• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Summary
 Production of potatoes in...
 Movement of potatoes
 Prices of potatoes
 Cost of producing potatoes
 Tables






Group Title: Agricultural economics report - University of Florida Dept. of Agricultural Economics ; no. 62-13
Title: Statistics on production, shipments and prices of Florida Irish potatoes
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074614/00001
 Material Information
Title: Statistics on production, shipments and prices of Florida Irish potatoes
Physical Description: 39 p. : ; .. cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brooke, D.L
Greene, R.E.L
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station. -- Dept. of Agricultural Economics
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1962
 Subjects
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by D.L. Brooke, and R.E.L. Greene.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074614
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 67338003
clc - 000474558

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Page i
    Summary
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Production of potatoes in Florida
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Movement of potatoes
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Prices of potatoes
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Cost of producing potatoes
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Tables
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
Full Text


April, 1962


"Agricultural Economics Mimeo
Report 62-13


Statistics On Production,


Prices Of Florida Irisl


D. L. Brooke and R. E. L. Greene


Fig. 1. -- Packing Potatoes in Ten Pound Bags


DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOI
FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STA'


GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Shipments And


h Potatoes












TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page
SUMMARY . . . . . ii

INTRODUCTION.. . . . .. . 1

PRODUCTION OF POTATOES IN FLORIDA . . .. .1

Trend in Acres, Yield, Production and Value,
1924-25 to 1960-61. . . . . 1
Relative Trend in the Production of Potatoes
in Florida and the United States. .... ...... 5
Trend in Winter and Spring Acreage in Florida . 7

MOVEMENT OF POTATOES . . . . ... 13

Shipment of Stored Crop and New Potatoes from Florida
and Other States. . . . . . 13
Shipment of Potatoes from Various Areas in Florida. . 15

PRICES OF POTATOES. .... ... . . . 18

Variation in Monthly Prices and Seasonal Price Pattern
of Potatoes by Decades . . . ... 18
Farm Price of Potatoes in April in Florida
and the United States . . ..... 21
Relation Between Production and Price of Potatoes
in Florida . . . . .. 21
Relation Between Shipments and Prices of Potatoes . 23
Relation Between Prices Received for Potatoes in
Florida and the General Level of All Farm Prices
in the United States . . . . .. 26
Relation Between Prices Received for Potatoes in
Florida and the General Level of Prices Paid by
Farmers in the United States . . . 28
Comparison of Average Price Received for Potatoes
with Parity Price, 1946 to 1958 . . . 28

COST OF PRODUCING POTATOES. . . . . 31

APPENDIX. . . . . . . 33









SUMMARY


While there have been significant trends in the potato industry in
Florida during the past 35 years, the most important changes have occurred
since the end of World War II. During the five year period 1954-55 to
1958-59, an average of 43,080 acres of potatoes were harvested per season
with an average yield of 140 hundredweight per acre. This was 36 hun-
dredweight or 35 percent more than the average of the 1944-45 to 1948-49
period. Average production during the 1954-55 to 1958-59 period was
6,034,000 hundredweight and cash value $18,157,000. Compared with the
five seasons 1944-45 to 1948-49, production increased 119 percent but
value increased only 82 percent.

At the present time Florida produces 2 percent of the total United
States production as compared to less than 1 percent during the years
1935-39.

The trend in acreage of potatoes for winter and spring harvest
has been quite similar from the 1939-40 season to the present time. Of
the total acres in Florida, that for winter harvest is about 33 percent
and for spring harvest about 67 percent. During the period 1956-57 to
1960-61, approximately 60 percent of the winter potato acreage was in
Dade County and 84 percent of the spring acreage in the Hastings area.

Shipments of new crop potatoes begin in December, increase until
April or early May and end in June. The volume of movement of new crop
potatoes is small compared to that of stored potatoes. Stored crop
potatoes move to market at the rate of 4,100 to 6,500 cars weekly from
January to the middle of April. Thereafter, stored crop movement declines
rapidly each week to end in July.

Very few new potatoes move from states other than Florida before
the latter part of April. Shipments from other states increase rapidly
in May and June.

Although potatoes are shipped from Florida from December to June,
nearly 80 percent of the crop moves in March, April and May. During
December and January practically all of the Florida shipments originate
in the Lake Okeechobee and Fort Myers-Immokalee areas. Two-fifths of
the volume in February and over three-fourths in March is from Dade County.
In April, about 30 percent of the shipments are from Dade County and
nearly 55 percent from the Hastings area. During May and June from 88
to 90 percent of the Florida shipments are from the Hastings area. Of
the shipments from Florida for the five seasons 1956-57 to 1960-61, 64
percent originated in the Hastings area, 17 percent in Dade county, 15
percent in other South Florida counties and 4 percent in other North
Florida counties.









Prices received for potatoes by Florida farmers are usually
highest in January and decline as the season progresses. The difference
between the January and June price has been increasing in recent years.
The Florida price of potatoes usually moves with the price of all
potatoes in the United States but at a higher level. The spread between
Florida prices and all potato prices has ranged from $0.35 to $2.46 per
hundredweight.

Normally there is an inverse relationship between Florida pro-
duction and price of potatoes. Prices decline as volume of shipments
increase. Prices do not increase when shipments decline in Florida
because volume of new potatoes moving from other areas is high.

The index of prices received for Florida potatoes tends to
fluctuate with and around the index of prices of all farm commodities in
the United States. Since 1946-47 the Florida price has been below the
United States all-commodity index in nine seasons and equal to or above
this index in only six seasons. Florida potato prices have also
fluctuated more than prices paid by farmers in the United States for
commodities used in production. Since the 1948-49 season Florida's
potato price has been equal to or below the index of prices paid by
farmers in the United States with an ever widening spread between the
two indexes.

Florida potato prices have averaged 77 percent or less of the
Florida parity price in nine of the last 16 seasons. However, during
this period there was a substantial increase in production. Because of
improvements in production technology, farmers apparently found it
profitable to increase production at lower relative prices until about
1957.

Production costs per unit vary inversely with the yield per
acre. Costs were lower in 1960-61 than in the 1953-57 period only in
the Hastings area where yields were 22 percent above average. Returns
were above the 1953-57 average only in the Fort Myers-Immokalee area
in 1960-61.










STATISTICS ON PRODUCTION, SUIPi;ENTS AND
PRICES OF FLORIDA IRISH POTATOES

by

D. L. Brooke and R. E. L. Greenel


INTRODUCTION

This publication was prepared to present statistical data

relating to the production and marketing of Irish potatoes in Florida.

These data are needed by commodity groups and others who use factual

information as background material for the formulation of policies on

marketing and other problems related to the Irish potato industry in

the State.


PRODUCTION OF POTATOES IN FLORIDA

Most counties in Florida produce some Irish potatoes for home

use if not for sale. However, commerical production is limited to

six major areas. The commercial crop is classified into winter and

spring production. The winter crop is produced in Dade, Palm Beach,

Collier, Hendry and Lee counties. The spring crop is grown in St. Johns,

Flagler, Putnam, Clay, Alachua and Escambia counties with a relatively

small volume of production from some other North and South Florida

counties.


Trend in Acres, Yield, Production and Value,
1924-25 to 1960-61

Acres.--The acreage of Irish potatoes harvested in Florida has

ranged from 21,900 in the 1924-25 season to 54,300 in the 1956-57

lAssociate Agricultural Economist and Agricultural Economist,
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations.

1









season (Table 1 and Fig. 2). Acreage harvested declined sharply during

the late forties but increased significantly following the release of

acreage controls. Acreage has also declined significantly since the

1956-57 season.

Yield per acre.--Per acre yields of Irish potatoes have shown a

significant increase since World War II. The greatest increase occurred

during the period 1950-54. The highest yield on record for all of

Florida occurred in the 1953-54 season when the State average was 178

hundredweight per acre. The Hastings area registered its highest yield

during the 1960-61 season. The average yield during the five year period

1949-50 to 1953-54 was 153 hundredweight per acre. This was 49 hun-

dredweight or 47 percent greater than the yield during the preceding

five year period. From 1954-55 to 1958-59 the average yield was 140

hundredweight per acre. This was nearly 35 percent above the 1944-45

to 1948-49 average but it was also 8.5 percent below the average for

1949-50 to 1953-54.

Growers rapidly adopted new higher yielding varieties of potatoes

which performed well under Florida conditions. They are using more seed

and fertilizer per acre and following better soil moisture and disease

and insect control methods as they are developed. The above factors

were largely responsible for the increase in yields per acre. Variations

in growing conditions over the State and within areas have been very

important in the fluctuations in yields from year to year.

Production.--The increase in yield per acre coupled with an

increase in acreage from the low point reached during the 1947-48 season

has resulted in a substantial increase in total production. The largest







3
Table l.--Acreage, Yield, Production and Value of Florida Irish Potatoes, 1924-
25 to 1960-61 and Five-Season Averages, 1924-25 to 1960-61


Season


1924-25
1925-26
1926-27
1927-28
1928-29
1929-30
1930-31
1931-32
1932-33
1933-34
1934-35
1935-36
1936-37
1937-38
1938-39
1939-40
1940-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-44
1944-45
1945-46
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56
1956-57
1957-58
1958-59
1959-60
1960-61a


Five Season Averages
1924-25--1928-29
1929-30--1933-34
1934-35--1938-39
1939-40--1943-44
1944-45--1948-49
1949-50--1953-54
1954-55--1958-59
1959-60--1960-61b


Acres
Harvest


21,900
23,100
28,000
31,000
22,000
31,000
27,000
21,500
17,000
23,500
24,800
24,500
31,300
31,400
26,700
25,600
26,800
25,000
26,600
28,600
31,100
35,300
23,100
20,700
21,800
24,600
24,200
30,600
41,500
32,800
38,000
41,700
54,300
44,400
37,000
37,300
34,100


25,200
24,000
27,740
26,520
26,400
30,740
43,080
35,700


- I--r


1,785
1,570
1,966
2,129
2,751
4,696
6,034
5,172


3.25
2.04
1.82
2.40
3.62
3.00
3.01
3.00


preliminary data.
bTwo Season Average.

Source: USDA, Agricultural Statistics, 1957 and Florida Crop and Livestock
Reporting Service, Florida Vegetable Crops, 1961.


: Yield
ed : per Acre
Hundredweight

74
71
63
75
71
48
79
42
79
84
58
62
73
80
78
97
70
92
77
67
97
102
79
102
147
136
156
150
148
178
160
162
140
135
133
122
170


5,798
3,195
3,578
5,114
9,960
14,071
18,157
15,540


_~_~_ _I_________ll_~IUIUII-~-UILIII)
-- ---- -u-rr~r---r-;,r^-n ~*r-- r~ulr~.---~~----.u ~~-----I... .. ..-._...._


II-----`^-~~-~"--U-"1"9-` -^---


Production of
Value in cwt.
1,000
Hundredweight
1,630
1,636
1,764
2,338
1,558
1,488
2,138
903
1,346
1,974
1,443
1,515
2,271
2,525
2,078
2,484
1,877
2,294
2,065
1,927
3,021
3,606
1,817
2,107
3,205
3,351
3,774
4,589
5,926
5,839
6,080
6,766
7,076
5,582
4,668
4,535
5,810


Average
Price
Dollars per
Hundredweight
2.90
5.07
3.12
2.47
3.01
3.10
1.78
2.13
1.42
1.88
1.73
2.42
2.20
1.17
1.82
1.52
1.50
2.57
3.23
3.33
3.98
3.28
2.65
4.18
3.84
2.80
3.08
4.11
2.66
2.52
3.99
3.65
1.97
2.65
2.81
3.92
2.29


Total
Value
1,000
Dollars
4,726
8,287
5,498
5,785
4,695
4,606
3,818
1,933
1,908
3,708
2 504
3,652
4,998
2,960
3,774
3,766
2,803
5,901
6,675
6,431
12,033
11,828
4,809
8,807
12,321
9,379
11,624
18,877
15,747
14,727
24,279
24,723
13,910
14,744
13,127
17,794
13,286


- --






Acres
Harvested
60,000,


50,000-


40,000


30,000


20,000


I. '
/
.'\ /


-- Acres : i\
,I / \ I \ i\


i- / /
I '\ I I
Ii i


I\


i /
/ 7




t / /
I\


Yield -f /




' /1 '/
' I I -i /
, I


r i


Production
(1,000 cwt.)
7,200


6,600


6,000


5,400


4,800


4,200


3,600


3,000


2,400


1. 800


S/ Production
10,000 1


1924-25 1929-30 1934-35 1939-40 1944-45 1949-50 1954-55 1959-60
Seasons
Fig. 2.--Acreage, Yield per Acre, and Production of Irish Potatoes in Florida, Seasons 1924-25 tc
Source: Table 1.


J, 80

1,200

0


Yield
cwt. per
Acre
- 180


- 165


- 150


- 135


- 120


- 105


- 90


- 75


- 60


- 45


- 30

- 0


1960-61


_


u









production on record was the 7,076,000 hundredweight harvested during

the 1956-57 season. For the five seasons 1954-55 to 1958-59 production

averaged 6,034,000 hundredweight. This was 119 percent larger than the

average 1945-49 production and nearly triple the average annual pro-

duction for the period 1940-44. Production of value in 1959-60 was the

lowest in nine years.

Value.--Increased production has resulted in a substantial

increase in cash income from potatoes. The highest income on record was

the $24,723,000 received by farmers for their 1955-56 crop. This was

more than 4 times the income received annually during the five year

period 1940-44 and 76 percent greater than that received during the

period 1950-54. Even with a substantial increase in production, prices

remained relatively favorable and income increased until the 1956-57

season. Income was lower for the 1958-59 season than for any of the

immediately preceding seven years or the 1959-60 season. Reduced income

in the last five seasons may indicate a change from the increasing value

trend since World War II.


Relative Trend in the Production of Potatoes in
Florida and the United States

During the past two and one-half decades there has been only

a moderate change in the production of potatoes in the United States

(Fig. 3). A slight increase from 1936 to 1946 was offset by a decrease

for the period 1947-51. Since 1951 United States production has

increased about 50 percent. Florida's production, on the other hand,

doubled from 1935 to 1946 and doubled again during the 1950-57 period.


























Florida -


/
\^\/e S---y
S \ .-
\ "United States


1945


1950


1955


1960


Years


Fig. 3.--Relative Trend in Production of Irish
United States and Florida, 1935 to
(1947-49 = 100)


Potatoes,
1961.


Source: Appendix Table 1.


Index







250


200


150 r


100






50


1935


1940


,. ~I. 1~.I I i -' ~-L.


I


r


I


I











For the nine seasons, 1953-61, Florida production has been nearly three

times what it was during the 1935-39 period. Florida produced 2.9

percent of the total United States production in 1956-57 and 2 percent in

1960-61 as compared to less than 1 percent during the years 1935-39.


Trend in Winter and Spring Acreage in Florida

Commercial Irish potato production in Florida is rather easily

divided into three areas--West, North and South Florida (Fig, 4). West

Florida production is centered primarily in Escambia County. Potatoes

in that area are shipped with those from Baldwin County, Alabama. Except

for Escambia, few counties west of the Suwannee River produce potatoes

for the commerical market. North Florida production is centered in

the Hastings area, comprising St. Johns, Putnam and Flagler counties.

Alachua, Bradford and Union counties also produce some potatoes for the

spring market. All counties south of the Pasco, Sumter, Lake, Orange

and Volusia county lines have been included in South Florida. The Dade

County, Everglades and Fort Myers-Immokalee areas of South Florida

produce the winter crop. Some early spring potatoes are also grown in

South Florida,

From the 1939-40 season to the present time, the trend in

acreage of Winter and Spring harvested potatoes has been quite similar

(Fig. 5). Acreage declined in both harvesting periods from 1939-40 to

1941-42, then increased to the 1945-46 season. Acreage declined

sharply after 1945-46 for one season in the Spring area and for two

seasons in the Winter harvesting area. Following two seasons of adjust-

ment, harvested acreaged increased steadily in both areas, reaching a

peak in the 1952-53 season. Both areas reduced acreage in 1953-54 but














North
Florida


West "\v ; "\ -.
Florida 19


ALPHABETICAL LIST OF COUNTIES IN FLORIDA
NUMBERED TO AGREE WITH KEY MAP


- Hastings


1. Alachua
2. Baker
3. Bay
4. Bradford
5. Brevard
6. Broward
7. Calhoun
8. Charlotte
9. Citrus
10. Clay
11. Collier
12. Columbia
13. Dade
14. DeSoto
15. Dixie
16. Duval
17. Escambia
18. Flagler
19. Franklin
20. Gadsden
21. Gilchrist
22. Glades
23. Gulf
24. Hamilton
25. Hardee
26. Hendry
27. Hernando
28. Highlands
29. Hillsborough
30. Holmes
31. Indian River
32. Jackson
33. Jefferson
34. Lafayette


35. Lake
36. Lee
37. Leon
'38. Levy
39. Liberty
40. Madison
41. Manatee
42. Marion
43. Martin
44. Monroe
45. Nassau
46. Okaloosa
47. Okeechobee
48. Orange
49. Osceola
50. Palm Beach
51. Pasco
52. Pinellas
53. Polk
54. Putnam
55. Santa Rosa
56. Sarasota
57. Seminole
58. St. Johns
59. St. Lucie
60. Sumter
61. Suwannee
62. Taylor
63. Union
64. Volusia
65. Wakulla
66. Walton
67. Washington


South \ 56
Florida \,-


Fort Myers-
Immokalee


Fig. 4.--Areas of Commercial Irish
Potato Production in
Florida.



























/ 1 Spring
/ Acreage


1944-45


1949-50
Seasons


Fig. 5.--Trend in Acres of


Source: Appendix Table 2.


Winter and Spring Irish Potatoes Harvested, Florida,
1939-40 to 1960-61.


Acres
Harvested

30,000


28,000


26,000


I
I '
/


' /


I



I


SWinter
Acreage


1939-40












increased acreage for the three succeeding seasons. Since 1956-57 the

decline in Winter harvested acreage has been greater than that of acreage

for Spring harvest. Of the total acreage in Florida for the five seasons

1956-57 to 1960-61, 33 percent was for Winter harvest and 67 percent

for Spring harvest. A good bit of the change in the winter acreage of

potatoes from the 1954-55 to the 1957-58 season occurred in the

Immokalee area.

Percent of Winter Potato Acreage in Various Areas.--The largest

proportion of the potatoes in the Winter harvesting area is produced

in Dade County (Fig. 6). However, the proportion of the Winter crop

grown in Dade County has fluctuated widely over the last 21 years. In

the 1939-40 season, acreage in Dade County accounted for 63 percent of

the total Winter plantings. For the next six seasons the proportion

of the Winter crop grown in Dade County declined, reaching a low of 48

percent in the 1945-46 season. Dade County acreage increased to 79

percent of the total Winter crop in the 1947-48 season and decreased to

47 percent in the 1956-57 season. In 1960-61, 63 percent of the Winter

acreage was in Dade County. Plantings in the Collier-Hendry-Lee and

Palm Beach-Martin county areas have been erratic.

Percent of Spring Potato Acreage in Various Areas.--The Hastings

area grows the major proportion of the Spring potato acreage (Fig. 7).

Normally 80 percent or more of the acreage is in that area. The pro-

portion of the Spring acreage grown in the Hastings area declined from

the 1940-41 to 1945-46 season, reaching a low of 57 percent in that year.

The proportion of the Spring acreage grown in other North Florida

counties has decreased from 15 to as low as 3 percent annually. For









11


Percent
100

Other South Florida Counties
90


80


70












.... Dade County -
20




50 ..... .. .. .*:-7 .y** .*

1939-40 1944-45 1949-50 1954-55 1959-60
Seasons

Fig. 6.--Percent of Winter Irish Potato Acreage in Selected Areas,
Florida, Seasons 1939-40 to 1960-61.


Source: Appendix Table 2.









12







Percent

Other Counties


90 == = = = == ==SouthFlorid=
90
:: ::: counties :






70
.. ...... .. .
380 9--Other N rt 1'0 .....
...,es ::... ........... .. .....
....... ... .................. .. .. .......
... ...........................


..,.....:............ .. ......




...... ......... ....'..""
.. .... .. .. ...... :,; : ,;: ,s

.:..,.... ........ ..,,............. ,, : -+




................... ...... ....
.. .... ........ .. ....




.. .. .. . ... .
: .,4'."......".. ........ ...
S ,. ... .. .. .... .. .: :: ,

S ... ............:
0 ......... ... .. ...... r :


1939-40 1944-45 1949-50 1954-55 1959-60









Seasons
Fig. .--Percent of Spring Irish Potatocreage in Selected Areas,


Source:. Appendix Table 2.











the five seasons 1956-57 to 1960-61, 84 percent of the Spring acreage

was grown in the Hastings area, 5 percent in other North Florida counties,

6 percent in South Florida counties and 5 percent in other counties

including Iest Florida.


MOVEMENT OF POTATOES

Many potatoes in the late producing areas are stored as they

are dug and are shipped to market during the winter and spring months.

The first new crop potatoes begin to move to market from Florida in late

December or early January. During the early part of the season, new crop

volume:is small and the amount of stored crop potatoes moved into the

market is an important factor in the demand for new crop potatoes.


Shipment of Stored Crop and New Potatoes
from Florida and Other States

During the past five seasons the movement of stored crop potatoes

has ranged between 4,100 and 6,500 cars per week from early January until

the middle of April of each year (Fig. 8). Thereafter, stored crop

movement declines rapidly each week and is usually completed by the

middle of July. Florida is almost the sole producer of new crop potatoes

from December to mid-April. Volume is light in December and January

but increases with Dade County harvesting in February, March and early

April. The volume of potatoes moving from Florida does not reach 500

cars per week until the early part of April (Figs. 8 and 9)A During the

past five seasons, volume of 1,000 cars per week was not reached until

the last week in April. The advent of harvesting in the Hastings area

increases movement to 1,400 cars per week by mid-May. After the last

























































12 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 45 1 2 3 4
Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. Iay

Weeks


1
J


Fig. 8.--Weekly Carlot Shipments of Stored and New Crop Irish Pot
the Florida Season, Average 1956-57 to 1960-61.


2 3 4 1 2 3
une July


atoes During


Source: D. L. Brooke, Florida Truck Crop Competition, Agr. Econ. Mimeo.
Reports 58-4, 59-3, 60-3, 61-3 and 62-6.










week in May, Florida shipments decrease rapidly, normally to end in late

June. The movement of the Florida crop about equals the movement of

stored crop potatoes in late May and June. Because of weather con-

ditions the movement of the Florida crop, especially in the'Hastings

area, has been three to four weeks later than usual.

The movement of new crop potatoes from states other than Florida

does not begin in volume until the second or third week in April when

harvesting starts in Alabama and California (Fig. 9). Volume from

other new crop states increases rapidly in May and June.


Shipment of Potatoes from Various Areas of Florida

Although potatoes are shipped from Florida from December to

June, 80 percent of the crop moves in March, April and May (Fig. 10).

The two peak months are April and May when the crop is moving in

volume from the Hastings area.

The first movement of potatoes from Florida is usually from the

Lake Okeechobee section. During December and January practically all

of the shipments originate there and in the Fort Myers-Immokalee area.

Shipments from Dade County begin in February and continue until early

April. Two-fifths of the volume in February and over three-fifths in

March is from Dade County. The end of shipments from Dade County,

about April 10, coincides with early harvesting in the Hastings area.

During April, about 55 percent of the shipments are from the Hastings

area, 30 percent from Dade county, 14 percent from other South Florida

counties and 2 percent from other North Florida counties. During May

and June, 88 to 90 percent of the shipments are from the Hastings area




















New Crop- /'
Other
States /


/ Stored Crop


I

/


I

I


'I


1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3
Dec. Jan.


41234123
Feb. Mar.


4 1 2 3 4 5 12 3412 3 4 1 2 3
Apr. May June July
Weeks


Fig. 9.--Weekly Carlot Shipments of Stored Crop and New Crop Irish
Potatoes from Florida and Other States During the Florida
Season, Average 1956-57 to 1960-61.
Source: D. L. Brooke, Florida Truck Crop Compettion, Agr. Econ. Mimeo.
Reports 58-4, l, -3, bl- aud 2-6.


/ -
/
/


I

I
I
r
`J


New Crop
Florida


5 \



















































Fig. 10.--Percent Monthly Potato Shipments are
Shipments from Selected Areas are of


of Yearly Shipments and Percent
Monthly Shipments, Florida,


Five Season Average, 1956-57 to 1960-61.


Source: USDA, AMS, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Florida
Vegetable Crops, Vols. XIII through XVII.












and from 4 to 8 percent from other North Florida counties. Of the

shipments from Florida for the five seasons 1956-57 to 1960-61, 64 percent

originated in the Hastings area, 17 percent in Dade County, 15 percent

in other South Florida counties and 4 percent in other North Florida

counties.


PRICES OF POTATOES

Prices received for potatoes by Florida farmers depend upon:

(1) the season of the year in which they are sold, (2) the volume of

stored potatoes, (3) the size of the Florida crop, and (4) the general

price level. The effect of these factors on the prices of Florida

potatoes is treated in subsequent paragraphs.


Variation in Monthly Prices and Seasonal
Price Pattern of Potatoes by Decades

Average monthly prices received for potatoes by Florida farmers

normally decrease as the season progresses. For the decades since 1930,

highest average prices were generally received in January (Figs. 11 and

12). As a rule, prices in January average 15 to 30 percent above the

average annual price. In the period 1950-59, the January price

averaged $3.88, February $3.45, March $3.22, April $3.58, May $2.92

and June $2.70 per hundredweight. Increased production of March

harvested potatoes in South Florida during this decade resulted in a

lower than normal March price. The increase in average price during

April over March was due primarily to high prices resulting from the

late March 1955 and February 1958 freezes.






















4.00


Months


Fig. 11.--Average


Monthly Prices Received for Irish
Selected Periods, 1930 to 1961.


Potatoes,


Source: Computed from: A. H. Spurlock and C. V. Noble, Florida
Farm Prices, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 399, June, 1944
and Agr. Econ. Mimeo. Report 49-9. USDA, AMS,
Agricultural Prices, May, 1954, Jan. 1956, Sept. 1957,
Sept. 1958, Jan. 1959, Jan. 1960, June 1961, Jan. 1962.








Index
1301


Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July
Months


Fig. 12.--Seasonal Price Pattern, Florida Irish Potatoes,
Selected Periods 1930 to 1961.


Source: Computed from: A. H. Spurlock and C. V. Noble, Florida
Farm Prices, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 399, June, 1944
and Agr. Econ. Mimeo. Report 49-9. USDA, AMS,
Agricultural Prices, May 1954, Jan. 1956, Sept. 1957,
Sept. 1958, Jan. 1959, Jan. 1960, June 1961, Jan. 1962.











The amount of spread between the January and June price has

increased each decade since 1930. During the decade 1930-39, the drop

in price from January to June was $0.83 per hundredweight, $1.01 in the

decade 1940-49 and $1.18 in the period 1950-59. For the two seasons

1959-60 and 1960-61 the spread between the January and June price

averaged $1.44 per hundredweight. Greater production in areas outside

of Florida harvesting in June and July has lowered prices for those

months.


Farm Price of Potatoes in April in Florida
and the United States

The price received for potatoes in April by farmers in Florida

is very closely correlated with the April price for all potatoes in the

United States (Fig. 13). Normally, the Florida price moves up or down

with the United States price but at a higher level. However, the

spread between prices in Florida and the United States has varied

significantly. Between 1925 and 1961 the largest relative spread in

prices between Florida and the United States came in the period 1925 to

1929. The annual average April price spread from 1925 to 1929 was $1.59

as compared to $0.89 in 1940-44, $1.20 in 1950-54 and $1.51 per hun-

dredweight annually from 1955 to 1959. The spread averaged $1.08 per

hundredweight for the two seasons 1960 and 1961. In individual years

the spread in price between Florida and the United States has ranged

from $0.35 in 1938 to $2.46 per hundredweight in 1928.

Relation Between Production and Price
of Potatoes in Florida

From year to year there tends to be an inverse relationship
between production and prices received by farmers for potatoes in Florida

















I'
I'
I


S- Florida


4 1~
I i1

ii I ~


I !

I I I


/


- United States


1925 1930 1935 1940 1945 1950 1955 1960


Fig. 13.--April Price


Years
per Hundredweight Received by Farmers for Irish
United States and Florida, 1925 to 1961.


Source: Appendix Table 4.


Price
per cwt.


i '
I'


I'
IAn


\' \


\ \


Potatoes,


\k \












(Fig. 14). If production increases, prices decline and if production

decreases, prices increase. A slight upward trend characterized the

production of potatoes from 1925 to 1940. During this period, prices

generally declined from the high levels attained during World War I

and the early 1920's. Since 1941 there has been a decided upward trend

in the production of potatoes. Production increased each year from

the 1946-47 to the 1956-57 seasons except in 1953-54. Even though

acreage decreased in some years, production increased because of higher

yields per acre. A slight downward trend is evident in prices of potatoes

since the 1944-45 season. However, over this period, there has been a

wide fluctuation in prices. The prices of $1.97 and $2.29 per hun-

dredweight received for the 1956-57 and 1960-61 crops by Florida farmers

were the lowest season average prices since the 1940-41 season.


Relation Between Shipments and Prices of Potatoes

Prices received for potatoes by Florida farmers generally show

an increase from December to January and then decline from month to

month during the Florida season (Figs. 12 and 15). Shipments, on the

other hand, show a steady month to month increase, reaching a peak in

May (Fig. 15). Although shipments from Florida are small in June, new

potatoes are moving in volume from other areas and prices usually

continue downward. Because of the lateness in the season and hot,

humid weather, quality of the potatoes shipped from Florida in June is

probably not as good as that of those shipped earlier.






Production
S(1,000 cw.t.)
6,600 --


Price
per cwt.
,dollars)


6,000 5.00
II
5,400


4,800 -4.00


4,200 \ 1
S/ \ \

3,600 \ / Price 3.00
\ / \ \1 \ 1 \ //

I \\ i
3,000 I I



0 0
1,800 \
'i

1,200 \/ 1.00

600

0 I ., I I I t I I i, I t I
1925 1930 1935 1 40 1945 1950 1955 1960
Seasons Ending
Fig. 14.--Trend in Price and Production of Irish Potatoes, Florida, 1925 to 1961.


Source: Table 1.











Price
per cwt.
(dollars)


Carlots
per month
6,000f


Mar.
Months


Fig. 15.--Monthly Trend in Florida Shipments and Prices of Irish
Potatoes, Five Season Average, 1956-57 to 1960-61.


Source: USDA, AMS, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service,
Florida Vegetable Crops, Vols. XIII through XVII.












Relation of Prices Received for Potatoes in Florida and the
General Level of All Farm Prices in the United States

Prices received for potatoes in Florida tend to fluctuate with

and around the index of prices of all farm commodities in the United

States (Fig. 16). From the 1924-25 to the 1937-38 season, the index of

prices received for potatoes in Florida was above the index of prices

of all farm commodities in the United States. From 1939-40 to 1945-46

the index of Florida potato prices was above the index of all farm

commodities in the United States except for the 1940-41 season. Since

1946-47 the Florida price index has been above the U. S. all-commodity

index in six seasons and below in nine seasons.

Potato growers are quite conscious of the fact that the cost of

items of production used for potatoes has continued to increase but they

have not been able to sell their product at a higher price. However, many

probably fail to realize that the volume of production has doubled. The

volume being produced at the present time is such that Florida potatoes

must be sold more in direct competition with the late (stored) crops.

This explains to some degree the relationship of the Florida potato

price index to the United States all-commodity price index.

During the past two decades, because of better varieties,

increased use of seed and fertilizer, better insect and disease control

and improvements in technology, increases in yields per acre have been

large. This has helped to decrease per unit cost of production or has

kept unit cost from increasing as much as individual cost items. With

an improvement in technology, some of the savings is usually passed

on to the consumer in the form of a better quality product, a lower









Index


160



II
I
120 I
I/ \ I"

i \/ \,

\ /--' Florida Potato /
80 / \ Prices \

\ U.S. All Farm
S/ Products Prices /
0\ \ t\ I I





C t.I I t I I I I t
1925 1930 1935 1940 1945 1950 1955 1960
Years

Fig. 16.--Comparison of the Index of Prices Received for Irish Potatoes in Florida with
the Index of Prices Received for all Farm Commodities in the United States,
1925 to 1961 (1947-49 = 100)


Source: Appendix Table 5.












relative price or both. It appears that consumers have received some

of both of these benefits with respect to Florida potatoes.


Relation Between Prices Received for Potatoes in Florida
and the General Level of Prices Paid by Farmers
in the United States

Prices received for potatoes in Florida have fluctuated more

than prices paid by farmers in the United States for commodities used in

production (Fig. 17). From 1924-25 to 1929-30, the index of prices

received for potatoes in Florida was above the index of prices paid by

farmers in the United States. From 1930-31 to 1940-41 the index of

Florida potato prices fluctuated around the index of prices paid.

Between 1941-42 and 1948-49 potato prices were above prices paid except

for the 1946-47 season. Since 1948-49 Florida's season average 'otato

price has been equal to or below the index of prices paid by farmers

in the United States, with an ever widening spread between the two

indexes.

Potato producers have bridged this gap by increasing yields and

by adopting improved technological methods, as explained earlier. In

seasons ending in years such as 1950, 1951, 1953, 1954 1957, 1958, 1959

and 1961, the increased production per acre has not been sufficient

to offset the rising costs of items used in production.


Comparison of Average Price Received for Potatoes
with Parity Price, 1946 to 1958

In only four seasons since 1946 has the average price received

for potatoes in Florida been higher than the Florida parity price

equivalent (Table 2). In three seasons average prices received have








































Years


Fig. 17.--Comparison of the Index of Prices Paid for Commodities, Interest, Taxes, and
Wage Rates, United States, with the Index of Prices Received for Irish Potatoes
in Florida, 1925 to 1961. (1947-49 = 100)


Source: Appendix Table 5.
NO













Table 2.--U. S. Parity Price for Irish Potatoes, Florida Parity Price
Equivalent, Average Price Received by Florida Farmers, and Price
Received by Florida Farmers as a Percentage of Florida Parity
Price Equivalent, Crop Years, 1946-1961

: : : : Price received by
: U. S. : Florida parity : Price received : Florida farmers as
Crop Year : parity : price : by Florida : a percentage of
: price : equivalent : farmers : Florida parity
: : : equivalent
Dollars per hundredweight Percent
1946 2.20 3.30 3.28 99
1947 2.78 4.02 2.65 66
1948 3.09 4.05 4.18 103
1949 3.00 4.14 3.84 93
1950 2.82 3.98 2.80 70

1951 2.98 4.15 3.08 74
1952 2.88 4.15 4.11 99
1953 2.72 3.80 2.66 70
1954 2.54 3.53 2.52 71
1955 2.44 3.20 3.99 125

1956 2.33 3.54 3.65 103
1957 2.45 3.84 1.97 51
1958 2.44 3.51 2.65 75
1959 2.32 3.63 2.81 77
1960 2.34 3.23 3.92 121

1961 2.46 3.42 2.29 67


Note: Data subject to revision.

aAverage during Florida marketing season (January June).

Source: Data furnished by the Statistical Reporting Service and Crop
Reporting Board; compiled by the Vegetable Branch, Fruit and
Vegetable Division, Agricultural Marketing Service, U. S.
Department of Agriculture, March 13, 1962.


been equivalent to 92 to 99 percent of parity. In four of the five seasons

1949-50 to 1953-54, the average price received for potatoes in Florida

averaged 70 to 74 percent of the State parity price equivalent. It was

during this period and again in 1957, 1958, 1959 and 1961 when season












average prices were 51, 75, 77 and 67 percent, respectively, of the

Florida parity price equivalent that farmers became seriously concerned

about prices received for potatoes. However, it should be noted that

total production for the period 1949-50 to 1956-57 was 97 percent more

than for the preceding five seasons and the cash value of potatoes sold

was 67 percent more. Due to improvements in production technology,

farmers apparently found it profitable to increase their production of

potatoes until 1957 even at relatively lower prices in relation to

parity.


COST OF PRODUCING POTATOES

The cost of producing potatoes in selected areas of Florida is

shown in Table 3. Per unit costs vary inversely with the yield per

acre, being high in periods of low yield and lower when yields are high.

Yields and costs vary too between different producing areas of the

State in the same year. Yields were above average and costs low in

Hastings while the reverse was the case in Dade County in 1960-61. In

comparing returns to growers in 1960-61 with the average for the period

1953-57 only the Fort Myers-Immokalee area showed an increase in net

returns.













Table 3.--Yields and Per Unit Costs and Returns for Irish Potatoes
in Selected Areas in Florida, 5-Season Average 1952-53 to
1956-57 and 1959-60, 1960-61

5-Season 1959-0
Yields and Costs Average 1959-60 1960-61


Yield per acre in hundredweight
Amount per hundredweight:
Growing cost
Harvesting and marketing cost
Total crop cost
Crop sales
Net returns


Yield per acre in hundredweight
Amount per hundredweight:
Growing cost
Harvesting and marketing cost
Total crop cost
Crop sales
Net returns


Yield per acre in hundredweight
Amount per hundredweight:
Growing cost
Harvesting and marketing cost
Total crop cost
Crop sales
Net returns


Yield per acre in hundredweight
Amount per hundredweight:
Growing cost
Harvesting and marketing cost
Total crop cost
Crop sales
Net returns


164

$1.50
.86
2.36
2.88
$0.52


Hastings Area
131

$2.28
.91
3.19
3.72
$0.53

Dade County


200

$1.32
.88
2.20
2.27
$0.07


126


$1.79
1.1.4
2.93
3.32
$0.39


$2.64
1.26
3.90
3.21
$-0.69


Everglades


114


$1.66
1.33
2.99
3.54
$0.55


$2.03
1.24
3.27
3.00
$-0.27


Fort Myers Immokalee


169


$2.05
1.20
3.25
3.30
$0.05


$1.99
1.28
3.27
3.39
$0.12


Source: D. L. Brooke, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
58-8, 60-4 and 62-9.


Agr. Econ. Mimeo.Reports


-








































APPENDIX















Table 1.--Index


and Production of Irish Potatoes, United States and Florida,
1934-35 to 1960-61 (1947-49 = 100)


S Production in hundredweight Index (1947-49 = 100)
Date
S United States Florida United States : Florida


(000)


1934-35
1935-36
1936-37
1937-38
1938-39
1939-40
1940-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-44
1944-45
1945-46
1946-47
1947-48
1943-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56
1956-57
1957-58
1958-59
1959-60
1960-61a


227,332
194,369
225,864
213,505
205,419
226,147
213,414
221,335
275,327
230,351
251,634
292,383
233,386
269,932
241,407
257,932
192,308
209,455
228,040
213,614
228,974
243,716
239,539
265,729
243,281
257,435
290,939


(000)


1,443
1,515
2,271
2,525
2,078
2,484
1,877
2,294
2,063
1,927
3.021
3,606
1,817
2,107
3,205
3,351
3,774
4,589
5,926
5,839
6,080
6,766
7,076
5,582
4,668
4,535
5,810


91.6
78.3
91.0
86.0
82.7
91.1
86.0
89.2
110.9
92.8
101.4
117.8
94.0
108.7
97.3
103.9
77.5
84.4
91.9
86.1
92.2
98.2
96.5
107.0.
98.0
103.7
117.2


60.7
63.8
95.6
106.3
87.4
104.5
79.0
96.5
86.8
81.1
127.1
151.7
76.5
88.6
134.9
141.0
158.8
193.1
249.4
245.7
255.9
284.7
297.8
234.9
196.4
190.8
244.5


preliminary data.


Source: USDA, AMS, Agricultural Statistics, 1960, Crop Production, 1961
Annual Summary and, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service,
Florida Vegetable Crops, Vol. XVII.






Table 2.--Acreage of


Winter and Spring Irish Potatoes Harvested by Production Areas
and Total, Florida, 1939-40 to 1960-61


: Winter Spring
Date Other Other South West Florida Total
SDade South Total Hastings North Florida and Other Total
Florida Florida Counties Counties

Acreage Harvested

1939-40 6,000 3,500 9,500 11,750 1,950 1,550 850 16,100 25,600
1940-41 6,000 3,800 9,800 12,600 1,900 1,150 1,350 17,000 26,800
1941-42 4,800 3,800 8,600 11,850 2,250 1,150 1,150 16,400 25,000
1942-43 5,100 4,050 9,150 11,850 2,750 1,950 900 17,450 26,600
1943-44 6,000 4,500 10,500 12,950 2,700 1,400 1,050 18,100 28,600
1944-45 6,350 5,450 11,800 11,850 2,850 3,550 1,050 19,300 31,100
1945-46 6,500 7,100 13,600 12,350 2,900 5,160 1,290 21,700 35,300
1946-47 6,050 4,250 10,300 9,500 1,850 600 850 12,800 23,100
1947-48 5,800 1,500 7,300 10,200 1,825 750 625 13,400 20,700
1948-49 6,700 2,000 8,700 9,900 500 950 550 11,900 20,600
1949-50 6,600 3,200 9,800 11,200 750 940 910 13,800 23,600
1950-51 5,700 2,800 8,500 12,500 650 1,025 825 15,000 23,500
1951-52 8,000 2,700 10,700 15,500 950 1,775 875 19,100 29,800
1952-53 10,800 4,200 15,000 19,300 1,500 3,450 1,450 25,700 40,700
1953-54 8,800 2,800 11,600 17,000 1,400 1,270 1,130 20,800 32,400
1954-55 8,400 4,400 12,800 21,000 1,750 1,010 1,040 24,800 37,600
1955-56 8,900 7,100 16,000 21,000 1,875 1,425 1,400 25,700 41,700
1956-57 10,700 12,300 23,000 26,000 2,025 1,525 1,750 31,300 54,300
1957-58 8,450 5,050 13,500 25,500 1,450 2,100 1,850 30,900 44,400
1958-59 7,200 4,800 12,000 21,500 875 1,300 1,325 25,000 37,000
1959-60 6,700 3,300 10,000 22,800 1,100 2,075 1,325 27,300 37,300
1960-61 6,100 3,600 9,700 21,000 925 1,800 675 24,400 34,100


Source: USDA, AMS, Fla. Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Florida Vegetable Crops, Vols. II
through XVII.


















Table 3.--Average Monthly Prices Received for Potatoes by Seasons, Florida,
1951-52 to 1960-61

Month
Seasoii
Dec. Jan. Feb. : Mar. Apr. May June July

Dollars per Hundredweight

1951-52 $3.75 $5.17 $4.33 $4.17 $4.17 $3.58 $3.58 $3.58
1952-53 5.00 5.00 3.50 2.67 2.83 2.17 1.50 1.50
1953-54 3.58 3.75 2.92 2.08 2.08 3.00 2.50
1954-55 1.50 3.25 3.58 3.42 5.75 3.67 3.33 -
1955-56 3.00 3.15 3.95 3.89 3.48 4.15 -
1956-57 3.25 3.10 2.50 2.25 1.81 1.84 1.56 -
1957-58 2.85 3.75 5.40 5.10 5.18 2.56 1.47 1.57
1958-59 3.30 3.50 2.10 2.06 2.66 3.33 3.85 -
1959-60 4.35 4.60 4.75 5.56 3.56 2.45
1960-61 3.30 3.15 2.80 2.55 1.95 2.33 -


Total 23.23 38.17 35.23 33.25 36.48 29.14 26.72 6.65

Average 3.32 3.82 3.52 3.32 3.65 2.91 2.67 2.22



Source: USDA, AMS, Agricultural Prices, May, 1954, Jan. 1956, Sept. 1957,
Sept. 1958 and,Florida Vegetable Crops, Vol. XVII.








Table 4.--April Price Received by Farmers for Irish Potatoes,
United States and Florida, 1910 to 1961

: Dollars per Hundredweight
Year .
: United States Florida
1910 .603 2.05
1911 .91 2.30
1912 1.93 2.47
1913 .745 2.13
1914 1.09 2.42
1915 .718 1.93
1916 1.56 2.53
1917 4.08 4.27
1918 1.26 2.58
1919 1.68 4.05
1920 5.35 7.50
1921 1.09 3.12
1922 1.64 2.93
1923 1.16 4.18
1924 1.44 3.92
1925 1.17 3.07
1926 4.40 5.00
1927 2.02 2.92
1928 1.87 4.33
1929 .958 3.05
1930 2.40 3.17
1931 1.27 2.17
1932 .625 2.33
1933 .662 1.40
1934 1.25 1.90
1935 .72 2.42
1936 1.40 2.50
1937 1.77 2.17
1938 .82 1.17
1939 1.20 2.25
1940 1.32 1.92
1941 .845 1.67
1942 1.85 3.08
1943 2.60 3.75
1944 2.12 2.75
1945 2.82 3.92
1946 2.57 3.33
1947 2.23 3.17
1948 3.25 5.00
1949 2.92 3.67
1950 2.07 3.17
1951 1.62 4.25
1952 3.78 4.17
1953 1.88 2.83
1954 1.15 2.08
1955 3.49 5.75
1956 2.72 3.89
1957 1.24 1.81
1958 3.03 5.21
1959 1.28 2.66
1960 3.15 5.56
1961a 1.81 2.55
preliminary data.
Source: A. H. Spurlock and C. V. Noble, Florida Farm Prices,
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 399, June 1944 and Agr. Econ.
Mimeo. Report 49-9. USDA, AMS, Agricultural Prices,
May 1954, Jan. 1956, Sept. 1957, Sept. 1958, Jan. 1959,
Jan. 1960, June 1961, Jan. 1962.









Table 5.--Index of Season Average Prices Received by Florida Farmers for
Irish Potatoes, Index of Prices Received for All Farm Commodities
in the United States and Index of Prices Paid by Farmers for Com-
modities, Interest, Taxes and Wage Rates in the United States,
1920 to 1961 (1947-49 = 100)


Year
*
*


Index Numbers (1947-49 = 100)
Florida : United States
Potato Prices Received : Pr
Prices : by Farmers : by
188 78
94 46
77 48
103 52
100 53
82 58
143 54
80 52
70 55
85 55
87 46
50 32
60 24
40 26
53 33
49 40
68 42
62 45
33 36
51 35
43 37
42 46
72 59
91 71
94 73
112 76
91 87
75 102
117 106
108 92
79 95
87 111
116 106
75 94
71 91
112 86
103 85
55 87
75 93
79 88
111 88
64 88


preliminary data.

Source: Computed from: A. H. Spurlock and C. V. Noble, Florida Farm
Prices, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 399, June 1944 and Agr. Econ.
Mimeo. Report 49-9. USDA, SRS, Agricultural Prices, Jan. 1962.

DLB:ba 3/22/62
Exp. Sta., Ag. Ec. 500


1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961a


ices Paid
Farmers
86
62
60
64
64
66
64
64
65
64
60
52
45
44
48
50
50
52
50
49
50
53
61
68
73
76
83
96
104
100
103
113
114
111
111
110
111
114
117
119
119
120




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs