• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Importance of Florida honey
 Cost of packing honey
 Selling practices
 Returns by type of sale
 Distribution of sales to marke...
 Conclusions
 Abbreviations and floral sourc...
 Container sizes, types, and shipping...






Group Title: Agricultural economics report - University of Florida Dept. of Agricultural Economics ; no. 62-10
Title: Marketing Florida honey
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074613/00001
 Material Information
Title: Marketing Florida honey
Physical Description: 51 p. : ; .. cm.
Language: English
Creator: Hoffer, F.J
Hamilton, H.G
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station. -- Dept. of Agricultural Economics
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1962
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Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
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Statement of Responsibility: by F.J. Hoffer, and H.G. Hamilton.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00074613
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Page i
    Importance of Florida honey
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Cost of packing honey
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Selling practices
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Returns by type of sale
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Distribution of sales to markets
        Page 23 (MULTIPLE)
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Conclusions
        Page 36 (MULTIPLE)
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Abbreviations and floral sources
        Page 47
    Container sizes, types, and shipping units
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
Full Text
C)
3&~l h-
o. 7 Z-j 6


March, 1962
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
MIMEO REPORT NO. 62-10


Fred J. Hoffer and H. G. Hamilton






Department of Agricultural Economics
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
Gainesville, Florida


,91otida


3Lort~y











TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page
Introduction I

Importance of Florida Honey I

Kinds of Florida Honey 4

Containers 4

Cost of Packing Honey 4

Selling Practices 8

Returns by Type of Sale 12

Distribution of Sales to Buyers 23

Distribution of Sales to Markets 23

Seasonal Distribution 36

Transportation 36

Conclusions 36

Appendixes 47















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors wish to express their appreciation to the bee
packers who furnished the data on which the study is based and to
Mrs. Billie S. Lloyd who supervised the preparation of the manuscript
for publication.









MARKETING FLORIIDA HOtfEY


by

Fred J. Hoffer and H. G. Hamilton



Introduction


Except for the U. S. Census data on number of farms producing honey
and data published by the Crop Estimating Service, there has been very
little information available on the Florida honey industry. This report
gives information on the operations of 9 of the 20 commercial packers
operating in Florida in 1956.
A sample of 6,760 invoices from the sales of 9 packers for 1955 and
1956 was obtained. These invoices furnished sales data for 15,687 differ-
ent lots of honey by kind of honey, kind of container, method of sale,
price received, and point of sale or destination. In addition to the
information on the invoices, cost of packing honey, sales policies, and
sales practices were obtained for each firm.


Importance of Florida Honey


Florida has about 100 commercial and more than 500 part-time pro-
ducers of honey. Peak production was in 1955 when 18,936,000 pounds were
produced. In 1956 there were 8,000 apiaries comprising 248,000 colonies
of bees. In 1959 Florida ranked fourth among the states when 14,958,000
pounds were produced with a value of $2,373,000.
Florida honey production is related to citrus production. For 1939
to 1958 the production of Florida citrus increased at the rate of 6.8 per
cent per year and Florida honey production increased at an annual rate of
8.5 per cent per year, Figure 1. The ratio of boxes of citrus produced to
1 pound of orange blossom honey varied from 11.5 boxes in 1946-47 to 23.3
boxes for the 1947-48 season, Table 1. For the 20-year period 1 pound of


Definitions of honey type and container type are given in the
appendixes.










0
0
4-
S/-
/ -r


Citrus boxes
(000,000)
140.-


1301


4-/
A


Citrus +
Honey 0 0

HONEY TREN
(Scale Righ






'i-



+ -
t0


/ Honey Ibs
(000,000)
16.8


0 -15.6


+
44.4

13.2


-12.0


10.8


9.6


0 0


8.4


7.2


1. -
Citrus '39-40
Honey 1939


It I I t a t I I I I I I


'41-42 '43-44 '45-46 '47-48
1941 1943 1945 1947


Fig. l.--Trends in production of citrus and honey in Florida, seasons 1939 to 1958.


S-+ 0



0~T
CITRUS TREND
+ (Scale Left)


1201-


'49-50
1949


'51-52
1951


'53-54
1953


S6.o

.r 0.0


'55-56
1955


'57-58
1957


_ __ __


10-












TABLE I.--Comparison of production trends in citrus and honey and changes
in the number of bee colonies in Florida

Ratio: Ratio:
Citrus All honey boxes boxes
citrus Colonies citrus
citrus
Production Production to lb. of bee to one
Season Year
Season (1,000 boxes) Year (1,000 lb.) range (1,000) bee
Blossom
honey colony


1939-40
1940-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-44
1944-45
1945-46
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56
1956-57
1957-58
1958-59


43,995
55,980
48,650
63,875
80,990
69,350
86,200
87,570
95,570
93,100
87,960
105,580
119,360
109,920
138,670
128,680
134,400
135,600
116,400
126,200


1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958


5,760
6,750
7,738
8,250
8,586
10,324
9,100
15,280
8,190
8,159
11,340
16,224
17,876
17,025
18,088
17,612
13,090
17,360
18,936
15,618


15.3
16.6
12,6
16.7
18.9
13.4
18.9
11.5
23.3
22.8
15.5
13.0
13.4
12.9
15.3
14.6
20.5
15.7
12.3
16.1


144
150
146
150
162
178
182
191
195
199
189
208
218
227
238
238
238
248
263
274


306
373
333
459
500
390
474
458
490
468
465
508
547
484
583
541
565
548
442
461


aUnited States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing
Service Reports, Florida Honey Reports, Data for 1939-1958.
Florida State Marketing Bureau, Annual Agricultural Statistical
Summary, November, 1959.










orange blossom honey was produced for each 15.4 boxes of citrus fruit. It
is probable that better spacing of bee colonies in the groves would result
in a greater production of honey.


Kinds of Florida Honey


There are many kinds of honey produced in Florida. The principal
kinds are Orange Blossom, Tupelo, Saw Palmetto, Gallberry, Titi, Mangrove,
Partridge Pea, Sunflower, Cabbage Palm, Spanish Needle, Goldenrod, Sweet
Clover, Mango, and Thistle. Only Orange Blossom and Tupelo are packed
under their names. Other kinds of honey are sold as blends under trade
names. The 9 honey packers included in this study packed the following
types of honey: Amber, Clover, Dark Amber, Light Amber, Light Amber Comb,
Orange Blossom, Orange Blossom Comb, Orange Blossom with Blossom, Orange
Blossom Honey spread, and Tupelo. These types were packed both as filtered
and unfiltered honey, and all types of honey were packed in both consumer
size and so-called bulk containers, Table 2. The value of each type of
honey sold by the 9 packers is shown in Table 3.


Containers


Many types and sizes of containers are used in packing Florida
honey. The 9 firms included in the study packed honey in 60 different
consumer containers. There were 17 different kinds of 1-pound containers,
21 smaller than 1-pound, and 22 larger than 1-pound. The smallest con-
sumer size container was 3 ounces and the largest 10 pounds. The number
of containers used by each firm is given for both plain and comb honey
containers in Table 4. The volume of honey sold by size and type of con-
tainer is given in Table 5.


Cost of Packi n Honey


The cost of packing honey varied greatly from firm to firm and by
kind of container used. Not only did the size of the container influence
cost, but, because of shape and quality, cost varied even for the same









TABLE 2.--Volume of honey sold in consumer and bulk sizes by type of honey and method of processing. 9
packers, 1955 and 1956

Volume sold lbs. Per cent of total
Process and Consumer sizes Bulk sizes Consumer sizes Bulk sizes
honey type
1955 1956 1955 !956 1955 1956 1955 1956


Filtered
Orange Blossom
Light Amber
Amber
Tupelo
Orange Blossom Comb
Other
Total

Unfiltered
Orange Blossom
Light Amber
Amber
Tupelo
Orange Blossom Comb
Other
Total


538,075
237,196
57,928
22,367
224,046
1,378
1,080,990


72,744
49,574
63,760
3,180
7,873
6,778
203,909


482,806
227,403
41,036
2,751
126,930
23,257
904,183


150,634
40,071
98,600
9,145
9,874
1.837
310,161


77,663
284,372
115,132
903
2,115

480,186


188,519
393,578
165,360


19,185
766,642


11,927
64,849
24,588
120
10,815

112,299


239,233
520,386
269,864
1,341
753
6,634
1,038,211


49.8
21.9
5.4
2.1
20.7
.1
100.0


35.6
24.3
31.3
1.6
3.9
3.3
100.0


53.4
25.2
4.5
.3
14.0
2.6
100.0


48.6
12.9
31.8
2.9
3.2
.6
100.0


16.2
59.2
24.0
.2
.4

100.0


24.6
51.3
21.6


2.5
100.0


10.6
57.8
21.9
.1
9.6

100.0


23.0
50.2
26.0
.1
.1
.6
100,0


1,214,344 1,246,828 1,150,510


-- --


-~------ -~--


All honey 1,284,899










TABLE 3.--F.o.b. value of honey sold in consumer and bulk sizes by type of honey and method of processing,
9 packers, 1955 and 1956

Volume sold lbs. Per cent of total
Process and
oces and Consumer sizes Bulk sizes Consumer sizes Bulk sizes
honey type
1955 1956 1955 1956 1955 1956 1955 1956

Filtered
Orange Blossom $1ii,852 $113,095 $ 11,276 $ 2,260 49.6 54.5 18.2 13.1
Light Amber 42,480 43,855 36,028 9,251 18.0 21.2 58.1 53.6
Amber 9,397 6,396 14,026 3,186 4.0 3.0 22.7 18.4
Tupelo 5,892 853 159 29 2.5 .4 .3 .2
Orange Blossom Comb 60,465 36,483 428 2,544 25.7 17.6 .7 14.7
Other 467 6,844 -- ---.2 3.3 -- -
Total $235,554 $207,526 $ 61,917 $ 17,270 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Unfiltered
Grange Blossom $ 13,318 $ 29,805 $ 25,391 $ 34,891 37.0 50.2 26.9 24.7
Light Amber 9,401 8,381 49,214 72,309 26.1 14.1 52.0 51.3
Amber 9,C60 15,507 18,135 32,806 25.2 26.2 19.2 23.2
Tupelo 793 2,377 ---- 263 2.2 4.0 -- .2
Orange Blossom Comb 1,852 2,701 ---- 143 5.1 4.6 -- .1
Other 1,593 513 1,818 736 4.4 .9 1.9 .5
Total $ 36,017 $ 59,284 $ 94,558 $141,153 100.0 100.O 100.0 100.0


All honey $271,571 $266,810 $155,475 $158,423 -- -- --










TABLE 4.--Number of


various types and sizes of packs
In 1955 and 1956


used by 9 packers


Number of plain packs used Number of comb packs used
Firm 1955 1956 Change Change
1955-1956 15 5 1955-1956
A 17 17 7 5 2
B 21 16 5 7 5 2
C 8 11 +3 2 -2
D 16 26 +10 4 8 4
E 1 11 1 4 3 -
F 18 12 6 5 5 -
G 7 7 --- 1 1
H 13 11 2 4 3 1
I 15 14 I 7 3 4


TABLE 5.--All honey sold by container sizes and types, 9 packers, 1955
and 1956

Size and type 1955 1956
of
conVolume Per cent Volume Per cent
(Ibs) of total (Ibs) of total

Consumer sizes
12/5-lb Tin 291,290 22.7 294,325 24.3
24/1-lb Q 276,589 21.5 258,117 21.3
12/2-lb Q 102,674 8.0 90,170 7.4
6/5-lb RJ 89,830 7.0 105,405 8.7
24/1-lb Tumb 76,124 5,9 55,025 4.5
24/1-lb FB 73,261 5.7 69,157 5.7
6/5-lb Tin 73,150 5.7 82,905 6.8
24/4-1/2-lb Tin 57,888 4.5 41,036 3.4
24/8-oz Q 52,840 4.1 56,439 4.6
Others 191,253 14.9 161,765 13.3
Total 1,284,899 100.0 1,214,344 100.0

Bulk sizes
1/650-lb Drum 978,210 78.4 756,260 65.7
1/60-lb Can 266,235 21.4 382,620 33.3
Others 2,383 .2 11,630 1.0
Total 1,246,828 100.0 1,150,510 100.0

All honey 2,531,727 m=u 2,364,854 ---










size container. More honey was packed in 5-pound tin containers than In
any other consumer size. The cost per pound of packing honey in 5-pound
tins was about one-half the cost of packing I-pound jars. Honey packed
in 60-pound cans averaged a little over 2 cents per pound, but the cost
of packing in I-pound jars averaged about 10 cents per pound. The most
important item of cost was materials which accounted for about half the
entire cost. Labor and administrative costs were other items of impor-
tance. The cost of packing honey for 1955 and 1956 by important types
of containers is given in Tables 6 and 7.
The average cost of packing plain honey in consumer size containers
varied from 5.16 cents for firm E to 9.47 cents for firm A and averaged
6.84 cents per pound for 1955; in 1956 the cost ranged from 4.45 cents
for firm E to 12.23 cents for firm D and averaged 7.65 cents, Table 8.
The quantities in which packers purchased containers influenced material
cost. For example, one packer who purchased 24/1-lb ovaline jars in car-
load lots paid as low as $1.09 per case including caps, while another
packer buying small lots paid as much as $1.69 per case for the same con-
tainers. The cost of labels, because of difference in size and quality,
varied from 90 cents per thousand to $4.36 per thousand.
Packing labor was probably higher than necessary because very
little automation was used. Only two of the plants studied used automatic
filling machines and no firm used automatic capping machines.
One firm had a labeling rate for 24/1-lb jars of 10 cases per hour
per worker, while another plant had only 4.9 cases per hour per worker.
In no case were machine fillers used in packing comb honey. The
quality of comb honey (the degree that dark areas had to be cut out)
affected the cost greatly. One packer had a rate of 48 cases packed per
8-hour day for 3 workers; two plants packed 50 cases; one plant, 53 cases;
one plant, 62 cases; and two plants, 72 cases. The two remaining plants
did not pack comb honey.


Selling Practices

The method of selling in consumer size containers and in bulk
size containers and the prices received for each method of selling are









TABLE 6.--Comparison of average costs of packing Florida filtered and unfiltered honey per case and per
pound in selected containers, 9 packers, 1955

24/1-lb Q 12/2-lb Q 12/5-lb Tin 1/60-lb Can
Type of container
Filtered Unfiltered Filtered Unfiltered Filtered Unfiltered Filtered Unfiltered

Number of packers 5 4 4 4 5 4 3 4

Average pounds packed 41,417 12,314 12,334 2,274 64,423 12,070 42,605 34,605

Costs per case:
Mater ala $1.254 $1.187 $0.884 $0.833 $1.591 $1.770 $0.653 $0.740
Labor .400 .598 .418 .381 .547 .278 .230 .231
Other direct operatingc .084 .062 .070 .072 .116 .121 .077 .132
Indirect operating .089 .196 .063 .194 .256 .323 .059 .173
Total packing costs 1.827 2.043 1.435 1.480 2.510 2.492 1.019 1.276
Administrative .337 :246 .307 .382 .460 .964 .133 .509
Total $2.164 S2.289 $1.742 $1.862 $2.970 $3.456 $1.152 $1.785

Cost per pound $0.090 $0.095 $0.073 $0.078 $0.050 $0.058 $0.019 $0.030

aMaterial includes jars, caps, labels for jars, labels for cartons.
Labor includes processing honey, filling, capping, labeling jars and cartons, and general plant
labor.
COther direct operating expense includes power, lights, water, repairs to buildings and equip-
ment, miscellaneous supplies, fuel oil.
dIndirect operating expense includes fire and casualty insurance, taxes and licenses, deprecia-
tion, interest (l.term), rent.
eAdministrative expense includes management and office salaries, office expense, auto and travel,
short-term interest, telephone and telegraph.










TABLE 7.--Comparison of average costs of packing Florida filtered and unfiltered honey per case and per
pound in selected containers, 9 packers, 1956


Type of container


Number of packers

Average pounds packed

Costs per case:
Material
Labor
Other direct operating
Indirect operating
Total packing costs
Administrative
Total

Cost per pound


24/1-Ib Q

Filtered Unfiltered

4 4

46,839 14,288


$1.278
.437
.117
.119
$1.951
.439
$2.390

$0.100


$1.342
.598
.058
.207
$2.205
.296
$2.501

$0.104


12/2-lb Q

Filtered Unfiltered

5 3

10,262 6,305


$0.825
.469
.081
.079
$1.454
.366
$1.820

$0.076


$0.856
.313
.064
.157
$1.390
.418
$1.808

$0.075


12/5-lb Tin

Filtered Unfiltered

5 4

33,673 29,241


$1.620 $1.592
.547 .338
.136 .111
.245 .226
$2.548 $2.267
.434 .831
$2.982 $3.098

$0.050 $0.052


1/60-lb Can

Filtered Unfiltered

3 3

25,860 97,018


$0.658 $0.736
.325 .186
.061 .077
.079 .114
$1.143 $1.113
.157 .448
$1.300 $1.561

$0.022 $0.026


jars, caps, labels for jars,


labels for cartons.


bLabor includes processing honey, filling, capping, labeling jars and cartons, and general plant
labor.
Other direct operating expense includes power, lights, water, repairs to buildings and equip-
ment, miscellaneous supplies, fuel oil.
Indirect operating expense includes fire and casualty insurance, taxes and licenses, deprecia-
tion, interest (l.term), rent.
e
Administrative expense includes management and office salaries, office expense, auto and travel,
short-term interest, telephone and telegraph.


aMaterial includes


I-


--








TABLE 8.--Average cost of packing one pound of honey, relative to plant volume


All honey Consumer sizes Bulk sizes
Plant Total Packing Plain honey Comb honey Plain honey
volume cost
packed per Volume Packing ume Packing Volume Packing
(lbs) b (lb) cost per (lbs) cost per (lbs) cost per

1955
F 1,078,134 $0.0400 494,585 $0.0595 106,034 $0.1042 477,515 $0.0064
E 380,948 .0134 11,596 .0516 2,215 .1669 367,137 .0112
0 375,077 .0851 363,968 .0838 11,109 .1294 --- -
C 195,251 .0480 120,035 .0546 9,396 .1729 65,820 .0174
A 173,448 .0890 88,942 .0947 84,431 .0832 75 .0188
G 160,222 .0540 126,130 .0613 312 .1112 33,780 .0264
H 157,483 .0139 15,259 .0693 2,894 .0800 139,330 .0064
B 85,459 .0685 77,511 .0642 7,468 .1164 480 .0221
I 39,335 .0564 36,529 .0543 2.746 .0855 60 .0142
Total 2,645,357 $0.0470 1,334,555 $0.0684 226,605 $0.10:2 1,084,197 $0.0094
1956
E 635,737 $0.0168 83,597 $0.0445 5,130 $0.1168 547,010 $0.0117
F 528,944 .0630 367,163 .0672 61,367 .1282 100,414 .0078
D 318,126 .1230 266,837 .1223 31,289 .1293 --- -
G 202,704 .0436 154,692 .0508 672 .0881 47,340 .0204
C 192,924 .0462 135,744 .0576 --- ---- 57,180 .0193
H 166,139 .0137 18,435 .0713 316 .0868 147,388 .0063
A 148,719 .0843 94,576 .0874 54,143 .0788 --- -
B 79,028 .0724 69,681 .0682 8,327 .1137 1,020 .0210
I 46,674 .0584 42,163 .0552 4,511 .0877 ---- -
Total 2,318,995 $0.0536 1,252,888 $0.0765 165,755 $0.1099 900,352 $0.0113

Does not include administrative costs.












given for 1956 in Table 9 for filtered honey and in Table 10 for unfil-
tered honey. In each case, filtered honey sold at a higher price than
unfiltered. The average difference was about 4 cents per pound. But
there was but little difference in the f.o.b. price by type of sale,
except that the custom pack sales were much lower than other types of
sales.
Most honey sales were made by the packer without the services of
a broker. Furthermore, only a very small per cent of honey was sold on
commission. About 40 per cent of filtered honey was sold on an f.o.b.
basis and about 60 per cent on a delivered basis. In the case of unfil-
tered honey, about two-thirds was sold on a delivered basis and only
one-third on an f.o.b. basis. About 80 per cent of unfiltered honey
packed in bulk size containers (not consumer size) was sold on an f.o.b.
basis.
Where sales were made on a delivered basis the minimum sale was
200 pounds. Freight rates for shipments of less than 200 pounds were
prohibitive.

Returns by Type of Sale

Net returns per pound of Orange Blossom honey varied but little
for different types of sales for the most important types of containers,
Tables 11 and 12. There was considerable variation in f.o.b. prices
received for honey from different types of buyers, Table 13. However,
the differences were perhaps due to the kind of container and kind of
honey rather than type of buyer.
F.o.b. price received, cost of packing, and net return per pound
of honey by type of honey and type of container are given in Table 14.
It will be observed that for Orange Blossom honey filtered the average
f.o.b. price ranged from 13 cents per pound for 6/9-lb STin to $2.00 per
pound for 12/8-oz PTPit. Cost of packing was 2.5 cents and $1.94 for
these packs. Net return ranged from -7.9 cents for 12/8-oz CPot to
68.4 cents for 12/3-oz Crate. Certainly only a very small amount of
honey was packed in many of the containers given in Table 14. Never-
theless, the information given here reveals a lack of knowledge on the
part of packers about the cost of packing for different kinds of











TABLE 9.--All filtered honey, volumes sold, size of average lot. f.o.b.


returns, and average f.o.b. price received per pound
9 packers, 1956


by type of sale,


No. Average Per
Type of sale of Volume volume cent of F.o.b. returns
lots (lbs) per lot total Total Per lb
(lbs) volume


F.o.b. (pickup)a
Delivered
Packer
Broker
Refundsc
Consignmentb
Custom packa
Total



F.o.b. (pickup)a
Delivered
Packer
Broker
Custom pack
Total


1,123


3,217
542
(23)
118
34
5,012


Consumer sizes
362,167 322


368,785
135,720
(221)
18,768
18,964
904,183


115
250
(10)
159
558
180


Bulk sizes
33 39,462 1,196


18
30
3
84


25,544
47,243
50
112,299


1,419
1,575
17
1,337


15.3 $ 84,090 $0.232


15.6
5.7
(d)
.8
.8
38.2


83,024
S33,248
(66)
4,289
2,942
$207,526


.225
.245
(.299)
.229
.155
$0.230


1.7 $ 6,397 $0.162


1.1
2.0
d
4.8


3,927
6,939
7
$ 17,270


.154
.147
.139
$0.154


5,096 1,016,482 199 43.0


$224,796 $0.221


aales arranged by packer.
bSales arranged by broker.

CRefunds are deducted for returned goods.
Less than 0.05 per cent.
percentages in this column must be added to those in Table 10
to equal 100 per cent.


All sizes













TABLE 10.--All unfiltered honey, volumes sold, size of average lot,
f.o.b. returns, and average f.o.b. price received per pound by type of
sale, 9 packers, 1956

Average Per
No. Average Per F.o.b. returns
SoVolume volume cent of
lotsType of sle (lbs) per lot totale Total Per lb
otsbs) volume

Consumer sizes
F.o.b. (pickup)a 305 64,225 211 2.7 $ 13,986 $0.218
Delivered
Packera 1,662 246,298 148 10.4 45,389 .184
Refunds (14) (362) (26) (d) (91) (.250)
Total 1,953 310,161 159 13.1 $ 59,284 $0.191

Bulk sizes
F.o.b. (pickup)a 168 833,315 4,960 35.2 $116,056 $0.139
Delivered
Packera 73 204,896 2,807 8.7 25,097 .122
Total 241 1,038,211 4,308 43.9 $131,153 $0.136

All sizes 2,194 1,348,372 615 57.0 $200,437 $0.149

All honey 7,290 2,364,854 324 100.0 $425.233 $0.180


aSales arranged by packer.
bSales arranged by broker.
CRefunds are deducted for returned goods.
Less than 0.05 per cent.
percentages in this column must be added to those in Table 9
to equal 100 per cent.






TABLE lI.--Average net return per pound for various types of honey in selected consumer size packs by
type of sale, 9 packers, 1956

Type of sale
Honey type and F.o.b. Delivered Consignment
Honey type and
pack size Sale by packer Sale by broker Sale by packer Sale by broker

Filtered Unfiltered Filtered Unfiltered Filtered Unfiltered Filtered Unfiltered

Orange Blossom
24/8-oz Q $0.118 $0.999 $0.112 ---- $0.115 $0.097 $0.094
12/1-lb Sv .152 -.005 .117 ---- .135 -.030 .099
24/1-lb FB .108 ---- .103 ---- .117 .112 --- --
24/1-1b Q .141 .127 .127 ---- .133 .123 .116
12/2-lb Q .154 .138 .133 ---- .141 .121 .116
24/2-1/2-lb Tin .198 ---- ---- -- .155 .114 --- --
6/5-lb RJ .163 --- .147 ---- .162 .127 -- --
12/5-lb Tin .147 .146 .135 ---- .126 .132 --

Light Amber
24/8-oz Q .099 .087 .089 ---- .110 .096 .079 ---
24/1-lb Q .126 .106 .115 ---- .105 .098 .106 --
6/5-lb RJ .151 ---- .130 ---- .141 ---- .127 ---
12/5-lb Tin .113 .137 .123 ---- .098 .104 ---

Amber
12/4-1/2-lb Tin .110 ---- -- ---- .117 ---- ----
6/5-lb Tin ---- .108 ---- -- .105 --- --

Orange Blossom Comb
24/1-lb FB .146 ---- .158 ---- .163 ---- --
24/1-lb Q .186 ---- .188 ---- .182 .143 ---- -
24/1-lb Tumb .127 .088 .107 --- .126 .096 $0.099 ---
12/2-lb Q .186 ---- .190 ---- .198 ---- ----
12/2-1/2-lb Sq $0.143 $0.132 $0.;~ --- $0.169 $0.150 ---- --










TABLE 12.--Average net return per pound for various types of honey in principal bulk size packs by type
of sale, 9 packers, 1956

Type of sale
F.o.b. Delivered Consignment
Honey type and Fob _____---- --- ____
pack size Sale by packer Sale by broker Sale by packer Sale by broker

Filtered Unfiltered Filtered Unfiltered Filtered Unfiltered Filtered Unfiltered
i ,


Orange Blossom
1/60-lb Can
1/650-lb Drum

Light Amber
1/60-lb Can
1/650-lb Drum

Amber
1/60-lb Can
1/650-lb Drum

Dark Amber
1/650-1b Drum

Clover
1/650-lb Drum


$0.166
.215


Tupelo
1/60-lb Can
1/650-lb Drum


.122
.125



.122


.215
,----


Orange Blossom Comb
1/30-lb Super $0.235


$0.128
.131


.119
.131


.113
.113


.099


.114


.174
.194


$0.151
.146


$0.158


-- $0.167



-- .159
---- $0.121


$0.100
.116


.100
.131


.101
$0.111


$0.190


- -------Lcl ---


----
----


----









TABLE 13.--All honey, average f.o.b. price received per pound by type of sale and buyer, 9 packers, 1956


Buyers
Type of sale Whole- Gift Inde- Honey Bakers Candy
Chains Co-ops Bakers Others
sales stands pendents packers makers

Consumer sizes
F.o.b. (pickup)a $0.234 $0.232 $0.206 $0.245 $0.270 $0.229 $0.120 -- $0.217
Delivered (packer), .203 .178 .243 .245 .191 .303 --- --- .212
Delivered (broker) .229 .302 .281 .250 .251 -- --- --
Delivered (refund)c -- .269 ---- ---- --- ----
Consignment (broker) .224 --- .250 --- .202 --- --- ---- --
Custom pack .168 ---- --- .135 .250 ---- --- --
All types of sales $0.220 $0.214 $0.215 $0.242 $0.198 $0.238 $0.120 ---- $0.215

Bulk sizes
F.o.b. (pickup)a $0.144 ---- -- $0.134 $0.201 $0.137 $0.136 $0.144 $0.146
Delivered (packer) .130 -- -- .136 --- .120 .130 ---- .134
Delivered (broker) .173 ---- ---- ---- ---- .173 .144 ---- .167
Delivered (gefund)c -----
Consignment ---- ---- ---- -- -
Custom pack .160 --- ---- ---- .121 ---- ----
All types of sales $0.142 ---- ---- $0.135 $0.199 $0.133 $0.137 $0.144 $0.136

All sales $0.167 $0.214 $0.215 $0.240 $0.198 $0.136 $0.136 $0.144 $0.152

aDirect sales by packer.
bSales arranged by broker,
Refunds are deducted.







TABLE 14.--Average f.o.b. price, cost of packing, and net returns per pound for filtered and unfiltered
honey by type and size of pack, 9 packers, 1956

Filtered Unfiltered

Honey type and pack size Average per pound Average per pound
Cost of Cost of
F.o.b. price pc Net return F.o.b. price i Net return
packing packing

Consumer sizes
Orange Blossom
12/3-oz Crate $1.133 $0.449 $0.684 $ -- $ ---- $--
48/3-oz Bbl .489 .342 .147 ---- -- ----
48/3-oz EE .445 .329 .116 .379 .556 -.177
12/4-oz CPot .404 .262 .142 -- ---- ----
12/8-oz Jug 1.192 .892 .300 -- --
12/8-oz PTPit 2.003 1.937 .066 ---
12/8-oz CPot .254 .333 -.079 ------ ---
12/8-oz S&P .587 .424 .163 -- -- --
12/8-oz SvSt .901 .427 .474 -- --- ----
24/8-oz Q .280 .164 .116 .273 .175 .098
24/8-oz FB .295 .177 .118 .253 .191 .062
24/8-oz Sv .520 .361 .159 --- --- -
24/14-oz OJ .246 .143 .103 --- --- --
12/1-lb Sv .351 .229 .122 .353 .380 -.027
12/1-lb Sv/WC .229 .110 .119 -- ---
12/1-lb Jug .584 .642 -.058 ---- --
12/1-lb OCrk .636 .484 .152 ---- --
12/1-lb SHPit 1.161 .956 .205 ---- ---
24/1-lb Q .237 .100 .137 .228 .104 .124
24/1-lb FB .238 .126 .112 .216 .104 .112
24/1-lb Beehv .569 .465 .104 ---- -- --
24/1-lb BBHv ---- ---- ---- .990 .677 .313
24/1-lb OBBtv .495 .449 .046 ---- --
24/1-lb Cat ---- ---- ---- .220 .046 .174






TABLE 14.--Continued

Filtered Unfiltered
Honey type and pack size Average per pound Average per pound

F.o.b. price Cost Net return F.o.b. price ost of Net return
packing packing

Orange Blossom
12/2-lb Q $0.223 $0.076 $0.147 $0.202 $0.075 $0.127
12/2-lb FB .222 .097 .125 -- -- --
12/2-1/2-lb Sq .218 .086 .132 .190 .071 .119
12/2-1/2-lb Tin ---- -- --.169 .055 .114
24/2-1/2-lb Tin .219 .063 .156 .177 .063 .114
12/3-lb STin .140 .025 .115 -- ---
6/4-1/4-lb RJ .180 .043 .137 --- ---
6/5-lb RJ .200 .039 .161 .175 .048 .127
6/5-lb Sq .205 .062 .143 .176 .060 .116
12/5-lb Tin ,179 .050 .129 .185 .052 .133
12 5-lb MITin .226 .085 .141 .203 .103 .100
6/9-lb STin .130 .025 .105 --- -- --
6/10-lb Tin ---- -. -- .185 .044 .141

Bulk sizes
Orange Blossom
1/12-lb MJ $0.139 $0.025 $0.114 $0.242 $0.019 $0.2Z3
1/60-lb Can .189 .022 .167 .154 .026 .124
1/650-lb Drum .220 .005 .215 .136 .006 .130

Consumer sizes
Light Amber
24/8-oz Q $0.262 $0.164 $0.098 $0.264 $0.175 $0.089
12/1-lb Sv .323 .229 .094 .378 .380 -.002
24/1-lb Q .214 .100 .114 .203 .104 .059
12/2-1lb Q .196 .076 .120 .196 .075 .119







TABLE 14.--Continued

Filtered Unfiltered

Honey type and pack size Average per pound Average per pound

Cost of Cost of
F.o.b. price Net return F.o.b. price Net return
packing packing

Light Amber
12/2-1/2-lb Sq ---- ---- --- $0.186 $0.071 $0.115
6/4-1 4-lb RJ $0.123 $0.043 $0.080 ---- -- -
6/5-lb RJ .180 .039 .141 -- --
6/5-1b Sq --- -- ---- .139 .060 .079
6/5-lb Tin ---- ---- ---- .170 .047 .123
12/5-lb Tin .150 .050 .100 .166 .052 .114
12/5-lb MITin .244 .085 .159 -- -- --

Bulk sizes o
Liqht Amber
1/60-lb Can $0.172 $0.022 $0.150 $0.143 $0.026 $0.117
1/650-lb Drum .139 .005 .134 .137 .006 .131

Consumer sizes
Amber
12/4-1/2-lb Tin $0.156 $0.045 $0.109 -- --
6/5-b Tin ---- -- ---- $0.158 $0.047 $0.111
12/5-lb Tin ---- ---- ---- .155 .052 .103

Bulk sizes
Amber
1/60-lb Can $0.180 $0.022 $0.158 $0.128 $0.026 $0.102
1/650-lb Drum .127 .005 .122 .118 .006 .112

Bulk size only
Dark Amber
1/650-lb Drum ---- ---- ---- $0.105 s0.006 $0.099







TABLE 14.--Continued

Filtered Unfiltered
Honey type and pack size Average per pound Average per pound

F.o.b. price Net return F.o.b. price Net return
packing packing

Consumer sizes
Tupelo
24/8-oz FB $0.330 $0.177 $0.153 -- -- --
24/1-lb Q .288 .100 .188 $0.359 $0.104 $0.255
24/I-lb FB .325 .126 .199 -- ---
12/2-lb Q .269 .076 .193 .271 .075 .196
24/2-1/2-lb Tin .288 .063 .225 -- --
6/5-lb RJ .300 .039 .261 -- --
6/5-lb Tin ---- ---- ---- .242 .047 .195
12/5-lb Tin .272 .050 .222 .246 .052 .194
12/5-lb MITin .340 .085 .255 -- -- --
Bulk sizes
Tupelo
1/60-lb Can $0.238 $0.022 $0.216 $0.200 $0.026 $0.174
1/650-lb Drum --- ---- --- .200 .006 .194

Consumer sizes
Orange Blossom Comb
12/8-oz Plas $0.432 $0.264 $0.168 ----
24/8-oz FB .383 .193 .190 --
24/14-oz OJ .356 .184 .172 --- --
24/1-lb Q .292 .106 .186 $0.257 $0.114 $0.143
24/1-lb FB .281 .134 .147 --
24/1-lb Tumb .287 .164 .123 .298 .207 .091
12/21-oz Plas .447 .207 .240 -- --
12/2-lb Q .274 .085 .189 --- ---
12/2-lb FB .238 .140 .098 --
12/2-1/2-lb Sq .299 .137 .162 .216 .125 .141
6/5-ib Sq .493 .155 .338 .244 .191 .053










TABLE 14.--Continued

Filtered Unfiltered

Honey type and pack size Average per pound Average per pound
Cost of Cost of
F.o.b. price pacing Net return F.o.b. price n Net return
packing packing

Bulk sizes
OranQe Blossom Comb
1/30-lb Super $0.235 $0.001 $0.234 $0.190 $0.001 $0.189

Consumer size only
Liqht Amber Comb
24/1-lb Q $0.281 $0.106 $0.175
24/1-lb Tumb .291 .164 .127
24/1-lb Modrn ---- ---- ---- $0.286 $0.120 $0.166
12/2-lb Q .260 .085 .175 -- --- ---
12/2-1/2-1b Sq .278 .137 .141 .254 .125 .129

Consumer size only
Orange Blossom with Blossom
24/8-oz Q ---- ---- ---- $0.424 $0.393 $0.031
24/8-oz FB $0.538 $0.330 $0.208 ---- -- --

Consumer size only
Orange Blossom Honey Spread
24/1-lb FB $0.320 $0.126 $0.194 -- -- --

Bulk size only
Clover
1/650-b Drum ---- ---- ---- $0.120 $0.006 $0.114


- -- -- --










containers. The cost of $1.94 per pound for 12/8-oz PTPit means that the
packer was actually selling containers and not honey. If packers had a
better knowledge of the cost of packing in different types of containers
and better information of prices received by different packers, such wide
variation in net returns for different containers probably would not
exist.


Distribution of Sa!es to Buyers


Chain stores purchased 431,375 pounds or about 48 per cent of the
filtered honey sold in consumer packs in 1956. Gift stands purchased
214,836 pounds or about 24 per cent of the filtered honey packed in con-
sumer containers. The average sale to chain stores was 796 pounds, but
to gift stands the average sale was only 66 pounds. Chain stores
purchased no honey in bulk packs, Tables 15 and 16. Broker sales were
not important to any buyers except wholesalers, Table 17. The amount of
honey sold in 1955 by type of container and by type of buyer is shown for
consumer size packs in Table 18 and for bulk size packs in Table 19.
There was more honey, 291,290 pounds, sold in 12/5-lb Tin than in any
other container. Other important containers were 24/1-lb Q, 276,589 pounds;
12/2-lb Q, 102,674 pounds; 6/5-lb RJ, 89,830 pounds; 24/1-lb Tumb,
76,124 pounds; 24/1-lb FB, 73,261 pounds; and 6/5-lb Tin, 73,150 pounds.
The 1/650-lb Drum was by far the most important bulk size container.


Distribution of Sales to Markets


In Figure 2 is given the location of markets to which sales of
9 Florida honey packers were made. These packers sold honey in all states
east of the Mississippi River except Vermont and Rhode Island. In addi-
tion, honey was sold to 8 states west of the Mississippi River and to
2 foreign countries in 1956. The amount of honey sold in each market is
given in Table 20. Almost 60 per cent of the sales of these 9 packers
were made in Florida and 15 per cent of all sales were made in Miami.
New York state received 22 per cent and New York City 16.1 per cent.
Georgia received 7 per cent and no other state received more than 3 per
cent.















TABLE 15.--All filtered honey, volumes sold, size of average lot, f.o.b.
returns, and average f.o.b. prices received per pound by type of buyer,
9 packers, 1956

Average Per cent
Outlet No. of Volume volume of total F.o.b. returns
(buyer) lots (Ibs) per lot volume
(ibs) sold Total Per Ib


Consumer sizes


Wholesalers
Chains
Co-ops
Gift stands
Independents
Honey packers
Bakers
Others
Total


736
542
32
3,262
314
22
1
103
5,012


195,993
431,375
4,644
214,836
36,556
9,690
7,988
3,101
904,183


266
796
145
66
116
440
7,988
30
180


8.3
18.3
.2
9.1
1.5
.4
.3
.1
38.2


$ 43,734
96,760
1,165
54,542
7,371
2,308
958
688
$207,526


$0.223
.224
.251
.254
.202
.238
.120
.222
$0.230


Bulk sizes


Wholesalers
Honey packers
Bakers
Candy makers
Gift stands
Independents
Others
Total


15
25
25

1
9
9
84


6,597
24,918
61,550

25
1,225
17,984
112,299


440
997
2,462

25
136
1,998
1,337


0.3
1.1
2.5

a
.1
.8
4.8


$ 1,244
4,644
8,665

4
244
2,469
$ 17,270


$0.189
.186
.141

.160
.199
.137
$0.154


5,096 1,016,482


43.0 $224,796 $0.221


aLess than 0.05 per cent.


b
Percentages in
to equal 100 per cent.


this column must be added to those in Table 16


All sizes


-- I












TABLE 16.--All unfiltered honey, volumes sold, size of
f.o.b. returns, and average f.o.b. prices received per
buyer, 9 packers, 1956


average lot,
pound by type of


Average Per cent
Outlet No. of Volume volume of total F.o.b. returns
(buyer) lots (lbs) per lot volume Total Per lb
(Ibs) sold


Consumer sizes


Wholesalers
Chains
Co-ops
Gift stands
Independents
Honey packers
Bakers
Others
Total


158
328
90
1,184
166


27
1,953


53,967
100,932
19,686
64,381
69,556
--- m

1,639
310,161


346
308
219
53
419


61

159


2.3
4.3
.8
2.7
2.9
---1

.1
13.1


$ 11,198
17,262
3,924
12,944
13,626


330
$ 59,284


$0.207
.171
.199
.201
.196


.201
$0.191


Bulk sizes


Wholesalers
Honey packers
Bakers
Candy makers
Gift stands
Independents
Others
Total


All sizes

All honey


65
38
124
2
10

2
241


505,363
375,324
151,922
960
3,938

704
1,038,211


7,775
9,877
1,225
480
394

352
4,308


21.4
15.9
6.4
a
.2

a
43.9


$ 71,230
48,605
20,571
138
530

79
$141,153


$0.141
.130
.135
.144
.135

.113
$0.136


2,194 1,348,372 615 57.0 $200,437 $0.149


7,290 2,364,854


324 100.0 $425,233 $0.180


aLess than 0.05
b
Percentages in
to equal 100 per cent.


per cent.
this column must be added to those in Table 15


---- --~- ---












TABLE 17.--All honey, volume of direct sales and sales through brokers
to various types of buyers, 9 packers, 1956

Packers' direct sales Brokers' sales
Outlet Total
Outlet Per cent Per cent Total
(buyers) Volume Volume P volume
(buyers) V(lb) of total Volbse of total
bs) sales bs) sales

Consumer sizes
Wholesalers 129,330 5.5 120,630 5.1 249,960
Chains 506,309 21.4 25,998 1.1 532,307
Co-ops 23,790 1.0 540 a 24,330
Gift stands 279,121 11.8 96 a 279,217
Independents 98,888 4.2 7,224 .3 106,112
Honey packers 9,690 .4 ---- ---- 9,690
Bakers 7,988 .3 --- ---- 7,988
Others 4,740 .2 ---- --- 4,740

Total 1,059,856 44.8 154,488 6.5 1,214,344

Bulk sizes
Wholesalers 509,920 21.5 2,040 0.1 511,960
Honey packers 399,042 16.9 1,200 .1 400,242
Bakers 170,069 7.2 43,403 1.8 213,472
Gift stands 3,963 ,2 ---- ---- 3,963
Independents 1,225 .1 -- --- 1,225
Candy makers 960 a --- ---- 960
Others 18,088 .8 600 a 18,688

Total 1,103,267 46.7 47,243 2.0 1,150,510

All sizes 2,163,123 91.5 201,731 8.5 2,364,854

aLess than 0.05 per cent.










TABLE 18.--All honey, volumes of consumer size packs sold to principal buyers, 9 packers, 1955


Pounds sold to
Type of pack All
Whole- in Cooper- Gift Inde- Honey s O purchasers
sales atives stands pendents packers


12/3-oz CrBkt
12/3-oz Crate
48/3-oz Bbi
48/3-oz EE
12/4-oz CPot
12/8-oz Jug
12/8-oz PTPit
12/8-oz Plas
12/8-oz CPot
12/8-oz S&P
12/8-oz SvSt
24/8-oz Q
24/8-oz FB
24/8-oz Sv
12/10-oz OBPit
24/14-oz OJ
12/1-lb Sv
12/1-lb Sv/WC
12/1-lb Beehv
12/1-lb Cof-et
12/1-lb Jug
12/1-lb Mammy
12/1-lb OCrk
12/1-lb SHPit
24/1-lb Q
24/1-lb FB
24/1-lb Beehv
24/1-lb BBhv
24/1-lb OBBhv


9


372

264

1
7,704
3,554
12

1,701
12,283
6,852



144


67,391
27,576


9







36,312
36


7,896
15,744
1,152






175,860
7,284


2,280




432








5,232


4
485
471
977

396
56
m----

323
692
2,195
10,832
6,210
31
450
4,625

42
23


240
675
8,309
34,303
9

846


-m---







91
4,109
687


2,147
3,684
1,152






19,389
2,610


288


18
----
----
----
----
----
----
----
----





2, 1
----
----
----
----
----





1,4E
8"
----


36


6




240
15











12
360


3 --


O --









18
08 --
i8--


4
435
651
1,031

396
434

264
320
784
52,840
15,127
6,222
31
14,294
36,768
9,156
42
23

144
240
687
276,589
73,261
9

1,134









TABLE 18.--Continued

Pounds sold to
All
Type of pack Whole- Cooper- Gift Inde- Honey purchasers
saers Chains ativesakers Others purchasers
sales atives stands pendents packers


24/1-lb Cat ---
24/1-lb HB ---
24/1-1b Modrn 120
24/I-lb Tumb 26,113
12/21-oz Plas ---
12/2-lb Q 42,114
12/2-lb FB
12/2-1/2-lb Sq 14,220
12/2-1/2-lb Tin ---
24/2-1/2-lb Tin 30
24/2-1/2-lb MITin ---
12/3-lb Tin
12/3-lb Jug
6/4-1/4-lb RJ 1,608
12/4-1/2-lb MITin ---
12/4-1/2-lb Tin 3,240
6/5-lb RJ 45,870
6/5-lb Sq 330
6/5-lb Tin 15,660
12/5-lb Tin 38,220
12/5-lb MITin
6/7-lb MJ
6/9-lb Tin ---
6/10-lb Tin

Total 315,388


24
45,672

31,968

6,923





16,910

54,378
36,210
840
50,730
44,220





532,168


912

2,664

60








510

5,100






17,190


12
120
475
648
9,536
4,260
13,930
33
27,255





54
3,180
3,398
640
113,290
385
7

140

249,554


48
1,224

14,616

3,743

435


30
1,275

216
3,490
1,140
1,020
91,480





152,874


1,584

1,608

4,290








150


2,190





13,641


w---


9O0-


9O0-


144

168

118


315



35

420
20

990
305




3,184


12
312
76,124
648
102,674
4,260
43,284
33
27,720
315

30
19,793
35
57,888
89,830
5,728
73,150
291,290
690
7

140

1,284,899









TABLE 19.--All bulk honey, volumes and


percentages of bulk size packs sold
1955


to principal buyers, 9 packers,


Whole- Gift Honey Inde- Candy
Type of pack IeBakers Chains Others
ype f pa sales stands packers pendents makers


Pounds sold
1/12-lb RJ ---- 12 -- 144 ---- -- ---- ll
1/30-lb Super -- ---- 2,116 ---- -- -- -- --
1/60-lb Can 174,240 1,440 32,475 2,460 53,820 --- 840 960
1/650-1b Drum 186,112 6,938 486,495 ---- 113,467 ---- -- 185,198

Total 360,352 8,390 521,086 2,604 167,287 ---- 840 186,269

Per cent of total bulk volume sold
1/12-lb RJ ---- a ---- a ---- ---- ---- a
1/30-lb Super ---- ---- .2 -- -- -- -- --
1/60-lb Can 14.0 .1 2.6 .2 4.3 ---- .1 a
1/650-lb Drum 14.9 .6 39.0 ---- 9.1 -- ---- 14.9

Total 28.9 .7 41.8 .2 13.4 ---- .1 14.9

aLess than 0.05 per cent.














i i"" a, \,


', 'I .-.







j ,, ..... ; .. ..r
"-,,.. > /. ," '
{ ". i :
\ \ f .:.., .\,
I
!r .


N./ ., ,



1 1. ,i-


r Fi --}.- 2 c o X mre res nthe .i *o hn
sold* by I pn
t 4
I e *.* .*
1- -rr'
( '* \





:ig 1--"^ctio .f .ake ar.a (...: .: ySfral
I / 4 1 ..* 9
i / 1 2AZ^^-~\^^--^

'.. -"vi>.^ ..,






Fig. 2.--Location of market areas in the U. S. for all honey
sold by 9 packers, 1955 and 1956.












TABLE 20.--All honey, volumes sold, f.o.b. returns, and average f.ob.
prices received in various market areas, 9 packers, 1956 (listed cities
had volume df 10QO pounds and over)


Per cent Average F.o.b. returns
Volume volume
Market areas (lb) of totalvum
(Ivolume p( lt Total Per lb
(Ibs)

Alabama
Andalusia 1,380 .1 153 $ 318 $0.230
Birmingham 5,700 .2 168 1,519 .267
Mobile 1,500 .1 167 431 .288
Montgomery 2,640 .1 660 766 .290
Others 1,896 .1 95 481 .254
Total 13,116 .6 173 3,515 0.268

Connecticut 60 .0a 60 12 0.200

Delaware 480 .0a 160 133 0.276
Florida
Avon Park 14,123 .6 181 2,243 0.159
Bayard 29,377 1.2 2,938 7,845 .267
Belleview 1,572 .1 44 395 .251
Bonaventure 1,667 .1 79 375 .225
Chiefland 1,448 .1 54 391 .270
Clermont 12,913 .5 41 2,598 .201
Clewiston 1,187 .1 49 271 .228
Cocoa 28,579 1.2 64 7,311 .256
Daytona, Daytona Bch. 20,865 .9 98 3,140 .150
Deland 13,582 .6 34 2,678 .197
Eau Gallie 3,048 .1 3,048 445 .146
Edgewater 27,142 1.1 3,393 3,805 .140
Clearwater 2,099 .1 64 439 .209
Estero 2,704 .1 93 587 .217
Eustis 1,728 .1 288 504 .292
Ft. Myers 3,935 .2 131 837 .213
Haines City 4,868 .2 31 1,347 .277
Indian River City 3,179 .1 224 725 .228
Indian Rocks Bch. 2,208 .1 116 661 .299
Jacksonville 140,147 5.9 779 30,700 .219
Jennings 1,050 .0a 105 293 .279
Kissimmee 5,100 .2 222 1,135 .223
Lakeland 93,951 4.0 839 21,648 .230
Lake Placid 1,056 .0a 62 205 .194
Lake Wales 1,716 .1 61 411 .240
Leesburg 22,491 .9 36 4,625 .206












Table 20.--Continued

Per cent Average F.o.b. returns
Volume volume
Market areas olume of total Volume
(Ibs) volume pe lot Total Per lb
(lbs)

Miami 354,766 15.0 819 $ 59,270 $0.167
Mims 1,389 .1 26 293 .211
Minneola 27,475 1.2 58 5,431 .198
Moore Haven 2,816 .1 282 444 .158
Mt. Dora 2,718 .1 272 717 .264
New Smyrna Beach 2,235 .1 86 401 .179
Ocala 23,034 1.0 28 5,406 .235
Orlando 12,014 .5 123 2,223 .185
Pensacola 4,756 .2 198 926 .195
Punta Gorda 7,605 .3 158 1,196 .157
Rockledge 9,189 .4 42 2,162 .235
St. Augustine 5,400 .2 360 1,011 .187
St. Petersburg 79,203 3.3 910 15,425 .220
Sherpes 6,819 .3 34 1,547 .227
Summerffeld 40,077 1.7 3,340 5,234 .131
Tampa 223,066 9.4 615 43,477 .195
Umatllla 157,671 6.7 9,275 18,509 .117
Waverly 1,242 .1 96 332 .267
Others 13,669 .6 44 3,206 .235
Total 1,416,879 59.9 225 262,824 0.185
Georqia
Albany 3,008 .1 435 454 0.151
Atlanta 74,964 3.1 1,363 10,944 .146
Bowden 3,900 .2 300 986 .253
Brunswick 1,248 .1 139 255 .204
Carrollton 1,440 .1 480 342 .237
Cartersville 1,320 .1 440 267 .202
Cedartown 1,224 .0a 306 259 .212
Cornelia 1,800 .1 360 505 .280
Eastman 49,884 2.1 767 14,709 .295
Griffin 1,440 .1 206 314 .218
Macon 3,108 .1 518 631 .203
Quitman 3,300 .1 660 869 .263
Rockmart 1,080 .0a 540 306 .283
Rome 1,962 .1 1,962 255 .130
Savannah 2,040 .1 255 404 .198
Tallapoosa 1,560 .1 520 376 .241
Augusta 3,282 .1 106 838 .255
Others 9,771 .4 43 2,585 .265


166,331 7.0


558 35,299 0.212


Total












TABLE 20. --_ontinued

Per cent Average F.o.b. returns
Market areas Volume of totalvoume
(lbs) per lot
bs) volume pe ot Total Per lb
(Ibs)

Illinois
Chicago 1,365 .1 171 $ 230 $0.169
Others 384 .0a 48 86 .224
Total 1,749 .1 109 316 0.181

Indiana 48 .0a 24 14 0.283

Kentucky 197 .Oa 49 46 0.233
Maryland
Hagerstown 1,272 .0a 116 336 0.264
Others 1,848 .1 264 507 .274
Total 3,120 .1 173 843 0.270

Massachusetts 485 .0a 121 127 0.261

Michigan 70 .0a 18 17 0.237
Minnesota 10 .0a 5 3 0.264

Mississippi 966 .0a 44 233 0.242

Missouri 320 .0a 40 78 0.243
Nebraska 168 .0a 84 39 0.233

New Hampshire 25 .0a 25 7 0.280
New Jersey 1,491 .1 99 345 0.232

New York
Buffalo 13,532 .6 301 3,159 0.233
New York City 381,506 16.1 5,450 58,326 .153
Syracuse 122,075 5.2 24,415 17,627 .144
Others 2,182 .1 90 489 .226
Total 519,295 22.0 3,606 79,601 0.153












TABLE 20.--Continued


Per cent Average F.o.b. returns
Market areas Volume of totalvolume
(lbs) per lot
s volume (bs) Total Per lb

North Carolina
Charlotte 8,667 .3 510 $ 1,231 $0.142
Greensboro 6,774 .3 521 1,054 .156
Leaksville 1,032 .0a 172 275 .267
Raleigh 4,020 .2 212 723 .180
Rocky Mount 1,320 .1 264 250 .189
Salisbury 3,900 .2 177 951 .244
Shelby 18,501 .8 2,313 2,784 .150
Winston-Salem 2,080 .1 189 484 .233
Zebulon 1,800 .1 300 373 .207
Greenville 1,915 .1 479 265 .138
Others 5,767 .2 134 1,410 .244
Total 55,776 2.4 362 9,800 0.176
North Dakota 10 .0a 10 2 0.198

Ohio
Cincinnati 25,603 1.1 25,603 3,112 0.122
Cleveland 3,291 .1 206 974 .296
Others 544 .0a 26 154 .279
Total 29,438 1.2 775 4,240 0.144

Oklahoma 60 .0a 60 No charge
Pennsylvania
Lancaster 4,614 .2 1,154 759 0.165
Philadelphia 4,137 .2 138 1,027 .248
Others 2,100 .1 300 451 .215
Total 10,851 .5 265 2,237 0.206

Rhode Island 10 .0a 10 3 0.264
South Carolina
Allendale 2,700 .1 225 725 0.269
Charleston 1,512 .1 216 305 .201
Columbia 5,882 .2 392 956 .163
Greenville 18,575 .8 1,160 5,051 .279












TABLE 20.--Continued


Per cent Average F.o.b. returns
Volume volume
Market areas ou of total volu
(Ibs) volume per Total Per lb
(lbs)


Orangeburg
Sumter
Walterboro
Others
Total

Tennessee
Knoxville
Morristown
Others
Total


Texas
Houston


Virginia
Charlottesville
Hampton
Martinsvilie
Others
Total

West Virginia


Wisconsin

Canada
Toronto

Germany
Hamburg


Grand total


3,995
1,443
1,236
3,144
38,487


15,150
2,100
2,306
19,556


59,085


1,990
1,014
1,380
1,974
6,358


600


3,420


16,364


768
321
251
873


363


947
700
105
477


2.5


29,543


663
63
276
73
125

300

15


285


.7 16,364


$0.192
.222
.203
.278


9,250 0.240


2,532
494
468


0.167
.235
.203


3,494 0.179


8,009 0.136


268 0.135
244 .241
381 .276
561 .284
1,454 0.229

98 0.163

8 0.271


991 0.290


2,198 0.134


- -----


2,364,854


100.0


321 $425,236 $0.180


Less than 0.05 per cent.












Prices received for Orange Blossom honey in 24/1-lb Q jars did
not vary much on the average among the important markets, Table 21.
Neither was there a wide variation in prices among markets for Orange
Blossom honey packed in 12/5-lb Tins, Table 22.


Seasonal Distribution


Production of Florida honey is at the time of the year when
nectar-producing plants are blooming, of which citrus is the most
important. Honey sales made within Florida apparently are influenced by
tourist travel. Sales of all filtered honey in consumer size packs were
almost twice as large from November to April, inclusive,--the tourist
season--as from May to October, Table 23. But sales outside of Florida
were relatively much larger in the summer than in the winter months,
Table 24. There was little variation in price from month to month.


Transportation


The most usual methods of shipping Florida honey were by packer's
truck, purchaser's truck, truckline, and truck collect, Tables 25 and 26.
The average transportation cost from Leesburg, Florida, to important
markets is given by type of pack size in Tables 27 and 28.
The most important factor affecting cost per pound was average
pounds delivered per mile traveled, Table 29.


Conclusions


The Florida honey industry is disorganized. There are no market
news services, no grade standards, except those adopted by individual
producers, and no container standards.
Florida honey, except for Orange Blossom and Tupelo honey, is
composed of many different blends. Honey is packed in many different
sizes, shapes, and kinds of containers.










TABLE 21.--Filtered Orange Blossom honey in 24/1-lb Q jars--distribution
of volumes sold and average f.o.b. prices received per pound by 5 packers
in selected cities, 1955 and 1956

1955 1956
Average Average
Cities Volume Averae Volume A
f.o.b. fo.b.
sold sold
(lbs) price (lbs) price
per lb bs) per lb

Miami, Fla. 27,264 $0.207 26,160 $0.230
Jacksonville, Fla. 22,800 .224 27,384 .241
Tampa, Fla. 20,280 .224 19,440 .240
Lakeland, Fla. 14,520 .239 22,200 .239
St. Petersburg, Fla. 5,472 .218 24 .258
Quitman, Ga. 4,080 .211 600 .238
Atlanta, Ga. 3,600 .213 840 .233
Macon, Ga. 2,472 .213 1,608 .235
Sumter, S. C. 1,440 .200 360 .212
Buffalo, N. Y. 1,320 .232 4,200 .244
Pensacola, Fla. 1,200 .210 1,440 .223
Winston-Salem, N. C. 1,080 .209 840 .239
Spartanburg, S. C. 840 .208 --- ---
Haines City, Fla. 732 .223 608 .241
Bowden, Ga. 720 .212 360 .234
New York City, N. Y. 720 .220 ---
Augusta, Ga. 648 .212 480 .231
Griffin, Ga. 600 .214 720 .215
Orangeburg, S. C. 600 .212 552 .215
Carrollton, Ga. 600 .213 240 .233
Orlando, Fla. 552 .222 1,920 .231
Montgomery, Ala. 480 .217 ---- ----
Albany, Ga. 480 .199 420 .236
Raleigh, N. C. 432 .216 144 .243
Columbia, S. C. 360 .199 -- -
Johnson City, Tenn. 360 .212 ---- ---
Hampton, Va. 312 .228 216 .243
Columbus, Ga. 312 .218 60 .239
Philadelphia, Pa. 264 .219 192 .234
Koscuisko, Miss. 240 .207 288 .224
Leesburg, Fla. 192 .249 72 .234
Baltimore, Md. 192 .178 240 .247
Moore Haven, Fla. 132 .202 48 .239
Gainesville, Fla. 120 .214 24 .263
Ocala, Fla. 96 .246 708 .249
Wilmington, Del. 72 .210 120 .246
Richmond, Va. 72 .229 48 .226
Chattanooga, Tenn. 24 .200 --- ---
Knoxville, Tenn. 24 .193 --
Birmingham, Ala. ---- ---- 180 .224
Total 115,704 $0.219 112,736 $0.237














TABLE 22.--Filtered Orange Blossom honey In 12/5-lb Tins--distribution
of volumes sold and average f.o.b. prices received per pound by 5 packers
in selected cities, 1955 and 1956

1955 1956

Cities Volume Average Volume Average
sold f.o.b. sold f.o.b.
(lbs) price (lbs) price
per lb (bsper lb

St. Petersburg, Fla. 58,740 $0.182 120 $0.213
Miami, Fla. 36,300 .144 28,380 .162
Bayard, Fla. 11,640 .181 6,540 .177
Eastman, Ga. 6,600 .174 9,300 .187
Leesburg, Fla. 5,880 .161 7,505 .172
Cocoa, Fla. 5,230 .189 11,355 .194
Ocala, Fla. 4,275 .153 7,360 .167
Lake Wales, Fla. 3,390 .191 780 .202
Avon Park, Fla. 3,300 .189 1,950 .185
New York City, N. Y. 3,030 .183 2,520 .186
Tampa, Fla. 2,700 .171 3,300 .200
Haines City, Fla. 1,660 .191 1,620 .201
Bonaventure, Fla. 1,585 .181 550 .187
Moore Haven, Fla. 1,215 .146 2,700 .155
Daytona Beach, Fla. 1,180 .165 1,380 .169
Orlando, Fla. 930 .180 690 .184
Chiefland, Fla. 780 .188 600 .204
New Smyrna Beach, Fla. 600 .176 340 .179
Chattanooga, Tenn. 600 .156 60 .192
Lake Alfred, Fla. 540 .190 200 .200
Richmond, Va. 180 .219 -- --
Lakeland, Fla. 120 .163 120 .176
Winston-Salem, N. C. 120 .188 100 .199
Norfolk, Va. 120 .192 --- --
Philadelphia, Pa. 30 .224 30 .232
Gary, Ind. 20 .250 ---- ---
Louisville, Ky. 15 .311 --- --
Memphis, Tenn. 15 .250 15 .234
Mobile,Ala. 5 .192 --- ---
Peoria, 1ll. 5 .234 --- --
Minneapolis, Minn. 5 .244 ---- ---
Albany, N. Y. 5 .234 ----
Allentown, Pa. 5 .232 15 .210
Total 150,820 $0.171 87,530 $0.176















TABLE 23.--All honey, 1955 and 1956, in consumer sizes, filtered and
unfiltered combined--seasonal distribution of volumes sold in Florida,


average f.o.b. prices received per pound, and index
by 9 packers


of prices received


Per cent Total Average Index of
Period Volume of f.o.b. f.o.b. f.o.b.
(Ibs) total price price
volume per lb received


1955
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Total

1956
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Total

Grand total


82,131
82,498
108,120
100,275
54,706
55,741
66,963
62,164
62,604
88,627
97,716
100,996
962,541


113,697
94,141
116,629
88,681
63,264
60,177
54,637
45,750
63,462
74,354
100,292
108,782
983,866


8.5
8.6
11.2
10.4
5.7
5.8
7.0
6.5
6.5
9.2
10.1
10.5
100.0


11.6
9.6
11.9
9.0
6.4
6.1
5.5
4.6
6.4
7.6
10.2
11.1
100.0


1,946,407


$ 16,678
17,286
21,106
20,298
10,906
10,937
13,753
12,452
12,133
18,583
20,659
19,664
$194,455


$ 22,711
18,963
24,557
18,005
13,163
13,497
11,727
10,030
12,481
15,921
22,632
23,265
$206,952


$0.203
.210
.195
.202
.199
.196
.205
.200
.194
.210
.211
.195
$0.202


$0.200
.201
.211
.203
.208
.224
.215
.219
.197
.214
.227
.214
$0.210


$401,407 $0.206


99
102
95
98
97
95
100
97
94
102
102
95
98


97
98
102
99
101
109
104
106
96
104
110
104
102


aAverage of 1955 and 1956 f.o.b. price received per pound is
base of index.


- -














TABLE 24.--All honey, 1955 and 1956, in consumer sizes, filtered and
unfiltered combined--seasonal distribution of volumes sold in the U. S.,
excluding Florida, average f.o.b. prices received per pound, and index
of prices received by 9 packers

Per cent Total Average Index of
Period Volume of ob f.o.b. f.o.b.
(Ibs) total r price price
volume per lb received


1955
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Total

1956
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Total

Grand total


aAverage
base of index.


16,619
15,327
23,991
33,695
36,225
47,630
42,417
37,898
16,217
19,737
18,397
14,205
322,358


22,325
9,959
23,983
6,141
31,478
26,063
30,317
23,430
9,433
23,245
14,736
9,368
230,4/8


5.2
4.8
7.4
10.5
11.2
14.7
13.2
11.8
5.0
6.1
5.7
4.4
100.0


9.7
4.3
10.4
2.7
13.5
11.3
13.2
10.2
4.1
10.1
6.4
4.1
100.0


552,836


$ 4,203
3,901
5,341
8,175
8,590
11,233
10,251
8,667
3,717
5,352
4,517
3,169
$ 77,116


$ 5,692
2,113
6,483
1,535
8,482
6,593
7,497
5,820
2,708
6,211
4,156
2,568
$ 59,858


$136,974


$0.253
.255
.223
.243
.237
.236
.242
.229
.229
.271
.246
.223
$0.239


$0.255
.212
.270
.250
.269
.253
.247
.248
.287
.267
.282
.274
$0.260


102
103
90
98
96
95
98
92
92
109
99
90
96


103
85
109
101
108
102
100
100
116
108
114
110
105


$0.248


of 1955 and 1956 f.o.b. price received per pound is


- -- ---


- i II---'--'














TABLE 25.--All filtered honey, volumes shipped by type of carrier, f.o.b.
returns, and average f.o.b. prices received, 9 packers, 1956

Average Average
VCaolur r me v Per cent Total Avera
pNo. of volume f.o.b.
Carrier f shipped volume of total f.o.b. *ob
lots (ibs) per lot f t rice
(bs (bs) volume return per b
(Ibs)per lb


Consumer sizes


Packer
Truckli ne
Rail freight
Express
Parcel post
Truck collect
Rail collect
Express collect
Purchaser

Total


Packer
Truckline
Rail freight
Truck collect
Rail collect
Express collect
Purchaser
Total


2,785
953
28
5
48
139
5
14
1,035
5,012


1
39
8
11
4
1
20
84


278,370
240,968
6,070
138
309
13,015
1,164
479
363,670
904,183


100
253
217
28
6
94
233
34
351
180


11.8 $ 59,626
10.2 58,916
.3 1,504
a 34
a 85
.5 3,600
a 346
a 112
15.4 83,303

38.2 $207,526


Bulk sizes


60
69,127
3,600
2,397
720
60
36,335
112,299


60
1,772
450
218
180
60
1,817
1,337


a
2.9
.2
.1
a
a
1.6
4.8


$ 9
10,162
696
448
146
12
5,797
$ 17,270


5,096 1,016,482


43.0 $224,796 $0.221


Less than 0.05
Percentages in
to equal 100 per cent.


per cent.
this column must be added to those in Table 26


$0.214
.244
.248
.246
.275
.277
.297
.234
.229

$0.230


$0.150
.147
.193
.187
.203
.200
.160
$0.154


All sizes


---~ III~-~C-LL __ __














TABLE 26.--All unfiltered honey, volumes shipped by type of carrier,
f.o.b. returns, and average f.o.b. prices received, 9 packers, 1956


Volume Average Per cent Total Average
No, of volume f.o.b.
Carrier No of shipped vplume of total f.o.b.
lots (lbs) per lot volume return price
S(bs) return per lb

Consumer sizes
Packer 1,646 245,021 149 10.4 $ 45,124 $0.184
Truckline 1 900 900 a 171 .190
Parcel post 1 15 15 a 3 .200
Truck collect 33 16,536 501 .7 3,889 .235
Express collect 2 84 42 a 19 .226
Purchaser 270 47,605 176 2.0 10,078 .211
Total 1,953 310,161 159 13.1 $ 59,284 $0.191

Bulk sizes
Packer 66 119,051 1,804 5.0 $ 15,109 $0.127
Truckline 7 85,845 12,264 3.6 9,988 .116
Truck collect 120 685,099 5,705 29.0 97,279 .142
Express collect 1 360 360 a 54 .150
Purchaser 47 147,856 3,146 6.3 18,723 .127
Total 241 1,038,211 4,308 43.9 $141,153 $0.136

All sizes 2,194 1,348,372 615 57.0 $200,437 $0.149

Grand total 7,290 2,364,854 324 100.0 $425,233 $0.180

aLess than 0.05 per cent.


Percentages in
to equal 100 per cent.


this column must be added to those in Table 25










TABLE 27.--1955 average transportation cost per case of important consumer size packs shipped by truckline
to selected cities; shipping point Leesburg

Pack size

Cities 24/8- 12/1- 24/1- 24/1- 24/1-lb 12/2- 12/2-1/2 24/2-1/2 6/5- 12/5-
oz Q lb Sv lb Q lb FB Tumb lb Q lb Sq lb Tin lb RJ Ib Tin


Birmingham, Ala.
Avon Park, Fla.
Jacksonville, Fla.
Lakeland, Fla.
Miami, Fla.
Orlando, Fla.
Pensacola, Fla.
St. Petersburg, Fla.
Tampa, Fla.
Atlanta, Ga.
Augusta, Ga.
Bowden, Ga.
Columbus, Ga.
Cornelia, Ga.
Marietta, Ga.
Baltimore, Md.
New York City, N. Y.
Greensboro, N. C.
Raleigh, N. C.
Winston-Salem, N. C.
Cleveland, Ohio
Philadelphia, Pa.
Greenville, S. C.
Orangeburg, S. C.
Spartenburg, S. C.
Knoxville, Tenn.


$0.339
.200
.362
.220
.194
.300
.303

.299










$0.327


$0.302

.241

.304

.363


.305
.281


.328

.818

.398
.285
.333



.353
$0.336


$0.602

.396
.319
.555
.336
.689
.387
.341
.547
.782
.588
.535
.655
.521
.969
.932

.601
.643

1.023

.554
.670
$1.040


$0.598
.300


.426

.689

.305


.599


.524

1.200



1.139
1.065


$0.587


$0.566



.372

.537

.424

.461
1.121
.891
.653
.523
.622

1.010
.761
.480

$0.541


$0.543
.270


.491

.611
.359
.385
.532
.335
.558
.540
.644
.527
.853
.830


.488

.949

.520

$0.747


$0.697
.340


.597




.558
.705

.464



1.065





.884


$0.617


-- $0.478

$0.671
.362

.904

.589
---- .654




-- 1.005


-- .693


1.156



-- $0.541


$0.511
.658





.603







1.296








$1.419











TABLE 28.--1956 average transportation cost per case of important consumer size packs shipped by truckline
to selected cities; shipping point Leesburg


Pack size

Cities 24/8- 12/1- 24/1- 24/1- 24/1-lb 12/2- 12/2-1/2 24/2-1/2 6/5- 12/5-
oz Q lb Sv lb Q lb FB Tumb lb Q lb Sq lb Tin lb RJ Ib Tin


Birmingham, Ala.
Avon Park, Fla.
Jacksonville, Fla.
Lakeland, Fla.
Miami, Fla.
Orlando, Fla.
Pensacola, Fla.
Tampa, Fla.
Atlanta, Ga.
Bcwden, Ga.
Columbus, Ga.
Cornelia, Ga.
Marietta, Ga.
Baltimore, Md.
Buffalo, N. Y.
New York City, N. Y.
Greensboro, N. C.
Raleigh, N. C.
Winston-Salem, N. C.
Cleveland, Ohio
Philadelphia, Pa.
Greenville, S. C.
Orangeburg, S. C.
Spartenburg, S. C.
Knoxville, Tenn.
Richmond, Va.


$0.362
.206
.284
.199
.317






.722








$0.433


$0.346

.240

.338

.323

.315




.517

.710
.360

.319


.295
.389


$0.430


$0.649

.416

.566
.338
.664
.343
.621
.638





1.193
q----

.918
.652
1.206
1.133

.717


$0.817


$0.655
.293

.356
.436

.688
.310
.590
.634
.552
.663
.607


1.272



1.206



.607

$0.820


$0.722



.605


.343








.849


.625

1.o84

$0.716


$0.604
.270


.583
.257
.589
.321
.557
.580

.613


1.075
1.240





1.002

.675


$0.335


.523



.700







1.531





$1.260


----
----
----
----
So.670
----
----
----
----
----
----
----
----
----
----
----
---
----
----
----
----
----
----
----
----


$0.467


.392


.725






1.355


1.006


1.187



$0.705


$0.503
.582

.802


.652








1.724




1 .9co



$1.398


---- $0.753


- ----- --












TABLE 29.--All honey, 1955 and 1956--actual transportation cost exper-
ience of packers making deliveries with their own trucks on 1- and 2-day
trips

Average
No. of Total Total bs Average Average
Packer trips miles lbs delivered delivery f.o.b. price
per traveled delivered per mile cost per received
year traveled lb per lb


1955
1-day trips
B 10 2,804 9,137 3.3 $0.046 $0.178
C 32 7,040 212,917 30.2 .006 .144
G 17 4,985 112,494 22.6 .009 .153
H 14 840 21,166 25.2 .017 .136

2-day trips
B 13 4,440 19,384 4.4 $0.046 $0.195
G 3 900 17,634 19.6 .014 .156


1956
1-day trips
B 5 1,402 7,390 5.3 $0.029 $0.212
C 32 7,067 184,587 26.1 .008 .150
G 18 5,156 140,778 27.3 .007 .162
H 11 660 12,493 18.9 .021 .146

2-day trips
B 15 5,100 29,549 5.8 $0.035 $0.218
G 2 600 15,612 26.0 .010 .159







46




The many different honey blends and types of containers make cost
of packing high and would prohibit an effective advertising and promotion
program, even if the industry was organized in a way that promotion funds
could be acquired.
It is believed that the adoption of official grades and containers
would lower cost of marketing honey. Furthermore, because of the unique
kind of Florida honey, the industry should benefit from an aggressive
advertising and promotion program provided first that standard grades and
containers were used.












APPENDIX I


Following is a list of abbreviations and the floral source of
the various kinds of honey sold by the 9 packers studied:
A--Amber.--Having amber color and made up of mixed flowers. It Is
usually sold to the bakery trade. Some is sold for home use
under private brand names.
Clv--Clover.--Gathered from clover blossoms.
DA--Dark Amber.--Dark amber in color and used in baked goods. It is
of a lower quality than Amber, above.
LA--Light Amber.--A mixture of choice types from Florida flowers, such
as Galiberry, Saw Palmetto, and/or other wild flowers, which,
combined, result in a high-grade table honey. It has an
excellent flavor, is light amber or lighter in color, and is
sold under various brand names.
LAC--LIqht Amber Comb.--Packed in the same manner as Orange Blossom
comb except that it is from light color choice-mixed types.
OB--Orange Blossom.--includes honey from all citrus species. The
color is usually extra light amber or lighter.
OBC--Orange Blossom Comb.--A large chunk of comb honey covered with
liquid Orange Blossom honey in consumer size containers.
Approximately two-thirds, by weight, is comb and one-third,
by weight, is liquid honey. Comb packs prepared in this manner
are also referred to as "Cut Comb Honey in Extracted Honey."
In the US grade they are called "Chunk Comb Honey" or "Chunk
Honey."
OB&Blo--Orange Blossom with Blossom.--Orange Blossom honey with an
imitation wax orange blossom suspended in it. It has been a
popular gift item.
OBSp--Oranae Blossom Honey Spread.--A honey product prepared by
creaming granulated Orange Blossom honey.
Tu--Tupelo.--A very distinctive table-type honey from the tupelo gum
tree. It has extra light amber or lighter color, contains a
much higher percentage of levulose than other types, and com-
mands the highest price among the Florida honeys.












APPENDIX II


Container Sizes, Container Types, and Shippinq Units


Honey is packed as a semiliquid. Frequently it is sold to con-
sumers in pint, quart, and gallon containers on the basis of liquid
capacity. However, commercially, the unit of measurement for honey is
the pound (16 ounces avoirdupois), regardless of the liquid capacity of
its container.
The following list describes the shipping units for various honey
containers and gives the designation or abbreviation used. The shipping
unit for consumer sizes is the familiar corrugated cardboard box (or case)
holding various numbers of jars, jugs, tins, or other types of small con-
tainers. Some containers are used only for comb honey, others are used
for packing both liquid and comb honey. Bulk honey is shipped in I-gallon
jars or jugs, 5-gallon cans, and 55-gallon steel drums. Some bulk comb
honey is shipped in beehive supers.
Most important containers for consumer sizes
24/8-oz Q--A case of 24, 8-ounce oval glass jars referred to in the
industry as queenline or beeline jars.
12/1-lb Sv--A case of 12, 1-pound table servers. The jars have plastic
tops with no-drip spouts. A metal spring and slide on the top
releases the honey when withdrawn.
24/1-lb Q--A case of 24, 1-pound oval, glass jars referred to as queen-
line or beeline jars in the industry.
24/1-lb F3--A case of 24, 1-pound glass, globe-shaped jars called
fishbcwls.
24/1-lb Tub--A case of 24, 1-pound glass tumbler-shaped jars. Principal
use is for comb honey.
12/2-lb Q--A case of 12, 2-pound oval, glass jars called queenline or
beeline jars.
12/2-1/2-lb Sq--A case of 12, 2-1/2-pound glass, square refrigerator jars.
Principal use is for comb honey.
24/2-1/2-lb Tin--A case of 24, 2-1/2-pound round tin cans with lids,
referred to as tins.
12/4-1/2-lb LTin--A case of 12, 4-1/2-pound lithographed tin cans with
lids.












6/5-lb RJ--A case of 6, 5-pound round, glass economy Jars.
6/5-lb Tin--A case of 6, 5-pound tin cans with lids.
12/5-lb Tin--A case of 12, 5-pound tins with lids.

Most important containers for bulk sizes
1/60-lb Can--A 5-gallon square tin can with a capacity of 60 pounds of
honey.
1/650-lb Drum--A 55-gallon metal drum with a capacity of approximately
650 pounds of honey. Weights vary due to differences in density
of honey.

Other containers used

Consumer Sizes

12/3-oz Cr Bkt--A case containing 12 Cracker Baskets, each Cracker Basket
holding 3, 3-ounce, elephant ear, glass jars of honey or honey
product.
12/3-oz Crate--A case containing 12 miniature orange crates, each crate
holding 4, 3-ounce, barrel-shaped glass jars, one of which
contains honey and the others preserves.
48/3-oz Bbl--A case of 48, 3-ounce, barrel-shaped glass jars.
48/3-oz EE--A case of 48, 3-ounce, elephant ear, glass jars.
12/4-oz CPot--A case of 12, 4-ounce, ceramic pottery containers of
various shapes.
12/5-oz Buz--A case of 12, 5-ounce, ceramic honey servers, shaped like a
bee.
24/6-oz Jug--A case of 24, 6-ounce, ceramic pottery jugs.
12/8-oz Juq--A case of 12, 8-ounce, ceramic pottery jugs.
12/8-oz PTPit--A case of 12, 8-ounce, ceramic pottery pitchers decorated
with a palm tree design.
12/8-oz Plas--A case of 12, 8-ounce, round plastic containers.
12/8-oz CPot--A case of 12, 8-ounce, ceramic pottery containers of
various shapes.
12/8-oz S&P--A case of 24, 8-ounce, glass containers with plastic salt
and pepper tops. They are sold in pairs and when empty can be
used as salt and pepper shakers. Twelve jars contain honey, the
other twelve contain some form of preserves.
12/8-oz SvSt--A case of 24, 8-ounce, glass containers sold in pairs on a
tray. Twelve containers have plastic server-type tops and are
filled with honey. The other 12 are condiment servers with
plastic spoons, and are filled with preserves.












24/8-oz Beehv--A case of 24, 8-ounce, ceramic skep beehives.
24/8-oz FB--A case of 24, 8-ounce glass, globe-shaped jars generally
referred to as fishbowls.
24/8-oz OBowl--A case of 24, 8-ounce glass, globe-shaped jars painted
an orange color.
24/8-oz Sv--A case of 24, 8-ounce, table servers. The glass jars have
plastic server tops with a no-drip spout. A metal slide in the
top releases the honey when withdrawn.
12/10-oz OBPit--A case of 12, 10-ounce, ceramic pottery pitchers,
decorated with an orange blossom design.
24/14-oz OJ--A case of 24, 14-ounce, cylindrical glass jars generally
used as olive jars in the food-packing industry. Principal use
is for comb packs in the honey industry.
24/14-oz Bukt--A case of 24, 14-ounce, bucket jars.
12/1-lb Sv/IC--A case of 12, 1-pound, server jars with plain white caps,
used as refills for the 12/1-pound table servers.
12/1-lb Peehv--A case of 12, 1-pound, ceramic pottery skep beehives.
12/1-lb Cof-et--A case of 12, 1-pound, plastic beverage servers called
Coffee-ettes.
12/1-lb Jug--A case of 12, 1-pound, ceramic pottery jugs.
12/1-lb Mammy--A case of 12, 1-pound, ceramic pottery containers made to
resemble a Negro mammy.
12/1-lb OCrk--A case of 12, 1-pound, ceramic pottery containers in the
shape of an orange with green leaves on the top and called
Orange Crocks.
12/1-lb SHPit--A case of 12, 1-pound, ceramic pottery split-handle
pitchers.
24/1-lb Modrn--A case of 24, I-pound, glass modernistic jar*. Principal
use is for comb honey.
24/1-lb Beehv--A case of 24, I-pound, ceramic pottery skep Leehives.
24/1-lb CBhv--A case of 24, 1-pound, ceramic pottery bears holding a skep
beehiv.
24/1-lb GBBhv--A case of 24, I-pound, ceramic pottery skep beehives,
decorated with orange blossoms.
24/1-lb Cat--A case of 24, 1-pound, ceramic pottery containers in the
shape of a cat.
24/1-lb HB--A case of 24, 1-pound, plastic bears called honey bears.
24/18-oz Pint D--A case of 24, glass pint decanters with q capacity of
18 ounces of honey.
12/21-oz Plas--A case of 12, 21-ounce, plastic refrigerator jars.












12/2-lb FB--A case of 12, 2-pound glass, globe-shaped jars called
fishbowls.
12/2-1/2-lb Tin--A case of 12, 2-1/2-pound round, tin cans with lids,
referred to as tins.
24/2-1/2-1b MITin--A case of 24, 2-1/2-pound, tins (see above) with lids
soldered for mailing.
12/3-1b STin--A case of 12, 3-pound, canning tins sealed by machine,
referred to as sealed tins.
12/3-lb Bbl--A case of 12, 3-pound, ceramic barrel-shaped containers.
12/3-1b Jug--A case of 12, 3-pound, pottery jugs.
6/4-1/4-lb RJ--A case of 6, 4-1/4-pound round, glass economy jars.
12/4-1/2-lb LMITin--A case of 12, 4-1/2-pound,lithographed tins with
lids soldered for mailing.
6/5-1b Sq--A case of 6, 5-pound glass, square refrigerator jars.
12/5-lb M1Tin--A case of 12, 5-pound, tin cans with lids soldered for
mailing.
6/7-lb MJ--A case of 6, 7-pound round, two-quart Mason jars.
6/9-lb STin--A case of 6, 9-pound, canning tins sealed by machine and
referred to as sealed tins.
6/10-lb Tin--A case of 6, 10-pound, tin cans with lids.

Bulk Sizes
1/12-lb MJ--One round Mason jar holding approximately 12 pounds of honey.
Weights vary, depending on density of honey.
1/30-lb Super--A beehive super holding approximately 30 pounds of comb
honey in frames. Weights vary, depending on density and amount
of honey in the comb cells.




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