• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Economic trends in commercial celery...
 Production environment
 Production practices
 Harvesting and handling celery
 Marketing celery
 Returns to growers
 Market demand
 Basic problems of the Florida celery...
 Tables






Group Title: Agricultural economics report - University of Florida Dept. of Agricultural Economics ; no. 62-1
Title: Some economic problems in the Florida celery industry
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Title: Some economic problems in the Florida celery industry
Physical Description: 28 p. : ; .. cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brooke, D.L
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station. -- Dept. of Agricultural Economics
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Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1961
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Statement of Responsibility: by D.L. Brooke.
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Economic trends in commercial celery production
        Page 2
    Production environment
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Production practices
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Harvesting and handling celery
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Marketing celery
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Returns to growers
        Page 14
    Market demand
        Page 15
    Basic problems of the Florida celery industry
        Page 16
    Tables
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
Full Text






Agricultural Economics
Mimeo Report 62-1


SOME ECONOMIC PROBLEMS IN THE FLORIDA
CELERY INDUSTRY




by

D. L. Brooke
Associate Agricultural Economist


Department of Agricultural Economics
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
Gainesville, Florida


July 1961









i" "

TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

Introduction . .................. 1

Economic Trends in Commercial Celery Production . 2

Production Environment . .. . . .. 3

Production areas . . . 3
Seasonal pattern of production . . 3
Soil types . . . . . 4
Drainage and irrigation . .... .... 4
Size of farm and type of farming . . 5
Farm management problems. . .. 5
Production risks . . .. . 6

Production Practices . .. . 7

Seed and seedbeds . .. . . 7
Fertilization practices . . . 7
Cultivation ......... 8
Insect and disease control .... ....... 8

Harvesting and Handling Celery. . . ... 9

Harvesting and packing . . . .. 9
Containers . . .... . . 10
Precooling . . . . . 10
Grades and sizes . . . ..... 10
Inspection . . . . .11
Total harvesting and handling costs . 11

Marketing Celery . . .. . . 11

Movement of celery and competition . . 11
Transportation . . . . 12
Sales organizations and methods of sale . 12
Outlets . . . . . 13
Distribution . .. . . 13
Prices of celery . . ... . .. 13

Returns to Growers . . .... . . 14
Market Demand . ... . . .. 15

Basic Problems of the Florida Celery Industry . .. 16

Appendices . . . .. . 17












SOME ECONOMIC PROBLEMS IN THE FLORIDA CELERY INDUSTRY


by

D. L. Brooke


Introduction


The material contained herein is substantially the same as that
prepared in order to present selected economic data relative to the pro-
duction and marketing of celery for fresh market in Florida before a
hearing on a proposed State Marketing Order on June 28, 1961. This pub-
lication is presented to furnish growers and others with similar
information which they may find useful in making future production or
policy decisions relating to the celery industry in the State. More
specifically the material presented concerns:

1. The economic background of the production of celery
in Florida.

2. Trends in the production 6f celery.

3. Some aspects of cost, price and income problems of
celery growers in Florida.

The marketing order being considered is intended to provide for:
(1) the orderly marketing of Florida celery throughout the shipping
season; (2) the establishment of minimum standards of quality in the
product; (3) the standardization of grades, packs and containers; (4) the
control and elimination of unfair trade practices in marketing the
product and (5) the securing of funds for industry research and pro-
motional work.



*Associate Agricultural Economist, Florida Agricultural Experiment
Stations, Gainesville, Florida.










Economic Trends in Commercial Celery Production


Commercial production of celery (apium graveolens) in Florida
dates back beyond the turn of the century.

After the 1895 freeze destroyed a large part of the citrus
plantings around Sanford, growers began to seek other crops
adapted to the area. Mr J. Whitner was familiar with the
home planting of celery in Mr. Chase's garden. During the
fall of 1897 Mr. Whitner obtained enough plants from
Kalamazoo, Michigan to plant three-quarters of an acre, from
which a return of $1,300.00 was realized. Four carloads of
celery were shipped from the Sanford area during the winter
of 1899.

Soon after the successful cultivation of celery in the Sanford
area, plantings were made in the vicinity of Manatee, Florida.1


Earliest State statistics indicate a production of over one million
crates in 1918.2 County statistics show the planting of 6,620 acres and
a production of 1,907,000 crates in Seminole, Manatee and Sarasota counties
in 1928-29. First recorded production in Marion County was in the spring
of 1934 and in Palm Beach County in the winter of 1936.3

During World War II acreage expanded rapidly. The largest planted
acreage of record was 14,000 acres in the 1945-46 season, of which 13,450
acres were harvested. Acreage harvested decreased after 1945-46 to a low
of 9,100 acres in 1954-55. By 1958-59 growers had increased harvested
acreage to 13,300 acres. Acreage reduction was again apparent in the
two most recent seasons.4

Yields per acre have increased during the past two decades from
less than 500 crates per acre in the early 1940's to around a 600 crate


IJ. W. Wilson and N. C. Hayslip, "Insects Attacking Celery in
Florida," Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Bulletin 486, Dec-
ember 1951, p. 6.

2USDA, "Estimates of Acreage Production and Value, 1918-27,"
February 1944 (out of print).

3USDA, AMS, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, "Acreage
by Counties, Total Acreage, Production and Value, 1929-40," October 1940
(out of print).


Appendix Table 1.










average for the five-year period 1956-60. The severe winter of 1957-58
produced the lowest average yield of the past 15 seasons.5 Yields of
winter and spring celery have followed the same general pattern. However,
within the most recent five-year period, winter yields have averaged
about 10 percent above those of the spring crop. Average yields of
805 crates per acre for the winter crop and 700 crates for the spring
crop have been attained within the past 10 seasons.6

Celery production of value between 1951 and 1960 has ranged from
4.3 million hundredweights in 1951-52 to 3.3 million hundredweights in
1957-58. The winter crop has averaged about 62 percent and the spring
crop 38 percent of total production of value.7


Production Environment


Production areas.--Celery for fresh market consumption is pro-
duced commercially in four major areas in the Peninsula of Florida.
Major production is in the Everglades area of western Palm Beach County.
The second largest area of production is that known as the Central
Florida area which includes production in Lake, Orange and Seminole
counties. The third area of importance is that of Sarasota County.
North Florida production is presently confined to relatively small
muckland areas in Alachua and Marion counties.

During the 1959-60 season 74 percent of Florida's production
was in the Everglades area, 19 percent in the Central Florida area,
4 percent in Sarasota and 3 percent in the North Florida area. In the
1950-51 season production by areas was approximately as follows: Central
Florida, 48 percent; Everglades, 34 percent; Sarasota, 12 percent and
North Florida, 6 percent." Thus, during the past 10 seasons production
has been decreasing in the North and Central Florida and Sarasota areas
and increasing in the Everglades. Expansion in the Everglades has been
the result of increased efficiency in production and harvesting through
the use of technological improvements in machinery and in insect and
disease control. Other areas are finding it increasingly difficult
to compete.

Seasonal pattern of production.--From 1950-51 to 1957-58 the
trend in production was slightly downward despite some slight increases


5bid.

6USDA, AMS, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, "Florida
Vegetable Crops, Annual Statistical Summary," Vol. XVI, 1960, pp. 17-18.

Ibid.


8Appendix Table 3.










in acreage planted. Winter celery production was relatively more stable
than that of the spring season. The latter tended more sharply downward.
This trend was reversed in 1958-59 with a sharp increase in acreage and
production in both the winter and spring seasons. This apparently
stemmed from the high prices received for celery following the freeze of
1957-58. The familiar downward trend is again evident in the two most
recent seasons.

Information on production in the 1959-60 season indicates that
65 percent of Florida's crop was winter harvested and 35 percent for
spring harvest. In the 1950-51 seafsn winter production was 59 percent
and spring 41 percent of the total.

Soil types.--Celery is grown on soil types ranging from fine
sands to "custard apple" muck and "saw grass" peat soils. In the
Everglades area the Okeechobee and Everglades mucks and peats of the
"custard apple" and "saw grass" types are found in depths ranging from
3 to 10 feet. In the Zellwood area are found Everglades muck and mucky
peat varying in depth from 4 to 19 feet. In the Sarasota and Island
Grove areas are found Terra Ceia muck ranging in depth from 12 to 36
inches. The Island Grove area also has some Delray and Manatee mineral
soils with a dark surface, 9 inches or more in depth. All of the above
soils are underlain with calcareous materials ranging from sand to clay
in texture. Soils of the Oviedo area on which celery is grown range
from a Pamlico muck 1 to 5 feet in depth with an acid sandy clay sub-
stratum to dominantly Leon fine sand with an organic pan subsurface.
The soils in the Sanford area are dominantly Leon fine sand with an
organic pan subsurface at 14 to 36 inches.

Drainage and irrigation.--All areas of the State producing
celery are relatively level. Although the level land lends itself to
large fields, moisture control is a problem and the necessary drainage
ditches and water furrows tend to cut up the fields. Water furrows
connecting with perimeter ditches reduce the danger of flooding by
heavy rains. Where pumps are available excess water may be drawn off
quickly, and in case of dry weather the ditches and furrows may be
filled to provide subirrigation. In the muck soils the desired moisture
level can be maintained by controlling the level of water in the
drainage ditches and canals. Mole drains are opened each year under
these fields with special equipment. They run from one ditch almost to
the other at about 10 foot intervals. In the sandy soil areas such as
Sanford and parts of Oviedo drainage and irrigation is by a tiling
system installed 24 to 30 inches below the surface and running laterally
through the field. Artesian wells supply water for irrigation and
drainage is by natural seepage and run-off through the tiling system.


9Appendix Tables 2 and 3.


10Appendix Table 3;










Size of farm and type of farming.--Celery is seldom grown com-
mercially on small farms in Florida. Historically this was not the case,
because for many years prior to World War II celery was produced on
10 to 50 acre farms in the Sanford and Sarasota areas. However, with
the advent of modern machinery and higher labor costs few small farmers
have been able to compete effectively with larger farms in celery pro-
duction. Specialized equipment for production and harvesting is ex-
pensive. Therefore, few small farmers have been able to afford the
capital outlay required for production. Even with modern machinery and
methods, economies of scale in their use permit greater efficiency or
lower cost per unit on larger farms. The few small celery growers
remaining in the industry have had the advantages of cooperative machine
harvesting methods and higher than average yields per acre. Even so,
there are not more than a handful of growers with less than 50 acres of
celery per year.

In the 1956-57 season 7 growers in the Everglades area averaged
063 acres each; 5 growers in Oviedo, 125 acres; 9 growers in Sanford,
46 acres; 9 growers in Sarasota, 26 acres and 3 growers in Zellwood,
446 acres.11 Four seasons later 9 growers in the Everglades averaged
865 acres each; 5 growers in Oviedo, 130 acres; 5 growers in Sanford,
114 acres; 5 growers in Sarasota, 38 acres and 2 growers in Zellwood,
521 acres.12 The foregoing data, while they do not include all celery
growers, indicate the present relative size of celery growers in the
various production areas.

In all areas except Sarasota and North Florida, several vegetable
crops compete with celery. Many of the farmers who grow celery also grow
snap beans, cabbage, sweet corn or leaf crops. Some growers produce as
many as nine different vegetable crops. Sweet corn, snap beans and leaf
crops are, perhaps, most competitive with celery for land and labor.
The average net returns per acre from celery normally exceeds those from
snap beans, sweet corn and leaf crops. However, less irnestment per
acre is required for those crops and they have a shorter period to ma-
turity than celery. There are, no doubt, some advantages in the use of
labor and equipment where these crops are produced on the same farms.
Any returns above cash costs of production may increase net farm income,
although a loss might be indicated if these other enterprises had to
bear a full share of the indirect or fixed costs.

Farm management problems.--The celery grower encounters all the
farm management problems usually associated with specialized enterprises


11D. L. Brooke, "Costs and Returns from Vegetable Crops in Florida,"
Vol. XII, Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, Agricultural Eco-
nomics Mimeo Report 58-8, March 1958.

12Unpublished data, Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations.










having peak labor requirements and high cash costs of production and
harvesting. Peak labor requirements occur at planting and harvest, com-
plicating the problem of having an adequate labor supply. Large growers
with relatively stable planting and harvesting schedules find labor less
of a problem than smaller growers who plant and harvest less frequently.
Total growing cost ranges from $435 to $700 per acre, 30 to 36 percent
of which is the cost of labor used in production. Harvesting costs
range from $500 to $950 per acre with 31 to 38 percent of this amount
being paid to labor.13

Production risks.--Temperature, rainfall, high winds, insect
pests and plant diseases are important factors in the production of celery.
While celery will stand more cold weather than many other vegetable crops
the North Florida area produces little winter celery. In other areas
prolonged cold retards growth and in severe cases may result in bolting
with a loss in marketable yield. Excessive rain and high winds are
damaging to both seedbeds and field-set plantings. Celery seedbeds and
early field settings are being tended during the hurricane season in all
winter producing areas.

The incidence and severity of insects and diseases is also related
to weather. Wilson and Hayslip, studying insects attacking Florida celery,
found that aphids develop much more slowly "during periods of low temp-
eratures" and that "red spider mites usually become abundant during dry,
warm portions of the growing season."14

Variations from year to year in rainfall, temperature and light
conditions cause a large variation in yield per acre and, consequently,
total production. During the 10-year period, 1950-51 to 1959-60,
average yields for celery in the State ranged from 475 crates in 1957-58
to 767 crates per acre in 1954-55. Total production in the 1954-55
season on 9,100 acres harvested was 4.1 million hundredweights compared
to 3.3 million hundredweights on 11,400 acres harvested in 1957r58.15
Yields vary also between winter and spring crops and among producing
areas in the State. In the 1959-60 season winter yields ranged from
658 crates per acre in the Everglades to 825 crates per acre in the
Sarasota area. Spring yields ranged from 507 crates in the Everglades
to 674 crates per acre in North Florida.16


13Brooke, op. cit.

14Wilson and Hayslip, op. cit., pp. 11,26.

15Appendix Table 1.

16USDA, AMS, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, op. cit.,
p. 18.










Losses in planted acreage may result from weather or from insect
and disease infestation. Florida losses have ranged from 100 acres in
1954-55 to 900 acres in 1956-57 and averaged 425 acres since 1950-51.
Price considerations may cause abandonment of some production. Such
losses have occurred in 7 of the past 10 seasons. They ranged from
29,000 hundredweights in 1955-56 to 683,000 hundredweights in the
1958-59 season. Average annual economic abandonment for the period
1950-51 to 1959-60 has been 135,000 hundredweights.7


Production Practices


Modern and specialized farm machinery is used for land prepar-
ation, planting, cultivating and harvesting the crop. Most growers
use multiple-row, tractor-drawn equipment for planting, spraying and
cultivating operations. All producers plant certified seed each year
and generally follow recommended practices for fertilizer rates, insect
and disease control and other practices.

Seed and seedbeds.--Pascal and Golden celery are planted in
Florida. Utah 52-70, 252-19, D-5, Emerald 148 and Golden Supreme are
among the more popular varieties. Seed are planted in well prepared,
fumigated seedbeds and when plants are of sufficient size (50 to 70 days
from seed) they are transplanted in rows in the field. Seedbed operations
for a fall and winter crop of celery begin as early as March 15 of each
year. In some cases the last plants are pulled from seedbeds for spring
production as late as March 10 of the succeeding year. Thus, for a
large celery grower, the growing of plants in a seedbed is.a year-long
operation. The cost of raising sufficient plants in a seedbed for an
acre of field-set celery ranged from about $25 in the Everglades to
$60 in the Sarasota area during the period 1953-57.18

Fertilization practices.--Iearly all Florida soils are deficient
in the so-called essential plant foods, namely nitrogen, phosphorous and
potash. The muck soils ordinarily contain some nitrogen but are defic-
ient in manganese and copper.

Growers in the Everglades area apply a ton or more of an 0-8-24
to 3-8-24 fertilizer per acre and as much as 800 to 1,000 pounds of an
0-8-24 to 10-0-29 mixture as a side dressing. Growers in Sanford and
Oviedo apply from 4,00 to 5,500 pounds of a 4-6-5 to 5-6-10 fertilizer
per acre. Zellwood growers used about 2 tons of a 2-8-16 or 5-6-10


1Ibid., p. 17.


18Brooke, op. cit,










fertilizer and Sarasota growers use about 2 tons of a 5-5-8 to 5-5-10
mixture followed by as much as 400 pounds of nitrate of potash.19
Fertilizer costs ranged from about $110 per acre in Zellwood and the
Everglades to $170 per acre in Sanford and Oviedo from 1953 to 1957.20

Cultivation.--Celery is cultivated several times during the
growing period with multiple-row equipment. Most growers use Vegedex
or a similar preparation for controlling weeds and grass in the field,
this being less expensive than the hand labor required to keep fields
clean.

Insect and disease control.--The control of insects and diseases
is a continuing problem in the production of celery. All growers follow
an active control program, applying insecticides and fungicides in the
wet spray form. Large multiple-row power driven sprayers are in general
use.

Insects attacking celery in the seedbed are aphids, mole-crickets,
garden fleahoppers and flea beetles. In the field are cutworms, army
worms, green celery worms, wireworms, red spider mites, a tortricid
moth and others.

The problem of insect control may be approached in
two ways: 1, with the idea of preventing the develop-
ment of injurious infestations or 2, control of infes-
tations as they appear in the field.21

Many growers prefer the preventive rather than the control method.

"Diseases constitute a serious limiting factor in celery pro-
duction both in the seedbed and in the field. In fact, successful
production is dependent upon control of diseases."22 Celery is
subject to damping off, root knot, red root, early blight, late blight,
blackheart, bacterial blight, yellows, anthracnose and others. Here
again growers prefer the preventive method in a great many cases. It is
insurance against crop failure. In general, sulfur, inorganic coppers,
antibiotics, organic fungicides, chlorinated hydrocarbon and organic
phosphate insecticides are used in controlling insects and diseases
attacking celery. A 5- to 7-day spray program is the norm. Costs of
spraying ranged from $35 to $55 per acre from 1953 to 1957.23


19Unpublished data, Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations.

20Brooke, op. cit.
21Wilson and Hayalip, op. cit., p. 34.
22R. S. Cox, "Etiology and Control of Celery Diseases in the Ever-
glades," Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Bulletin 598, July
1958, p. 2.
23Brooke, op. cit.










Harvesting and Handling Celery


Celery matures from field-set plants in 80 to 115 days, depend-
ing upon variety, day length, temperature, moisture, fertilization and
other factors. Upon maturity it can be held in the field for a few
days without undue quality deterioration given proper weather conditions.
During hot, humid weather it can be held only a very short time before
losses in quality and yield are effected.

Harvesting and packing.--Celery is normally harvested by hand
and packed in the field on self-propelled packinghouses known as "mule-
trains." These are operated with a crew of about 60 people. The celery
is cut by hand or, if cut by a tractor-drawn blade, is trimmed by hand
and placed on an endless belt on either side of the machine's front as
it moves down the rows. From 20 to 30 rows are harvested at a time.
The stalks move onto the machine, through a washer and onto a packing
belt. Crates, stored and assembled on top of the machine, are chuted
down to packers. Packers size and grade the celery, pack the crates
and set them off on a roller-conveyor. Lids are closed and crates
pushed rearward to be loaded on a truck pulled backward by the harvester.
As one truck is loaded and pulls away another backs into position for
loading.

Using the method and crew outlined above, from 1,800 to 3,000
crates can be packed in a 10-hour day. This method of packing involves
less hauling and handling of stalks, resulting perhaps in less bruising,
slightly higher yields and more rapid movement of celery from ground to
precooler than an older or stationary packinghouse method previously used.
The harvester reduces flexibility of operation. Each machine has a
certain capacity per hour; therefore, the only methods of increasing
output are to increase the number of hours each machine is operated or
to add another machine and crew. Harvesters cost $15,000 to $18,000
each. One machine can be used to harvest 400 to 600 acres of celery
during the Florida shipping season. Fixed costs of ownership increase
with a decrease in utilization of machine operating capacity.

Labor for the harvester is employed by the grower. They may be
paid on a piece-rate or day basis. Keeping a trained packing crew may
be a problem unless plantings are staggered to furnish continuous work
during the season. Costs of harvesting, packing and hauling ranged from
$0.42 to $0.50 per packed-out crate.24

In recent seasons several organizations have entered the business
of prepackaging celery hearts at the shipping point. Size 4 dozen celery
is normally used, although some other sizes are adaptable. After the


24
Ibid.










celery has been cut and hauled from the field it is precooled, tops are
cut off and each two stalks sealed in a polyethylene bag. Bags of celery
are placed in new crates and loaded for shipment.

Containers.--Celery is packed in a wirebound crate (#3601). The
inside dimensions of this crate are 9-3/4 x 16 x 20-3/8 inches; it has a
capacity of 3,179 cubic inches25 and a shipping weight when filled with
celery of approximately 60 pounds. Container and crate liner costs
range from $0.40 to 0.43 each, depending upon source of supply and
volume per purchase.

For special orders and in order to compete with California celery
in markets west of the Mississippi River, a one-half celery carton is
used on occasion. It is a cardboard container measuring 10 x 10-1/2 x 16
inches costing about $0.20. Sizes 2-to 3-dozen are bulk packed in this
carton. It is also used for the 1-dozen size prepackaged hearts.

Precooling.--Celery is precooled before shipment to prevent decay
and to preserve freshness. This may be accomplished by either of two
methods: (1) Hydrocooling or (2) vacuum cooling. Hydrocooling is the
most commonly used method. The filled crates are passed through an ice
water bath and the temperature of the celery is quickly lowered. Vacuum
cooling is accomplished by placing the crates inside a large tube which
is then closed tightly. By a vacuum process, the heat is drawn out of
the celery and its temperature reduced to about 38-400 F. After being
cooled by either method, celery should be refrigerated until it reaches
the consumer. The cost of hvdrocooling ranged from $0.10 to $0.12 per
crate in the 1956-57 season.26

Grades and sizes.--United States Standards for Celery27 provide
for grades to be known as U.S. Extra No. 1, U.S. No. 1 and U.S. No. 2.
Differences in grade are the result of differences in midrib length,
total stalk length, insect or disease injury, appearance and mechanical
or other damage. Specified tolerances are permitted within each grade and
visual inspection by trained personnel is used to determine proper grade.

Sizes of celery are determined by numerical count of the stalks
in a crate. This is specified in terms of dozens or half-dozens. Small
variation from the number of stalks specified is permitted and count
verification is part of the visual inspection procedure.


25So. Frt. Tariff Bu., Freight Tariff 823-B, November 10, 1952,
p. 82. More recent rulings permit use of a wider end-cleat which
strengthens the crate but reduces inside length to 19-7/8 inches with
3,101 cubic inch capacity.

26Brooke, op. cit., p. 53.

27United States Standards for Celery (24 FR 2640) Effective
April 7, 1959.










In actual practice celery is sold by size on the basis of the
grower's label and reputation for a quality product. Inspection certi-
ficates are used for sales to the Government and in Canada,

A sample of the inspection certificates issued during the
1959-60 marketing season, representing 29.7 percent of the volume sold,
indicates that Florida celery was graded 93.6 percent U.S. No. 1, 6.3
percent was a percentage of U.S. No. 1 quality (ranging from 55 to 93
percent) and 0.1 percent graded U.S. No. 2. By size, 71.7 percent was
size 3-dozen or larger and 20.3 percent size 4-dozen or smaller.8

Inspection.--During the 1959-60 season 67.4 percent of the celery
shipped from Florida was inspected and certified as to grade, size or
condition by the Federal-State Inspection Service. Growers and sales
organizations use inspection as a means of quality control. Inspection
costs range from $0.025 to $0.03 per crate.

Total harvesting and marketing costs.--The costs of cutting and
packing in the field, containers and crate liners, hauling, precooling
and initial selling are included in total harvesting and marketing
costs. In the 1956-57 season these costs ranged from $1.06 per crate
in the Oviedo area to $1.20 per crate in Sanford. From $0.035 to $0.07
cents of the difference is accounted for by differences in selling
charges per crate among the areas.30


Marketing Celery

Movement of celery and competition.--Celery is shipped from
Florida from late October to the following June of each season. Of the
11,360 cars reported for the 1959-60 season, 53 percent were shipped in
the months of March, April and May and 30 percent in the months of
January and February. Shipments during the months of November (3 percent)
and June (6 percent) have been increasing in recent years, indicating
an expansion of the Florida marketing season.31


28Appendix Table 8.

29E. F. Scarborough, "Annual Agricultural Statistical Summary,
1959-60 Season," Florida State Marketing Bureau, November 1960, p. 135.

30
3Brooke, op. cit., p. 53.

31
3USDA, AMS, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service,
op. cit., p. 19.










Arizona ships 400 to 500 cars of celery from late December to
early April each year. Texas, a new competitor, shipped 8 cars in March
1960. However, California provides the major competition during all of
the Florida shipping season. In 1950-51 California shipped 39 percent
and Florida 60 percent of the total domestic volume during the Florida
season. In 1959-60 California and Florida shipments were 58 and 40 per-
cent respectively of the total movement during the Florida marketing
period. On a weekly basis Florida shipments were as much as 90 percent
in 1951 and not more than 71 percent in 1960 of the total weekly ship-
ments of celery in one or more weeks of the season.32 California,
having overcome the seederr" problem has increased celery production
during much of the Florida season in recent years.

The character of the competition between Florida and California
celery is explained by Godwin in his publication "Competition in the
Celery Market."33 He points out that: (1) customers (housewives)
prefer California celery but not strongly enough to pay a very large
premium for it, (2) customers are more willing to substitute California
celery for Florida celery, (3) they are more sensitive to changes in
the price of California celery and (4) changes in the supply of either
of the two types of celery will materially affect the market conditions
under which the other type is sold.34

Transportation.--Celery is transported to market by rail and
truck. Shipments by truck increased from 37 percent in 1955-56 to 48
percent of the Florida movement in 1957-58. Hith the advent of heavier
rail loading, truck shipments declined to 42 percent of the Florida
movement in 1959-60.35

Sales organizations and methods of sale.--There are two major
classes of first handlers involved in marketing Florida celery. They
may be identified as (1) individual grower organizations whose sales
are limited to their own crop and (2) grower cooperatives which market
for their members. Data are not available on the proportion of sales
by class of seller.


32C. V. Noble and M. A. Brooker, "Florida Truck Crop Competition,"
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, Supplement to Bulletin 224,
Mimeo, September 1951 (out of print) and D. L. Brooke, "Florida Truck
Crop Competition," Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, Agricultural
Economics Mimeo Report 61-3, October 1960, p. 6.

33M. R. Godwin, "Competitors in the Celery Market," Florida
Agricultural Experiment Stations, Agricultural Economics Mimeo Report
59-6, February 1959.

341bid., p. 2.

35USDA, AMS, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service,
op. cit., p. 19.










Sales of celery are normally made on an f.o.b. shipping-point, or
on a consignment basis. Selling on a delivered, price arrival or joint
account basis may be used by some sales agencies in exceptional cases.

Outlets.--A limited amount of Florida celery is utilized for
canning, primarily for soups, baby foods and chinese food preparations.
However, major outlets are chain organizations, wholesalers and others
engaged in the servicing of retail stores, restaurants, etc., handling
fresh produce.

Distribution.--Data on distribution of celery for a recent
season are available only for some 37 cities reported by the Florida
State Marketing Bureau.36 Those cities received about 56 percent of
Florida's celery shipments in 1959-60. The data indicate that: (1)
shipments by rail are greater than shipments by truck to the more
distant markets of the Northeast and Midwest, (2) truck shipments pre-
dominate to Southern and Western markets, (3) the larger cities receive
the largest supply of Florida celery, (4) Florida's market for celery,
as for most other vegetables, is in the Eastern half of the United
States. Florida ships relatively little celery to destinations north
of Texas that are west of the Mississippi River, (5) Florida's ship-
ments to these 37 markets were about one-fifth of their total celery
receipts during the year. (The 37 markets reportedly received 6,339
carlot equivalents of celery from Florida and 26,560 carlots from other
states during the period August 1, 1959 through July 31, 1960.)

Prices of celery.--Prices received for celery by Florida growers
depend upon: (1) the season of the year in which the celery is sold,
(2) the size of the Florida crop, (3) volume of competing products and
(4) the general price level.

The normal pattern for Florida celery prices is a sharp decline
from November to December, an increase to February, a decline in March,
a slight increase in April and a sharper increase in May and June.
Monthly average prices appear to rise and fall inversely with the volume
shipped from Florida. For the five-year period 1955-56 through 1959-60
prices in December were 15 percent below and prices in June 23 percent
above the annual average price.

From year to year there tends to be an inverse relation between
production of celery in Florida and prices received by farmers. If
production increases, prices decline and if production decreases, prices
increase. Vacations from this were evident from 1952 to 1953 and from
1955 to 1956.3 In both instances Florida production and price moved


3Scarborough, op. cit., p. 130.

37Appendix Table 4 and Figure 1.

38Appendix Figure 1.










in the same direction although to different degrees. This indicates an
effect on price from some source other than Florida's supply. In both
instances there was a sharp increase in the supply of celery shipped
from California. Godwin found that changes in the supply of California
and Florida celery have a greater effect on Florida prices than on Cali-
fornia prices.39 If there is any discernible trend in Florida celery
prices during the past 10 seasons, one would conclude that they have
been moving slowly downward.

For only 3 of the 7 winter crops and 1 of the 7 spring crops
from 1955 to 1961 has the Florida season average price received for
celery been higher than the Florida parity equivalent price. Except
for the 4 crop seasons noted above the Florida price has been less than
90 percent of parity. In fact, only once since the spring of 1958 has
the average Florida price been more than 70 percent of the Florida
parityoqquivalent price. The base period for these parity calculations
is the average of prices received in the 10-year period immediately
preceding the year being reported.


Returns to Growers

Data on net returns to celery growers are available for 7 of
the past 10 seasons in the Everglades, Sarasota and part of the Central
Florida area.41 Everglades growers have had net returns42 ranging from
$0.02 per crate ($0.04 per hundredweight) in 1955-56 to $0.57 per crate
($0.95 per hundredweight) in 1954-55. Sarasota growers have had net
returns ranging from $0.67 per crate ($1.12 per hundredweight) in
1954-55 to a minus $0.66 per crate ($-1.10 per hundredweight) in 1952-53.
Negative returns accrued to Sarasota growers in 4 of the 7 seasons
shown. Sarasota's marketing period is primarily winter when prices are
generally somewhat lower than for the later spring crop. A high yield
per acre is Sarasota's principal advantage in celery production.


39Godwin, op. cit., p. 19-22.

40Appendix Table 5.

41Appendix Table 6.

42Net profit to growers after deduction of all cash and fixed
costs of production, harvesting and selling plus a deduction of 6 per-
cent for interest on production expense and on capital invested in
machinery and equipment for the number of months required to produce
and harvest a crop of celery.










Sanford growers also suffered losses in 4 of the 7 years under
consideration. Oviedo growers had losses in 2 and profits in 5 of the
7 years. Of the 5 years for which Zellwood data are available, growers
showed a loss in 3 and a profit in 2 years.

While specific data on returns per unit in the 4 most recent
seasons are not available, some generalizations may be made from season
average price data and prices paid by farmers for items used in pro-
duction. Prices paid by farmers have continued their upward trend
since 1957 while prices received by farmers for celery, except for the
1957-58 season, have tended downward. Celery yields have increased
since the 1957-58 season but total production in Florida has not been
excessive despite an increase in acreage in 2 of the past 4 years. It
appears safe to assume, therefore, that grower returns for celery have
not been particularly high. The USDA computation of less than 70 per-
cent of parity equivalent for celery in 1959 and 1960 and the decreasing
numbers of farmers producing celery in Florida support such a conclusion.


Market Demand

Since 1945 there has been a general decrease in per capital con-
sumption of fresh vegetables. The only exceptions to this trend have
been an increase in consumption of fresh corn and lettuce and escarole.
Celery consumption declined from 9.1 pounds in 1946 to 7.6 pounds per
capital (farm weight basis) in 1958 3 As incomes have increased, the
Nation's population has substituted frozen vegetables, prepackaged
salad mixes and other ready-to-eat items for fresh vegetables. Thus,
the demand for fresh vegetables has been declining slowly in spite of
an increasing population.

Florida and her competitors in celery production are apparently
supplying more of the product than the market will absorb. Evidence
of this may be seen in the quantities produced but not included in
computing value of the crops from Florida, California and other pro-
ducing areas. Earlier it was noted that Florida's economic abandonment
averaged 135,000 hundredweights per year from 1951 to 1960. For the
United States such abandonment averaged 256,000 hundredweights during
the same period. The states of California, Florida and Arizona have
suffered the brunt of this waste. Other states reporting some
economic abandonment were Michigan, New York, Colorado, Oregon and
Washington.44


43Appendix Table 7.

4USDA, Agricultural Statistics, 1960, p. 228; "Vegetable-Fresh
Market," 1960, p. 33; Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service,
op. cit., p. 17.










Basic Problems of the Florida Celery Industry

1. Declining national demand.

2. Increasing competition from California.

3. The need for increasing efficiency in production and
harvesting.

4. The need for adjustments in supply.

5. Quality control of the product.

6. The need for uniform trading practices.

7. The need for more efficient marketing and better
distribution of the product.



































APPENDICES













APPENDIX TABLE


1.--All Celety: Acreage, Production and Value in Florida,
1941-42 to 1959-60.


Planted Yield Production Average Price Total
eason Acreage for Harvest Per Acre of Value Per Value
(crates) (1,000 cwt) (cwt) (crate)

1941-42 9,350 466 2,611 $2.77 $1.66 $ 7,237,000
1942-43 8,750 8,750 477 2,505 6.85 4.1 17,159,000
1943-44 9,900 9,900 502 2,741 5.30 3.18 14,530,000
1944-45 11,650 11,050 499 3,245 5.80 3.48 18,820,000
1945-46 14,000 13,450 479 3,772 3.78 2.27 14,260,000
1946-47 12,000 11,400 408 2,787 6.22 3.73 17,332,000
1947-48 12,200 11,600 490 2,851 3.27 1.96 9,319,000
1948-49 9,600 9,400 576 3,153 5.04 3.02 15,894,000
1949-50 9,750 9,650 670 3,741 3.33 2.00 12,445,000
1950-51 10,900 10,400 662 4,014 3.74 2.24 15,009,000
1951-52 10,550 10,400 697 4,284 3.52 2.11 15,070,000
1952-53 10,200 10,000 647 3,840 3.35 2.01 12,856,000
1953-54 10,900 10,600 690 4,072 2.89 1.73 11,787,000
1954-55 9,200 9,100 767 4,124 3.77 2.26 15,551,000
1955-56 10,400 10,100 660 3,975 2.93 1.76 11,632,000
1956-57 11,200 10,300 633 3,910 3.82 2.29 14,920,000
1957-58 12,100 11,400 475 3,252 5.31 3.19 17,255,000
1958-59 13,800 13,300 574 3,897 2.37 1.42 9,220,000
1959-60 11,900 11,300 615 4,169 2.81 1.69 11,719,000


Source: USDA, Florida Crop and Livestock Re
Crops, Annual Statistical Summary,"


porting Service, "Florida
Vols. VII and XVI, 1951


Vegetable
and 1960.









APPENDIX TABLE 2.--Florida Celery Acreage by Seasons andAreas,Planted and For Harvest, 1951 to 1961.

Ae PLA TILTED
S 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 l 1956 1 1957 1958 1 1959 j 1960 1961a

---------------------------------------------Winter-- ----------------------


lorth Florida
Central Florida
Sarasota
Everglades
Miscellaneous
State Total


lWorth Florida
Central Florida
Sarasota
Everglades
Miscellaneous
State Total


Borth Florida
Central Florida
Sarasota
Everglades
Miscellaneous


60
2,940
800
2,600


2,855
885
2,910


40
2,640
815
2,700


25
2,525
640
2,805


1,790
705
2,790


40
1,690
770
3,800


150
1,700
650
4,100


35
1,840
665
4,760


40
1,645
580
6,235


1,000 ,
375
5,525


900
320
5,080


.... .... 5 5 15 .... .... .... ....... ....
6,400 6,650 6,200 6,000 5,300 6,300 6,600 7,300 8,500 6,900 6,300
------------ ------------------ Spring---------------------------------------


565
2,105
180
1,600
CA


510
1,980
50
1,360


505
1,995
90
1,350
6f0


620
1,910
140
2,215
1 C


575 450
1,560 1,530
55 35
1,700 2,085
in


530
1,655
40
2,375


365
1,785
25
2,625


340
1,520
40
3,400


420
1,310
30
3,240


1,420
50
2,630


4,500 3,900 4,000 4,900 3,900 4,100 4,600 4,800 5,300 5,000 4,100
---------------- ---------------All Seasons---------------------------------------


625
5,045
980
4,200
50


510
4,835
935
4,270


545
4,635
905
4,050
65


645
4,435
780
5,020
20


575
3,350
760
4,490
25


490
3,220
805
5,885


680
3,355
690
6,475


400
3,625
690
7,385


380
3,165
620
9,635


4201
2,310"
405
8,765


2,320
370
7,710


0 .90 10.50 20 10.40 11.20 1 1.8 1
10,900 10,550 10,200 10,900 9,200 10,400 11,200 12,100 13,800 11,900 10,400


State Total







APPENDIX TABLE 2.--Continued

AraFOR HARVEST
Area1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1 956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961a

---------------------------------------- inter-----------------------


Iorth Florida
Central Florida
Sarasota
Everglades
Miscellaneous
State Total


l7orth Florida
Central Florida
Sarasota
Everglades
Miscellaneous
State Total


forth Florida
Central Florida
Sarasota
Everglades
Miscellaneous
State Total


2,850
800
2,550


2,805
885
2,910


40
2,570
785
2,700


25
2,500
640
2,730


1,790
705
2,790


20
1,665
770
3,745


50
1,660
640
3,950


35
1,715
490
4,660


40
1,405
520
6,135


940o
360
5,500


880
320
5,000


.... .... 5 3 .. .. ...... ..... .... ....
6,200 6,600 6,100 5,900 5,300 6,200 6,300 6,900 8,100 6.800 6,200
--.---.. ------ ------ ----------------------Spring-----------------------------------


550
2,000
100
1,550


500
1,960
40
1,300


505
1,945
90
1,350


620
1,910
140
2,015


530
1,550
55
1,655


430
1,530
35
1,905


435
1,640
15
1,910


325
1,550
25
2,600


340


310-L


1,460 1,210J 1,400
... *.... 50
3,400 2,980 2,550


.... .... ~10 U LU .... .... ... ... ****
4,200 3,800 3,900 4,700 3,800 3,900 4,000 4,500 5,200 4,500 4,000
--------- ----------------------------. All Seasons-- ------------------------- -----


550
4,850
900
4,100


500
4,765
925
4,210


545
4,515
875
4,050
15


645
4,410
780
4,745
2n


530
3,340
760
4,445
S1z


450
3,195
805
5,650


485
3,300
655
5,860


360
3,265
515
7,260


380
2,865
520
9,535


3102
2,150s
360
8,480


2,280
370
7,550


10400 10400 10000 10,600 9100 10100 10300 11400 13,300 11,300 10200
10 ,400 10,400 10,000 10,600 9,100 10,100 10,300 11,400 13,300 11,300 10,200


preliminary North and Central Florida combined for reporting purposes only.

Source: USDA, AMS, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, "Florida Vegetable Crops," Vols.VII to XVI,
1951 to 1960.










APPENDIX TABLE 3.--Florida Celery Production by Seasons and Areas, Total and Harvested, 1951 to 1961

TOTAL (Thousand Crates)a
Area
Area 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955- 1956 1957 1958 1 959 1960 1961b

--------------------------- -------------------Wjinter----------------------------------------e---


North Florida
Central Florida
Sarasota
Everglades
Miscellaneous
State Total


ilorth Florida
Central Florida
Sarasota
Everglades
Miscellaneous
State Total


North Florida
Central Florida
Sarasota
Everglades
Miscellaneous


State Total


1,763.8
760.0
1,568.2


1,728.8
712.4
1,848.8


29.0
1,674.8
659.4
1,690.0
r> C)


19.1
1,675.3
576.0
1,799.0
i <:


1,408.3
660.6
2,190.1
'7 0


16.0
1,198.4
700.7
2,321.9


29.3
1,115.9
526.8
2,445.0


23.3
844.1
348.2
2,291.4


22.0
796.4
379.6
3,662.0


617.0
297.0
3,619.0


... o L. 1.O .... U ... *.. -..
4,092.0 4,290.0 4,056.0 4,071.0 4,266.0 4,237.0 4,117.0 3,507.0 4,860.0 4,533.0 4,081.6
-.---------------------- Spring-------------------Sp----


398.7
1,506.0
90.0
798.3


407.5
1,790.7
37.2
728.6


366.1
1,414.6
57.6
573.7


520.8
1,594.4
112.7
1,007.5
7 f-


476.0
1,324.3
42.6
868.9
C 2


322.0
1,202.1
33.3
879.6


312.8
1,307.3
8.4
771.5


211.2 212.5
519.4 860.5
16.6 .
1,165.8 1,700.0


209.0
695.0

1,511.0


2,793.0 2,964.0 2,418.0 3,243.0 2,717.0 2,437.0 2,400.0 1,913.0 2,773.0 2,415.0 2,466.6
----------------- -----------------------All Seasons-------------------- m.---- ---.---


398.7
3,269.8
850.0
2,366.5


407.5
3,519.5
749.6
2,577.4


395.1
3,089.4
717.0
2,263.7
8 8


539.9
3,269.7
688.7
2,806.5
0 9


476.0
2,732.6
703.2
3,059.0
19 29


338.0
2,400.5
734.0
3.201.5


342.1
2,423.2
535.2
3,216.5


234.5
1,363.5
364.8
3,457.2


234.5
1,656.9
379.6
5,362.0


209.0
1,312.0
297.0
5,130.0


...e ... Ue .. e& ... .. w --..-,-
6,885.0 7,254.0 6,474.0 7,314.0 6,9830 6,674.0 6,517.0 5,420.0 7,633.0 6,948.0 6,548.2---
6,885.0O 7,254.0O 6 .474.0 7 ,314.0 6,983. 0 6, 674.0 6,517.0 5 ,420. 0 7,63. 6,4. 6,58.






APPENDIX TABLE 3.--Continued

A r V ARVESTED (Thousand Crates)a
Area 1951 1 1952 1 1953 1954 1 1955 1956 1 1957 1958 1 1959 1960 1961c

--------------------------------------------Winter----------- -----------------
Ilorth Florida ... ... 29.0 19.1 ... 16.0 29.3 23.3 21.6 .
Central Florida 1,752.0 1,675.6 1,636.4 1,609.6 1,408.3 1,198.4 1,115.9 844.1 661.4 617.0
Sarasota 760.0 707.4 652.4 570.9 660.6 700.7 526.8 348.2 297.0 297.0
Everglades 1,428.0 1,817.0 1,687.5 1,799.0 2,190.1 2,321.9 2,445.0 2,291.4 3,298.0 3,619.0
Miscellaneous ... ... 2.7 1.4 7.0 ... ... ... .
State Total 3,940.0 4,200.0 4,008.0 4,000.0 4,266.0 4,237.0 4,117.0 3,507.0 4,278.0 4,533.0
....-------........ -- ---------------------- Spring---------..------ -- ---- -------
North Florida 395.0 407.5 366.1 460.5 427.7 313.9 312.8 211.2 152.0 209.0 .
Central Florida 1,491.0 1,790.7 1,399.1 1,306.6 1,299.2 1,202.2 1,307.3 519.4 749.0 695.0 .
Sarasota 90.0 37.2 57.6 66.8 42.6 33.2 8.4 16.6 ., .. .
Everglades 774.0 705.6 563.2 945.5 832.5 838.7 771.5 1,165.8 1,316.0 1,511.0
Miscellaneous ... ... 5.0 7.6 5.0 ... ... ... ... *** **
State Total 2,750.0 2,941.0 "2,391.0 2,787.0 2,607.0 2,388.0 2,400.0 1,913.0 2,217.0 2,415.0 ..
--------..------------------.------------ All Seasons------------.-. t --- m-------f--
North Florida 395.0 407.5 395.1 479.6 427.7 329.9 342.1 234.5 173.6 209.0 ...
Central Florida 3,243.0 3,466.3 3,035.5 2,916.2 2,707.5 2,400.6 2,423.2 1,363.5 1,410.4 1,312.0
Sarasota 850.0 744.6 710.0 637.7 703.2 733.9 535.2 364.8 297.0 297.0
Everglades 2,202.0 2,522.6 2,250.7 2,744.5 3,022.6 3,160.6 3,216.5 3,457.2 4,614.0 5,130.0
Miscellaneous ... ... 7.7 .9.0 12.0 ... ... ... ... .... *
State Total 6,690.0 7,141.0 6,399.0 6,787.0 6,873.0 6,625.0 6,517.0 5,420.0 6,495.0 6,948.0

aConversion factor 60 pounds or 1.667 crates per cwt.
preliminary area breakdown not available.

cTot available.
Source: USDA, AMS, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, "Florida Vegetable Crops," Vols. VII to XVI.
1951 to 1960.
















APPEIIDIX TABLE 4.--Celery: Monthly F.O.B. Florida Price Per Hundredweight, Five Seasons, 1955-56 to 1959-60,

Year Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Sverase
--------a------------g------------ a per Cwt--- --------- --------
----------------------------------------Dollars per Cwt.---------------------- .. . .


1955-56
1956-57
1957-58
1958-59
1959-60

Total

Average per
cwt.


4.00
3.00 4.40
3.25
4.25
4.15


2.50
3.50
3.10
2.75
2.90


3.00 20.05 14.75 16.20 17.50 15.85 16.55 19.45 21.20 5.00 17.24


3.00


4.01


2.95


4.24 5.00


2.90
4.65
3.45
2.35
2.85


2.60
5.00
4.35
2.20
3.35


2.90
3.15
5.20
2.00
2.60


2.85
2.45
6.90
2.10
2.25


2.90
4.10
7.50
2.30
2.65


5.00
..
S..
S..


4.85
5.70
4.90
2.80
2.95


3.24


2.93
3.82
5.31
2.37
2.81


3.50


3.17


3.31


Source: USDA, AMS, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, "Florida Vegetable Crops," Vol. XVI, 1960, p. 20.


3.89


3.45







Dollars
Per Cwt. 24


6


Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June Jul
Months
FIGURE 1.--Celery: Simple Average Monthly F.O.B. Florida Price Per
Hundredweight, Five Seasons, 1955-56 to 1959-60.

Source: Computed from USDA, AMS, "Florida Vegetable Crops,"
Vol. XVI, 1960, p. 19.


Dollars
Per Cw+rt


1951


1953


1955


1957


1959


Mill
rI.Tt-


y










ion


Years

FIGURE 2.--Celery: Relationship of Total Production and Price in
Florida, 1950-51 to 1959-60.

Source: USDA, AMS, "Florida Vegetable Crops," Vol. XVI, 1960,
p. 19.


A

Total Production /






Price -







A A_.


u..-


---














APPENDIX TABLE 5.--Celery: Florida Season Average Prices, U. S. Average
PARIty Prices and Florida Parity Equivalent Prices by Season, 1955 to 1961.


Commodity


S1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 9a16a


------------------- Dollars Per Cwt.-----------


Celery Winter

U.S. Parity
Florida Parity
Equivalent
Florida Season
Average Price
Percent Florida
Average Price is
of Florida Parity
Equivalent


4.37


4.12 4.29 4.32 4.44 4.40 4.40


3.89 3.73 3.87 3.97 4.33 4.38 4.11

4.15 2.80 4.00 4.60 2.40 2.95 2.75b


75 103


55 67 67b


Celery Spring


U.S. Parity
Florida Parity
Equivalent
Florida Season
Average Price
Percent Florida
Average Price is
of Florida Parity
Equivalent


4.36 4.18 4.32 4.38 4.45 4.42 4.41

4.33 3.98 4.09 4.14 3.93 4.23 4.26

3.15 3.15 3.50 6.60 2.30 2.55 3.555


73 79 86 159


58 60 83b


preliminary.

bEstimated from other sources.

Source: Data from Crop Reporting Board, Agricultural Marketing Service,
U.S. Department of Agriculture.











APPENDIX


TABLE 6.--Celery: Iet Returns Per Crate and Per Hundredweight by Areas,
Florida, 1950-51 to 1956-57.


Season Area
Everglades Oviedo Sanford Sarasota Zellwood
---------------- .-----. Dollars Per Crate ---------------*--------

1950-51 0.190 0.126 0.045 0.340 -0.188
1951-52 .151 .455 .465 .449 .400
1952-53 .085 .009 .656 .663 .053
1953-54 .067 .429 .342 .382 .424
1954-55 .571 .369 .734 .671 a
1955-56 .023 .131 .283 .230 a
1956-57 .268 .506 .450 .405 .389
---------------------------Dollars Per Cwt.-------------------------

1950-51 0.317 0.210 0.075 0.567 -0.313
1951-52 .252 .758 .775 .748 .667
1952-53 .142 .015 -1.094 -1.105 .088
1953-54 .112 .715 .570 .637 .707
1954-55 .952 .615 1.224 1.119 a
1955-56 .038 .218 .472 .383 a
1956-57 .447 .844 .750 .675 .648


alot available.

Source: D. L. Brooke, "Costs and Returns from Vegetable Crops in Florida,"
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, Agricultural Economics Mimeo
Reports, Vols. VI to XII.










APPENDIX TABLE 7.--United States Per Capita Consumption of Selected Vegetables
(Farm Weight Basis), 1945-58.


--------------------------Pounds per Capita-------------------------


1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958


17.4
19.3
19.4
18.7
17.9
18.6
18.5
19.8
19.6
19.5
19.9
20.4
19.6
19.0


8.2
9.1
7.9
8.5
8.2
8.4
8.8
8.6
8.6
8.7
8.6
8.5
8.1
7.6


133.8
129.9
122.4
123.0
115.8
114.6
111.6
111.0
108.3
107.3
104.6
106.9
104.6
101.1


Source: USDA, AMS, "Supplement for 1956 to Consumption of Food in the United
States, 1909-52," Agricultural Handbook Ho. 62, September 1957 and
Supplement for 1958.













APPENDIX TABLE 8.--Celery: Grade and Size Distribution of the 1959-60
Crop,a Florida.

Grade Crates Percentage Size Crates Percentage


U.S. No. 1 1,158,777 93.6 1-1/2 Doz. 13,976 1.1
U.S. No. 2 1,560 .1 2 Doz. 252,193 20.4
93% U.S. No. 1 Quality 3,951 .3 2-1/2 Doz. 321,334 25.9
90% U.S. No. I Quality 2,590 .2 3 Doz. 300,758 24.3
89% U.S. No. 1 Quality 5,062 .4 4 Doz. 243,806 19.7
88% U.S. No. 1 Quality 11,269 .9 6 Doz. 88,451 7.1
87% U.S. No. 1 Quality 447 .. 8 Doz. 17,405 1.4
86% U.S. No. 1 Quality 9,717 .8 10 Doz. 508
85% U.S. No. 1 Quality 12,372 1.0 X 75
80% U.S. No. 1 Quality 24,831 2.0
75% U.S. No. 1 Quality 4,414 .4 1,238,506 99.9
70% U.S. No. 1 Quality 2,850 .2
65% U.S. No. 1 Quality 90
55% U.S. No. 1 Quality 576

1,238,506 99.9


aBased on a spot check
the season.


covering 29.7 percent of the total shipments during


Source: Federal-State Inspection Service, Orlando, Florida.














DLB:ba 7/6/61
Exp. Sta., Ag. Ec. 300




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