• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Sample selection
 Description of orchards
 Production practices
 Other practices and plans
 Harvesting practices
 Marketing practices
 Summary






Group Title: Agricultural economics report - University of Florida Dept. of Agricultural Economics ; no. 62-4
Title: Production and marketing practices of Florida pecan producers
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 Material Information
Title: Production and marketing practices of Florida pecan producers
Physical Description: 19 p. : ; .. cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brooke, D.L
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station. -- Dept. of Agricultural Economics
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1961
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Statement of Responsibility: by D.L. Brooke.
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Sample selection
        Page 1
    Description of orchards
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Production practices
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Other practices and plans
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Harvesting practices
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Marketing practices
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Summary
        Page 18
        Page 19
Full Text




September, 1961


Agricultural Economics Himeo
Report No. 62-4


PRODUCTION AND MARKETING PRACTICES OF
FLORIDA PECAN PRODUCERS



by


Associate


D. L. Brooke
Agricultural Economist


Department of Agricultural Economics
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
Gainesville, Florida


f


A n


4
r **


. .. .. .


036

^*36 hz























TABLE OF CONTENTS


page


Introduction . . ..

Sample Selection . ..


Description of Orchards .


Production Practices . .


Fertilizing . .
Cultural practices .
Insect and disease control
Labor requirements .

Other Practices and Plans .


Grazing . .
Grower plans . .

Harvesting Practices . .

Marketing Practices . .

Crop disposition ..
Buyers . .
Prices . . .

Summary . . .


* S S S S S S

* S S S S S


* S S S S S S


* S 5 5 S S


. .


* S S


* S .
* .


* S S S S
S S S S S

* S S S S


* .











PRODUCTION AND MARKETING PRACTICES OF
FLORIDA PECAN PRODUCERS


by

D. L. Brooke
Associate Agricultural Economist


Introduction

In the spring of 1961 the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Mar-

keting Economics Division, initiated a study of pecan marketing in the

South. As 1 phase of this study several states agreed to cooperate to

the extent of obtaining production and marketing information from pecan

producers. Florida was 1 of the cooperating states. Personal interviews

were held with 100 producers in 5 selected counties in North and West

Florida. A prepared questionnaire was used and all growers interviewed

were asked the same questions regarding their production and marketing

practices.


Sample Selection

Lists of pecan growers were obtained from local pecan buyers and

other sources in each county. These lists, when completed, contained the

names and addresses of all known pecan producers in the county who had

20 or more trees of bearing age. In each case the list contained 80 per-

cent or more of the number of farms reporting pecans in the county as

enumerated by the Census. A sample was drawn from a random start taking

every nth name on the list until 20 names had been selected. To provide

alternates, a second sample was drawn by the same method. Since the lists

1











PRODUCTION AND MARKETING PRACTICES OF
FLORIDA PECAN PRODUCERS


by

D. L. Brooke
Associate Agricultural Economist


Introduction

In the spring of 1961 the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Mar-

keting Economics Division, initiated a study of pecan marketing in the

South. As 1 phase of this study several states agreed to cooperate to

the extent of obtaining production and marketing information from pecan

producers. Florida was 1 of the cooperating states. Personal interviews

were held with 100 producers in 5 selected counties in North and West

Florida. A prepared questionnaire was used and all growers interviewed

were asked the same questions regarding their production and marketing

practices.


Sample Selection

Lists of pecan growers were obtained from local pecan buyers and

other sources in each county. These lists, when completed, contained the

names and addresses of all known pecan producers in the county who had

20 or more trees of bearing age. In each case the list contained 80 per-

cent or more of the number of farms reporting pecans in the county as

enumerated by the Census. A sample was drawn from a random start taking

every nth name on the list until 20 names had been selected. To provide

alternates, a second sample was drawn by the same method. Since the lists

1










from which the sample was drawn were arranged in alphabetical order by

name only and 2 random starts were made, the size and location of orchards

selected were randomized and the chances of selecting orchards belonging

to brothers were minimized. When the sample names could not be contacted,

the next named alternate was used.

Counties selected for study were Alachua, Jackson, Jefferson,

Santa Rosa and Suwannee. These 5 counties in North and West Florida were

selected from among the 10 counties reporting the largest number of farms

having 20 or more pecan trees in the Agricultural Census of 1959. The

completed survey included 11 percent of the improved pecan trees in Florida

and 20 percent of the improved pecan trees in the 5 counties studied

(Table 1).


TABLE.l.--Percent of Trees (Improved Varieties) of all Agesa in Sample by
Counties Surveyed, Florida, 1960-61


Counties Trees in Survey Sample as Percentage
of Trees Reported by Census


Alachua 20.0
Jackson 10.8
Jefferson 30.9
Santa Rosa 15.3
Suwannee 7.7
Five Counties 20.1
State Total 11.4


aAs reported by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
1959 Census of Agriculture Preliminary.


Description of Orchards

The 100 growers interviewed reported a total of 1,449 acres in

pecan orchards. Individual ownership ranged from 1 to 225 acres and










averaged 14.5 acres. Thirty-two percent of the acreage had less than 10

trees per acre; 31 percent, 10 to 15 trees; and 37 percent, 16 or more

trees per acre (Table 2). Average number of trees per acre varied from

9.7 in Jackson County to 16.9 in Alachua County. The 5-county average

was 13.4 trees per acre (Table 3).


TABLE 2.--Acreage and Range in Number of Trees Per Acre in Pecan Orchards,
100 Producers in Selected Counties, Florida, 1960-61


Range in Number of Trees Per Acre
County 0-9.9 10-15.9 16-over Total

Acres
Alachua 65 68 168.5 301.5
Jackson 92.5 117 12 221.5
Jefferson 193 167 297 657.0
Santa Rosa 49.7 74.5 26.5 150.7
Suwannee 61.5 24 32.4 117.9
Total 461.7 450.5 536.4 1448.6a
Percent of
Total 31.9 31.1 37.0 100.0


aAcreage was not always reported for trees scattered around the


farm.


TABLE 3.--Average and Rr.nge in Number of Trees Per Acre in Pecan Orchards,
100 Producers in Selected Counties, Florida, 1960-61


Range in Number of Trees Per Acre Average
County 0-9.9 10-15.9 16-over Per Acre

Average Trees Per Acre
Alachua 9.3 12.8 21.5 16.9
Jackson 5.9 11.9 17.7 9.7
Jefferson 7.4 12.7 19.1 14.0
Santa Rosa 8.0 12.7 19.7 12.4
Suwannee 5.1 12.9 17.0 9.9
Five Counties 7.1 12.5 19.7 13.4










Nearly 15 percent of the trees reported were more than 40 years

old, 39 percent were between 31 and 40 years and about 14 percent were less

than 21 years of age (Table 4). This indicates that new plantings have

been relatively fewer during the past 2 decades than during the 1920's

and 1930's.


TABLE 4.--Percent of Pecan Trees by Age Groups, 100 Producers in Selected
Counties, Florida, 1960-61


Counties

Age of Trees Santa Five
in Years Alachua Jackson Jefferson Rosa Suwannee Counties

Percent of Trees
0-10 5.9 2.5 8.1 10.8 5.9 7.0
11-20 2.3 7.5 9.0 2.1 10.0 6.5
21-30 4.0 16.2 54.2 21.0 32.2 32.2
31-40 52.9 55.6 27.1 55.8 10.4 38.7
41-over 32.9 18.1 .9 10.2 41.5 14.7
Unknown 2.0 .1 .7 .1 .... .9
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0



Ninety-three percent of the trees reported were of bearing age.

This varied among the counties from over 97 percent in Jackson to 89 per-

cent in Santa Rosa County (Table 5). For the State of Florida 92 percent

of the trees reported in 1959 were of bearing age.1 The latter figure

included only improved varieties. Seedling trees were apparently not

enumerated by the Census.

There were 28 different improved variety names reported by pro-

ducers. Of these, the 10 most important varieties accounted for about

three-fourths of all trees in orchards. Stuart and Moore were the 2 most


U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 1959 Census
of Agriculture Preliminary.











important varieties named, followed by Curtis and Money Maker (Table 6).

None of the other improved varieties accounted for more than 5 percent

of the trees. Seedling trees accounted for 15 percent of all trees

reported and ranged from 5 percent in Jefferson to 47 percent of all trees

in Suwannee County.


TABLE 5.--Bearing and Non-Bearing Trees in Pecan Orchards, 100 Producers in
Selected Counties, Florida, 1960-61


Number of Trees Percent of Trees
Counties
Bearing Non-bearing Bearing- Non-bearing

Alachua 4803 297 94.2 5.8
Jackson 2127 54 97.5 2.5
Jefferson 8459 740 92.0 8.0
Santa Rosa 1841 223 89.2 10.8
Suwannee 1255 78 94.1 5.9
Total 18485 1392 93.0 7.0



Production Practices

Fertilizing.--Of the 100 growers interviewed 45 reported the use

of fertilizer for pecan trees alone. These growers fertilized 767 acres

or nearly 53 percent of the land reported in orchards. A commercially

mixed complete fertilizer2 was applied by 36 producers at an average rate

of 650 pounds per acre to 78 percent of the orchard land fertilized

(Table 7). The proportion of the acreage receiving a complete fertilizer

varied little by counties. Other fertilizers used for pecan trees

included potash and phosphorous, nitrogen, manure and lime. Five growers

applied zinc sulfate on 99 acres for correction of a nutritional deficiency.


2Commercial mixtures ranged from 4-8-6 to 8-12-12. A 4-12-12
mixture was reported most often by growers.












Most orchards had some kind of cover crop, ranging from native

grasses to clover, oats, lupines and improved pasture grasses. Some of

the fertilizer applied to cover crops in orchards also benefits the trees.


TABLE 6.--Percent of Pecan Trees by Variety, 100 Producers in Selected
Counties, Florida, 1960-61


Counties
Variety
Santa Five
Alachua Jackson Jefferson Rosa Suwannee Counties

Percent
Stuart 10.5 27.5 10.5 58.1 18.6 17.8
Moore .... .4 37.6 1.2 1.9 17.7
Curtis 45.4 .... .3 .1 2.8 12.0
Money Maker 1.3 13.5 16.1 .2 7.6 9.8
Schley 3.0 18.6 1.6 2.6 6.4 4.3
Mahan .3 4.8 6.9 .1 .4 3.8
Success 3.5 .3 .6 10.1 .3 2.2
Kennedy 7.6 .... .... .... .... 2.0
Van Deman 1.5 5.7 .2 .4 7.0 1.6
Elliott .... .1 2.9 1.9 .... 1.6
Other improved 11.4 2.5 18.2a 1.8 8.2 12.3
Seedling 15.5 26.6 5.1 23.5 46.8 14.9
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0


a9.9 percent were Stuart,
Exact number of each unknown.


Schley, Curtis, Mahan and Waukeenah.


Twenty growers applied fertilizer to cover crops on 569 orchard

acres. A commercially mixed complete fertilizer was applied to orchard

cover crops by 16 growers covering 55 percent of the orchard cover crop

acres fertilized. Nitrogen alone was applied to 93 acres of cover crops

in orchards (Table 8).

One-half of all growers interviewed had applied a complete fer-

tilizer to nearly 86 percent of the acreage receiving some form of











TABLE 7.--Fertilizing Practices on Pecan Orchards, 100 Producers in
Selected Counties, Florida, 1960-61


Application
Type of Fertilizer Growers Acreage Proportion of Average Rate
Acreage Covered Per Acre


Number Acres


Commercially mixed
Potash and phosphorous
Zinc sulfate
Manure
Total

Commercially mixed
Potash and phosphorous
Potash
Nitrogen
Zinc sulfate
Lime
Total

Commercially mixed
Lime
Total

Commercially mixed
Potash
Nitrogen
Total

Commercially mixed
Potash and phosphorous
Zinc sulfate
Lime
Total

Commercially mixed
Eptash and phosphorous
Potash
Nitrogen
Zinc sulfate
Manure
Lime
Total


9
1
2
2
.11

9
1
I
4
2
I
11


148.0
20.0
83.0
35.0
183.0

65.0
12.0
3.0
16.0
10.0
6.0
80.0

307.0
200.0
407.0

38.0
10.0
3.0
51.0

37.4
6.0
6.0
14.9
45.9

595.4
38.0
13.0
19.0
99.0
35.0
220.9
766.9


Percenta
Alachua
80.9
10.9
45.4
19.1
100.0
Jackson
81.2
15.0
3.8
20.0
12.5
7.5
100.0
Jefferson
75.4
49.1
100.0
Santa Rosa
74.5
19.6
5.9
100.0
Suwannee
81.5
13.1
13.1
32.5
100.0
Five Counties
77.6
5.0
1.7
2.5
12.9
4.6
28.8
100.0


Pounds


857
800
108
2000


456
900
600
164
48
4000


579
2000
.V..

754
150
200
..c.

641
354
16
2047


650
761
254
170
96
2000
2057
*...


aWill add to more than 100 percent because some growers used more
than one kind.










TABLE 8.--Fertilizer Practices on Pecan Orchard Cover Crops, 100 Producers
in Selected Counties, Florida, 1960-61


Application
Type of Fertilizer Application
Growers Acreage Proportion of Average Rate
Acreage Covered Per Acre


Number Acres


77.0
30.0
87.0

91.0
53.0
91.0


Commercially mixed
Nitrogen
Total

Commercially mixed
Nitrogen
Total

Commercially mixed
Potash and phosphorous
Total

Commercially mixed
Nitrogen
Manure
Total

Commercially mixed
Total

Commercially mixed
Potash and phosphorous
Nitrogen
Manure
Total


49.0
225.0
274.0

66.7
10.0
10.0
86.7

30.0
30.0

313.7
225.0
93.0
10.0
568.7


Percent
Alachua
88.5
34.5
100.0
Jackson
100.0
58.2
100.0
Jefferson
17.9
82.1
100.0
Santa Rosa
76.9
11.5
11.6
100.0
Suwannee
100.0
100.0
Five Counties
55.2
39.6
16.4
1.8
100.0


will add to more than 100 percent because some growers used more
than one kind.


fertilizer. However, only 73 percent of the orchard acres received a

fertilizer material. The growers who applied a fertilizer were then,

generally, the larger-sized orchard owners. Alachua and Jackson

Counties had proportionally more growers using fertilizer materials on


Pounds


704
267


566
150


337
400


478
300
6000


400


530
400
204
6000
....












orchards and cover crops than the other counties (Table 9). Alachua

County growers made heavier than average per acre applications of fer-

tilizer than growers in other counties.

Cultural practices.--The most commonly practiced item of culture

on pecan orchards was discing. Sixty-four growers disced 70 percent of

the acreage in orchards. In addition, 19 percent of the cover crop

acreage in orchards was disced (Table 10). Pruning trees and removing

pruned wood were second in importance among grower practices. Twelve

growers plowed in orchards and 13 growers plowed orchard cover crops.

Only 1 grower hoed around trees and 1 grower irrigated the orchard.

Insect and disease control.--Florida growers performed very little

insect and disease control work on pecan orchards. Eleven growers treated

some part of the pecan orchard. Of those, 9 sprayed trees and 2 used

dust (Table 11). Less than 30 percent of the acreage covered in the

survey was treated for insects or diseases. However, during the inter-

views many growers expressed a desire to have their orchards treated.

Most realized that the purchase of adequate equipment for insect and

disease control work was not economical for each grower. Several expressed

the need for and their willingness to use a commercial or cooperative

spraying service for pecan orchards. Two growers in Alachua and 1 grower

in Jackson County had hired a commerical spray service. One grower in

Santa Rosa County had hired aerial spraying on his orchard.

Scab control was reported as 1 reason for treating 90 percent of

the acreage sprayed or dusted. Control of caterpillar worms was reported

on over one-fourth of the acreage (Table 12). A moss control program was

underway in Suwannee County. Bordeaux mixture which is effective against











TABLE 9.--Fertilizing Practices on Pecan Trees and Orchard Cover Crops,
100 Producers in Selected Counties, Florida, 1960-61


Application
Type of Fertilizer
Growers Acreage Proportion of Average Rate
Acreage Covered Per Acre


Number


Commercially mixed
Potash and phosphorous
Nitrogen
Zinc sulfate
Manure
Total

Commercially mixed
Potash and phosphorous
Potash
Nitrogen
Zinc sulfate
Lime
Total

Commercially mixed
Potash and phosphorous
Lime
Total

Commercially mixed
Potash
Nitrogen
Manure
Total


Commercially mixed
Potash and phosphorous
Zinc sulfate
Lime
Total

Commercially mixed
Potash and phosphorous
Potash
Nitrogen
Zinc sulfate
Manure
Lime
Total


Acres

215.0
20.0
30.0
83.0
35.0
240.0

156.0
12.0
3.0
69.0
10.0
6.0
171.0

356.0
225.0
200.0
456.0

104.7
10.0
13.0
10.0
107.7

67.4
6.0
6.0
14.9
75.9

899.1
263.0
13.0
112.0
99.0
45.0
220.9
1050.6


Percent
Alachua
89.6
8.3
12.5
34.6
14.6
100.0
Jackson
91.2
7.0
1.8
40.4
5.8
3.5
100.0
Jefferson
78.1
49.3
43.9
100.0
Santa Rosa
97.2
9.3
12.1
9.3
100.0
Suwannee
88.8
7.9
7.9
19.6
100.0
Five Counties
85.6
25.0
1.2
10.7
9.4
4.3
21.0
100.0


kind.


Pounds


842
800
267
108
2000


520
900
600
153
48
4000


546
400
2000


578
150
277
6000



534
354
16
2047


615
452
254
198
96
2889
2057
*....


aWill add to more than 100 because some growers used more than one


--











TABLE 10.--Cultural Practices on Pecan Orchards and Orchard Cover Crops,
100 Producers in Selected Counties, Florida, 1960-61


Number of Number of Proportion of
Cultural Practice
Growers Acres Acreage Covered

Percent
Orchard:
Pruning 26 426.0 29.4
Removing pruned wood 28 318.1 22.0
Plowing 12 207.2 14.3
Discing 64 1018.4 70.3
Mowing 9 89.0 6.1
Hoeing 1 10.0 .7
Mossing trees 1 10.0 .7
Irrigating 1 8.0 .6
Total 142 1448.6 100.0

Cover drop:

Seeding 25 556.4 38.4
Plowing 13 130.1 9.0
Discing 20 274.7 19.0
Cultivating 3 69.0 4.8
Total 61 1448.6 100.0


aMay add to more than 100 percent
may have been performed on each acre.


because more than one practice


TABLE 11.--Insect and Disease Control Practices on Pecan Orchards, 100
Producers in Selected Counties, Florida, 1960-61


Item Number

Total producers 100
Total acreage of pecans 1448.6
Total producers who treated some part of orchard 11
Spray 9
Dust 2
Total acreage treated 417.0
Percent of acreage treated 28.8












TABLE 12.--Purpose of Treating Pecan Orchards, 100 Producers in Selected
Counties, Florida, 1960-61


Purpose Acreage Proportion of
Acreage Sprayed

Acresa Percenta
Blight 8 1.9
Scab 374 90.0
Caterpillar worms 109 26.1
Moss 91 21.8
Total acreage treated 417 100.0


aWill add to more than total acreage treated because some growers
treated the same acreage more than once.


scab will also kill moss. Zerlate was used as a spray to control scab

and other diseases. Toxaphene and DDT, as a spray and a dust respectively,

were used for insect control,

Labor requirements.--Labor requirements in hours per acre for the

most commonly practiced cultural operations in pecan orchards and on

cover crops in orchards are shown in Table 13. Annual requirements may

be approximated by adding man and tractor hours per acre for the cultural

items performed on the orchard and its cover crop. Growers who fertilized,

disced, pruned and removed pruned wood used 4.8 man-hours and 2.7 tractor-

hours per acre. Seeding, fertilizing and discing cover crops required

2.7 man-hours and 2.2 tractor-hours per acre.


Other Practices.and Plans

Grazing.--More than one-half of the growers reported livestock

grazing all or part-time on 64 percent of the orchard acreage (Table 14).

Santa Rosa County growers reported 88 percent and Alachua County growers












29 percent of the pecan acreage used for grazing. In most instances,

other acreage of pasture was also available to the animals and only 2

growers would make any estimate of the rate of gain for livestock on

orchard pasture.


TABLE 13.--Labor Requirements in Pecan Orchardsa in Hours Per Acre, 100
Producers in Selected Counties, Florida, 1960-61


Five Counties

Item Growers Hours per Acre
Reporting Man Tractor


Pecan Orchard:

Pruning 26 1.6
Removing wood 28 1.0 1.0
Plowing 12 1.6 1.6
Fertilizing 47 1.1 .6
Discing 64 1.1 1.1
Spraying 11 .6 .6
Mowing 9 2.1 2.1

Cover Crop:

Seeding 25 .7 .7
Plowing 13 1.7 1.7
Fertilizing 20 1.1 .6
Discing 20 .9 .9


80ther than harvesting labor.


Grower plAns.--Only 8 growers planned to remove pecan trees and

11 had definite plans for planting young trees (Table 15). Growers in

Jackson and Santa Rosa Counties planned to plant the larger number of

trees. Alachua and Jackson County growers had definite plans for removal

of only 20 trees. Four growers in other counties planned to remove some

trees but declined to give the number. Two growers were undecided about








14



removing trees and 6 not sure of planting plans. If all those growers who

had definite plans of action for the next 2 years followed through with

those plans, a net number of 983 trees would be added to the sample. This

is a change of less than 2.5 percent per year assuming all young trees

survived.


TABLE 14.--Livestock Grazing in Pecan Orchards, 100 Producers in Selected
Counties, Florida, 1960-61


County Growers Acres Percent of
Total Acreage

Alachua 11 87.5 29.0
Jackson 9 156.5 70.7
Jefferson 12 473.0 72.0
Santa Rosa 14 133.2 88.4
Suwannee 9 74.4 62.1
Five Counties 55 924.6 63.8



Harvesting Practices

Growers reporting the use of mechanical shaking or hand-shaking

methods for removal of pecans from the trees were operating the larger

orchards. Eighteen percent of the acreage was harvested with mechanical

shakers and hand pickers and 8 percent by hand-shaking and picking

(Table 16). When asked about mechanical shaking many growers replied,

"damages the trees too much." To a similar question on hand-shaking typical

replies were "dangerous in tall trees"; "1 injury would cost more than the

pecans would sell for"; "labor is too expensive." As shown in the table,

the vast majority of growers preferred to pick up pecans after they had

fallen by natural means. Perhaps 1 reason for this was the use of family

and otherwise unemployable labor for pecan harvesting. Few growers would












TABLE 15.--Grower Plans for Planting or Removing of Pecan Trees, 100
Producers in Selected Counties, Florida, 1960-61


Growers Planning to

Remove Trees Plant Trees
County ... ....
Yes No Not Yes No Not
Sure Sure

Alachua 2 18 .... 2 18 ...
Jackson 2 18 ... 4 16 ....
Jefferson 1 18 1 1 15 4
Santa Rosa 1 19 .... 1 19 ....
Suwannee 2 17 1 3 15 2
Five Counties 8 90 2 11 83 6

Number of Trees to be
Removed Planted
Alachua 5 13
Jackson 15 750
Jefferson .. 40
Santa Rosa .. 170
Suwannee.. 30
Five Counties 20 1003

Percent of all trees
in sample 0.1 5.0


TABLE 16.--Methods of


Harvesting Pecans, 100 Producers in Selected Counties,
Florida, 1960-61


Acres Per Proportion
Method Growers Acreage Grower of Acreage


Mechanical shaking 5 262.5 52.5 18.1
Hand-shaking 4 118.0 29.5 8.1
Fall naturally 91 1068.1 11.7 73.8
Total or Average 100 1448.6 14.5 100.0


picking up pecans by hand or with hand-operated pecan picker.











estimate the man-hours required to harvest pecans. Many, however, reported

harvesting on shares with the children, neighbors or hired-hands' families.

Others reported paying 3 to 5 cents per pound for picking up pecans by

hand.


Marketing Practices

Crop disposition.--Of the 109,579 pounds of improved and seedling

pecans reported by sample growers for 1960, 91 percent was sold at whole-

sale, 0.5 percent at retail, 3 percent was on hand in March, 1961, and

5.5 percent had been given away or used in the home (Table 17).


TABLE 17.--Disposition of 1960 Pecan Crop, 100 Producers in Selected
Counties, Florida, 1960-61

Disposition in Pounds
County Used at Given On Sold
Home Away Hand Retail Wholesale Total

Alachua 60 ... ... ... ... 60
Jackson 970 645 75 240 32,708 34,638
Jefferson 895 1,710 3,395 ... 43,800 49,800
Santa Rosa 615 656 ... 269 22,146 23,686
Suwannee 315 149 50 ... 881 1,395
Total 2,855 3,160 3,520 509 99,535 109,579
Percent 2.6 2.9 3.2 .5 90.8 100.0



Buyers.--Because of the locally short crop, it was perhaps a good

year for the pecan station dealer. Of the 47 producers who reported

wholesale sales 73 percent were to dealers and 19 percent to truckers.

Cooperatives would normally be expected to handle a larger percentage of

the crop than is indicated in Table 18.

Prices.-Weighted average wholesale prices by varieties as

reported by growers are shown in Table 19. Prices ranged from 23.5 cents







17



per pound for Money Makers to 37.5 cents for Schleys. Prices for 3 of the

improved varieties were lower than the average price received for seedlings.

Average prices by variety varied by as much as 5 cents per pound among the

counties surveyed.


TABLE 18.--Type of Buyer Used in Selling Pecans,
Wholesale in 1960-61


47 Producers Who Sold at


Growers
Type Buyer .... ... ...
Number Percent

Dealer 34 72.3
Trucker 9 19.2
Cooperative 4 8.5
Total 47 100.0


TABLE 19.--Wholesale Prices Received for Pecans by Varieties, 100 Producers
in Selected Counties, Florida, 1960 Crop


County
Variety Jackson Jefferson Santa Suwannee All
Rosa Counties

Average Price Per Pound (Cents)

Curtis .... .... 34.0 .... 34.0
Lacy .... 25,0 .... .... 25.0
Mahan 30.0 .... .... ... 30.0
Money Maker 23.0 25.0 26.5 .... 23.5
Moore .... 31.0 .... .... 31.0
President 32.0 .... .... .... 32.0
Schley 37.5 .... .... .... 37.5
Stuart 35.7 35.7 36.7.... 36.1
Success .... .... 28.5 .... 28.5
Van Deman 30.0 .... .... .... 30.0
Waukeenah .... 31.0 .... .... 31.0
Improved (mixed) 30.0 29.8 34.8 .... 30.7
Seedling 30.3 27.4 30.7 25.0 29.5












Summary

In the spring of 1961, a study of pecan production and marketing

practices was undertaken in 5 major producing counties of Florida in

cooperation with a larger study being conducted by the Marketing Economics

Division of the United States Department of Agriculture. A random sample

of 20 growers in each of the counties of Alachua, Jackson, Jefferson,

Santa Rosa and Suwannee was interviewed by representatives of the Florida

Agricultural Experiment Stations, Department of Agricultural Economics.

The completed survey included 11 percent of the pecan trees

(improved varieties) in Florida and 20 percent of the trees in the 5

counties.

Orchards ranged in size from 1 to 225 acres and averaged 14.5 acres

per grower. There was an average of 13.4 trees per acre in the 5 counties

studied and 93 percent of the trees were of bearing age. Plantings of

young trees have been relatively fewer during the past 2 decades than

during the 1920's and 1930's.

Of the 28 different improved varieties reported by growers the 10

most important accounted for about three-fourths of all trees in orchards.

Stuart, Moore, Curtis and Money Maker were the varieties reported most

often. Seedlings accounted for 15 percent of all trees reported.

One-half of the growers interviewed had applied a complete com-

mercial fertilizer to their orchards or cover crops in orchards. Nearly

86 percent of the acreage received some form of fertilizer. More large

than small growers used fertilizer.

Seventy percent of the acreage in orchards and 19 percent of the

cover crop acreage in orchards were disced one or more times.












Only 11 growers performed insect and disease control measures on

pecan orchards and less than 30 percent of the acreage was covered.

Growers expressed a desire for commercial or cooperative insect and

disease control service in orchards.

More than 60 percent of all orchard acres were used for livestock

grazing all or part of the time.

Florida pecan growers apparently prefer picking up pecans as they

fall from natural causes over the use of mechanical or hand-shaking

methods.

Of the pecans harvested by sampled growers in 1960, 91 percent

was sold at wholesale to local pecan station buyers and truckers.

Weighted average prices reported by growers ranged from 23.5 cents

per pound for Money Makers to 37.5 cents per pound for Schleys.




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