at
the same average speed as the sailing ship.
9. General Discussion. Abstract No. 2, p. 149-185.
Wind power shipping has one great advantage over almost
all other types of 'alternative energy' in that it has been
historically demonstrated that the world's seaborne trade can
be carried in wind powered ships. The Soviet Union is
developing wind ships for use in the Black Sea. Also advocated
was the need to minimize consumption of non-renewable source of
energy, not necessarily their cost on a ton-mile basis. "We
just will not have the energy at some time in the future."
(Cmdr. Ranken representing the Watt Committee on Energy.) Mr.
Ellison commented that an auxiliary engine can be much lighter
and smaller for the same power output as an engine required for
continuous running, because higher revolutions per minute are
acceptable. This means that quite high power can be available
for docking and for use in congested waters without having a
large engine room. Propeller drag is a major consideration and
variable pitch is highly desirable and suited for ships of
3,000 to 5,000 tons.
10. Peter J. Rappa, "Sail Assisted Technology and Related
Topic: A Bibliography," Hawaii Sea Grant Program, no date.
33 citations are given.
11. Capt. Ed Shields, "Veteran Skipper Sees Little Chance
Working Sail Will Regain Favor," (Letter) National Fisherman,
November, 1981, 7,224..
Sail was the only method for operating a vessel on the
ocean for many years and did a good job during that period.
Life on the vessels was not as severe as some of today's
writers would indicate. The writer comments on the sailing
lumber ships of the Pacific which were small by today's
motorized ship standards. The schooners with auxiliary engines
required such for operating in tight conditions around ice
packs and in shallow confined harbors. There was also
considerable pressure from the crew to operate the engines in
periods of calm and light airs. Engines will be necessary. Fuel
storage will limit cargo capacity. Crew wants steam heated
individual staterooms. Today's high profile power ships require
large engines to control them during high winds.
12. Lance Lee, "Is There Working Sail in Our Future- Experts
Eye Freight Potential," National Fisherman, June, 1980,
The author advocates the following guidelines for sailing
freighters: 1. both public and private funds should be used. 2.
modified rather than old fashioned rigs may be right. 3. steel
hulls or at least composite appear necessary. 4. critical
design factors include: hull and rig criteria, economics,
viable routes, time of year, nature of paying cargo and the
important variable of seamanship. The article mentions some
details of the Windship study (Abstract No.4). Other projects
mentioned briefly are: the scow sloop LILLY which runs general
freight to and from Martha's Vineyard, Massachussetts, Jacques
Thiry's UNICORN destined for the Caribbean trade the VERNON
LANGILLE small lumber carrier, and Frank MacLear's design for a
330 ft. motorsailer with staysail schooner rig.
13. F.S.Schaefer, "New Pioneers of an Old Idea The Commercial
Windship," Sea Frontiers, Jan.-Feb.,1981, 2-12.
This survey of the entire field includes brief information
on the sail-equipped oil rig ROWAN JUNEAU which travelled from
Texas to Nova Scotia, the 60 foot steel schooner CORNUCOPIA
which has been operated out of Honolulu, Hawaii for the past
six years, the STEEL REBEL and NORFOLK REBEL of Norfolk,
Virginia which operate as sail-assisted tugs, fishing vessels,
salvage craft and small freighters, the SHIN AITOKU MARU of
Japan, the CSY 44 sailing fishing boat, the JOHN F.LEAVITT,
Skookum Marine's line of 53 to 70 foot sailing fishboats, the
PATRICIA.A. 180 ft. schooner being furnished for the Caribbean
trade and various concepts such as: WESTERN FLYER, Frank
MacLear designs of a 97 ft. fishing vessel and 140 foot cargo
schooner, SAILINER by Windrose Ships in England, Flettner rotor
investigations in England, DYNASHIP and the Windship
14. Mike Toner, "Sail Power- Interest in Sailing Ships
Rekindled by Cost of Fuel," Miami Herald, Aug.19,1981, p E-1
This is another general survey which discusses fuel
prices, the Windship report, the Japanese work, the PATRICIA A.
et al. The point is made that there are 25,000 merchant ships
plying the seas using an estimated 5 to 8 percent of the
world's oil consumption. On smaller ships, under 400 feet in
length, there could be some savings on fuel. The average shrimp
boat uses some 60,000 gallons of fuel per year. There are 4500
shrimpers operating in the Gulf of Mexico, and fuel savings
from sail retrofit could be considerable. Research at the
University of South Florida is also mentioned.
15. Peter Rappa, "To Sail or Not to Sail?," Makai, Univ. of
Hawaii Sea Grant College Program, Dec.,1981, p 5.
This short article lists some 17 references to commercial
16. R.Robinson, J.Ross, "Will the Wind Work," Sail Magazine,
Jan.,1981, p 92-99.
This is yet another general survey of the field. There are
well over 10,000 registered sailing vessels in Asia, India and
the Pacific, and they carry nearly 2 million tons of cargo
annually. However, total volume of goods carried by sea is
approaching 4 billion tons, nearly half carried in vessels of
18,000 deadweight tons or greaer. Discussed are the Japanese
projects, Windship Corporation, University of Michigan study,
DYNASHIP, Michael Willoughby's SAILINER, Windship's Magnificent
proposed construction of the PREUSSEN II and MacLear's and Dick
Carter's designs. The 190 foot luff on the oil rig sail
required a tension of 150 tons! Also described briefly are the
PATRICIA A., Hugh Lawrence's 170 foot Baltic trader,
D.C.(Sandy) Anderson's Sail Freight Interational, Ben Wynne's
concept of a 100 knot hdyrofoil catamaran and Phil Bolger's
design for the New Alchemy Institute's 210 foot ark, a 50 foot
working model of which is now sailing out of Wood's Hole, Mass.
17. K.Leach, "Sailing Reaches into the Future," The Ensign
magazine, April, 1982, 14-15.
This short article discusses some of the more commonly
known commercial sail projects and emphasizes rig developments
with comments on the unstayed mast and work by Garry Hoyt and
the Gougeon Brothers. The latter have developed very high
performance wing masts as an offshoot of work for NASA on
laminated wood turbine/windmill blades for electrical power
18. W. Marx, "Seafarers Rethink Traditional Ways of Harnessing
the Wind for Commerce," Smithsonian Magazine, Dec., 1981,
The following vessels are discussed: WONIYA, CORNUCOPIA,
SHIN AITOKU MARU, NORFOLK REBEL, STEEL REBEL, MINI-LACE and the
jack-up oil rig equipped with twin sails by Ratsey and
Lapthorn. Mentioned also is Greg Brazier's PHOENIX which is to
be a "volksboat" a UPS of Long Island Sound.
19. Patricia A.Lawrence, "Bibliography: Wind Propulsion for
Commercial Vessels," Ocean Carriers Corp., PO Box 1859,
Sausalito, CA 94966, 1982.
This is an excellent 14 page bibliography of selected
works on commercial sail: technical papers, periodicals,
conferences or symposia, collections, bibliographies and
20. Thomas Lamb, PE, "Fishing Vessel Fuel Utilization Study,"
Part I Bibliography of Literature and Current Research on
Fuel Utilization," Norship, Inc., 18303 84th Place West,
Edmonds, Washington 98020, U.S.A. Report to SNAME Panel MS-11
on Fishing Systems. 185 pp.
Only a few pages concern commercial sail, and significant
abstracts have been condensed in this publication under the
21. Joanne A.Fishman, "A Fresh Wind for Sail Power," New York
Times Magazine, December 6, 1981.
This covers most significant sail-assist studies,
legislation and vessels at this date in the U.S.
22. Christopher Pope, "Saving on Sail," Renewable Energy News,
June, 1982, pp 21-32.
This is an account of the Norfolk, May, 1982
conference/workshop on sail-assist.
23. "Sail-Assist Conference Scores a Success," The Work Boat,
Another account of this conference.
24. David Robb, "The New Age of Sail? As Oil Prices Rise, Wind
Propulsion in the U.S. Gathers Steam," Sea Technology, August,
Same as above.
25."Alternative Fuels for Maritime Use," Maritiem
Transportation Board, Commission on Sociotechnical Systems,
National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences,
Washington, DC 1980, 191 pp.
Only 23 pages are devoted to wind-driven ships in this
comprehensive report which covers recreational and commercial
craft. Discussed briefly are: Dynaship, sailing, Flettner
rotor and windmill driven ships.
26. John Frye, "Alternate Fuels Hold Little Promise as Power
for Hungry Fishing Vessels," National Fisherman Year Book,
1980, pp. 90-94.
This is a comprehensive review of the Abstract 25 report
and is summarized elsewhere.
27. "Hearing Before the Committee on Energy and Natural
Resources United States Senate Niney-sixth Congress Second
Session: S. 2992 A Bill to Authorize a Study of Sail-Assisted
Technology as a Means of Reducing Energy Costs for Inter-island
Transportation in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands,
and for Other Purposes," August 26, 1980, U.S.Govt.Printing
Office Publication No. 96-146, pp.300-552.
The hearings had as their purpose the determination as to
the possibility of reducing energy costs for inter-island
transportation in the Trust Territory by use of sail-assisted
maritime vehicles. Senator Spark M.Matsunaga presided, and/or
among those making oral and written statements were: C.R.Palmer
of Rowan Co.(jack-up rig), Colin Ratsey, Capt.Jesse Briggs,
Frank MacLear, Hugh G.Lawrence, Patricia A.Lawrence, William
A.Warner, Lloyd Bergeson, Everett P.Lunsford, Jr., Dr.Paul
C.Yuen, Bernie Arthur, Roy J. Yee and Dr. C.Dwight Prater.
28. Yvonne Freund, "Aeolus Helps Argonauts Save Fuel,"
Mechanical Engineering, August, 1982.
29. Jon Lucy, "Proceedings of the National Conference/Workshop:
Applications of Sail-Assisted Power Technology May 19-21,
1982," pub. ca. February, 1983.
Report on the Norfolk, May, 1982 conference. Virginia
Institute of Marine Science, Virginia Sea Grant Program,
College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, Virginia 23062.
HISTORICAL SURVEY OF COMMERCIAL SAILING CRAFT
The following abstracts should be taken as merely
representative of a vast body of literature in maritime
history. Although some landmark authors and their works are
cited, there are notable omissions such as those by Hornell,
Greenhill, Worcester, Baker and many others. These are some of
the books in the author's collection and were abstracted
because of a close familiarity with their contents.
Particularly noteworthy is Needham's volume described in
Abstract No.20 which lists the accomplishments in ancient
China, not all of which have even yet been adopted in the West.
It might be that bow rudders, for example, would have a place
in retrofit of power vessels with sails where more lateral
plane as well as rudder area was required. For a particularly
accurate expression of the apparent conflict between designers
espousing old and new ways, see Abstract No. 10 under
Technological Developments by Mr. Priebe. There is much that
can be learned from past accomplishments, and it would be
foolish to neglect the lessons of the past.
HISTORICAL SURVEY OF COMMERCIAL SAILING CRAFT
1. George F. Bass ed. A HISTORY OF SEAFARING BASED ON
UNDERWATER ARCHEOLOGY. (Thames and Hudson Ltd., 1972).
Based on information derived from underwater excavations,
12 authors have written chapters on such subjects as: "The
Maritime Republics: Medieval and Renaissance Ships in Italy",
"Traders and Privateers Across the Atlantic: 1492-1733", "The
Earliest Seafarers in the Mediterranean and the Near East", and
"Waterways Open the New World", among others. Illustrations are
excellent, and this work is particularly good at inferring
methods of ship construction and emphasizes the need for trade
being the prime stimulus for the development of sailing ships.
Other stimuli for building and improving ships were for
military and exploration applications. Unfortunately, the
book's title does not indicate that it is limited to the
Western world. Major ship developments from India, China and
the Pacific Basin are largely ignored.
2. Fredrik Henrik af Chapman, ARCHITECTURE NAVALIS MERCATORIA -
A FACSIMILE OF THE CLASSIC EIGHTEENTH CENTURY TREATISE ON
SHIPBUILDING. (Adlard Coles, Ltd., 1968)
This work was first published in Stockholm in 1768. It is
certainly one of the first known systematic, published books on
naval architecture and ship design. Chapman's later "Treatise
on Shipbuilding" which is also included in this republished
volume was considered of such signal importance that it was
translated into French in 1779 and into English in 1813.
Translations into Russian and German followed. There are
detailed, fold-out drawings of hull lines and rigging of
numerous vessels. Of more interest is the treatise on
shipbuilding which describes his resistance measurements of
hulls, ship proportions, mast and yard specifications, scaling,
test tank arrangement and more. He correctly approximates the
metacentric height: GM and approximates by formula the
stability moment. His prescription for merchant ships is: "1.
To be able to carry a great lading in proportion to its size.
2. To sail well by the wind in order to beat easily off a coast
where it may be embayed, and also to come about well in a
hollow sea. 3. To work with a crew small in number in
proportion to its cargo. 4. To be able to sail with a small
quantity of ballast. He correctly enunciates the naval
architectural principles to achieve these ends.
3.Howard I. Chappelle, AMERICAN SMALL SAILING CRAFT THEIR
DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND CONSTRUCTION. (W.W.Norton & Co.,Inc.,
This is one of a series of classic works written by the
late curator of the Smithsonian maritime collection. It gives
hull lines, sail plans and descriptions of some 69 inshore
sailing craft covering colonial and early American boats such
as punts, bateaux and cutters, scows, shallops, skiffs, sloops,
catboats, luggers, sloops, pinkies, Greek sponging boat, San
Francisco Dago boat, Chesapeake Bay log canoes, Gulf scow
shooners, skipjacks, etc.
4. Howard I. Chappelle, AMERICAN SAILING CRAFT. (International
Marine Pub. Co., 1975)
This work is often confused with the reference cited
above. It is a compilation of articles from "Yachting" magazine
in the early Thirties. These were first collected and published
in book form in 1936. There were over a hundred types of
American sailing craft employed in the fisheries and in
commerce between 1800 and 1900. A few scattered pictures,
half-models and plans are all that remain of many of these
types. This book is an attempt to make a permanent record of
every type possible. As with all of Chappelle's books, detailed
hull lines drawings and sail plans are given. Fifteen classes
of boats are covered including: New Haven sharpie, Skipjack,
Friendship sloop, Cape Cod catboat, Gloucester schooner,
pinkies, Nova Scotia Tern Schooners, Bahama sharpshooters,
Bermuda sloops and dinghies and American Pilot Boats.
5. Howard I. Chapelle, THE NATIONAL WATERCRAFT COLLECTION.
(U.S.Govt. Printing Office, 1960).
This is a comprehensive catalog of the watercraft
collection in the United States National Museum of the
Smithsonian Institution. Many hull lines drawings and
photographs of half-hull and fully-rigged models are included.
The author describes a device to take off lines from a
half-model, comments on the difficulty of obtaining true
figures for displacement and discusses the construction of
lift, block and hawk's nest models.
6. Howard I. Chapelle, THE BALTIMORE CLIPPER. (Bonanza Books,
First published in 1930, this book is a detailed appraisal
of the class of sailing ship known as the Baltimore Clipper.
Numerous hull lines and sail plan drawings are included with
photographs of paintings of these vessels.
7. Howard I. Chapelle, THE AMERICAN SAILING NAVY THE SHIPS
AND THEIR DEVELOPMENT. (W.W.Norton & Co.,Inc., 1949).
Although concerned with sailing warships, this
comprehensive work describes many American sailing vessels in
considerable detail from the Colonial period until 1855.
8. Howard I. Chappelle, THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN SAILING SHIPS.
(W.W.Norton & Co., Inc. 1935 and Bonanza Books).
With over 200 illustrations, this is yet another
exhaustive treatment of the history of American sailing ships.
Included are details on an 80 foot shoal draft, double
centerboard schooner used to suppress the slave trade: UNION.
Also covered are various frigates, privateers, slavers,
fishermen, schooners, packets and a barquentine as well as
9. Howard I. Chapelle, THE SEARCH FOR SPEED UNDER SAIL
1700-1855. (W.W.Norton & Co.Inc., 1967).
This work contains a good bit of naval architectural
information on designing for high speed sailing as ascertained
from detailed study of fast American sailing ships. The author
has attempted to discover the influence of hull shape on speed
by analysis of some of the faster vessels. His discussion of
the influence on speed of the straightness of the quarter-beam
buttock and its angle with the design waterline is excellent.
Using lessons learned in the wind tunnel from aerodynamics, we
understand this now to concern flow separation. There is a good
discussion of early papers, articles and books on the naval
architecture of high speed sailing vessels. First chapter of
this book concerns the state of naval architecture and
shipbuilding in the 18th century. The next six chapters divides
the years from 1700 to 1855 into six logical time segments and
discusses many vessels with the usual excellent drawings and
pictures. For the naval architect, this is Chapelle's most
10. Howard I. Chapelle, THE AMERICAN FISHING SCHOONERS
1825-1935. (W.W.Norton & Co.,Inc., 1973).
This is Chapelle's last great book. Again his superb
draftsmanship and scholarly research are very evident. There
are 137 plans of schooners with detailed descriptions including
such usually neglected items as fife rails, saddles, figure-8
links, grab hooks, fisherman staysail etc. etc. This is a
history of the commercial fishing schooner and its development
in design, function and construction.
11. A.D.Couper & J.King, "Commercial Sail Present Operations
and Future Prospects," Symposium on Wind Propulsion of
Commercial Ships: SWPCS, The Royal Institution of Naval
Architects, 1980, 29-36.
This paper presents some of the background against which
future sailing ship operations might take place. The present
status of the world's merchant fleet is summarized and
contrasted with sailing vessels in developing countries and in
historical times. Described are some of the problems faced by
shipping companies and some potential solutions. It is
maintained that many proponents of commercial sail ignore the
actual problems faced by the shipping industry. The authors
maintain that there may be a role for sailing vessels, but that
it is more likely to be in the operation of non-trading vessels
and in developing inter-island services rather than in the
mainstream of international seaborne transportation.
12. George Goldsmith-Carter, SAILING SHIPS AND SAILING CRAFT.
(Grosset & Dunlap, 1970).
This is a fine little book with color drawings and brief
descriptions of sailing vessels from ancient times through
medieval and modern periods.
13. Edwin Doran, Jr. WANGKA AUSTRONESIAN CANOE ORIGINS.
(Texas A&M University Press, 1981)
This is one of a number of papers and books by this author
on primitive watercraft. Perhaps the oldest seafaring race is
that located in the Pacific which people trace their origins
from a homeland somewhere in Southeast Asia. Before caravels
and junks, Austronesian sailing canoes crossed oceans with
people and freight. There have been puzzling questions about
how the Pacific Islands were settled. Professor Doran has
measured the performance characteristics of many surviving
sailing craft to determine exactly how well they do and did
sail, and thus migratory routes can be traced. This work
contains numerous drawings of native craft with sail plans and
outrigger details plus polar curves of boat speed vs. angle to
the wind and even stability diagrams. "Wangka" may be the
earliest Austronesian word for boat. The book closes with
distributional migration information and a discussion on ages
14. E.W.H.Gifford, "Improvement of Sailing Techniques in
Tropical Countries," SWPCS, 241-247.
This paper traces the path of the development of
traditional forms into more advanced sailing types, capable of
giving improved performance and simplicity of handling. It
demonstrates that there is scope for improvement in wind
powered vessels without departing radically from traditional
concepts, but taking note of modern knowledge of sailing theory
15. Basil Greenhill, ARCHEOLOGY OF THE BOAT. (Wesleyan
University Press, 1976).
The author is Director of the National Maritime Museum in
Greenwich, England, and he is well-qualified to trace the
development of the boat from its four roots: raft, skin, bark
and dugout boats. Much emphasis is given to Viking ships.
16. Bjoern Landstroem, SAILING SHIPS. (Doubleday & Co.,Inc.,
1969 and 1978).
This is another picture book with fine black and white and
colored drawings plus brief descriptions from papyrus boats to
17. David R. MacGregor, FAST SAILING SHIPS 1775-1875. (Haessner
Pub., Inc., 1973).
The author is a maritime historian and used primary
sources in this comprehensive work from the National Maritime
Museum in Greenwich, England. There are many hull lines
drawings and coloured plates. An excellent index makes this
work particularly easy to use. Discussed in some detail among
hundreds of other vessels are the tea clippers: CUTTY SARK and
THERMOPYLAE, probably the world's fastest sailing ships. The
CUTTY SARK is preserved at Greenwich ashore and may be visited.
This monumental work is the first of its kind on fast British
sailing ships. Some of the hull lines drawings are not
internally consistent, and the author has the same problem as
many in determining actual hull displacements. These carping
comments in no way should detract from the importance of this
book and its usefulness. Full-size blueprints of any of the
reduced drawings may be obtained from the author for a small
18. Edgar J. March, SAILING TRAWLERS THE STORY OF DEEP-SEA
FISHING WITH LONGLINE AND TRAWL. (David & Charles, Inc.,
Most of this work consists of detailed descriptions, with
few illustrations, of the history of trawling, trawling grounds
and yields, smack design, trawling gear, life on board,
disasters and various fishing stations. The latter quarter of
the book does have a large number of black and white drawings
including hull lines and specifications of a number of sailing
19. George Mearns, "The Large Sailing Ship Dinosaur or
Development, SWPCS, 37-50.
This paper reviews the development of the large sailing
ship from 1824 to 1911 and concludes that even by the midpoint
of that period, the large sailing ship could not be justified
on commercial grounds. Problems of performance and factors
affecting performance are discussed in a simplified manner.
Some reasons for the demise of large sailing ships are
suggested and their disadvantages are summarized. Finally, it
is suggested that if fuel economy is the primary objective,
there are a number of alternative strategies which can be
adopted by shipowners and shippers which will be more
attractive than the use of wind power as even today fuel costs
are more favorable to the motor ship vis a vis the sailing ship
than they were to the steamer of 1840.
20. Joseph Needham, SCIENCE & CIVILISATION IN CHINA VOL. IV:3
- PHYSICS AND PHYSICAL TECHNOLOGY CIVIL ENGINEERING AND
NAUTICS. (Cambridge at the University Press, 1971).
This is the seventh volume of Needham's projected life's
work done in collaboration with Wang Ling and Lu Gwei-Djen with
research conducted in China and in England. The latter half of
this volume concerns nautics. Needham correctly ascribes credit
for the following discoveries to the Chinese: magnetic
polarity, fore-and-aft lug sails, multi-masted vessels,
fully-battened sails, bulkhead built hulls, yulohs, bipod
masts, axial rudders, anti-hogging trusses, collapsible masts,
leeboards, centreboards, stem sliding centreboards, bow
rudders, watertight bulkheads, free-flooding forward
compartments for cushioning slamming shock loads, maximum hull
section aft of midships, scale models and scaling to full-size,
unstayed masts, quick reefing sails, fenestrated rudders, keels
and sails, parrels, spritsail, triangular fore and aft sails,
paddle boat, slung sliding rudder, balanced rudder, stern-post
rudder, dry docks, copper hull bottom sheathing, iron armor for
warships, bilge pumps etc. etc. Needham compares European
developments in this field with Chinese and describes voyages
of Chinese to East Africa and possibly South America which may
have lead to propagation of these discoveries even before Marco
Polo's time. Needham also appears frustrated by the problem of
discovering true displacements of hulls: "Perhaps the most
urgent need of naval archeology today is a systematic, sober
and definitive study of estimated tonnages in all historical
periods and cultures."
21. Sam Svensson, SAILS THROUGH THE CENTURIES. (Macmillan Co..
This little book is another which surveys sailing ships
from Roman times to the 1880's with brief descriptions and fine
colored drawings of outboard profiles. As with many others
abstracted above, it concentrates on European and American
developments and ignores important contributions made in
22. E.Doran, Jr., "On the Laguna Madre, Working Scows are
Nothing New," National Fisherman, March, 1982, 75-77.
The author reports on the continued use in northeast
Mexico of the previously reported extinct scow sloops. Hull
lines taken from an abandoned craft are shown. The boats are
still being built in Matamoros. In 1976, 120 of these sailing
fishing craft were counted in operation.
23. S.D.Orsini, "The Great Steel Square-Riggers Thrived on
Gales, "; National Fisherman Yearbook 1981, 126-129.
The apex of commercial sail was reached in the years
surrounding 1900. The large sailing fleets were primarily
European. In 1900, the French had a fleet of 1,235
square-rigged sailing ships. The largest sailing vessel ever
built was the FRANCE II, launched in 1911. She was 419 feet
long, had a gross tonnage of 5,633 and spread 68,350 square
feet of sail. Sailing ships attained their highest degree of
technical advancement during this final era. Most were built of
steel. The PREUSSEN is described as a prime example of the
later-day sailing ship. She was 407.8 feet long, had a gross
tonnage of 5,081 and could haul 8,000 tons of cargo. Sail area
was 59,000 sq.ft.between 48 sails. When she was built, the
science of aerodynamics was nonexistent. Tank tests, years
later, showed that her sails developed more than 6,000 hp at
top speeds. At times, she could maintain speeds of 17 to 17.5
knots. Over the 14 voyages of her career, she averaged 8 knots.
She sailed in the days before anti-fouling paints, and the
author speculates on how well she might have performed with
such. She went on the rocks in 1910 after a collision and was
Also discussed in this article is the Unversity of
Michigan report, Wind Ship Development Corp., the Ocean
Carriers Group WESTERN FLYER,modern periods.
24. D.B.Irani, "India Has Never Stopped Using Sailing Vessels,"
ibid. p.129. (quoted from The Naval Architect, September,
India has very sound maritime traditions under sail dating
back several centuries. Modern, mechanized sailing ships have
been developed of 150 tons: KOTIA type and 300 tons: BRIG type.
They are fully decked, internally subdivided and fitted with
auxiliary engines to give a cruising speed of six knots.
25. F.F.Kaiser, "Impressive Fore-and-Afters Showed Their Good-
and Very Bad-Points," ibid, 1980, pp. 120-124.
Described is the 1902-launched steel schooner KINEO of
dimensions 295.5 x 45.3 x 22.9 feet (90 x 13.8 x 7 m) and 2,128
gross tons. She had five masts and was rigged with fore and aft
sails. She had a particularly rugged time in the Pacific with
much rigging damage. Manning difficulties are discussed. Many
difficulties of operating the larger sailing vessels are
detailed. The author questions many of the new proposals for
going to sizes beyond those found practicable during the
sailing era. The idea of sail-assist also "leaves him cold."
CARGO AND PASSENGER COMMERCIAL SAILING SHIPS
All of the large commercial sailing ship projects known to
exist, both building and planned, are described in the
following 60 abstracts. Many of the smaller vessels are covered
as well. Perhaps the best known of these are: Bergeson's study
and his retrofit of MINI-LACE, the DYNASHIP series, PATRICIA
A., the WINDROSE square rigger, the excellent Japanese work on
DAIOH and SHIN AITOKU MARU, PREUSSEN II and some lesser-known
work in the U.S.S.R. Many of the smaller, modern cargo
schooners are described as well. Here again emerges the
controversy between those advocating the use of hulls and sail
rigs from the turn of the century and those convinced that by
use of modern materials and aerodynamics, new, more efficient
ships can be designed.
CARGO AND PASSENGER COMMERCIAL SAILING SHIPS
1. H.F.Morin Scott, "A Full Scale Experiment in Commercial
Auxiliary Sail." Symposium on Wind Propulsion of Commercial
Ships, The Royal Institution of Naval Architects, 1980.
It is proposed that a full scale experiment be carried out
as soon as possible by fitting an.existing commercial vessel
with a number of simple, easily-worked sails and then gather
with care, over a 12 month period, the appropriate data of wind
direction and strength, sea state, ship speed and fuel
consumption, man hours worked and cost of repairs and renewals
to the sailing gear. This information together with original
capital cost should enable a financial appraisal of the benefit
of auxiliary sail to be determined. It is the author's belief
that the fuel savings achieved in one year while maintaining
the ship's service speed will approximate half the cost of
fitting the sailing gear in a normal installation.
2. W.J.Hood, "Using Wind Reliable Routes for Bulk Cargo
Transport," ibid. 17-28.
Some bulk cargoes from Australia have been shown to be be
suitable for transport in sailing ships along wind reliable
routes. Matching the cargoes and the routes remains a
significant problem. This paper investigates the possibility of
using a traditional wind reliable route in the Southern oceans
to transport wheat along part of the distance between Australia
and Europe. Following trans-shipment, the cargo reaches its
ultimate destination by motor ship.
A much larger sailing vessel than any proposed to date and
a type of rig using soft sails would be used. The rig is
suitable for sailing with the wind well abaft the beam. No
auxiliary engine would be fitted.
In spite of substantial savings in fuel consumption
compared to a pure motor ship providing the same amount of
transport, the paper concludes that the idea is not financially
attractive at present day fuel prices.
3. R.M.Willoughby, "The Windrose Ship Why Square Rig?"
Commercial Sail Symposium, Dept.of Industry, London, 1980.
A considerable part of this paper examines various
thrusters and rig types including the fore and aft rig,
windmills and air turbines, rotor ship and the square rig. The
author concludes that a large sail cargo ship must be square
rigged, either of orthodox design or of the fully automated
DYNASHIP type. Discussers of this paper differed profoundly
with some of the conclusions, especially the restriction of
winds abaft the beam for sailing.
4. H.G.Lawrence, "A Modern Fore and Aft Rigged Sailing Cargo
Ship," The Future of Commercial Sail, RINA Small Craft Group
Meeting, London, 1975. 15-28.
The author discusses the design of a four masted, fore and
aft schooner equipped with a 600 hp diesel engine. Length on
deck is 96 meters (315 ft.) with a maximum of 4856 DWT. The
author comments that there has been no sailing cargo ship since
1957 when the German four-masted barque PASSAT withdrew from
the seas. He also believes that there is no way to find out how
such a ship will operate without actually going to sea with her
which is what he intends to do.
5. P.R.Warner and W.J.Hood, "A Commercial Sailing Ship for the
South West Pacific Ocean," ibid. 29-46.
Presented are design details on a 240 foot long,
four-masted schooner of 2200 DWT in 110,000 cubic feet of hold
space. A double bottom for 600 tons of water ballast tanks is
provided. The authors believe that sailing vessels can operate
profitably on appropriate routes, and the ones chosen in this
study seem pertinent.
6. J.B.Wynne, "Sails for the Auxiliary Propulsion of a VLCC
Trading on the Northern Europe Persian Gulf Route," ibid.
The class of vessels studied was of 220,000 DWT tankers
310 meters in length (1017 ft.) with 20880 kW of power (28,000
hp.) The author assesses the prospects of sailing vessels in
this service as unlikely unless the price of fuel oil rises
several fold in real terms or the cost of wind propulsion can
be made considerably less than assumed in this study.
7. J.F.R.King, "A Technical Description and Performance
Analysis of the Dynaship," ibid. 1-14.
This paper reviews the present stage of development of the
Dynaship project. It is an advanced sailing vessel developed
over the past 20 years. The prototype proposed for construction
is a 17000 DWT bulk carrier capable of 20 knots in a Force 9
wind. Rig consists of six large-sectioned, elliptical, hollow
cantilever masts without stays. They are aerodynamically
profiled and rotate to meet the apparent wind. Sail control is
by hydraulics, remotely from the wheel house. Achieved are
remarkably competitive voyage times and costs per ton of cargo
8. "Wind Blown Vessels," Motor Boating & Sailing magazine,
January, 1976. 21 & 26.
John Couch of Dynaship explains the modern concepts of
sailing freighters with all sail handling by pushbutton
controls on the bridge. Wind tunnel test have proved the design
concepts. Prof. Shallenberger and Bill Warner mounted three
masts on a Shields One Design to further test the rig design on
a scale basis in San Francisco Bay. Dynaship Corporation is
located at 81 Encina Ave.,Palo Alto, California 94301.
9. M.Stuttaford, "A Return to Sail?", South African Yachting
magazine, Sept., 1975. 32-35.
This is another presentation of the DYNASCHIFF concept
(Dynaship in English) with details of the sail furling gear
into the masts, speed predictions and economics. The author
quotes Antoine de Saint Exupery: "Every technical development
proceeds from something primitive via something complicated
back to something simple, and a technical development is not
perfect until a stage is reached where it is impossible to
leave out anything else."
10. R.M.Engelbrecht, "DYNASHIP Economical Cargo Carrier with
Push-Button Sails," Popular Science magazine, August, 1976.
This is a popular presentation of this concept. It is
claimed that DYNASHIP will burn only 10% as much fuel as a
conventional ship of the same size.
11. J.McCawley, "Return of the Tall Ships," Rudder magazine,
November, 1971. 29-31, 70-72.
Discussed are the sail thrusters, computer performance
predictions, wind tunnel tests at Hamburg
12. S.D.Orsini, "Wind-Powered Cargo Ships May Be On Horizon,"
National Fisherman, ca. 1976. 76-81.
This is a detailed appraisal of commercial sail which
includes considerable details on DYNASHIP. Others discussed
include: WESTERN FLYER, and the Woodward report from the
University of Michigan.
13. "Dynaship Modern Wind-Powered Cargo Ships to 45,000 DWT,"
brochure from the Dynaship Corporation, 1975. 12 pp.
In November, 1974, the DynaShip Corporation in the U.S.
obtained the exclusive manufacturing and marketing rights to
the DynaShip patents and technology in North and South America
and the Pacific Basin countries. The brochure gives economic
parameters, some details of rig design and overall layouts of a
527 ft. ship.
14. L. Bergeson, "Sail Power for the World's Cargo Ships,"
Technology Review magazine (MIT), March./April, 1979. 23-36.
A detailed review of the potential for sail power is
presented. The author predicts the possible doubling or
tripling of the price of marine bunker oil within the next
decade. At present prices of $15 per barrel, potential savings
through use of sails could reach $5.5 to $22 billion per year.
Wind energy could replace a significant part of oil consumed in
sea transport, but a conversion program will require
governmental support. Tables are given of factors affecting
windage and consequent tacking angles for maximum speed to
windward. The 1902 square-rigged PREUSSEN had a tacking angle
of 70 degrees. DYNASHIP is predicted to have 55 to 60 degrees
as did the 1902 THOMAS W.LAWSON. A MacLear designed boomless
1979 fore-and-aft rig under sail alone achieved 40 to 50
degrees and while motor sailing 20 to 40 degrees. The author
advocates consideration of a catamaran configuration because:
1. 50% of the cargo can be effective ballast. 2. When beached,
the catamaran gains stability with both bows grounded, while a
trimaran can lurch violently. 3. The catamaran is safer and
more practical in larger sizes designed to carry heavy cargo
and water ballast. A prototype might be about 220 feet long
providing a cargo capacity equivalent to a 180 foot long
single-hull prototype. Maximum potential catamaran speed of
this type is calculated to be 25 knots in winds of 25 to 30
15. L.Dennis, "Greek Shippers Catch Wind of Sail Power,"
Soundings, August, 1981. 14.
Wind Ship Corporation has been approached by Ceres
Hellenic Shipping Enterprises, Inc. of Piraeus, Greece, a
shipper with more than 50 vessels that wants to take the plunge
- experimentally into sail power. Single mast rigs will be
mounted on two 3,000 ton (dead weight) motor vessels. One rig
was expected to finish sea trials with the sail rigs by the end
of August. The two, a general cargo vessel and tanker, were
being retrofitted with msts and two different types of sail rig
at Buzzard's Bay, Mass. The ships will carry a 3,000 square
foot sail on a single mast mounted near the bow to make room
for working cargoes through hatches midships. Two rigs are
being designed: a mast roller furling and reefing cat rig and a
wing sail rig. Both are to be fully automated and pushbutton
controlled from the bridge.
16. "The New Age of Sail Has Diesel Aboard," Technology Review
(MIT), Aug./Sept., 1981. 80-81.
This is a summary report of the Wind Ship Corporation's
comprehensive conceptual study. See abstract under the General
17. "MarAd Awards Contract for Sailing Ship Study," Maritime
Reporter/Engineering News, January 1, 1980.
Announces the award of a $138,840 contract to the Wind
Ship Corporation, headed by Lloyd Bergeson for a 12 month study
to expand on the 1975 Michigan study. Other members of the
contract team are: Frank MacLear, Prof. Henry S. Marcus, Dr.
James H. Mays, A.P.Bates, Dr. Petrus, A.M.Spierings and
18. J. Laitin, "Sail Power Still the Way to Go, Says
Developer," Soundings magazine, February, 1980. 11.
Announces the Maritime Administration award to the Wind
Ship Development Corp. and that private industry has
contributed another $ 160,000 for the studies. Frank MacLear, a
principal subcontractor and stockholder is quoted as stating
that freighters can burn as much as $10,000 worth of fuel each
day, accounting for 20 to 30% of their total operating costs.
He estimated that the cost of fuel will be up to $5 per gallon
by the end of the decade. He further said that a catamaran
drawing less water may be the answer for shallow draft harbors.
19. "Harnessing the Wind," Yachting magazine, November, 1981,
On August 24, 1981, Wind Ship Development Corp. unfurled
the "world's largest single sail intended for continuous duty."
The prototype consists of a Hodgson steel-spar and a 3,000
square foot dacron sail by Hood. Furling and unfurling is
remote controlled from the bridge using hydraulic winches. The
trial ship is the 200 ft. MINI-LACE, one of a fleet of 48
identical cargo vessels owned and operated by Ceres Hellenic
Shipping Enterprises of Piraeus, Greece. Fuel savings are
expected to be about 20%.
20. "MINI-LACE," Technology Review (MIT), Nov./Dec., 1981.
Announcement of completion of installation of the sail rig
on the 3000 DWT MINI-LACE with an unstayed, rotating mast.
"It's the first substantial, modern auxiliary sailing rig in
the world to be put on a commercial vessel for regular
21. G.Murray, "Japan Returns to the Days of Sail," Christian
Science Monitor, undated.
With an urgent need for energy conservation, as well as
for cutting down on the oil-dominated transport costs of its
raw material imports, Japan has decided there is a definite
place once again for the merchant sailing ship. The first
commercial vessel, a 1600 ton coastal tanker, is now being
built and is scheduled to take to the seas this fall. The
shipbuilder, Nippon Kokan, at first thought of merely rigging
an existing tanker with sails, but he eventually decided it was
more sensible to specially design a vessel. An experimental
ship of the same class is already at sea. Plans have also been
drafted for a 14,000 ton gravel barge using sail for auxiliary
power. The barge will have to be towed, but sail-assist will
cut down on the engine power required. Being studied for
potential auxiliary sail are automobile carriers plying the
Japan to U.S. route and large, ocean-going fishing boats.
22. "Are Sail-Assisted Tankers Feasible?", Ocean Industry,
February, 1980. 103-111.
The Japan Marine Machinery Development Association has
given Nippon Kokan: NKK, $ 60,000 to perform feasibility
studies, including refitting the 3200 ton tanker AITAkU MARU
with a pair of sails as the first computer-age sail-equipped
tanker in service. Completed are sea tests of the 77 ton DAIOH
equipped with three types of sails. Auxiliary sails have
resulted in fuel savings of more than 10%. Research began in
May, 1979 with wind tunnel tests. The three types of thrusters
tested were: rigid, hinged sails, soft sails, and a triangular
soft sail behind a hard wing mast.
23. "Tanker to Use Sails," Tight Lines (Florida Sea Grant
Program-Key West), March, 1980. 1.
Sea tests of the 77 ton DAIOH are announced with computer
24. "Sailing Into the Future...", St. Petersburg Times, August
2, 1980. 2A.
The Imamura Shipbuilding Co. launched on August 1, 1980
the first sail-powered oil tanker, the SHIN AITOKU MARU with
two 39 by 26 foot metal sails. 50% fuel savings are hoped.
25. M.Ishihara, T.Watanabe, K.ShimizU, K.Yoshimi, H.Namura,
Nippon Kokan K.K., "Prospect of Sail-Equipped Motorship as
Assessed from Experimental Ship 'DAIOH'," The Society of Naval
Architects and Marine Engineers, Shipboard Energy Conservation
Symposium, September, 1980. 181-205.
Tests were conducted in wind tunnels, on shore and at sea
on sail rigs and controls. The economic aspects of a 10,000 to
35,000 DWT bulk carrier equipped with sails were also studied.
This is a report on the successful termination of the first
stage in the development process. Sea trials concluded: power
gain by the practical sail on the ship can be estimated
accurately enough from wind tunnel tests and computation; the
wind force acting on the hull should not be neglected to
estimate the sailing ship speed more accurately; automatic sail
trimming equipment should be installed to set the sail at
optimum angle of attack. The rigid sail was more desirable.
Conclusions: 1. An efficient laminar flow rigid sail was
selected based on wind tunnel experiments. 2. Full-scale tests
on the DAIOH proved estimations and studies were approximately
correct. 3. Performance and efficiency at full scale can be
predicted. 4. 10,000 to 35,000 DWT bulk carriers can readily
accommodate auxiliary sail in an early stage.
26. same authors, "Nippon Kokan's Experimental Ship Proves
Sail-Equipped Motorship Feasible," Maritime
Reporter/Engineering News, March 15, 1981.24-28.
Summary of the preceding report.
27. "Second Wind-Assisted Diesel Propelled Ship Building in
Japan," ibid, Nov.1, 1981.
A second coastal tanker designed for wind-assisted diesel
propulsion will be delivered soon by Imamura Shipbuilding to
Aitoku Co.,owner of the first such commercial sailing vessel.
The second ship: AITOKU MARU will be built initially as a
normal power-driven vessel with sails installed later, so that
realistic economic comparisons can be made. Hull design is
similar to the earlier SHIN AITOKU MARU. There will be two
masts with 160 square meters of rigid sails when spread. Length
is to be 217 feet with 1600 DWT.
28. M.Murata, M.Tsuji, T. Watanabe, "Aerodynamic
Characteristics of a 1600 DWT Sail Assisted Tanker," Technical
Research Centre NKK. Summary: The Naval Architects, The Royal
Institution of Naval Architects, November, 1981. E276.
This presents results of wind tunnel tests of sails and
hulls and sea tests of the 1600 DWT SHIN AITOKU MARU. The
investigation included the study of pressure distribution on the
sail surface and the effects of heel angle and surface
roughness. Wind tunnel tests using complete ship models showed
a significant interaction between the hull and sails in the
29. B.Dooley, "Wooden Ship, Iron Men Era Reborn", Boston Herald
American, Aug.2, 1979.
On August 8th, 1979, the 97 foot, 98 ton JOHN F.LEAVITT
will be launched. Built in the 19th century style of white and
red oak, yellow pine and hackmatack or tamarack, will have a
capacity of 150 tons of cargo and six passengers. The 37 year
old owner, Ned Ackerman will operate his vessel in true tramp
fashion from port to port. The Leavitt has no engine but
carries a 15 foot push boat for docking. she carries 6441
square feet of canvas.
30. J.Freedman, "Success of a New Sailing Ship Hinges on the
Ill Winds of Oil", Soundings magazine, Sept.,1979.
Announces the launching of the JOHN F. LEAVITT on August
8th at Thomaston, Maine. Ackerman has invested three years and
several hundred thousand dollars in the vessel. He is a former
English teacher and medieval scholar. Not carrying auxiliary
power exempts her from federal regulations. There will a crew
of three plus the skipper.
31. M.Crowley, "New Schooner Tests the Water for Carrying
Cargo,"; National Fisherman, Oct.,1979. 80-81.
Characteristics of the JOHN F.LEAVITT are given as well as
a summary of other projects such as the DYNASHIP design.
Whether the scheme will succeed is anyone's guess. A tested
ingredient is the LEAVITT whose breed has been proved from her
keel to the tops of her trucks; another, her driver, has not.
32. J.Laitin, "The Leavitt Failure -- Was It a True Test?",
Soundings Magazine, Feb., 1980. 10.
The JOHN F.LEAVITT was abandoned at sea on December 27,
1979. Inexperience is blamed for the failure. Placement of
lumber and chemicals may have contributed. After launching, the
ship ran aground, a compass that had not been compensated was
not bolted down, and the bowsprit snapped. There was no
shakedown cruise. After ten days at sea, high winds caused the
vessel to pitch, and a 40 foot cargo boom broke loose. Water
began to enter the cargo hold, and oil poured out of a vent
over the donkey engine- the only source of power for the
electrical system and bilge pumps. The ship reportedly cost
$500,000, and it was partially insured.
33. T.Sullivan, "Me.Coastal Schooner Leavitt Lost On First
Working Voyage," National Fisherman, March, 1980. 14,
This is another account of the loss of the JOHN F.LEAVITT.
First operation in the winter in the northwest Atlantic may
have contributed to the loss plus an accidental jibe. The yawl
boat broke loose from the stern davits and filled with water,
dragging down the stern.
34. "Leavitt's Loss Won't Deter Sail Experiments," National
Fisherman, March, 1980. 15 & 98.
Lloyd Bergeson's business-like approach to the problems of
commercial sail is contrasted with that of Ned Ackerman, owner
of the ill-fated Leavitt. "He took an old design, shunned
modern technology and tried to make a go of it, turning down a
less risky short but steady run from Maine to Boston for the
more romantically risky New England-to-the-Caribbean run on
which the Leavitt foundered on her maiden voyage." Greg
Brazier, owner of the Atlantic Coasting Schooner Co. of Long
Island, NY is building a 70 foot gaff rigged schooner for the
coastal trade. Ackerman chose to avoid Coast Guard
certification and regulations about engines, watertight
bulkheads etc. Ackerman chose to maximize his hold space
instead of installing watertight bulkheads that would almost
certainly have kept her afloat long enough to install more
pumps. Fran Morey, a designer for Hood Yacht Systems has
recently contracted for the design of a 96 foot swordfish
longliner and a 76 foot combination vessel both to be equipped
with sails and auxiliary engines.
35. T.Weber, "Requiem for a Dream," Motor Boating & Sailing
magazine, April, 1980. 52-53, 120-122, 135-138.
Yet another summation of the loss of the Leavitt.
36. J.Carson, "Sailing Bulk Carrier Design," New England
Section, The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers,
November, 1976. 34 pp.
This paper considers the preliminary design of a series of
large square-rigged steel sailing vessels. Primary emphasis is
on choice of hull parameters rather than sail system design.
Maximum deadweight for such a vessel is 32,300 DWT based on a
limiting draft of 34 feet. The design of six vessels is
presented to act as a data set for later calculation of actual
sailing speed and trading economics. Methods for sizing
auxiliary equipment, the sail system, hull and outfit weights,
and manning are discussed. Stability calculations are shown,
and the effect of cargo density on vessel stability is shown to
be a limiting factor in choosing feasible trades for such a
37. B.Azarin, "In the Wake of the Flying Cloud Ocean Shipping
Sets a New Course with High-Tech Clipper Ships," Science 81
magazine, March, 1981. 81-85.
This is yet another survey of the state of the art
article. Covered are the Japanese experiments, the PATRICIA A.,
DYNASHIP, and the Windship Development Corporation. Mentioned
is work in Germany.
38. Y.Lukasik, "Wind-Powered Vessel Designs of the Soviet
Union," Sea Technology, Feb.,1982. 34-35.
Sail equipped research vessels are mentioned as the ZARYA
and the MAZUREK. Several preliminary designs of modern sailing
ships have been completed at the Nikolayev Shipbuilding
Institute on the Ukraine's Black Sea Coast. One is a cruise
vessel of the river-sea type. Optimum craft for this service is
a motor-equipped trimaran. Cabins are located in all three
hulls. Foremast is 12 meters (39 feet) and mainmast 20 meters
(66 feet) high. Draft is about one meter (39 inches). A sailing
ore carrier of 60,000 tons has been designed with 14,000 square
meters of sail area (150,695 sq.ft.). Sic. A short sea vessel
has also been designed of about 200 tons deadweight with a
draft of not more than two meters (6.6 feet). In addition,
tests are to be conducted of a rotor wind propelled ship
designed after the pattern of the German engineer Flettner who
built the BARBARA in 1926. Other designs are also being
39. "Small Simple Sails Save Money," The Naval Architect, The
Royal Institution of Naval Architects, Nov.,1981. E243.
160 square meters (1722 sq.ft.) of sail has been installed
on the 1300 DWT Danish coaster INGER M. During a ten day
voyage, fuel savings of 1500 liters per day (396 U.S.gallons)
40. S.Renner-Smith, "Computerized High-Tech Sailing Ships,"
Popular Science, December, 1980. 78-80.
Although yet another survey article, it contains the best
description and drawings yet of the Japanese furling steel
airfoils and their controls. The needs of Micronesia, also
known as the U.S. Pacific Trust Territories are described with
the ways in which sailing freighters can help.
41. "Expect Wind Powered Ship to Start Caribbean Cargo
Operation This Summer," Maritime Reporter/Engineering News,
March 1, 1982. 29.
Described is the 460 DWT PATRICIA A. which is expected to
enter the Caribbean trade this summer. She has been rebuilt fbr
$ 1 million in England according to her owner Hugh Lawrence,
president of Ocean Carriers, Inc. She was built in Germany in
1932 and refurbished in 1952. She will have four dr five sails
of five to six thousand square feet total.
42. "Ship Designers Get Wind of Forgotten Fuels," South China
Morning Post, May 9, 1981, Business Section. 2
This is a summary of a report given by P.B.Joshi and
D.A.Taylor, senior lecturers of the department of mechanical
and marine engineering of Hong Kong Polytechnic University.
Nuclear power holds little future scope for ship
propulsion. Diesel engines will continue, and coal-fired
vessels may complement diesel. There may be limited use for
sails. Fuel oil has increased from U.S. $13 in 1973 to U.S.
$218 per ton at the beginning of 1981. Wind power is used even
today in the South China Sea, around the South Pacific islands
and in the Arabian Sea. The Sailiner is described as a bulk
carrier of 15,000 DWT with 6200 square meters of sail (66,700
sq.ft.). Described briefly are the Japanese experiments and
DYNASHIP. The Flettner rotor is discussed and the two ships
built in Germany in 1924 and 1926 utilizing the Magnus effect.
43. "Waertsilae Cruise With Sail," The Naval Architect,
Sept.,1981, The Royal Institution of Naval Architects. E219.
A 110 passenger cruise ship is proposed by a Helsinki ship
yard powered by both sail and engines. The 88 meter (289 ft.)
ship is to be three masted carrying boomless sails of 1300
square meters area (14,000 sq.ft.).
44. J.Stansell, "A Tall Ship for the Next Century," New
Scientist, 11 December, 1980.
This is essentially a summary and commentary on the RINA
November, 1980 Symposium on Wind Propulsion for Commercial
Ships. The fine sketches illustrate the various possible rig
types. Flettner rotors are discussed as is the possibility of
hydrofoils as advocated by Colin Herbert.
45. "PREUSSEN II Represents Modern Breed of Windships," Sailing
Magazine ca. January, 1981. 11.
Windships Magnificent of Venice, California has announced
a two stage development program to construct a 480 foot, 17
million dollar commercial cargo vessel using 88,000 square feet
of sail. She is scheduled to be launched March 15, 1982. She
will have five 200 foot masts carrying four head sails, 12
staysails and 30 square sails. Sails will be trimmed by
46. J.Mays, "Cargo-Carrying Windships Article Draws Fire for
Technical Naivete", National Fisherman, December, 1979. 7.
This refers to Michael Crowley's article on sailing
freight but differs with him strongly, especially on the
grounds of sailing experience and mathematical analysis and
47. J.Waller, "Tour Ship's Sails Spur Slight Flap," Soundings
Magazine, April, 1980. 9.
Described is the conversion of a Potomac River tour ship
for the Hawaii cruise trade by retrofitting her with 6500
square feet of furling sails on four masts and a 42 foot
bowsprit. The RELLA MAE, formerly GEORGE WASHINGTON, is 283
feet long and will carry 1500 passengers. The masts are 200
feet from deck.
48. "Commercial Sail", Amateur Yacht Research Society
publication No.17, Feb.,1958. 42 pp.
This booklet contains articles on: The Fan Rig, A Sailing
Coaster, A Sailing Ship Rig, The Top's'l Gaff Bermudian,
Another Aft Dipping Lugsail, Sailing Ship Design, and the Kite
Rig among others.
49."NKK Building Sail-Assisted Cargo Carrier for Affiliate,"
Maritime Reporter, 1 November, 1982.
A 2100 DWT steel carrier due for completion in March, 1983
will carry products in Japanese coastal waters and will consume
40-50% less fuel than conventional ships. It will use two sails
and other energy-saving systems. The fore sail has an area of
1485 sq.ft. (138 sq.m) and the aft sail 1035 sq.ft. (96 sq.m).
The vessel will be 236 feet (72 m) long and will be computer
50. Russell M. Woodin and Parker E. Marean III, "Sailing
Passenger Vessel Experience," Woodin & Marean, Inc. naval
architects-marine engineers, PO Box 26, West Boothbay Harbor,
Maine 04575, U.S.A.
This firm lists nine vessels for which they consulted and
calculated stability and four on which they did computer
hydrostatic calculations and provided stability data at large
angles. They are the designers of the schooner HOMER W.DIXON.
51. David Robb, "Japanese Wind Ship Proves Successful," Sea
Technology, April, 1982.
A report on the SHIN AITOKU MARU after the first year's
performance. She used sails plus engine 60% of the time, and a
fuel savings of 10% was attributed to sails. Sailing in typhoon
conditions showed that the sails increased roll damping
52.Bill Robinson, "A New Age of Sail," Yachting, May, 1982,
Brief discussion of the square rig on SEA CLOUD, Flettner
rotor and other ideas.
53. L.Bergeson & G.Clemmer, "Wind Propulsion for Commercial
Ships," Wind Ship Development Corp., Fifth Biennial Wind Energy
Conference & Workshop, Washington, DC, October 5-7, 1981.12 pp.
A summary of the comprehensive Wind Ship report giving
rationale and highlights of their excellent study which is
54. Lloyd Bergeson, "Sail-Assist for Commercial Vessel,"
Yachting, January, 1982.
A brief letter differentiating between yacht and
commercial sail rigs. Several initial ideas proved not to be
borne out by research: pure sailing ships could be economical -
they were found not to be so, specially-designed hulls required
-not so, stayed masts required- unstayed more practical in most
55....he m/v MINI LACE Sail Power Unit," Windship Corp., no
date, 1 page.
A one sheet description of MINI LACE and the retrofitted
sail rig developed for her.
56. "Sail Equipped Motorship," brochure from Nippon Kokan: NKK
picturing and describing the SHIN AITOKU MARU. 1982. NIPPON
KOKAN K.K., 1-2, 1-chome, Marunouchi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100,
57. "Japan's NKK Commissions New Sail-Equipped Ship," Sea
Technology, September, 1982, p.67.
Sister ship of the above vessel: AITOKU MARU was
commissioned recently. The new 1600 DWT ship will transport oil
58. J.-L. Armand, P. Marol and G. Saint-Blancat, "Aerodynamics
of Sail-Assisted Propulsion of Commercial Ships: A Preliminary
Study," Proceedings of the 12th AIAA Symposium on the
Aero/Hydronautics of Sailing, by AIAA and SNAME, V.28, Oct. 30
& 31, 1982, San Francisco, pp 230-237.
This is a comprehensive technical report on a research
program conducted in France to study sail-assisted propulsion
for cargo ships. The wind device is a pair of slotted flap wing
sails on a 3100 DWT chemical product carrier. Stability is
contrasted with French and IMCO dynamic criteria, wind tunnel
tests are reported on and a theoretical estimate is made of
power gained. The preliminary study indicates that the proposed
system is feasible, and the French shipyards have decided to
undertake a new research program to develop the system to
building and fitting on a cargo ship for full scale testing.
59. T.Watanabe, Y.Endo, K.Nakanishi, K.Takeda, "Sail-Equipped
Motor Ship 'SHIN AITOKU MARU' and Studies on Larger Ship,"
ibid, pp 238-249.
This is a technical report giving results of sea trials
and actual voyages, sail performance through wind tunnel tests
and design of larger sail-equipped motor ships. A 35,000 DWT
bulk carrier equipped with sails is described.
60. Niels E.Sorensen-Viale, "A 35,000 Ton Motor and Sailing
Bulk Carrier," ibid Seattle, 1981, pp 43-71.
This is a comprehensive study concerning history, hull
Design, weather forecasting and economic analyses.
61. Wallace H. Close, "Power Termed Vital to Cargo Sail
Operation," Letter, National Fisherman, March, 1980.
Comments on the JOHN F. LEAVITT foundering and a strong
argument for having at least auxiliary power on ocean going
62. "Sail Power for the Merchant Marine: Photographic Study of
MINI LACE, and MINI LACE Sail Power Unit," Hood Yacht Systems,
63.Jim Fullilove, "Ill-Fated Cargo Schooner Leavitt Stars in an
Entertaining Movie," National Fisherman, July, 1981, p.99.
Rather wry comments about making the documentary film on
the JOHN F.LEAVITT.
64. "Va.-Built Schooner is Bound for Caribbean Cargo Trade,"
National Fisherman, January, 1980. 82.
In October, a 50 foot steel schooner was delivered which
is intended to haul fruit and produce among Caribbean islands
and possibly back to the East Coast. The gaff-rigged schooner
MEMORY was designed by Tom Colvin and carries 1600 square feet
of sail. She has a 30 hp diesel engine for auxiliary power and
draws six feet of water.
65. "Wind and Sun-Powered Cargo Vessel Being Built for the
South Pacific," Maritime Reporter/Engineering News, May, 1980.
Nearing completion in New Zealand is the 112 foot, 146 ton
steel schooner MANUTES with 5500 square feet of sail and 5,000
cubic feet of cargo space. Most of the electronic navigation
and auxiliary gear will receive power from wind driven
generators or solar-powered batteries.
"250 Tonnes...and a Deckwatch of Two," Boat
Technology International magazine, no date. ca. 1981. 5-7.
This is a three masted schooner of steel with a length of
36 meters (118 feet), draft of 3.8 meters (12.5 ft.) with 560
sq.meter of sail (6027 sq.ft.) area. She will be used in the
67. "Development Plan Presented for U.S. Pacific Islands," Sea
Technology magazine, Oct.,1980. 19.
An ambitious five year plan for economic development of
the U.S.Pacific Basin Islands was presented to the Carter
Administration on August 7th. 150 programs were proposed
costing over a billion dollars, and funding at this level is
unlikely. Projects were suggested in fisheries development,
port construction, coastal zone management, telecommunications
and other areas. Total gross annual product of the region is
estimated at $600 million only half the cost of the
68. T.E.Colvin, "Inter-Island Trade is Best for Small
Schooners," National Fisherman, August, 1980. 62.
Calvin has designed, built and sailed commercial sailing
vessels for 35 years. He believes such to be feasible but to
attempt to sail freight in the U.S. borders on the ridiculous
because of existing laws and regulations. Colvin's 15 ton cargo
schooner MEMORY is used for inter-island trade of package
freight. He has designed several two and three-masted fishing
schooners. The Caribbean seems a much better area in which to
trade. The most economical size for a cargo schooner is between
15 and 20 tons since this can be manned by a small family crew.
This limits size to about 60 feet on deck.
69. "Schooner Being Built for Lake Champlain Service," Maritime
Reporter and Engineering News, Feb. 15, 1982.
Construction has begun in Portsmouth, NH on a 76 foot
steel hull schooner to carry passengers on Lake Champlain
beginning in the spring of 1983. She will have a capacity of
70. J.L.Shaw, "A Return to Sail in the Pacific?", Sea Frontiers
magazine, Jan./Feb., 1981. 13-17.
The once self-sufficient Pacific islands have gradually
become totally dependent on the outside world. Interisland
trading vessels usually of 200 to 500 ton capacity, play a
vital role. Ironically, the Pacific island trading fleet was
one of the most recent to give up the use of sail. Only two
decades ago, sails were still used as the chief form of vessel
propulsion. Few of these craft are seen today.
71. L.Dennis, "Florida Contractor Built his Own Cargo
Schooner," Soundings, April, 1980. 13.
On Feb.21, 1980, Harold Haglund launched his 42,000 lb.,
64 foot, steel-hulled topsail cargo schooner. It is designed to
carry 3,000 sq.ft. of canvas and has two 120 hp auxiliary
72. W.L.Warner, M.M.Kossa, "Updating an Ancient Art- Research
and Development Toward Modern Wind Powered Cargo Ships,"
Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers STAR
Symposium, San Francisco, May 25-27, 1977. 20 pp.
Some general remarks on modern sailing cargo vessels are
followed by a detailed description of the proposed DynaMast
series- 16 different proposed rig arrangements. Included also
are characteristics of ten proposed DynaShip bulk carriers
ranging from 2950 to 68,900 tons deadweight. Experiments with
the Princeton Sailwing are described and compared with the
Proelss rig. The evolution of the present design for the
DynaShip rig is described with photographs of model rig
arrangements and polar curves. Included are 28 references.
73. H.G.Lawrence, "The Western Flyer Project A Modern Sailing
Cargo Ship," The Society of Naval Architects and Marine
Engineers, Northern California Section, Sept.9, 1976, San
Francisco, Calfornia. 39 pp.
This paper describes the various criteria selection and
design processes as they relate to a project which is intended
to construct the first ship to carry cargo under sail again.
The emphasis is on the expediency, efficiency and economy of
the various decisions to be made when considered in terms of
putting a new 4500 DWT sailing ship to sea, rather than in
terms of the highest attainable hydrodynamic or aerodynamic
performance of some future sailing vessel.
The WESTERN FLYER is modelled after older types which
successfully rounded Cape Horn, almost routinely. She is to be
rigged as a four-masted Bermudian rig schooner with bipod
masts. She is 96 m.(315 ft.) on deck, and sail area can be
varied between 23,440 and 32,498 sq.ft. She has a 750 hp diesel
electric engine. The author concludes that sailing cargo ships
have greater competitive advantage in the smaller ship sizes
than in the larger, and that it is not realistic to start cargo
operations under sail in carriers of the size 15,000 DWT and
up. A reasonable size may be 8,000 DWT. A summary is given of
the Argentine grain trade from the Rio de la Plata. 43
references are included.
MODERN SAILING FISHING VESSELS
Commercial sailing fishing vessels have existed almost as
long as man has been on Earth. Although not many are now found
ih Europe aid the U.S., they are used in large numbers
elsewhere in the World. In the past few years, such have made a
modest comeback in the so-called developed countries. Skookum
Marine in Port Townsend, Washington has constructed and sold 40
to !0 such craft for fishermen in nearby, Alaskan and Hawaiian
waters. Others have been built in California by R.W.Davies.
Captains Lane and Jesse Briggs operate two such vessels which
also serve as tugs, salvage craft and freighters as shown in
Figure 4. The French and Germans are actively pursuing sail
assist for fishing vessels as well. There are isolated
experiments ih many parts of the U.S. and other countries where
either sails have been added to power vessels or yachts have
been converted to commercial fishing craft.
Major limiting factors on the use of sails by fishing
vessels are: bridge heights and distance to fishing grounds.
The farther the fisherman has to travel before he reaches the
fishing grounds, the more advantageous sail assist becomes. For
fishing grounds 200 or more miles out, fuel savings on a
year-round basis of up to 40% have been forecast. Others are
not so optimistic. See Abstracts 44 and 46, for example. There
appears to be no uniform insurance policy with respect to
sail-assisted fishing boats. In New England, one firm
threatened to increase premiums if sails were added using the
justification that crew injury and fatigue were enhanced. In
the Pacific Northwest, premiums are less for sail-equipped
fishihg vessels and ih Virginia no change was experienced in
retrofittihg an existing craft with sails. Capt. Davies in
Hawaii cites a reduced premium because of no need for towage
insUrahce. Sailing vessels usually can make it back on their
MODERN SAILING FISHING VESSELS
1. M.A.Jacquemin, "A Multi-Purpose Tuna Fishing Boat with
Combined Propulsion," Symposium on Wind Propulsion of
Commercial Ships, The Royal Institution of Naval Architects,
London, 1980. 233-240.
A multi-purpose tuna fishing schooner has been designed
for use on the Atlantic coastline of France to be powered by
,motor and sail. French statistics show that it costs about one
liter of fuel to land one kilogram of fish (0.12 U.S.gallons
per pound). The vessel designed is 19.3 meters (63 ft.) long
with a light displacement of 60 tons and a loaded displacement
of 95 tons. Hull is double-chine steel. Main diesel engine is
160 hp with a secondary engine of 40 hp working an altenator
and hydraulic pump. The boat will be fitted out with two 15
meter (49 ft.) masts. On the foremast, a boomed staysail will
be rigged to a roller stay of 52 sq.m.(559 sq.ft.) A large
genoa can also be set of 104 sq.m. (1120 sq.ft.) On the
mainmast is a staysail with boom measuring 48 sq.m.(517 sq.ft.)
and a main sail of 50 sq.m.(538 sq.ft.) each on a roller stay.
Sail rollers are driven by small hydraulic engines controlled
from the bridge. Sheets are controlled via winches from the
Tests on a scale model have been carried out in the
laboratories of nautical hydrodynamics at Nantes. With an
average wind of Force 4 to 5, the vessel should reach a speed
of eight to nine knots. Calculations indicate an annual fuel
saving of 200,000 liters (52,834 U.S. gallons).
J.F.Fyson had a number of comments on this paper. Firstly,
the major difference between fishing vessels and most other
commercial craft is that they work all year round and take on
their cargo at sea. Looking at some of the designs proposed for
sailing fishing vessels, he doubts that this is always
appreciated. Sails and rigs must not interfere with fishing and
cargo operations. Consideration of working deck space
availability is all-important. Other considerations- time spent
getting to the fishing grounds, power requirements during the
fishing operation, expected catch and method of bringing it
aboard, auxiliary sources of power necessary for the fishing
operation, conservation of catch and power necessary for
refrigeration and normal requirements for life on board.
Mr.Fyson is in favor of high cut mainsails, spritsail rigs and
junk rigs but not spinnakers and rigid airfoils. Rotors might
be possible. Mr. MacLear asked for a breakdown on the costs.
The reply gave such and claimed a benefit for 10% lower
insurance and perhaps 50% lower engine repair costs.
2. E.W.H.Gifford, "Improvement of Sailing Techniques in
Tropical Countries," ibid. 241-247.
See Abstract No.6 under Advanced Thrusters for a
description of this paper which concerns beachable catamaran
and sailing canoe fishing boats.
3. B.Townes, "Behm-Designed Sharpie Deserves a Trial Run for
Inshore Fishing, National Fisherman, August, 1981. p.97
This is a 32 foot aluminum sharpie, gaff rigged,
freestanding ketch powered by a 10 hp engine and suitable for
hand trolling, trap fishing and longlining in sounds, rivers
4. J.Frye, "Modified Bugeye Designed for Shrimping," National
Fisherman, March, 1981. p.73.
This is another proposed fishing vessel, a 50 foot
modified bugeye with a staysail rig. The architect, Bill Hall,
calculates she could tow two 35 foot shrimp trawls at four to
six knots in 12 to 15 knots of wind. A 130 to 140 hp engine
would be fitted linked to a sel-feathering propeller. During
trawling operations, with engine idling for hydraulic deck
gear, fuel consumption is estimated at 1.5 gallons per hour.
5. J.Capps, "Fiberglass Combination Vessel Designed for Sail
Power Too," National Fisherman, Feb.,1981. 72-73.
Skookum Marine molded the BELINDA V's fiberglass hull
which can become a two masted sailing vessel. Wheelhouse is of
one-quarter inch aluminum to keep center of gravity low. She is
53 x 16 x 8 feet and is powered by a 6-71 Detroit Diesel.
6. G.Wells, "Marine Tech's Sailing Fishboat Gets Hull Speed on
Little Power," National Fisherman, August, 1980. p.70.
Marine Tech has sold six 34 foot sail trollers of the True
North Design in four years, but all were delivered minus
optional sails. The new boat which is of the Hylebos schooner
designs will be delivered in October. She is 47 x 13.5 x 6.4
feet and is reminiscent of the turn-of-the-century halibut
schooners. She will be equipped with an 80 hp Dietroit Diesel
4-53. Cost will be $ 238,000. Fishermen will have to expect a
smaller payload. A standard 47 foot fishing boat routinely
carries up to 300 hp, but it takes only 47 hp to move this
vessel at hull speed.
7. L.Cole and A.Sager, "46 ft. Sealing Schooner Can be Set Up
for Pleasure or Commercial Fishing," National Fisherman,
Jan.,1976. 14-C & 30-C.
Designed from memory by Francis Fredette, this beautiful
gaff-rigged schooner is 46 x 12.75 x 6 feet and measures 36.75
feet on the waterline.
8. K.Brueckmann, "Skookum Sailing Fishboats Growing in
Popularity," National Fisherman, Feb.,1978. 16-C.
Bernie Arthur, president of Skookum Marine in Port
Townsend, Washington states that 50% of his production this
year will be sailing fishboats. The Skookum hulls are designed
by Edwin Monk with a capacity of up to 20 tons of frozen fish
and a 3,000 mile range under power alone. Sails increase range
and fishing options and decrease costs. At present, the Skookum
47 and 53 are being used for sailing fishboats. Five of the
boats are already fishing, and eight are under construction. A
70 footer is being designed. Sail advantage is used to travel
to the fish- not when fishing. It does not seem practical to
troll with sails set. Skookum Marine is located at 2900
Washington St., Port Townsend, Washington 98368.
9. M.Miller, "Californian Copied Slocum's SPRAY to Build
Efficient Trolling Vessel," National Fisherman, Oct., 1980.
A 16 ton sailing fishing vessel was built in Morro Bay,
California by Bob White. She measures 36.75 x 14 x 4.5 feet.
Bowsprit is 16 feet, main mast 43 feet with a 21 foot top mast
and 27 foot mizzen. She is powered by a Perkins 108 delivering
55 hp. At present the fish hold carries four tons of fish, and
there is no refrigeration other than ice. It is planned to
double the cargo capacity and install electric refrigeration.
10. T.Lesh, "West Coast Commercial Men Find Sailing Fishboats
are Now Viable," National Fisherman, Sept., 1980. 80-82.
Capt. R.W.Davies fishes the 60 foot sailing schooner
CORNUCOPIA out of Hawaii for albacore tuna. The idea was to
develop a long-range vessel that could get to the increasingly
remote fish resource and get back to market. She is patterned
after an 1890's schooner called a Gloucester sloop boat, often
called an East Coast oyster schooner or Grand Banks schooner.
She is built of steel and is now valued at $450,000. She is
gaff rigged and uses mast hoops of 10 oz. tightly woven Dacron
and no sizing. Two people can run and sail the craft. Davies
claims: "the reason there are not more sailing workboats on the
West Coast is that most fishermen will buy fuel, regardless of
how much it costs, as long as it's available. In other parts of
the world, either the fuel is not available or the fishermen
can't afford to buy it. "These sailing workboats are really
solar-powered protein producers."
Davies' son Morgan now operates the Davies Boat Building
Co.1 in Sacramento and is building his own version of the steel
commercial sailing schooner. The basic boat measures 53 x 16.5
x 7 feet and cargo capacity is 20 tons. The Mobil vinyl system
is painted over zinc chromate primer. In seven years, the
CORNUCOPIA has only needed minor touch-up. There is no fin
keel. She is rigged as a gaff-headed schooner with approximately
1500 sq.ft. of lowers and 500 sq.ft. of uppers. Morgan Davies,
Davies Boatbuilding, 2620 American Ave., Sacramento, California
11. B.Townes, "2 Sailing Workboats from the West," National
Fisherman, Dec., 1975. 1-C and 16-C.
Described is a George Buehler designed 42 foot sailing
workboat and a Jay Benford designed 36 foot sailing dory, both
suitable for commercial fishing.
12. B.Townes, "Tiare Debuts as State of the Art Sailing Fish
Boat," National Fisherman, March, 1981. 74,75 & 104.
Naval architect J.P.Hartog of San Francisco designed the
steel 65 x 15.25 x 7.5 foot sailing fishing vessel for a
client. She is ketch rigged with up to 2400 sq.ft. of sail and
a hold able to keep 60,000 to 65,000 pounds of fish blast
frozen at -25 degrees F. She is due to be launched any day and
is the first of what is hoped will be a series from the Blue
13. T.Lesh, "Wind Energy Free to the Fisherman," National
Fisherman Yearbook, 1980. 113-117.
Since 1973, the cost of fuel has risen 727%! Much of the
Gulf fishing fleet has been idled by the cost of fuel, and the
U.S.fishing industry is suffering more than its neighbors. Last
fall, marine fuel in Mexico was 17 cents a gallon and in Canada
36 cents while in the U.S. it was 93 cents.
More sailing fish boats are seen every year in answer to
this problem, but their number is few in comparison to the
number of powered vessels. There is hardly a fishery that could
not benefit from sail. Sail is generally used to extend range.
In general, the farther a boat has to travel, the more valuable
sail will be. To date, none of the U.S. fisheries has used
sails .for trawling, but India and England have. Sailmaker Paul
Mitchell (2805 Canon St., San Diego, CA 92106) has been making
sails for commercial fish boats as well as yachts. He is an
advocate of simple rigs and opposed to furling gear. He
estimates costs of outfitting with sails at 2 to 5% of the
boat's cost (for sails alone). A sailing fishboat costing
$200,000 was just outfitted for $4,000. This compares with
$20,000 for high-technology rigging. New Dacron weaves, such as
Carolon are softer, easier to handle and last longer.
A traditional sailing fishing craft is the TIA MIA, a 27 x
9.25 x 5.75 foot Friendship sloop type. She is operated out of
Oregon. Bill James of Morro Bay, California has recently turned
out four designs for sailing fishing vessels. Larry Fulgham is
a builder in Moss Landing, California has a gaff-rigged steel
fishing schooner 65 feet in length: FOURTH OF JULY. Also
mentioned are: Skookum Marine, Marine Technical Services and
On the East Coast, interest is increasing as shown by the
Northeast 77, designed by R.Woodin and P.Marean and built by
Northeast Boat Co., Stonington, Maine 04861. In Australia, John
Clode has built the 54 x 15 x 5 foot ketch CALIPH with 44 hp
diesel and variable pitch propeller. Perhaps the smallest is
the Drascombe Fisher built in England for the Caribbean
fisheries. Its 21.5 x 7.25 x 2 foot DRIFTER model has been
modified for such. The most complicated built in this country
is the Bottom Line 44: CSY 44 which can carry 12,000 lbs. of
ice and fish.
14. K.C.Samples, "The Cornucopia One Fisherman's Answer to
the Fuel Price Squeeze," The Marine Advisory Program Makai
Newsletter, Univ. of Hawaii Sea Grant College, June, 1981. p.1
A detailed account of the CORNUCOPIA described above. On
an average, he probably uses 7000 gallons of fuel per season
less than a comparable size diesel powered albacore boat. On a
recent 1500 mile trip from Honolulu to Midway, he used only
sail power. Insurance cost is less because no extra premium is
paid for towage insurance to protect against mechanical
breakdown. Annual average sail replacement cost is about $1000.
15. B.P.Brown, Jr., "An Evaluation of a Potential Use of Sail
Power in the Commercial Shrimp Fishery of Texas," M.S. thesis,
Texas A&M University, August, 1976.
See Abstract No. 10 under Economics.
16. "Almost Lost The Art of Fishing Under Sail," Coast Watch,
University of North Carolina Sea Grant, Feb.,1981. p. 6.
Mike Alford hs begun a study of North Carolina's historic
boats for the Hampton Mariners Museum in Beaufort. "We almost,
but not quite, lost the art of fishing under sail. We need to go
back to the extremely efficient boats of a couple of
generations ago, and pick up where we left off." There were
three mainstays of the old North Carolina sailing fleet:
sharpie, spritsail skiff and the Albemarle shad boat.
17. T.Sullivan, "Sail-Aided Power Could Save Some Fishboats
Plenty," National Fisherman, Dec., 1979. 69.
Presented is a prototype design for a 73 foot sailing
fishing trawler. Designer Fran Morey, of Hood Yacht Systems
says the hull design alone would make the vessel between 10 and
25% more efficient. She is equipped with Hood's Stowaway mast
and Seafurl gear. Icing of the mast is one concern, so a
possible solution is advocated of venting engine exhaust up the
18. N.Lucander, "Building a Good Sailing Fishboat is More Than
Just Adding Sails," National Fisherman, Oct.,1980. 76-77.
A commercial fishing boat is a small business all by
itself. Conventional sail rigs are criticized because of
interference with fishing gear. In 1976, the author designed a
29 foot fishing boat for the Dominican Republic carry a single
roller-furling genoa fitted on a head stay. 21 of those boats
were built and are used, and others are being retrofitted to
use similar sail systems. A new 36 foot fishing boat for
Honduras will also have a roller furling genoa. He has now
designed his Albacore Clippers. One illustrated measures 68 x
5.75 ft. and carries 3195 sq.ft. of roller furling sails on
three equal-height masts. Sails are hydraulically controlled
for furling and easy reefing.
19. T.Lesh, "Sail Power Gains Popularity in Pacific Fisheries,"
National Fisherman, Oct., 1980. 78-80.
BORN FREE is a 65 foot sailing schooner to be used for
albacore fishing at Coos Bay, Oregon. She is of steel from a
J.P.Hartog design. Gaff rig was chosen for 730 sq.ft.
loose-footed mainsail of 13 oz. Dacron, 645 sq.ft. foresail of
12 oz. Dacron and 315 sq.ft. staysail of 8 oz. Dacron. Skookum
Marine has delivered several 53 foot sailing fiberglass sailing
fishing boats as well as a number of 47 footers with 20,000 lb.
20. "Durbeck 50 ft. Fisherman," National Fisherman, no date,
Described is a ketch-rigged fishing vessel measuring 50.75
x 13.8 x 5.25 foot 15000 lb displacement sailing fishing
vessel. Durbeck's, 4504 28th St., Bradenton, FL 33507.
21. "Third World Needs Stimulate Ideas for Boats and Gear,"
National Fisherman, Britsh Supplement, Oct.,1980. 53-54.
British engineer and vessel designer Edwin Gifford
introduced a 36 ft. beach sailing catamaran fish boat to Ghana.
He then designed a smaller and simpler catamaran called the
SANDSKIPPER to Sri Lanka. A 1978 cyclone destroyed 5,000
fishing boats in Sri Lanka. Gifford's idea to replace this
fleet was a 19 foot dory made of marine plywood by a stitch and
glue technique. (tortured plywood). They could be put together
from kits by the fishermen themselves. One boat and two kits
were sent to Sri Lanka, where demonstrations made a good
impression. They can be sailed or powered by a Petter 6 hp
air-cooled engine. They can carry three men, catching gear and
a ton of fish.
22. P.O'Driscoll, "No Easy Way Back to Sail," ibid. p.58.
In Britain there are still a few sailing fishing boats
around, but they are mostly museum pieces. One exception is in
Cornwall where there still is a small oyster fishery worked by
sailing craft. At Grimsby, there are a number of wooden inshore
boats operating of average length around 60 feet. They set a
trysail, mostly for steadying purposes. If the wind is right,
even this small sail will add a knot or two to the boat's
23. "He Hopes Shrimper with Sails will Sell, St. Petersburg
Time, Apr.12, 1981. 16B.
Master boatbuilder Oscar Ewing of Apalachicola, Florida
has built a model of a wind driven shrimp trawler at the
request of Bangladesh. Price of diesel fuel there ranges up to
$6 per gallon. It is hoped that two boats will be ordered. The
vessel is 56 feet long and could carry a regular load of 20,000
pounds. It will have an auxiliary engine. "It takes $1,000 of
diesel fuel to go to Key West. With this, you can get there for
24. "Hood Makes a Sail for a 250 Ft. Freighter," National
Fisherman, Nov., 1981. 14.
In addition to discussing the freighter sail, Hood said
that three sailing fishing vessels in the 60 to 96 foot range
have been designed and await serious buyers. The economic
feasibility of the new vessels can easily be proven. Robie
Doyle commented: "commercial fishermen tend to think of their
vessels as extremely sturdy, while seeing yachts as frail, a
perception that, until recently, may have been accurate. The
push in yachting lately has been toward larger and larger
vessels for offshore racing and cruising. The trend came about
primarily because of new developments in sailcloth and
equipment that made it easier for racing crews to handle a
greater volume of sail. Previously, everything was limited to
the ability of humans. The automation of handling equipment
allowed designers to go beyond this limitation in response to
everyone's wanting to go faster than the last one. This
development in turn led to stronger and heavier construction on
truly large racing yachts. This led to the development of self
furling sails, masts in which sails could be stowed and better
powering systems that allowed push-button control from the
pilothouse. And, these developments all have commercial
25. "No Dramatic Breakthroughs for Wind Propulsion," Ship &
Boat International, Dec.,1981. 5-6.
Described is the research project at the College of
Engineering of the University of South Florida, funded by
Florida Sea Grant College. The French work is described. The
catamaran concept was chosen as offering optimum compromise
between stability, draft and hull resistance. Hull design is by
Rodney March. Described also are the EOLE and other French
concepts treated in a separate abstract. In Australia, Lock
Crowther a leading designer of catamaran and trimaran racing
yachts, has recently turned his attention to fishing vessels
and workboats. He has chosen the catamaran for both a 46 foot
biological research vessel and a similarly sized pearl fishing
craft. Two 40 hp Lister engines are used driving fully
feathering controllable pitch propellers. Hydraulic power is
supplied by a pump off one of the engines. The rig is set aft
on a single mast. There are long, shallow skegs on the hulls
giving a draft of less than four feet.
26. H.Seki, A.Hamada, T.Iwami, R.J.LeBrasseur, "Hobikiami Sail
Trawling in Japan, Fisheries, V.6.No.6, Nov.-Dec., 1981,
Sail trawling of Hobikiami fishing consists of a boat
drifting sideways downwind while towing a net. This picturesque
fishing method was invented about 100 years ago as a means to
reduce the then labor-intensive methods. Hobikiami trawling is
analogous to flying a kite wherein kite, tail of kite and man
correspond to sail, boat and net respectively. The wind must be
approximately parallel to the long axis of the lake where it is
used and of moderate strength and frequency. Diesel trawlers
have replaced many of the sailing drifters. The fishing method,
trawl nets, catch and boats are well described in figures and
27. "Yacht Conversion to Sailing Fishing Vessel in'Florida,"
Visit Report, Oct.,1981.
In Port Richey, Florida, Don Sorenson is outfitting a 40
foot Sampson Marine designed ferrocement yacht for commercial
fishing. She has a 95 cu.ft. hold for 2000 2500 lbs. of fish.
All sail controls are led to the helm. She is due to'be fished
in the summer of 1982.
28. R.Browning, "The Wind is Free," Fishing Gazette, March,
A 130 foot Bering Sea crabber takes on 50,000 gallons of
fuel. In the light of world conditions the sail-assisted
fishing vessel will play a part no matter how small, no matter
how great, in the fisheries of all three coasts. Since 1974,
Skookum Marine of Port Townsend, Washington has built at least
47 sail-assisted fishing vessels up to 70 feet LOA. Skookum is
a Chinook word meaning good, well or excellent. (or well built)
Other firms have built sailing fishing vessels, and.there may
be as many as 200 such in use in the Pacific, under
construction or on the drawing board. One disadvantage is that
beam must be narrowed for economy and the fish hold is smaller
as a consequence. Load capacity is traded for economy. Icing
can foul up furling gear in northern waters. The largest
sailing fishing vessel today is the 74 foot ketch designed by
Bill James of Morro Bay, California. Western tuna fishermen
travel routinely to West Africa while other albacore fishermen
have increasingly been moving farther into the !Southwest
29. S.E.Barnes, "Shapely 50-footer Offers Flexibility for
Today's Fisheries, "; National Fisherman, Apr., 1982. 82-83.
This presents the results of a preliminary study for a 50
x 16.7 x 7.75 foot sailing fishing vessel with three chines.
Fish hold has a capacity of about 1320 cu.ft. or approximately
50,000 lbs. of iced fish. Power is to be a 280 SHP diesel. Sail
rig is a simple gaff ketch.
30. "Wind-No Fuel Like An Old Fuel," Makai Newsletter,
University of Hawaii Sea Grant College, Nov., 1980. 6.
Dr. Edward Shallenberger is in Port Townsend, Washington
putting finishing touches on a 51 foot sailing ship designed
for fishing and research. Roy Yee has plans for a 38 foot motor
sailer that will use only 25% of the fuel used by a power boat
of this size.
31. C.A.Goudey, "Fishing Vessel Sail Assist Feasibility and
Demonstration Project," MIT Sea Grant, August, 1980 and Apr.,
1981. 10 pp.
This is a project summary with objectives: a. To study the
feasibility of using sail assist to reduce the energy
requirements of fishing boats. b. to determine what types of
boats and modes of fishing lend themselves best to sail assist.
c. to determine if a cost effective retrofit can be made on a
significant number of the existing small fishing boats in New
England. d. to delineate what steps should be taken by a boat
owner interested in a sail retrofit. Estimated completion date
is March, 1982. A demonstration project is part of this
project. The 79 foot VINCIE N. was chosen for retrofit.
Drawings show a conservative sloop free-footed sloop rig set
32. G.Miles, "Men of Sea Studying Sails for Commerce," Norfolk
Ledger-Star, Apr. 12, 1982. C-1 & 2.
Announcement of the Norfolk 19-21 May conference on
commercial sail. Jon Lucy is quoted as referring to these as
hybrid boats combining the best of sail with the best of
power. About 100 vessels on the West Coast and a dozen on the
East Coast use the sail-assist concept said this representative
of Virginia Institute of Marine Science. Colvin's 72 foot cargo
vessel SHARON VIRGINIA will be tied to a Norfolk dock as well
as NORFOLK REBEL. Colvin is sailing from Miami to Hampton Roads
in his Chinese junk to attend the conference. Also present will
be Merritt Walter who designed the 57 foot, 20 ton cargo
carrying PHOENIX due to be launched shortly. Studies at the
College of Engineering of the University of South Florida are
33. P.Griscti, "Sailpower Propulsion of the Future?" Commercial
Boating, Oct., 1981, 17-19.
This is a detailed interview with researchers at the
College of Engineering of the University of South Florida on
commercial sailing fishing vessels. The three year research
program, begun in 1981, has the following phases: a. collect
data, write engineering analysis computer programs. b. study
the. technical, operational and economic feasibility of
retrofitting existing craft with sails on a fishery by fishery
basis. c. development of instrumentation to measure fuel
economy and performance, d. preliminary design of new vessels
optimized for sail-assist. e. full-scale experiments using the
34. J.W.Shortall III, "Commercial Sailing Fishing Vessels,
Computer-Aided Design," SNAME Fishing Industry Energy
Conservation Conference, Oct., 1981.
The University of South Florida, College of Engineering
has a continuing research program concerned with the
computer-aided design of commercial sailing fishing vessels.
This research is also funded by Florida Sea Grant College, and
the program is projected to end in December, 1983. The program
is described in the above abstract. Results are reported on a
detailed examination of the snapper-grouper fishing industry
and vessels used therein where minimum fuel savings of 30 or
40% are projected. Preliminary studies on stone crab lobster
boats are also reported where the situation does not seem so
optimistic. Sail rigs proposed are of the unstayed mast type
for minimum interference with the fishing operation and are
user-kindly and simple with a minimum of failure-prone gear.
35. C.J.Kibert, "Computer Analysis of the Economics of Sail
Assisted Commercial Fishing Vessels, Society of Naval
Architects and Marine Engineers: SNAME- Southeast Section,
Feb.,1981. 15 pp + 16 pp. appendices.
An interactive computer technique is described which
allows a rapid assessment of the potential for retrofitting
existing commercial fishing boats with sails. This tool permits
a rapid parameter analysis of a variety of retrofit cases and a
graphical display of the results. A listing of the computer
program is enclosed in Tektronix BASIC.
36. R.A.Johnson, "Research on Commercial Sailing Fishing
Vessels at the University of South Florida," ibid. 5 pp.
An early description of the Florida Sea Grant College
funded research program at the College of Engineering of the
University of South Florida. This is updated in abstract no. 34
37. A.X.Gares, "Performance Prediction of Sailcraft," ibid 18
A computer graphics program has been developed on the
Tektronix 4051 high resolution graphics computer to predict
sailcraft performance for all points of sailing via generated
polar plots. Speed and force equations are presented, and the
associated algorithms are derived for both heeling and
non-heeling vessels. A test case using the .catamaran
configuration is included to illustrate the capability and
effectiveness of the program. Note: the algorithms used come
from the work of Piper Mason. This program has been extended
and improved and a version has been prepared for the Apple
38. C.Swenson, "Computer-Aided Design of Freestanding Spars,"
SNAME Southeast, Sept.,1981. 31 pp.
This paper is a summary of recent work undertaken to apply
the microcomuter to the design of freestanding spars for
sail-driven fishboats and large recreational watercraft. The
author briefly reviews the history of such spars in the
American fisheries and discusses the inter-dependence of spar
and hull design criteria. The engineering approach to the
design of the freestanding spar as a poly-axis loaded
cantilever is presented and the translation of the design
methodology into a highly interactive, iterative computer
program is summarized by a flow chart. The author concludes
with a description of the program's limitation and presents the
reader with several design alternatives for integrating new and
39. D.R.Breault, "Computer-Aided Method for Determining
Stability Curves of Multi-Chine Hulls," SNAME Southeast
Section, March, 1982. 7 pp + appendices.
A method is described for determining curves of static
stability of one or more chines using a computer program
written in BASIC on the Tektronix 4051 high resolution graphics
computer. Except for the graphics portion of the program, this
is readily portable to other dialects of BASIC. Major
limitation of this method is that calculations are performed
only until deck edge is immersed. This program is used to
determine stability parameters for commercial sailing fishing
vessels in a program funded by Florida Sea Grant College and
the College of Engineerng of the University of South Florida. A
ten degree heel criterion is used therein for sail area sizing,
so the deck edge criterion poses no problem in these
investigations. A program listing in Tektronix BASIC is
40. C.J.Kibert, "The Economics of Sail Power for
Snapper-Grouper Boats of the Florida West Coast Fishing Fleet,"
Florida Sea Grant College, Sept.,1981, 11 pp.
Described in detail is the use of an improved version of
the economic analysis computer program as described in abstract
no. 35 above. Analyzed is the snapper-grouper fishery, and the
15 year life cycle costing method is described. With 30% of the
power being supplied by sail, predicted fuel savings for a
typical 44 foot snapper-grouper boat amounts to 1440 gallons
per year or a projected savings over 15 years of $ 54,903 per
boat. For the 40% case, the figures are 1920 gallons per year
and $72,204 saved over 15 years.
41. J.W.Shortall III, "Sailing Fishing Vessels Engineering
Economic Analysis An Interactive BASIC Computer Program,"
Florida Sea Grant College, Technical Paper No.25, December,
1982, 26 pp.
The implementation of the life cycle costing method with a
BASIC program by Charles J.Kibert is described with extensions
to the Apple microcomputer. This is the third in a series of
papers describing the engineering economic analysis of
commercial fishing vessels retrofitted with sails to effect
fuel economies. This report describes the computer program used
and presents a listing together with screen outputs and
variable cross reference. The computer program is written for
an Apple microcomputer but uses an especially uniform variety
of BASIC which should allow its conversion to most other
computers with a minimum of translation.
42. J.W.Shortall III, "Sail-Assisted Power for Florida Stone
Crab-Lobster Fishing Vessels," Florida Sea Grant College,
Feb.,1982. 31 pp.
Three vessels typical of the larger stone crab-lobster
craft are analyzed for possible retrofit with sails for
wind-assisted power as an aid in reducing fuel costs. A brief
description is included of this important fishery in Florida
with pertinent references. The computer-aided analytical
methods are described. The application of sail-assisted power
for this fishery is estimated to save, on the average, 15% of
the fuel useage. Major limiting factors include severe bridge
height restrictions on permissible sail area and the one to 70
mile range to the fishing grounds. Visualization sketches of
possible sail rigs on typical hulls are included.
43. N.E.Sorenson-Viale, "Fishing Under Sail," Fishing Industry
Energy Conservation Conference The Society of Naval
Architects and Marine Engineers, Oct.,1981.
The concept of motor-and-sailing is adopted for the
propulsion of a fishing vessel. The innovative design is
primarily based on the author's experience in the design and
operation of motor-and-sailing fishing vessels in 1944 and on
the introduction of state-of-the-art sailing technology
developed for competition yachts since sail was abandoned as
primary propulsion for commercial fishing vessels. The design
combines bipod masts without shrouds, with fore-and-aft
boomless sails on roller furling struts. Power consists of two
engines in a father and son configuration driving a single
shaft with controllable pitch propeller. Hull was specifically
designed for performance under sail. Dynamic routing will be
used 'to obtain the best wind conditions for motor-and-sailing.
The result is an energy efficient fishing vessel not intended
for character building but for highly competitive economically
feasible fishing in comparison with conventional
motor-propelled fishing vessels of the same payload capacity.
Several in the audience took issue with one or more points
in this paper. Particularly questioned were the comments and
data on motorsailing.
44. A.G.Hopper, "Energy Efficiency in Fishing Vessels," ibid.
This paper is largely devoted to energy economies possible
for large, engine-powered fishing vessels. Sail power was
commented on late in the paper where two cases were examined.
"These cases studied only relate to the application of sail as
auxiliary power for a modern trawler and show there is no
justification for such a move at this time. This should not,
however, exclude sail as a long term option."
45. H.S.Noel, "French Fishing Industry is Actively Developing
New Boats," National Fisherman, Feb.,1982.
A catamaran sailing fishing vessel, 37 ft. 7 in. long hs
been built of aluminum by Dar-Mad with government aid. She has
two 55 hp engines and sail area of 613 sq.ft. A 45 ft.
fiberglass power catamaran fishing vessel: NOTRE DAME DE FOY
has twin trawl winches, net reel and two 215 hp diesel engines.
The owner states she will out-tow a 600 hp single hull craft.
Designer claims that a catamaran has generally 25% more speed
than a single hull vessel for the same power and size. The
owner of a 39 foot steel power catamaran states that the
catamaran is ideal because of the deck space available for crab
and lobster traps. Steel was too heavy, so he ordered the 38
ft. DIOGENE of AG4MC aluminum alloy. His fuel bill is 40% less
than a 53 foot single hull craft.
There are three new French sailing catamaran fishing
vessels. These are trap line or gill net boats. Each has jib
and Bermuda main sail with roller reefing. In Brittany, the 63
ft. EOLE had her first trial run to the Atlantic albacore
grounds. She is the first of three steel boats, ketch rigged
and total sail area of 2173 sq.ft. without balloon jib. Sails
are controlled remotely from helm with hydraulic winches. Price
was $450,000 per boat. See the abstract under advanced
thrusters for information on Flettner rotor-powered 100 ft.
fishing catamararan conceptual design.
46. K.C.Samples and J.H.Prescott, "The Use of Sail-Assisted
Commercial Fishing Vessels in the Pacific: An Economic
Appraisal." International Conference on Ocean Resource
Development in the Pacific," Honolulu, Hawaii, 13-15 Oct.,
1981. 29 pp.
Over the past decade, Pacific-based commercial fishermen
experienced and unprecedented 1,000 percent escalation in
prices paid for diesel fuel. This upward price spiral, which as
of yet exhibits no indication of reversion, has proven
particularly troublesome for fishermen who use significant
quantities of fuel. Adoption of sail-power technology has
recently been suggested as a way to relieve fuel dependence.
This paper investigates the projected profitability of
operating sail-assisted commercial fishing vessels in the
Pacific Basin. Analysis focuses on the feasibility of procuring
and operating two sizes of multipurpose sail-assisted vessels
to fish in Hawaiian waters. For purposes of comparison,
investments in comparable size diesel-powered vessels are also
analyzed. For all four alternative vessels under study,
projected costs and returns are calculated and profitability
estimated. A sensitivity analysis of investment performance is
conducted using alternative assumptions about fuel prices and
vessel acquisition costs.
Analysis of the financial results indicates that
investment in sail-assisted fishing boats is not economically
feasible given current fuel prices, costs of borrowed capital
and vessel construction costs. A more attractive investment
alternative appears to be purchasing used (and therefore less
expensive) diesel-powered vessels. This holds true despite the
fact that diesel vessels generally incur 40 percent higher
annual fuel expenses compared to sail-assisted boats.
Based on these findings, it appears that investment today
in a sail-assisted vessel similar to the prototypes under study
is not financially justified. However, with continued upward
fuel price hikes, increased availability of lower cost
sail-assisted vessels, and the possibility of special
government sail-assist investment tax credits, this conclusion
could be altered. If so, wind-power may yet be an important
energy source behind future fisheries development in the
47. Karl C.Samples, "An Economic Appraisal of Sail-Assisted
Commercial Fishing Vessels." ms. submitted for publication in
"Marine Fisheries Review," 1983. 23 pp.
Similar economic analytical methods were used by this
author with similar conclusions. However, he states that:
"retrofitting an existing fishing vessel with sailing apparatus
is an inexpensive way to take advantage of wind energy." The
author mentions the efficient hull forms of yachts but
criticizes yacht conversions to fishing craft on four grounds:
1. initial high acquisition costs. 2. limited hold capacity. 3.
restricted deck space. 4. need for a crew experienced in
handling a sophisticated sailing vessel. The third approach
cited is to design and build a sail-assisted vessel from the
keel up. Efficient hull shapes time fuel useage in either power
or motor sailing modes, but disadvantages are: high acquisition
costs, deckspace shortage and need for experienced sailing
On vessels examined in the field fuel savings on a 47 foot
sail-assisted craft are anticipated to be 37% as compared to a
similar power-only boat. The figure for a 65 footer is
calculated to be 36%. These are slightly higher than projected
by Shortall in 1979 of 30 to 35% and considerably lower than by
Sorensen-Viale in 1981 of 75%. The problem with all new
sail-assist vessels is that the fuel cost savings are
overwhelmed by: high purchase prices, higher maintenance,
depreciation and insurance.
48. M. Crowley, "Fishermen View Conversion to Sail as Unlikely
Prospect," National Fisherman, Sept., 1982.
A negative article summing up one reporter's impression of
the Norfolk conference on Applications of Sail-Assisted Power
Technology. The idea of putting sails ona boat equipped with a
modern diesel engine, electronics and hydraulics is
incongruous. However, he believes conservative, simple sailing
rigs as advocated by the University of South Florida studies
have the greatest chance of being accepted by the commercial
fishermen. The work of Jack Shortall was summarized. Also
discussed was a paper by John Sainsbury on the CSY 44 sailing
yacht rigged for bottom line fishing which showed considerable
fuel and cost savings.
49. Nicholas Anthony, Designs of Sail-Assisted Fishing Boats,
1158 Willow Green Drive, Newport News, Virginia 23602. 1982.
1. 44 ft. (13.4 m) catamaran.
2. 90 ft. (27.4 m)trawler.
3. 62 ft. 7 in. (19.1 m) catamaran.
50. Lock Crowther, Designs of Sail-Assisted Catamaran Fishing
Boats, Crowther Multihulls, Box 35, P.O. Turramurra (Sydney)
N.S.W., Australia. 1982.
1. 46 ft. (14 m) aluminum trawler or game fishing
2. 46 ft. (14 m) research catamaran vessel.
3. 73 ft. 6 in. (22.4 m) pearl fishing catamaran.
51. 32 ft. 10 in. (10 m) sail-assisted fishing boat by Norlin
Yacht Design, Blasieholmsgt. 2, 11148 Stockholm. (NEW DEAL 33)
52. Hood Sailmakers, Marblehead, Mass. "Sail Power for Fishing
Vessels." Manufacturer's brochure given at Fish Expo, Seattle,
The case for motorsailing within ten degrees of the true
wind direction is made on the basis that: 1. it saves fuel. 2.
it reduces pitch and roll. 3. it reduces engine wear. These
points are made for retrofit of existing vessels and an outline
of the design phase is given: A. Superficial evaluation of
retrofit prototype vessels. B. Evaluation of selected vessel.
C. Compatible rig alternatives with three options: 1. minimum
sail array for at least downwind power assistance. 2. modest
changes in rig, deck layout and hull to achieve a cross-wind
capability. 3. optimum rig for full cross- and off-wind
capabilities with substantial changes in rig, deck layout and
hull. D. Economics. E. Summary Report.
53. "A Diesel and Sail Powered Combination Vessel with an
Energy Efficient Hull," ibid.
This is a proposal for a Hood design of a new 96 foot
(29.2 m) multipurpose fishing vessel prototype with 40% fuel
54. John Frye, "Alternate Fuels Hold Little Promise As Power
for Hungry Fishing Vessels," National Fisherman 1980 Year Book.
This is a summary of the 1980 report on "Alternative Fuels
for Marine Use," by the Maritime Transportation Research Board
to the National Academy of Sciences. Direct wind energy as a
candidate for alternate fuel for all marine vesels was
categorized as high level of technological achievement, high
availability, low probability of economic production and low
potential market size for marine propulsion systems.
55. Hugh McKeller, "Low Cost and Ease
of Construction Highlight this Trailerable 22-footer," National
Fisherman, December, 1982.
Designed by J.P.Hartog is a 22 foot (6.7 m) commercial and
sport' fishing boat with a $2,000 maximum price tag for the
do-it-yourself builder plus engine and controls. A small
headsail is shown.
56. 'John W. Shortall III, "Design and Realities of
Sail-Assisted Fishing Vessels," Sail-Assisted Fishing Vessel
Workshop Summary, University of California Sea Grant Marine
Advisory Program, Ocean Carriers Corp., University of Florida
Sea Grant College Program, University of South Florida College
of Engineering and the Pacific Coast Federation of Fishermen's
Associations, Inc. Sausalito, California, November, 1982.
Approximately 50% of shrimpers' costs and 30% of Gulf
longliners' costs are fuel related. Sea Grant funded research
in Florida has been directed toward retrofitting and the
snapper-grouper industry. Shrimper retrofit is difficult
because of the complex deck equipment. Retrofit of a
snapper-grouper vessel will cost approximately $10,000. Problem
areas; include: ballast tradeoffs, variable center of gravity
affects allowable sail area, lateral plane and rudder areas,
shoal waters, balanced sailing rigs, stayed vs. unstayed masts,
type of rig: gaff, bermudian, ketch, schooner, ability to
predict motor sailing performance. Consideration of catamarans
is suggested for some applications.
57. Chistopher M. Dewees, "Overview of Economic Studies of
Sail-Assisted Fishing Vessels," ibid.
Since 1967, fuel prices have risen 1,100 percent 1000
percent since 1973. The high cost of technology and high
interest rates make sail-assisted fishing vessels difficult to
justify economically. Fuel bill might be a significant portion
of the vessel's variable (operating) costs. While Gulf of
Mexico shrimpers spend 57% of their variable costs on fuel,
West Coast fishermen devote 5 to 25% of their costs typically
to fuel. On the Pacific Coast, the most likely to benefit from
sail-assist are fishermen with long trips to the grounds as the
offshore albacore fleet and Seattle-based vessels travelling to
Alaska. Fuel savings must be balanced with a loss in hold
capacity up to 50% and a loss of deck space. If another crew
member has to be added to handle sails, sail-assist probably
won't, be economically viable. Loss of speed (time) needs to be
58. Peter Sutter, "Practical Sails for Fishing Vessels," ibid.
Not always can sails alone make a fish boat move from one
area "to another as well as an all power vessel. Hull shape is
very important. Very few of the sailing fish boats seen are
designed for ease of movement through the water. The Grand
Banks schooner had a very fast, easily moved hull. These were
135 to 140 feet (41 to 42 m) long and held about 70 tons of
fish. The smaller vessels were 70 feet (21 m) and held 40 tons.
They had good sailing qualities empty or loaded because of hull
shape and low aspect ratio rigs.
Running riggins should be simple. Halyards should be
non-stretch braided dacron. Lazy jacks should be used to
contain sails. Sails should be cut fuller than for average
yacht for more power. The heavier the dacron fabric, the longer
it will last. We are getting sails back in the loft that are 25
years old. After some resewing, they are ready for many more
years use. Most are of 9 ounce or heavier dacron and sun damage
has not occurred. Nine ounce should be used in 40 to 45 foot
boat and 10.5 ounce in boats in the 50 to 60 foot range. Sails
should be cut without batten pockets or roach real problem
areas on most sails. Corners must be stronger and heavier. If
the main and mizzen are to be used as trysails, the top thirds
should be of heavier dacron. Seams should be broader than usual
and triple stitched.
59. Panel Discussion: Morgan and David Davies, J.P.Hartog,
M.Kossa, J. Shortall and C.Dewees, ibid.
Among other points, it was emphasized that more
information and education in a form usable to the fisherman
about sail-assisted vessels is needed.
60. Cynthia Roby, "Program at Army Corps of Engineers Considers
the Benefits of Sail-Assisted Fishing Vessels," Marin Scope
Newspaper, Nov. 9-15, 1982.
Full page summary of the above workshop.
61. D.R.Reid, et al, "Projeto 'Pesca A Vela," (Fishing with
Sails) Brazilian report in Portugues, 1982.
This hundred or so page report is a feasibility study to
the governor of the state of Rio Grande of the North of the use
of sail fishing vessels in Braziian fishing waters and a
proposal to buy, build and operate same. The report contains
the following sections: historical, objectives, means,
justifications, systems and methods of fishing, electronic
equipment, markets, refrigeration systems and economic
An economic study in support of this project was done at
the request of Captain Reid at the University of South Florida.
At 35% mortgage rates, general inflation at 106% and fuel
inflation at 138%, purchase of anything new did not seem to
make sense. Low catch prices did not help the economic
61. James W. Brown, "New Working Watercraft," Virginia Sea
Grant Program, 1982.
Much of this fine work treats sailing fishing craft in
Africa and the Pacific. It is abstracted in the section on Work
62. Woodbin and Marean,Inc., Box 26, West Boothbay Harbor, ME
04575, "Design Proposal for a 77 Foot (23.5 m) Sailing Fishing
Described is a sail-assisted fishing vessel for the U.S.
east coast fisheries to be powered by 100 to 350 hp engines
with 2600 sq.ft.(242 sq.m) sail area and rigged as a ketch.
63. K.Lange and P.Schenzle, "Full Scale Trials with Wind
Propulsion on a Small Fishing Vessel." International Council
for the Exploration of the Sea, Fish Capture Committee, 1980,
Described is a series of measurements of motor sailing
performance in winds up to 25 knots of two sail-retrofitted
Baltic fishing vessels of 24.5 m (80 ft.) and 27 m (88.6 ft.)
each of displacement 120 and 100 tons each and sail areas of 95
sq.m (1023 sq.ft.) and 180 sq.m (1938 sq.ft.) respectively.
This is rarely seen operational information on the motor
63. "24 ft. Fish Boat Rigged for Single Hand Operation,"
National Fisherman, January, 1983.
Described is a 24 ft. (7.31 m) catboat for clamming,
scalloping and longlining. Power is a Westerbeke 27 putting out
23 bhp at 2500 rpm.
64. Endicott M. Fay,NA, "The Economics of Sail for a 70 Foot
Fishing Boat," The Fishermen's News 1982.
Described are the costs for capital investment and
operation of a 70 foot (21.3 m) sailing fish boat. Included is
a table of annual costs and savings. Over a ten year period,
the net profit increased from $31,013 to $82,089.
65. Cathy Vaughm, "Seacrests Launch Unusual Vessel," New Smyrna
Beach Journal, June 2, 1981.
The 35 foot (10.7 m) sailing fishboat CLINTWHEEL is
launched. The boat will be used to fish in Alaskan waters.
66. Andrew J.Shanley, "New Fishing Boat Relies on Its Sails,"
Vineyard Gazette, Martha's Vineyard, Mass. Nov. 26, 1982.
Pictures and a brief description are given of this Dick
Newick designed sailing trimaran fishing vessel which can carry
up to one ton of fish. It is particularly suited to third-world
"A Pinch of Salt- Economical Boat is
67. Richard Bowles,
Well-Equipped Fishing Machine," Gainesville, Sun, Florida, June
The EFFIE CAMPBELL is a 65 foot (19.8 m) gaff rigged
sharpie drawing two feet (0.6 m) of water and operated out of
Suwannee, Florida by Captain Ron Kinsey. The auxiliary is a two
cylinder diesel which burns two quarts (1.89 lit) of fuel per
hour. Capt.Kinsey has developed his own refrigeration system
using a compressor salvaged from a refrigeration truck belted
to the engine.
68. Richard Bowles, "Resurrected Sharpie Makes Good on Florida
Bottomfish," National Fisherman, Nov., 1982.
The EFFIE CAMPBELL was built in 1974 and is modeled after
a working sharpie of 1899.
69. Terry Lesh and Patricia Lesh, "New Dimensions in Sail
Assisted Commercial Fishing Designs," book in preparation
70. James W. Brown, "New Working Watercraft," subtitled: A
Return to Former Capabilities. 1982. Virginia Sea Grant
Program, 95 pp.
See abstract under Workboats
71. Jean Andrews, "Wind Power for Working Boats, USF
Magazine, University of South Florida, June, 1982. p.8-9.
Described is the program for investigation of
sail-assisted propulsion for fishing vessels at the University
of South Florida College of Engineering. Savings to the
snapper-grouper industry on a per boat basis are estimated to
be at least 30% for an annual fuel savings of 1,400 gallons or
$1600 as an absolute minimum.
SAILING WORK BOATS
The combination work boats of Captains Lane and Jesse
Briggs are perhaps the best known in this class: NORFOLK REBEL
and STEEL REBEL. The former is illustrated in figure 4. These
Tugantines(r) can serve as tug boats, salvage vessels and for
trawling and longlining in commercial fishing. The 2000 pound
payload SMALL IS BEAUTIFUL trimaran sailing pickup truck is a
fascinating concept. Other concepts appear in this category as
SAILING WORK BOATS
1. "They All Laughed When Cap'n Briggs Went Sailing," Coast
Watch, University of North Carolina Sea Grant, Feb.,1981. 1-2.
This is a light article giving the background on Lane
Briggs' sail-equipped tug STEEL REBEL which first used
auxiliary sail in 1975. Naval architect Merritt Walter then
designed a sail-assisted tug for Captain Briggs which could
double as a commercial fishing boat: NORFOLK REBEL. She is 51
feet long and was launched May 22, 1980. She carries 1200
square feet of sail including a foresail that can be used with
a retractable bowsprit. Main power is from a 320 horsepower
diesel engine. In the first year of operating STEEL REBEL,
enough was saved on fuel to more than pay for sails and
rigging. Capt. Briggs expects to use sails on NORFOLK REBEL 50%
of the time, saving about 40% fuel. The National Marine
Fisheries Service awarded a grant of $72,000 to rig the boat
with sail. The NMFS estimates that for trawlers about 57% of
overhead is spent on fuel. The average shrimper burns one and
one-half gallons of fuel for each pound of shrimp landed.
2. "Sail Power Will It Work?"; ibid. 3-4.
Discusses sail power in general and refers to some of the
well-known designs. Bill Hall has modified the design of a 50
foot Chesapeake Bay bugeye as a sail-assisted trawler. Bryan
Blake has modified two Fulcher sharpies which have small
engines and sails.
3. "Sailboats Built to Work (play!)," ibid. 5-6.
Discusses the sharpies 20 ft. TORTUGA and 30 ft.
SAKONNET which are commercial sailing fishing boats with small
4. Capt. J.Briggs, "Sailing Workboats Practical Propositions
Based on Experience with a Sailing Tug," Paper presented at New
Orleans Work Boat Show, January, 1980. 10 pp.
Tugantine(r) is a word coined to describe a sail-assisted
tug boat. The STEEL REBEL is 46 feet long and has a 225 SHP
engine with a cruising speed, light, of eight knots. In 1975,
the addition of a simple square sail and jib increased hull
speed 1.6 knots. The most effective rig on this vessel is a
gaff-rigged schooner with squaresails. This combination gives
the most sail area with the lowest possible mast height. When
towing, the sails do not add much to the speed unless the
apparent wind is more than 50 degrees off the bow. This is due
to excessive leeway. A spinnaker is occasionally used in light
airs. On numerous occasions, towing speed has been increased by
20% and when running light by 30%. On a tow the craft was
making five knots with engine alone. When sail was raised, boat
speed increased to six knots in a 15 knot wind. When running
light in an 18 to 22 knot wind, the boat made 5.5 knots under
The NORFOLK REBEL was designed as a sailing tug boat with
engine assist and is a gaff-rigged squaresail schooner with
1400 square feet of sail. Fuel savings of 30-40% are expected.
Some of the advantages of using sail on workboats are: fuel
savings, less engine repair and maintenance due to operating at
lower RPM's, more job satisfaction, come-home capability in the
event of engine failure.
5. B.Harden, "A Tug With Sails is Christened by Norfolk
Captain," Washington Post, June 24, 1980.B1&B3.
Decribes the launching of Capt. Lane Briggs' tug with
sails: NORFOLK REBEL. Some 17 articles have been written about
the two sail-assisted tugs. The Virginia Institute of Marine
Science estimates that up to six gallons of diesel fuel per
hour can be saved. Among the advantages are a smoother ride in
6. R.D.Gersh, "Sailing Tugboat is a First," St. Petersburg
Times, May 24, 1980. 4A.
Describes the Tugantine(r) concept. The Virginia Institute
of Marine Science plans to study the vessel to determine the
most efficient power-sail combinations under different
7. J.Waller, "Tugantine Best of Two Worlds--Tug, Sails,"
Soundings magazine, July, 1980. 36.
Describes the Tugantine(r) and the launching of the
NORFOLK REBEL. It is hoped to save as much as 1000 gallons of
fuel per week while fishing under sail. The only time the
engine is needed is to haul in the 10 to 15 mile longline. She
has a strong enough power plant for salvage and towing. The
tugantine(r) has 10 tons of lead in the keel for stability and
an 820 cubic foot insulated hold for fish or other cargo.
8. Merritt Walter, "TRADE ROVER," Rover Marine, Inc., 1651
Bayville St., Norfolk, VA 23503. 5 pp.
After having designed the NORFOLK REBEL, a 52 foot sailing
tug, naval architect Merritt Walter received a number of
enquiries about various types of sailing working vessels. He
has added the TRADE ROVER as a stock freighter to his plans.
She is 57 feet long, displaces 66470 lbs., has a draft of 5 ft.
6 in. and carries 1285 square feet of sail on a gaff topsail
schooner rig. The cargo hold is 20 feet by her beam.
9. J.Dorsey, "Winds Blowing in His Favor in Sail Study,"
Norfolk Ledger-Star, May 24, 1979.
Merritt Walter, NA is quoted as saying that naval
architects hired to study the modern use of sail for today's
cargo vessels should come down from the rigging. "They're
studying it. We're already doing it. He advocates the smaller
cargo vessels up to the 1000 ton, 200 foot class for small Mom
and Pop organizations.
10. John W. Shortall III, "The Wind-Powered Work Boat...'Small
is Beautiful' SIB," Multihulls magazine, Jan./Feb., 1979.
Designed by Jim Brown and Dick Newick and backed by Phil
Weld with the Gougeon Bros. and Dave Dana as consultants, SIB
is a 31 foot trimaran sailing freighter/water-borne pickup
truck with a cargo capacity of 2000 pounds. She uses two
unstayed masts with wishbone boom on the after mast and
Ljungstrom rig on the fore mast. She is designed as a day
sailer for 10 to 12 passengers or equal capacity in freight and
has particular application to Third World countries. She uses
the Constant Camber (tm) cold moulded method of construction.
11. John W. Shortall III, "Sailing Cargo Carrier CHANGEO, A
Unique Design for Pleasure and Profit," Cruising World
magazine, March, 1972. 59-61.
Described is the design of a 5 ton cargo capacity,
cutter-rigged sailing freighter with accommodations for a
cruising couple plus one berth for crew. Cargo is contained in
two holds which may be used for people and/or for freight. The
craft is a shoal draft, centerboard type whose design was
modelled after the PRESTO type of Commodore Munro. She is 42
feet long and has moveable internal ballast to compensate for
various cargo loadings and the light ship condition.
12. Jim Brown, "Knock on Wood Part I: Plight of the Canoe
People," Woodenboat magazine, May/June, 1981. 78-86.
The author comments on sailing canoes and their probable
demise on Lake Victoria, the Phillipines, Central America,
Kenya and the Pacific. Also discussed are dhows of the Indian
13. Jim Brown, "Knock on Wood Part II: The Laminated Dugout
Caper," ibid, July/August, 1981. 50-57.
SMALL IS BEAUTIFUL IS described as is the Constant Camber
(tm) method of cold moulding hulls particularly suited for
third world countries. This is a low technology, manufactured
craft with simple and reliable components.
14. Jim Brown, "Knock on Wood Part III: Wind Wagons of the
Future," ibid. Sept./Oct., 1981. 66-73.
The author emphasizes the ability of trimarans to move
under sail efficiently and rapidly and discusses designs from
31 to 52 feet in length overall. He describes the application
of variable pitch, full-feathering propellers and motor sailing
plus a special down-wind sail termed the working cargo chute
designed as a sail for working vessels.
15. "Can Sail Help Save an Island Resource?" National Fisherman
Yearbook, 1981. 130-134.
Maine has 1200 wooded islands with 269,512 forested acres
with 2.2 billion board feet of sawn lumber. The annual
continuous growth amounts to 135,000 cords of wood. The forests
are not being maintained and represent a fire hazard. A 28 foot
wooden sailing barge has been designed to facilitate
small-scale foresting and logging. Due to unreal conservation
restrictions, firewood now has to be delivered by ship to the
Maine islands. It is transported regularly by the LAURA B., a
Tancook whaler built at the Bath Marine Museum's
Apprenticeshop. Delivered price of firewood is $135 per cord.
16. James W. Brown, "New Working Watercraft," Subtitled: A
Return to Former Capabilities. 1982 Virginia Sea Grant Porgram,
Based on reports of boat design and construction
consultancies originally prepared for clients in the Third
World beginning in October, 1981. This work covers Mr. Brown's
travels and experiences in East Africa and the Pacific on
behalf of the World Bank. He describes the laminated dugout
which is a local adaptation of the constant camber (tm)
technique using cross-laminated strakes of thin, native-grown
wood and waterproof glue over curved forms for local series
production of hull shapes. The technique was then adapted to
the banca in the Philippines for production of sailing
outriggers as fishboats and workboats. Maritime conditions in
Tuvalu are next described with examples of local craft and
improved sailing canoes are shown. There are numerous excellent
illustrations including an 80 foot (24.4 m) catamaran
inter-island passenger ferry, and the constant camber (tm)
method is described graphically and in words. Twenty questions
are included on: Native Fishery Vital Signs to analyze local
trends and determine design parameters for new boats.
17. John Gardner, "Economic Factors Determine Value of Sail
Power for Commercial Craft, National Fisherman, Jan., 1983.
This is a review of the above book described in Abstract
18. Rudy Choy, Manley St.Denis, Richard Rhodes, "On the Design
and Sailing Performance of the Polynesian Voyaging Canoe
Hokule'a," Pacific Ocean Power Conference, SNAME Spring STAR
Meeting, Hawaii, April, 1982.
An analysis of the ancient Polynesian craft Hokule'a which
made round trip voyages between Hawaii and Tahiti.
19. "Sail's Day in the Sun May be Returning," Christian Science
Monitor, April 19, 1982 from Sail Assistance News, SAILA, May,
UN experts interviewed in various Asian nations said they
were reintroducing the use of sails to reduce fuel costs. One
foreign aid program would put sails on a fleet of about 1500
fishing craft now equipped with 30 hp engines. Top choice is
the Chinese junk rig.
20. "Government-Funded Study of Sail-Assist Nears Completion,"
Sail Assistance News, May, 1982.
Prelminary fuel savings findings are given for NORFOLK
REBEL and sample readings are given for engine only, sail
assist and sail only for engine rpm, wind direction and speed,
sail area, fuel consumption rate, boat speed, trip time etc.
21. "Norfolk Rover will be Carrying Pasengers in June," ibid.
Quote from designer Merritt Walter of Rover Marine who has
obtained U.S.Coast Guard approval for his 63 foot (19.2 m)
schooner design. She is designed to carry both freight and
22. "Launching of PHOENIX Heralds Rebirth of an Industry,"
Quote from Greg Brazier, President of Atlantic Packet
Lines. The 27 foot (17.4 m), 20 ton vessel will operate between
Long Island and Connecticut hauling cargo.
23. "Freighting Under Sail Never Died, but for a While It was
in Ill Health," ibid Sept., 1982.
Quote from Tom Colvin. Most famous of his 2500 or more
designs now sailing is the GAZELLE, of which more than 60 are
now engaged in fishing, freighting or chartering. The schooner
MEMORY has 18 sisterships, of which six are commercial. His
most successful commercial sailing vessels are between 40 and
60 feet (12.2 to 18.3 m).
24. "Sail-Assisted Cargo Vessel has Certification Trouble in
New Zealand," ibid Dec.,1982.
A company based in Coromandel has already put a prototype
hull on its Hauraki Gulf route and has a second vessel under
construction, but they are finding their Ministry of Transport
and Marine reluctant to grant full certification. Design is
based on the MESSENGER Chesapeake Bay skipjack, 37 feet
(11.27 m) long and with a cargo capacity of three to five tons.
25. "Atlantic Packet Lines Inaugurated its Cross-Sound Cargo
Capt.Greg Brazier announced the start of his packet service
on 25 October, 1982.
26. "Micronesia Needs a Sail-Assisted Ambulance," ibid.
Required is a steel vessel, sail-assisted, capable of 10
knots under power, refrigeration, etc.
27. "Sailing Vessel Carrying Aid to Caribbean," ibid.
The 105 ft. (32 m) sailing vessel FRI has embarked on a
voyage to the West Indies after a major refit in Amsterdam.
28. "Manutea Achieves Near-Record Passage on Maiden Voyage,"
This 112 foot (34.1 m.) sailing vessel can haul 40 tons of
payload and is capable of making 300 miles per day. She is
operated by the South Pacific Energy Systems company, is built
of steel and carries a crew of six.
29. "Germany also has a Finger in the Wind," ibid.
The German Federal Ministry for Research is financing
development of a sailing vessel to carry cargo in Indonesia.
She will be about 200 feet (61 m) long, with hydraulically
operated sails and able to carry about 2000 tons of cargo.
30. Jim Brown, "The New Sailing Multihull Workboats," National
Conference/Workshop -Applications of Sail-Assisted Power
Technology, May 19-21, 1982, Norfolk, Virginia, USA
31. Paul Mooney, "Cargo Schooners Builder's Perspective,"
32. Gordon Baxter, "Schooner MEMORY," ibid.
33. Joe and Sharon Spivey, "Cargo-Schooner SHARON VIRGINIA,"
34. Capts.Lane & Jesse Briggs and Robert Lukens, "Tugantine (r)
NORFOLK REBEL (Tug/Fishing Vessel)," ibid.
35. Merritt Walter, NA, "TRADE ROVER Design), ibid.
Packet schooner PHOENIX launched April, 1782 in Long
36. Merritt Walter, NA, "SEATTLE ROVER Design (Cargo/Cruise
37. "Annual Report July 1981-June 1982: Hawaii Natural Energy
Institute," University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii.
This is an outline description of a project for:
Sail-Assisted Technology for Pacific Marine Transportation.
Head of the project is Dr. Theodore T.Lee, and his staff
includes: Dr.Karl Samples, Wayne Thiessen, Leo A. Daly, Angela
Topliss and Mauro Vidal. A market opportunity analysis will be
completed for sail-assisted technology in the Pacific, routes
will be studies, economic analyes be made, ship configurations
evaluated and costs compared for retrofit versus new designs.
38. R.D.Gersh, "Captain Sees Joke Turn into Reality," Richmond
News Leader, August 27, 1981.
An account from on board the NORFOLK REBEL of the
tugantine combination fishing-tug boat with sails and engine.
Photograph is shown with sister ship the STEEL REBEL.
39. Merritt Walter, NA, "Design Philosophy," no date.
An account of the design philosophy of Merritt Walter with
descriptions and drawings of these examples of his designs:
COAST ROVER, TRADE ROVER and SEATTLE ROVER varying in length
from 52 to 57 feet (15.7 to 17.4 m).
40. "Sail Cargo Vessel Will Ply L.I. Sound," Sailing Magazine,
A brief account of the 69 foot (21.0 m) PHOENIX.
41. Francis James Duffy, "Cargo Schooner Constructed for Duty
on L.I.Sound," National Fisherman, July, 1981, p.80.
A more detailed account of Greg Brazier's PHOENIX designed
by Merritt Walter as one of the TRADE ROVER series.
Capt.Brazier is the first to receive a U.S.Coast Guard
certification for this type of vessel. Since she is under 100
gross tons and has less than 100 hp, it will not be necessary
to file with the Interstate Commerce Commission to carry cargo.
42. William O.Foss, "Designer Finds Commercial Sail Feasible
for Smaller Operations," ibid p. 81.
Merritt Walter designs and builds in traditional steel. He
does not believe there is any future in sails for large ships
but thinks they are eminently suitable for smaller work boat
operations. Fishery applications seem favorable. The NORFOLK
REBEL is of the COAST ROVER series designs.
43. Rick Friese, "Schooner's Owners Hope to Haul Cargo Under
Sail," Sail Magazine, March, 1982, p. 264H.
This is a description of the Spivey's SHARON VIRGINIA,
designed by Thomas Colvin and built by the Mooney Brothers of
Deltaville, Virginia. She is 54 feet (16.5 m) LOA, 74.5 feet
(22.7 m) with bowsprit and can carry 15 to 20 tons of freight.
ECONOMICS OF COMMERCIAL SAIL
For some years, marine economists have attempted to assess
the practicality of commercial sailing vessels. The major
inhibiting factor appears to be that the current high interest
rates make it unlikely that any kind of new vessel can be
purchased or built whether with or without sails. One author
has mentioned that even if the economics of sailing ships
appeared favorable vis-a-vis new motor vessels, this probably
would not be so if the price of building a new sailing ship or
fishing vessel were compared against that of a buying a used
one. See various abstracts in the commercial fishing section as
well for economic analyses pertinent to that field.
ECONOMICS OF COMMERCIAL SAIL
1. G. Mearns, "The Large Sailing Ship-Dinosaur or Development,"
Symposium on Wind Propulsion of Commercial Ships, The Royal
Institution of Naval Architects, London, 1980. 37-50.
This paper reviews the development of the large sailing
ship from 1824 to 1911 and concludes that even by the midpoint
of that period, the large sailing ship could not be justified
on commercial grounds. Problems of performance and factors
affecting the performance are discussed. Finally, it is
suggested that if fuel economy is the primary objective, there
are a number of alternative strategies which can be adopted by
shipowners and shippers which will be more effective than the
use of wind power alone. See this article abstracted in more
detail under the General Survey category.
2. E.P.Crowdy, "The Economics of Sail," ibid. 51-66.
The annual cost of propulsion as a function of ship's
speed is examined, and fundamental economic relationships
between propulsion cost, total cost and revenue earning
potential of merchant ships is deduced. The economic
attractiveness of sail is shown to be totally dependent on the
cost of alternative means of propulsion. Coal-fired and nuclear
comparisons are given. The paper examines the factors which
should influence the installed power of the mechanical
propulsion equipment, and its optimum output at sea in varying
wind conditions. The paper concludes with some observations on
the relative merits of various types of wind-powered propulsion
3. R.C.T.Rainey, "The Wind Turbine Ship," ibid. 97-116.
The author analyzes the potential of a vertical-axis wind
turbine on a 4,000 ton passenger/cargo ship on the UK-Cape Town
and Cape Town-Ascension routes. Based on official discount
rates and fuel price projections, the payback period comes out
as 12-22 years on the former route and 5-7 years on the latter.
These figures give encouragement for future development of the
4. A.D.Couper, "An Evaluation of Commercial Sail," Commercial
Sail Symposium, London, 1980. 6-77.
This is abstracted in detail under the General Survey
5. P.J.Jonas, "Energy Conservation Perspectives," ibid. 97-111.
Oil prices are expected to double by the year 2000.
Alternative sources of energy are not being developed
sufficiently quickly, cheaply and acceptably as yet to take the
place of oil. Energy principles are discussed. A man working at
a pump can work at the rate of about 30 watts; cranking he can
achieve 60 watts, and a cyclist can do spurts of 300 watts.
Watermills and windmills attained powers of 4000 to 6000 watts.
Energy conservation and pricing are covered.
6.. J.Wellicome, "A Broad Appraisal of the Economic and
Technical Requisites for a Wind Driven Mechant Vessel," The
Future of Commercial Sail, The Royal Institution of Naval
Architects, 1975. 57-80.
The current high level of bunker fuel prices and the
prospect of dwindling oil supplies in the comparatively near
future may well lead to a reappraisal of the means of
propulsion used by commercial ships. If oil fuel becomes
uneconomic, the foreseeable alternatives are nuclear power or a
return to sail. One could claim that the future of nuclear
power is in doubt from long term pollution and safety
considerations. It is also true for technical reasons that
nuclear power is suited for large or fast ships requiring 30000
SHP upwards. Thus, there may well be grounds for considering a
return to sail, at least for the transportation of those
commodities which do not command a high freight rate. Square
and fore-and-aft rigged vessels could be reintroduced along the
lines of those used at the turn of the century, but with design
changes to use auxiliary power for sail handling. A number of
alternative means of achieving wind propulsion have emerged
which suggest the possibility of a radically different form of
7. A.S.Miles, "The Economics of Commercial Sail," ibid. 81-88.
The commercial sailing vessel was ousted by the powered
ship as a result of a combination of technology and cheap
fossile fuel. This paper investigates the economics of
operating two hypothetical sailing vessels in competition with
powered ships to determine comparative economic performances.
Future costs and comparisons are assessed. The largest vessel
ever to use sail power was the GREAT EASTERN of 28,000 DWT,
although they were rarely over 4,000 DWT. The inference is that
even in the mid-nineteenth century, the capability existed to
build and sail pure sailing vessels considerably larger than
the largest sailing vessels that were then in service.
8. L.Bergeson et al, "Wind Propulsion for Ships of the American
Merchant Marine," Wind Ship Development Corp., March, 1981.
See the abstract under the General category for more
information. Sections IV and V of this comprehensive report
deal with various of the parameters and optimizations by RFR:
Required Freight Rate.
9. J.B.Woodward et al, "Feasibility of Sailing Ships for the
American Merchant Marine," The University of Michigan,
See the abstract under the General category. Economical
analyses are contained in Section VII, pages 52 to 77.
10. B.P.Brown,Jr., "An Evaluation of a Potential Use of Sail
Power in the Commercial Shrimp Fishery of Texas," M.S. Thesis,
Texas A&M University, August, 1976.
The fuel intensive Texas shrimping industry is
experiencing economic difficulties partially due to the rising
cost of fuel. This thesis invesigates the economic feasibility
of using the wind as an alternative source of propulsion.
Comparisons are calculated between a conventional 72 foot
steel, 340 hp diesel-powered shrimper pulling two 36 foot nets
and a hypothetical sailing shrimper with a smaller engine. The
sailing vessel has a 40% lower annual fuel consumption but its
catch is estimated at to be only 68 to 72% of the powered
vessel. The sailing shrimper shows a profit with shrimp prices
above $2.92 per pound. Higher fuel prices favor the sailing
model, and higher catch prices favor the powered vessel.
11. W.L.Warner, "Updating an Ancient Art," Society of Naval
Architects and Marine Engineers STAR Symposium, San Francisco,
25 May, 1977.
The economics of motor ships vs. sailing vessels are
compared. Analyzed are the effects of inflation on required
freight rate and annual transportation costs.
12. "A Transportation Need Study in the Trust Territories of
the Pacific Islands with Emphasis on the Potential for
Sail-Assisted Technology," U.S.Dept. of the Interior, 1981.
Described is the political climate of the Marshall, Truk,
Palau, Pogape and other Pacific islands which make up the Trust
Territories. Vessel operating costs are given. The Pacific
islands are totally dependent on the adequacy and regularity of
inter-island surface transportation. This is completely
dependent on uncertain supplies of increasingly expensive
imported fuel. Recent developments in sail-assisted technology
offer the potential for alleviating the dependence on imported
fuel for surface transportation, thereby improving the
capability for regular supply schedules to the various islands.
13. C. Mudie, "Reducing the Running Costs at Sea," Journal of
Navigation, May, 1977. 172-180.
The author presents a number of ways to reduce the running
costs of existing ships by making use of power sources freely
available. These considerations are addressed briefly: 1. ocean
currents. 2. buoyancy. 3. gravity. 4. magetism. 4. solar power.
6. wave power. 7. wind power. The latter is discussed in some
detail with thrusters reviewed: bermuda sail rig, Flettner
rotor, multiple aerofoils, windmill and ducted fan.
14. "Capital Report: Matsunaga Enthusiastic Over Commercial
Ship Sail Power," Sea Technology, October, 1980.
U.S.Senator, S.M. Matsunaga (D- Hawaii) is enthusiastic
about encouraging sail-assisted technology. He chaired a
hearing of the committee on energy and natural resources on
August 26, 1980 on sail-assisted technology for the Pacific
Trust Territories. A bill he has introduced, S.2929, would
authorize a study of sail-assisted technology. One possibility
is an energy tax credit for use of wind power on the high seas
which is equal to the tax credit for the use of wind power on
15. M.Stuttaford, "A Return to Sail," South African Yachting,
A detailed presentation is given of DYNASHIP with a
personal perspective on its conceiver and designer: Wilhelm
Proelss. Economic incentives are appraised. There are lower
interest rates for less expensive vessels and depreciation
would be extended over 20 years instead of 12. Insurance
premiums should be lower due to lessened fire hazard.
16. Karl C.Samples, "An Economic Appraisal of Sail-Assisted
Commercial Fishing Vessels," University of Hawaii, Honolulu,
Hawaii 96822, 16 pp plus tables and figure. Proposed for Marine
Fisheries Review, 1983.
See Abstract No.47 under Modern Sailing Fishing Vessels.
Weights and types of sail materials are discussed in more
than one abstract. Solar power is treated. A particularly
noteworthy paper is that summarized in part in Abstract No.10
by. P.D.Priebe. His examination of historical vessels through
modern conceptions and comments on historical sailing ship
technology are well worth examining.
1. A.Farrar, "The Development of Sailcloth for Commercial
Vessels," Symposium on Wind Propulsion of Commercial Ships, The
Royal Institution of Naval Architects: RINA, 1980. pp 133-146.
The author reviews the history of sail materials claiming
that the earliest record of sail material is of the Phoenicians
about 500 B.C. obtaining their flax sail cloth from the
Egyptians. He states that the Egyptians are believed to have
used woven papyrus strips as early as 3,000 B.C. Unfortunately,
he ignores the early Chinese use of fibres for sails. A number
of materials are discussed and their properties compared.
Ageing and other deteriorating factors are considered and
testing apparati are illustrated and described. Test data area
given for: a. flax at 26 oz/sq.yd. (20.6 oz. U.S.); b. Egyptian
cotton at 27 oz/sq.yd. (21.4 oz. U.S.); c. Terylene (dacron)
21.5 oz./sq.yd. (16.6 oz. U.S.); d. Terylene 21.5 oz./sq.yd.
(17 oz.U.S.); e. Polypropylene; f. glass cloth, teflon-coated
25 oz./sq.yd. (19.8 oz.U.S.). In the ensuing discussion, some
other materials were mentioned as: multi-laminates using mylar
and Kevlar (r) and nylon for spinnakers.
2. C.C.Herbert, "The Design Challenge of the Wind Powered
Ship," ibid, pp 199-214.
This paper presents an attempt to sketch out the sort of
background against which wind-powered ships will have to be
designed both from the point of view of meeting sensible
economic targets, and employing established physical
principles. Itis still a sadly sketchy and inaccurate system
and draws very largely on the work of others. Nevertheless, it
may serve to define what is possible, and what is impossible,
and to direct the activities of the very considerable range of
talents currently looking into wind power towards the most
promising areas of research and investigation. Sections deal
with economics, wind conditions and the technology of wind
power. These are drawn together to define the envelope of
characteristics in particular speed and cost within which a
viable wind-powered ship design should lie, with some
indication of how these might be met.
Wind speed profiles are plotted, and a suggested standard
wind velocity curve and equation are advanced. Variation in
wind direction for the Atlantic is shown.
Three main classes of propulsion are compared and
evaluated: a. fixed aerofoils including sails and wing sails;
b. Flettner rotors as a sub-class of a; c. windmill ships using
rotors. Motor sailing is discussed.
3. R.M.Willoughby and E.C.B.Corlett, "Design Problems of a
Commercial Sailing Ship," ibid, pp 215-231.
Principles of square rig design are discussed and
illustrated, and the four hold bulk carrier SAILINER is
described in considerable detail. The latter is a 137 m. (449
ft.) long auxiliary five masted barque with square sails and a
3900 BHP main engine. Sail area is 6200 sq.m. (66,736 sq.ft.),
and DWT maximum is 16,600 tons.
4. C.T.Nance, "The Role of the Engineer in the Windship
Revolution," Commercial Sail Proceedings of a Symposium,
Dept. of Industry, London, 1980, pp 42-92.
This is an in-depth appraisal of wind propulsion systems
among other topics. Covered are: soft sail rigs such as square,
schoner, short-haul and Venetian rigs; exotic systems as: rigid
and semi-rigid sails, Flettner rotor and kites; and the wind
turbine. The need for a test facility is expressed. Included
are a glossary of terms and 16 illustrations. An extensive
5. L.Bergeson et al, "Ship Synthesis, Parametric Study,
Analysis of Opportunities for Sail Propulsion, and Conceptual
Design," Wind Propulsion for Ships of the American Merchant
Marine, Wind Ship Development Corp., 1981. Sections IV, V, VI
Weight and stability estimates are included as well as
engine use strategy, hull form optimization, parametric
analyses of 2000, 20,000 and 38,000 CDWT vessels, parametric
design optimization of wing sail rig for 20,000 CDWT ships,
weight and cost sensitivity, port parameters and conceptual
6. "Auxiliary Sail Rig Passes Sea Tests on Cargo Ship,"
Maritime Reporter/Engineering News, October 1, 1981.
An auxiliary sailing rig installed on a 3,000 DWT cargo
ship successfully completed sea trials. The rig was developed
by the Wind Ship Development Corp. of Norwall, Mass. The rig is
a triangular dacron sail of 3,000 square feet (279 sq.m)
attached to a 100 foot (30.5 m) unstayed, rotating mast for
furling. Mast and boom weigh over 40 tons. The sail was
produced by Hood Sailmakers of Marblehead, Mass. and was
specifically designed, woven and finished for this rig. The
fabric is in excess of 20 ounce sailcloth with a minimum of
five years of useable life. Sail clews were tested to withstand
30 to 35 tons.
7. T.Sullivan, "Hood Makes Sail for a 250 ft. (76.2 m)
Freighter," National Fisherman, November, 1981, p.14.
On August 24th, tests were completed on a sail system
designed and built by Hood in conjunction with Lloyd Bergeson,
president of Wind Ship Development Corp. The sail is over 100
ft. (30.5 m) tall.
8. C.Mudie, "The Practicability of Commercial Sail. VIII Some
Reflections on the Optimal Use of Wind Power," The Royal
Institution of Navigation, London. Journal of Navigation, May,
1977, pp 203-206.
Mentioned here are applications of new developments in
aerodynamics, sail development and materials. A factor which
may be ignored is there is a difference in building new sailing
ships in direct economic competition with new motor ships and
in building them in competition with a surplus supply of the
9. J.Frye, "Will Boats Run on Solar Power in Far Future?",
National Fisherman, ca. January, 1982, p. 95.
Discussed is the potential use of solar collectors and
transducers for fishing craft. The article is essentially a
review of the book: "A Golden Thread," by K.Butti and J.Perlin,
Van Nostrand, New York.
10. P.D. Priebe, "The Evolution of Commercial Sailing Ship
Technology," Ancient Interface XI, The Aero-Hydronautics of
Sailing, AIAA and SNAME, 1981.
The evolution of American sailing ships is discussed with
key individual contributions to their development. Mentioned is
the inadequate technology carryover into current developments.
A new, powerful sail system is described with potential
application to modern, large bulk cargo vessels. It was judged
not to be suitable for commercial semi-submerged vessel
In the mid-19th century, designers of commercial sailing
vessels utilized a technology which was very nearly optimum
within the limits of the purpose of the vessels and the
building materials available. No formal theory or mathematics
could be applied, so the knowledge could not be formalized.
Consequently, very highly developed sailing ship technology was
partially lost with the death of the designers. In the early
20th century, builders were forced into ship design errors
which would otherwise not have occurred. The historically very
short glut of cheap energy prevented any serious design of
commercial sail for over half a century.
Meanwhile, leapfrog or step function evolution has
occurred in aerodynamics, one of the four major sailing ship
disciplines. Since sailing ships were dead, they did not
participate in this accelerated evolution. Constructive
spillover from sport sailing into commercial sailing has been
near absolute zero with racing rating rules having the effect
of preventing radical progress. Thus, the weakened effort at
application of airplane aerodynamics to sailing, either sport
or commercial, has so far been largely misdirected. The author
tries to show where we may splice in some advanced technology
to the broken sailing ship tradition.
Discussed are: slave trade vessels, revenue cutters, small
American schooners, large merchant vessels, barquentines,
brigantines and large multi-masted schooners. Dynaship is
covered in some detail as are the Woodward and the Bergstrom
1981 reports. Leadership has shifted to the Japanese with their
small tanker using sail as auxiliary power.
The author proceeds toi describe his development of
"rationalized" sails using high lift technology developed by
NACA/NASA during the last 50 years. Polars are compared to
those in the Woodward, Bergeson and Dynaship reports.
The following parameters are advanced for commercial sail
design: a. maximum or useable lift coefficient of sail system;
b. equivalent parasitic drag coefficient; c. friction drag
coefficient of wetted hull surface; d. effective aspect ratio
of sail system which controls aerodynamically-induced drag; e.
wave drag induced by hull; f. leeway drag corresponding to
aspect ratio of hull draft to length ratio; g. aerodynamic
drag of ship's hull.
A table is shown of 11 sailing vessels from historical
through modern conceptions including: estimated lift
coefficients, estimated sail system drag coefficients,
estimated effective aspect ratio and drag coefficient, sail
area dimensions, length, displacement, and sail area to weight
ratio. The study concludes with an overall assessment and
stating that very good hull forms were developed in the 19th
century, but newly developed sails must still be optimized.
11. J.Frye, "Sun-Driven Sloop Lends Concept to Small Work
Boats," National Fisherman, August, 1981, p. 88.
An 18 foot (5.5 m) sailboat has been developed with a
solar powered auxiliary drive. Two 105 amp., deep-discharge
batteries are mounted in the keel. The batteries are charged
from two photovoltaic solar collectors recessed under plastic
shields in the cockpit seats. A DC motor provides the thrust in
forward or reverse. The 2000 lb. (907 kg) hull may be run for
two hours at four knots or eight hours at low speed. By
installing two additional batteries, range increases to six
hours at four knots, 24 at low speed. Price, weight and
performance data are given for small work and other boats.
12. "Sailmakers Look to 'Maxi-Boats' to Determine Stress in
Sailcloth," National Fisherman, Sept., 1982, p. 29.
The 70 to 80 foot racing sailing yachts are teaching
sailmakers about stresses to which sail cloths are subjected.
The commercial fisherman needs a less lofty rig and his sails
are not under as much strain because he does less trimming and
tacking. Shape is not as critical to the fisherman as to the
racer. Sails are a money-making proposition to the fisherman
and only make sense if they can pay for themselves in a known
period of time. Hood sails has been working with cloths that
might be used in a number of commercial sail applications. The
sails for a recently retrofitted freighter are of 22 oz. cloth.
They are uncoated, so the sails are soft and easy to handle,
but the elasticity is predictable, and the sail's shape may be
maintained. The yarn may be treated so the sun's ultraviolet
will not break it down. It should be easy to repair by hand
13. Kenneth C. Morisseau, "The Age of Sail Is It Over?" Naval
Engineers Journal, April, 1981, pp 145-153.
The author summarizes the history of commercial sail up to
the DYNASHIP, the PATRICIA A. and the Bergeson study and points
out that ships consume 7.3% of the free world's total. He
points out that sail propulsion experiments and applications
fall into two categories: high performance small craft and
commercial shipping applications. He updates the Woodward study
to reflect 1980 costs and prices and shows that now sailing
ships are cheaper on all routes than comparable 15 knot
steamships. A variety of wind thrusters are discussed:
square-rigged sails, marconi-rigged sails, gaff-rigged sails,
wing sails, rotors and windmills. Hull forms are outlined, and
a sail-driven SWATH ship designed for underway replenishment is
14. "Designer of Automatic Rig Defends its Copyright," Sail
Assistance News, V.1, N.4, December, 1982, p.4.
Russell McNab of Victoria, Australia developed a rig
featuring remote control of reefing, setting, trimming and
furling in 1973. The CARAVEL rig consists of a two-masted
roller-reefing staysail configuration with masts of equal
height. It has found wide interest among commercial fishermen
becukse of its simple and uncluttered design and automatic
controlled operation. McNab is currently designing a commercial
sailing vessel 115 feet (35 m) in length with another
automatically controlled sailing rig invented for use on larger
15. "Windship's New Wing Sail Has Maximum Lift, Minimum Cost,"
Early tests indicated the wing generates a maximum lift
(sideforce) coefficient of 2.0. Until now, the sail's already
attractive economics were based on a value of 1.7. Lloyd
Bergeson's tests are continuing and will be extended to a 300
sq.ft.(27.9 sq.m) model of the MINI LACE rig. Her fuel
efficiency predictions were too low, so her assumed lift
coefficient of 1.5 may have been too low. The prototype wing
sail is of wood skin and framing attached to a rotating steel
mast. The sail will be trimmed remotely by means of a hydraulic
grab and go drive system, will have passive feathering in lieu
of conventional furling, and is designed so automatic controls
may be added later. The wing section is NACA 0018 with a 20%
flap. Design wind speeds are 40 knots operating at maximum lift
and 150 knots while idling in feathering mode.
16. "MINI-LACE Powered Commercial Vessel Earns National
Recognition as One of Ten Outstanding Engineering Contributions
of 1981," New Release, Cone & Co., Inc. and Hood Sailmakers,
May 15, 1982.
The project was engineered and developed by Windship
Development Corporation, and Hood Sailmakers designed,
engineered and manufactured the cloth and sail for the rig.
Used since July, 1981, the 3,000 sq.ft.(278.7 sq.m) sail and
rig has already reduced fuel consumption by 20%. The mast is
116 ft. (35 m) high and is unstayed and fully rotating. The
mast and sail are designed for use in winds up to 35 knots and
to withstand winds up to 150 knots when furled. The full sail
can be furled in 2 minutes, 20 seconds. The cloth is tightly
woven, and has more threads per inch than any other
commercially available sailcloth. It is treated with Hood's
Eclipse (TM) formula to guard against ultraviolet
deterioration. It required more than 11 miles (17.7 km) of
stitching and weighs nearly 500 lbs. (227 kg).
ADVANCED THRUSTERS AND SAIL RIGS
Figure 2 illustrates eight types of thrusters to collect
wind energy and convert it to useful propulsive thrust ranging
from conventional soft sails to rotors. Figure 3 shows a
schematic sketch of a hard wing sail with slot and flap as
conceived by the Windship Development Corporation. Not covered
in Figure 2 is the kite sail concept discussed in Abstract
There is considerable interest in Magnus effect rotors
such as the well-known Flettner rotor, and research is
proceeding in England, France and the U.S.S.R. It is
unfortunate that details have not been published on the French
experiments with rotors. It seems abundantly clear that more
research on these and other potential advanced thrusters is
needed. Even some modest static experiments could provide a
solid basis for full-scale tests on commercial craft. Rotors
are appealing for retrofit of commercial fishing craft, as the
French have apparently recognized.
Concerning more-or-less conventional sail rigs, there is a
considerable difference of opinion as to whether fore-and-aft
or square sails are the way to go for large vessels, just as
for small craft, there are those who advocate the inefficient,
but low heeling moment gaff rigs against the high pointing
Bermudian sail plans. There is also controversy concerning the
merits of automated furling gear for the smaller vessels vs.
simple, mechanical ways of sheeting, reefing and dropping
sails. The latter school wants simplicity, minimum deck clutter
and maximum reliability. They complain of the icing problems of
complicated gears as well. Proponents of the former school can
point to minimum crew size, larger sail areas which can be
handled per crew member and ease of reefing and furling.
ADVANCED THRUSTERS AND SAIL RIGS
1. R.C.T.Rainey, "The Wind Turbine Ship." Symposium on Wind
Propulsion of Commercial Ships, The Royal Institution of Naval
Architects, 1980. 97-116.
The appeal of the wind turbine for ship propulsion is that
it provides an efficient source of power for voyages in any
direction to the wind and does not require a large crew. This
paper brings together the various propulsion schemes, with and
without a marine propeller, that have been suggested over the
years, and presents a unified theory of the subject. The use of
a wind turbine working with an auxiliary diesel is analysed
with reference to the fuel saving that can accrue.
The analysis is used to make a rational appraisal of the
potential of a vertical-axis wind turbine for saving fuel on a
4000 ton passenger/cargo ship on the UK-Cape Town and Cape
Town-Ascension Routes. On the basis of official discount rates
and fuel price projections, the payback period comes out as
12-22 years on the former route an 5-7 years on the latter.
These figures give encouragement for future development of the
2. G.W.Schaefer and K. Allsopp, "Kite-Sails for Wind-Assisted
Ship Propulsion." ibid, 117-132.
This paper compares kites and sails as power generators
for ship propulsion, either as additional to motorised
propulsion or as the sole propulsive power. Several papers
about sail-assisted propulsion are presented to this Symposium,
but the case for commercial sail is not obvious, for
engineering and financial reasons. If this is so, then there is
an even larger credibility gap to be overcome if kite-sails are
to be considered seriously. Additional incredibility is created
by the common prejudice that kites are very difficult objects
to launch and control, that they fly largely downwind and so
would be of little general use, and that they are too small.
However, there are very attractive advantages if such
objects can be made and controlled. This paper quantifies the
expected advantages: (i) higher vessel speeds, of the order of
35%, due to considerable windspeed increase with altitude in
the lower 250m (820 ft.); (ii) more flexibility of vessel
course due to the ability to choose wind directions other than
those at deck level, offered by windveer; (iii) much increased
vessel stability and safety, due to traction forces being
attached at deck level, with almost no overturning moment or
heeling; (iv) ease of attachment to vessels, including large
existing fleets; (v) the need for little deck space compared to
These potential advantages have provided the stimulus for
the Ecological Physics Research Group to enter upon a research
and development program for kite-sails. To overcome the
credibility gap, the basics of a science of kite aerodynamics
are presented, together with performance calculations for a
general kite-ship and a corresponding sailing-ship. Finally,
the present state of development of a suitable kite-sail is
discussed. The system deserves more attention, primarily
because of the obvious advantages.
3. N.Bose, "Windmills- Propulsion for a Hydrofoil Trimaran,"
The design of a windmill for the propulsion of a 5 m.(16.4
ft.) trimaran is described. A method is presented for the
calculation of the performance of windmills. This method has
been adapted from screw vortex theory and applied to the
special case of a windmill mounted as a propulsive device on a
moving vehicle. A study is made using this theory, to ascertain
the optimum geometry for the windmill. Considerations include
windmill solidity, blade sections and pitch/diameter settings.
Performance curves are presented for the windmill under
consideration. Finally, a comparison is made between the
predicted performance of the windmill when applied to the
trimaran and the performance realized when the boat operates
using cloth sails. The last study provides a means of
asssessing the value of a windmill against the well proven
success of cloth sails. The theory and arguments used in this
paper are believed to be applicable to larger installations
which may be considered for the propulsion of commercial ships.
4. W.M.S.Bradbury, "An Investigation of Graduated Trim for an
Aerofoil Rig," ibid. 159-172.
The advantages of symetric aerofoil sails for wind
propulsion of large ships are discussed. Practical
realizations of an aerofoil rig and associated problems are
considered. The proposed aerofoil ship, investigated in this
paper, is described. A simple two dimensional analysis using a
potential flow representation of wind flow through an aeerofoil
rig is discussed. This analysis is used to produce various
arrays of graduated sail trim angles. Wind tunnel tests of a
model aerofoil ship are described. Sail force coefficients are
obtained for various graduated and parallel trims. A simple
performance model is derived and used for comparative analysis
of wind tunnel data.
5. C.C.Herbert, "The Design Challenge of the Wind Powered Ship,
Advanced thrusters are considered in this paper on pages
205 and 206. Aerofoils are mentioned with lift/drag ratios
approaching 10 and capable of maintaining this efficiency in
apparent winds between 5 and 40 knots. Hydrofoils are
6. E.W.H.Gifford, "Improvement of Sailing Techniques in
Tropical Countries," ibid. 241-247.
For the past several years, the author has been developing
surf beach fishing boats, primarily of the double-hulled form
(catamaran) for use in West Africa and the Indian Ocean. Due to
the increasing price of diesel fuel, in 1978 a sailing rig was
introduced on one. This has a standing lugsail on a bipod mast.
The rig has been further developed. Sprit sail and lateen rig
are also mentioned.
7. Various, "Commercial Sail Proceedings of a Symposium,"
Dept. of Industry, London, 1980. 171-185.
Several comments on the papers of this symposium are here
assembled. Air Commodore Nance remarks that there were two
Flettner rotor ships: the converted BUCKAU (later renamed the
BADEN-BADEN) and the specially designed and built successor:
BARBARA. He cites the following limitations: a. it cannot
proceed head to wind; b. its windage when shut down is far
higher than a wind turbine with stowed or feathered blades; c.
downwind performance is not good whereas the wind turbine with
it probable ability to exceed wind speed with relatively small
inputs of engine power to the wind turbine, seems to have high
promise on this point of sailing; d. its efficiency in practise
may not be as high as theory suggests. Cited are reports from
NASA and the University of Oregon. Prof. Schaefer comments on
work on kite sails. Mr. Wynne discusses the Dynaship rig. Capt.
Azad discusses four systems he feels are worth testing: a. the
Dynaship; b. the fore and aft rig; c. the louvre sail; d. the
Magnus drive (Flettner rotor). The University of Hamburg has
loaned the original Dynaship model to the Liverpool Polytechnic
for further testing, and it can be borrowed for the cost of
freight and insurance.
8. L.Bergeson et al, "Wind Propulsion for Ships of the American
Merchant Marine," Windship Development Corp., 1981. Sect. II.
There is an excellent discussion with illustrations of
eight rig alternatives and technical evaluation of these: a.
stayed fore and aft rig; b. unstayed cat rig; c. Princeton
sailing; d. square rig; e. wing sail; f. Flettner rotor; g.
horizontal axis wind turbine; h. vertical axis wind turbine.
Rotors and turbines were ruled out because of insufficient
experimental data available at this time. A flapped wing sail
emerged as the best choice when compared to all others. 33
references are included.
9. J.B.Woodward et al, "Feasiblity of Sailing Ships for the
American Merchant Marine," University of Michigan Report No.
168, 1975. Appendix II: "Some Comments on Wind-Propulsion
Devices Other than Sails." 96-98.
Brief remarks are included on the possibility of using
Flettner rotors, windmill-electric propulsion with screw
propeller and wing-sails. All were judged to have too many
negative features to be worth considering at that time.
10. H.S.Noel, "French Fishing Industry is Actively Developing
New Boats," National Fisherman, February, 1982.
French experiments with the Flettner rotor to power
fishing vessels are mentioned. Rotor calculations show large
power economies within a range of wind strengths. But in more
than 35 knots of wind, the thrust turns into resistance. At 30
knots of wind, the propulsive effort is equivalent to 344 hp
for a power input of only 7 hp to rotate the cylinder. At 37
knots of wind speed, equivalent thrust is minus 42 hp.
11. J.Clemans, "Eight is Enough," Motor Boating & Sailing
magazine, March, 1982. p.12.
Discussed and illustrated is YOGHURT, an eight-masted
catamaran from Copenhagen. The twin hulls are 40 foot steel
pipes braced by steel beams. Both hull pipes have four 50 foot
revolving masts, each with a sail area of 215 square feet. The
designer claims this sail plan provides 207 more propulsion
than conventional sails of the same area.
See also abstracts under: Technological Developments.
12. T.C.Warner, "Sail Power: A Cautious Appraisal," Ship & Boat
International, Dec., 1981. 9-1.
The author discusses in some detail traditional sails and
compares the sloop with the wing sail and the magnus effect
rotor. Older workboats had sail plans concentrating driving
power in the main sail with jibs used for balance. Aerodynamics
has shown jibs to be more effective than after sails, so
overlapping jibs with smaller mains are used on present-day
yachts. Effectiveness increases with aspect ratio (span squared
divided by area), but there is little advantage in using an
aspect ratio of more than 4.0. Rigging must not obstruct deck
areas. A typical sloop side force coefficient is about 1.3. The
wing sail offers practical advantages. A side force coefficient
up to 2.2 may be obtained. Use of a leading-edge slot and a
full span flap allows aerodynamic force to be varied to suit
conditions, thus minimizing the reefing problem. Changing tack
is simplified, and deck area is essentially free. Magnus effect
rotors may achieve side force coefficients of 9 or 10 and have
been successfully employed. It has several advantages: smaller
sail area for a given driving power, smaller demand on the hull
for power to carry sail and simple reversal of thrust direction
by drive motor reversing gear. It is possible to conceive of a
wind generator battery charger being used to supply power for
the motor drive. Included are tables of driving power for
various vessel types and power to carry sail as well as plots
of sail area to wetted surface area as a function of length to
beam ratio, length and type of keel. The author is not very
optimistic about the possibility of a return to wind propulsion
in the foreseeable future.
13. K.Stewart, "Fly a Kite," Fishing News International, March,
The advantages of elevated sails (kites) are: 1. Increased
wind velocities at higher elevations. 2. Improved safety due to
upward pull of kite. 3. Improved upwind performance due to wind
direction changes with altitude. 4. One tether line operated by
a motorised winch makes for clearer deck space. 5. Retrofit is
of minimum cost and time. 6. At higher altitudes there is less
wind turbulence. An existing vessel of 100 tons could be
retrofitted for motor sailing by using two kites of 50
sq.meters (538 sq.ft.) at altitudes of 100 to 300 meters (328
to 984 ft.) If the Inflatasails are used on this vessel, an
estimated 40,000 gallons (181,843 lit) of fuel per year would
14. Stephen D.Orsini, "Rotorship: Sailing Ships Without Sails,"
Oceans, Jan., 1983. p.26-29.
This is a history of Anton Flettner's work. The
BADEN-BADEN made a transatlantic crossing in 1926 and was
equipped with two rotors. This was a conversion of the 160 foot
(48.8 m) three-masted top-sail schooner BUCKAU. Flettner
conducted research with the backing of the Fredrick Krupp Co.
at the University of Goettingen from the early 1920's. The
rotorship sailed best in a beam wind and could sail up to 23
degrees from the true wind direction. To tack, direction of
cylinder rotation was reversed, and she did not sail well
downwind. Rotorships were intended to be motor sailers. The
cylinders proved to have inherent stability. Above a wind
velocity of about 25 mph (40 kmh), the forces acting on the
cylinder ceased to increase and then proceeded to decrease with
increasing wind velocities. The BUCAU was outfitted with two
rotors made of a double layer of 0.04 inch (1.0 mm) sheet
steel. Rotors were 51 feet (15.5 m) high and 9.2 feet (2.8 m)
diameter. In a beam wind of 15 knots, rotors alone propelled
the vessel at 7.5 knots. In a 22 knot wind with rotors at 100
rpm, she did nine knots. Rotors were each driven by an 11
horsepower electric motor.
The three rotor BARBARA was launched in 1926. She was 294
feet (89.6 m) long. Each rotor was made of an aluminum alloy
and was 55 feet (16.8 m) high and 13 feet (4 m.) diameter with
0.0469 inch (1.2 mm) wall thickness. She carried cargo from
1926 to 1933 when she was sold and converted to conventional
15. Niedermeyer-Martin Co., 1727 NE 11th Ave., Portland. OR
97212. Makers of custom wood spars up to 150 feet (45.7 m) long
with tapering diameters from 4 inches (10 cm) to 3 feet (91.4
16. John Gardner, "Wind Rotors Look Good for Small Boats ...";
National Fisherman, July, 1982, p.81.
Described is Tom North's trimaran which is planned to be
powered by a vertical axis wind turbine a Darrieus rotor.
17. Jack Manners-Spencer, "Gallant Rig," Arthur Edmunds, Inc.,
NA, 1881 NE 26 Street, Suite 242, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33305.
Described in the manufacturer's and distributor's
literature is an elliptical cross-section soft wing sail rig
for cruising boats with fast reefing, easy handling, low
maintenance and high performance. Sketched is a 24.5 meter (80
ft.) stern trawler with two freestanding masts with a soft wing
sail on each. A short brochure presents the advantages of the
Gallant Rig for fishing vessels: single sheet to control each
sail, one halyard per sail which can be operated from the
wheelhouse, self-stowing sails in lazyjacks, sail area varied
from wheelhouse, good directional stability and aerodynamic
balance, less heeling, efficient sailing, excels in
motorsailing mode because sails can be set to smaller angles of
attack, reduced drag due to lack of rigging, more area
concentrated aloft to catch wind in light airs, no rigging
wires to interfere with fishing operations, good forward
visibility, especially fail-safe, low maintenance.
18. Denny Desoutter, "Gallant Effort," Practical Boat Owner,
Report on the Gallant Rig of Jack Manners-Spencer.
19. Dennu Desoutter, "A Gallant Effort," Cruising World, Oct.,
Essentially a repeat of the above article
20. Danny Greene, "Arthur Edmunds' Illusion is Very Real,"
Cruising World, Oct., 1982.
Description and photograph of the Gallant Rig on board a
44 foot (13.4 m) steel boat designed by Arthur Edmunds.
21. "The Flettner Rotor," Marine Propulsion, March, 1980.
History of the Flettner rotor showing a cross section of
one of BARBARA's rotors and plots of thrust, speed and wind
22. J.R.Flewitt, "Turbines Rather than Sails Appear the Most
Promising," Marine Propulsion International, Oct., 1980.
Comprehensive paper on current research on sail assisted
power for commercial vessels. Compares expected performance of
alternative wind propulsors.
23. "Magnus Concept in Propeller Design," Fishing News
International, August, 1982.
Describes the work done by the Borg/Luther Group, 876 Elm
Ave., Carpineria, CA 93013 USA, on a magnus effect rudder.
24. "Magnus Effect Borg Rudders."
Description in company pamphlet of the magnus effect
25. Bruce Sherman, "He Has Big Ideas About Tall Ships Sailing
Tankers Called Feasible," Seattle Post-Intelligencer, August
Described is the 'Rationalized Sail System,' of Mr. Paul
Priebe. See Abstract No.10 under: Technological Developments.
26. Tom Brooks, "Designer Updates Sailing with Modern
Aerodynamics," The Seattle Times, September 7, 1982.
Mr. Priebe describes his aerodynamic concepts, and a
photograph is shown of his model.
27. F. Von Koenig, "Windkraft Von Flettner Rotor," FDR,
Pfriemer, Munich, Germany, book, 143 pp.
PERFORMANCE PREDICTION AND WIND ROUTING
Since speed of any sailing vessel is a function of angle
to the wind, wind strength and hull and rig characteristics,
speed prediction is no simple matter. Fortunately, the ready
availability of computers has made this tedious iterative
process considerably easier, and computer programs for such
have been prepared in various parts of the world. Sailing
vessels are subject to the vagaries of the wind strength and
direction, so wind routing has become important to all such. A
common criterion for sail-assisted vessels is that the engine
will always be turning the propeller(s) both to minimize
propeller drag and to guarantee a constant service speed. Thus,
it becomes important to the economics to be able to forecast,
with some measure of accuracy, the geographical locations of
the wind strength and direction at any time of year. Mr.Mays is
a specialist in this field, and his paper is a fine piece of
While naval architects and those concerned with the
science of sailing are reasonably confident of being able to
predict sailing vessel performance, and much work has been done
on predicting power boat and ship performance, it is not so
clear that performance under power and sail motorsailing -
can be predicted accurately. If the engine is operated while
sailing, apparent wind velocity is increased giving more
thrust, but apparent wind angle is changed as well. If that
angle (of attack) becomes too small with respect to the sail,
the sail will give rise to more resistance than thrust
generated and should be lowered. If at an optimum attack angle,
the resulting speed is often more than the algebraic sum of the
speed under engine alone and the speed under sail alone.
Abstract No.9 relates some recent German motor sailing
experiments but without analyzing them.
Similarly, while it is now not too difficult to predict
the speed of a sailing craft under sail, it is not at all easy
to predict such for a retrofitted power vessel. Speed
predictions for the addition of sails to conventional motorized
fishing vessels are only very approximate at best.
PERFORMANCE PREDICTION AND WIND ROUTING
1. W.J.Hood, "Using Wind Reliable Routes for Bulk Cargo
Transport," Symposium on Wind Propulsion of Commercial Ships,
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects, 1980. 17-28.
Results of analyses of routes, distances and speeds for
the Capetown to Sydney run are given. A possible route around
Antarctica is advanced. Frank MacLear commented on high shock
loads produced by jibing.
2. J.E.Atkins and D.J.Painting, "Wind Propulsion of Ships -
Climatological Factors," ibid. 67-76.
A very large amount of data on surface wind over the
oceans has accrued from the weather observations made from
ships on passage over more than a century. Traditionally these
data have been summarized diagrammatically for the benefit of
the mariner in publications such as marine climatological
atlases and routing charts. (Pilot Charts) The variations of
wind climate over the oceans of the world are described in
general terms with illustrations.
Such diagrammatic presentations are useful, indeed
essential, for an initial appraisal of any project involving
sailing vessels. Sooner or later, though, the practicalities
and economics must be assessed by close numerical analyses of
the geographical and temporal variations of wind. Such analyses
are facilitated by existing computer archives of the marine
observations. Appropriate programming needs, detailed knowledge
of the relevant operational and design characteristics-
knowledge, for example, of the optimum wind speed range for
sailing, as to how close to the wind the vessel can sail.
Frank MacLear commented that in addition to velocity and
direction, we are also interested in air temperature. The
colder the air the denser and hence the faster sailing vessels
3. J.H.Mays, "Sailing Ship Weather Routing," ibid. 77-96.
The present status of sailing ship weather routing is
discussed. Although a sailing ship's performance can be
reasonably well specified by the wind and wave field, this
information is not sufficient to plan and execute a passage
over a body of water with least cost or time. The author takes,
as given, a sailing ship speed polar and statistical
climatological weather data for the North Atlantic Ocean to
generate an array of feasible voyages between New York and the
English Channel. The technique of dynamic programming is used
to determine the optimal passage as specified by an objective
function embodying criteria such as time and fuel consumed.
Optimal passages are solved using a Monte Carlo simulation of
the weather expected en route. Comparisons of performance and
routes across the Atlantic in different seasons are made to
great circle routes and among different choices of minimum ship
speed. 23 references are given to this excellent paper.
The discussions included a query about ice forecasting and
Frank MacLear disputing the use of mathematical modelling and
Pilot Chart data for this case. O.Ljunstroem discussed an early
Swedish project to study a 2000 ton motor sailing freight ship.
4. P.Schenzle, "Standardised Speed Prediction for Wind
Propelled Merchant Ships," ibid. 173-188.
The prediction of weather-dependent ship speed under sails
(speed diagram) is based on wind tunnel and towing tank test
results. For this deterministic prediction of the equilibrium
of drag and cross forces as well as of yawing and heeling
moments has to be established, including forces due to hull
roughness, seaway and helm adjustment. Under stronger wind
conditions, heeling angle and rig loading must be limited, if
necessary by reefing or feathering the sails, which means not
only reducing the area but also influencing significantly the
aerodynamic performance of the wind propulsion system. Based on
assumed criteria for the employment of an auxiliary drive in
cases of low speed undr sail, auxiliary speed and power can be
In order to provide statistical information for service
considerations, it is common practise to simulate voyages using
deterministic speed predictions and real weather data and to
evaluate a great number of simulations statistically. Here it
is suggested to apply statistical methods to weather data in
order to evaluate a standarized statistical environmental model
with a limited number of parameters. A statistical speed
prediction based on the standard environmental model appears
especially suitable for comaring alternative wind propulsion
systems. Examples comparing deterministic as well as
statistical speed predictions for some of the proposed systems
M. Saunders commented with regard to motor sailing as did
A.R.Claughton. The latter states that at Southampton they are
in the process of extending their sailing ship performance
prediction program to include turbine ship operation and hence
5. C.C.Herbert, "The Design Challenge of the Wind Powered
Ship," ibid. 199-214.
See the abstract under Technology for a complete summary
of this paper. Motor sailing is discussed, and a 100 year old
formula for predicting speed is advanced as valid. J.H.Mays
comments that performance prediction for conventional ships is
difficult enough. For sailing vessels, a considerable increase
in complexity is introduced. He disputes the simplifying
assumptions required to accept this formula such as constant
upright hull drag coefficients. C.A.Marchaj comments that the
author's assumption of a key requirement being lift to drag
ratio approaching 10 does not compare with the experience of
the highly efficient C Class catamarans. A chart is presented
of the varying speeds made good to windward of historical craft
vs. a modern 12 meter yacht. A table of average sailing speeds
of historical vs. modern vessels is also presented tending to
show that sailing vessel technology advanced not at all from
Columbus' SANTA MARIA to the fast clippers when speed is
compared on a size basis. The author replies that on a plot of
ship speed vs. wind speed, the poor efficiency of ships like
the SANTA MARIA is obvious.
6. D.J.Painting, "The Meteorological Office Marine Archive and
Its Use to Describe Ocean Climate," Commercial Sail Symposium,
Dept. of Trade, London, 1980. 112-128.
The author describes the data bank and computer programs
available in the Marine Archive for predicting wind and weather
on a worldwide basis from over a hundred years of observations.
The exponent for wind shear- variation of wind velocity with
height- is taken at 0.12.
7. J.B.Woodward et al, "Feasibility of Sailing Ships for the
American Merchant Marine," Section VI 35-51 and Appendix I
Voyage mean times are predicted on a number of ocean
routes. Speed polar curves are described together with some of
the functional dependencies and a simplified flow chart of the
solution process. Some representative values are tabulated and
8. L.Bergstrom et al, "Wind Propulsion for Ships of the
American Merchant Marine," Wind Ship Development Corp., Section
III: Performance Analysis, 30 pp. 1981.
The most basic objective of performance analysis is the
prediction of the average voyage speed and fuel use one can
expect for a given ship on a given route. In order to develop
these "voyage statistics," the performance problem is
approached in three steps: a. models are developed of the
hydrodynamic and aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the
ship; b. using these models, ship speed and power setting are
determined for a range of wind conditions performance
prediction; c. a statistical model of the route wind applied to
these performance predictions yields expected voyage speed and
fuel use. The influence on sail force coefficients of five
factors is discussed including inter-mast interference. A
number of plots are given, and 20 references are cited.
9. K.Lange and P.Schenzle, "Full Scale Trials with Wind
Propulsion on a Small Fishing Vessel, International Council
for the Exploration of the Sea, Fish Capture Committee, 1981.
This report relates some 1980 experiments with a 100 ton
displacement Baltic fishing vessel equipped with sails of 160
sq.m.(1722 sq.ft.) and 150 hp main engine. Ship speed under a
variety of wind strengths, angles and engine speeds was
measured and plotted. These were compared with model propulsion
tests and calm water runs without sails. Selected results are
shown for true wind speeds between 19 and 21 knots vs. relative
course angle to the true wind. At a ship speed of nine knots,
the power requirement under motor is 100 kw (134 hp) at Force 5
wind (17-21 knots) and 80 kw (107 hp) in calm weather. When
motorsailing with full sails in Force 5 wind, the required
engine power is 40 kw (54 hp) at 150 degrees to the true wind
and only 8 kw (11 hp) at 90 degrees. If the full engine power
of 100 kw (134 hp) is maintained after setting sails, ship
speed is increased from 9 to 10 knots at 150 degrees and to
10.8 knots at 90 degrees. It is obvious that considerable power
reductions are possible when maintaining ship speed in the
motorsailing mode, but only small speed increases when
maintaining full engine power. At 9 knots ship speed and Force
5 wind, the maximum power saving is about 80 kw (107 hp) at
about 90 degrees relative course. Average power saving assuming
equal frequency of all courses relative to a Force 5 wind would
be about 40 kw (54 hp) thus saving 200 kg (62 U.S.gallons) of
fuel per 24 hours -roughly 40%.
10. C.Goudey, "Results of Towing Tests of the Vincie N.";
private communication. 1981.
The Vincie N. is a 79 foot waterline offshore fishing
vessel being studied at MIT for possible retrofit with a sail
rig. The report details a full-scale towing test made with the
aid of the U.S.Coast Guard.
11. P.Schenzle et al, "Ein Programmsystem zur Berechnung der
Schiff Geschwindigkeit unter Dienstbedingungen," (A Program for
the Calculation of Ship Speed Under Service Conditions)
Institute fuer Schiffbau der Universitaet Hamburg, Bericht
No.303, November, 1974.
Outlines a standard method for the computation of sailing
12. I.Howlett, "Considerations Relating to the Performance of
Large Sailing Vessels," RINA Occasional Publication No.l, Royal
Institution of Naval Architects, London, England, no date.
This report summarizes the state of the-art of predicting
the performance of commercial sailing vessels at the present
13. John S.Letcher, Jr., "Optimal Performance of Ships Under
Combined Power and Sail," Journal of Ship Research, SNAME,
V.26, N.3, Sept., 1982, pp.209-218.
This is a fundamental paper on predicting the performance
of sailing vessels and yachts in the motorsailing mode. The
vessel is described by a characteristic speed, a characteristic
fixed-cost rate and five dimensionless parameters four