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Group Title: Agricultural economics report - University of Florida Dept. of Agricultural Economics ; 63-11
Title: The Market status of Florida vine-ripened tomatoes
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074605/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Market status of Florida vine-ripened tomatoes
Series Title: Agricultural economics report
Physical Description: 27 p. : ; .. cm.
Language: English
Creator: Manley, W. T.
Godwin, M. R.
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station. -- Dept. of Agricultural Economics
Publisher: University of Florida. Dept. of Agricultural Economics
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1963
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Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
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Statement of Responsibility: by W.T. Manley, and M.R. Godwin.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00074605
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 67642539
clc - 000474555

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Preface
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
    Statistical tables
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
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        Page 26
        Page 27
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CONTENTS


Page

PREFACE ............................................................ iv

LOCATION OF FIRMS INCLUDED IN STUDY
Figure 1. Location of firms included in study classified as repackers and
nonrepackers ........................................................ vii

STATISTICAL TABLES
TABLE 1 .--Classification of firms interviewed by type of business and
geographic location.............................. .......................... 1

TABLE 2.--Proportion of vine-ripened and mature green tomatoes handled
by geographic location of firm, 1960--61 marketing season ....... ......... 2

TABLE 3.--Proportion of vine-ripened and mature green tomatoes handled
by type of business, 1960-61 marketing season............................ 3

TABLE 4.--Comparison of volumes of vine-ripened tomatoes handled by
firms in three geographic regions during 1959-60 and 1960-61 marketing
seasons............................................................. 4

TABLE 5.--Comparison of volumes of vine-ripened tomatoes handled by
firms during 1959-60 and 1960-61 marketing seasons by type of
business .................................................................. 5

TABLE 6.--Opinions of terminal receivers about anticipated volumes of
vine-ripened tomatoes to be handled in future marketing seasons by
geographic location of firms....... ........... ......... ............ ...... 6

TABLE 7.--Opinions of terminal receivers about anticipated volumes of
vine-ripened tomatoes to be handled in future marketing seasons by
type of business ....................................................... 7













CONTENTS. --Continued


Page

TABLE 8.--Terms on which terminal receivers purchased vine-ripened
tomatoes by geographic location of firms ................................ 8

TABLE 9.--Terms on which terminal receivers purchased vine-ripened
tomatoes by type of business ........................................... 9

TABLE 10.--Length of time vine-ripened tomatoes were usually stored by
terminal receivers by type of business .................................... 10

TABLE 11 .--Incidence of necessity for reprocessing of vine-ripened tomatoes
by terminal receivers by geographic location............................. 11

TABLE 12.--Incidence of necessity for reprocessing of vine-ripened tomatoes
by terminal receivers by type of business ................................ 12

TABLE 13.--Reasons given by terminal receivers for reprocessing vine-
ripened tomatoes by geographic area ..................................... 13

TABLE 14.--Comparison of spoilage losses for vine-ripened and mature
green tomatoes among terminal market handlers by geographic area........... 14

TABLE 15.--Type of shipment by which terminal handlers received vine-
ripened tomatoes by geographic location of firms .......................... 15

TABLE 16.--Type of shipment by which terminal handlers received vine-
ripened tomatoes by type of business .................................. 16

TABLE 17.--Opinions of terminal receivers about effectiveness of pro-
motional activities in expanding market for vine-ripened tomatoes by
geographic area ................ ..................................... 17

TABLE 18.--Opinions of terminal receivers about adequacy of grading
system for vine-ripened tomatoes.............. ....... ............ ... 18













CONTENTS.--Continued



Page

TABLE 19.--Responses of terminal receivers as to whether supplies of
vine-ripened tomatoes were adequate to meet market demands............... 19

TABLE 20.--Responses of terminal receivers as to whether quality levels
of vine-ripened tomatoes were adequate to meet market demands............ 20

TABLE 21 .--Incidence of quality and color variations within shipments and
packs of vine-ripened tomatoes received by terminal market handlers.......... 21

TABLE 22.--Opinions of terminal handlers about quality of vine-ripened
tomatoes classified by type of business.................................. 22

TABLE 23.--Opinions of terminal receivers about ability of consumers to
discern differences between vine-ripened and mature green tomatoes ......... 23

TABLE 24.--Grade preferences of terminal receivers for vine-ripened
tomatoes classified by geographic location of firm ......................... 24

TABLE 25.--Recommendations of terminal receivers for improved practices
to increase efficiency in marketing vine-ripened tomatoes ............... 25 -26

TABLE 26.--Opinions of terminal receivers about future volumes of ship-
ments of vine-ripened tomatoes ........................................ 27









Preface


Of the numerous vegetable crops grown in Florida, tomatoes rank first in terms

of cash receipts to growers. The farm value of tomatoes produced in Florida during

the 1960-61 season amounted to about 49 million dollars, or almost one-third of the

total cash receipts from truck crops.

Prior to 1950, practically allof the crop that moved in interstate trade channels

was shipped in a mature green stage. However, the practice of shipping vine-ripened

tomatoes has become increasingly important during the past decade. During the 1958-

59 season, about 10 percent of the cropwas marketed as vine-ripened. This proportion

has increased substantially during subsequent seasons.

Several factors account for the interest in marketing vine-ripened tomatoes.

For the most part, they are packaged in units that lend themselves to direct handling

by retailers which eliminates the necessity for extensive storage and repackaging in

the terminal markets. In addition, it is assumed by many that consumers regard vine-

ripened tomatoes as superior in quality to mature green tomatoes, although thisassump-

tion has not been confirmed. Because of these and other apparent advantages, vine-

ripened tomato shipments have increased considerably and have created significant

changes in marketing structure and practices for fresh tomatoes during the winter

months.

The practice of shipping vine-ripened tomatoes has created several problems








in the distribution process. The source of these problems is not unique to any partic-

ular segment of the marketing system but can be found at the shipping point, in

transportation, and at the terminal market level.

This study was made to examine the impact of increased shipments of vine-

ripened tomatoes on the market structure for fresh tomatoes, to enumerate the market-

ing problems that can be ascribed to these increased shipments, and to evaluate these

problems in terms of alternative policies and practices that may assist the industry in

improving marketing outlets and marketing efficiency.

Information relative to these objectives was obtained by personal interviews

with management personnel of a selected cross section of terminal market handlers of

vine-ripened tomatoes. These receiverswere questioned intensivelyabout the impact

of vine-ripened tomatoes on their business operations. Specifically, they were asked

about (a) organizational characteristics of firms, (b) operational procedures, (c) selling

and merchandising practices, (d) problems encountered in marketing, and(e) reactions

to increased shipments of vine-ripened fruit. The study is based upon the trade

reactions obtained in 27 terminal markets in the eastern half of the United States.

In these markets a total of 46 tomato marketing firms were selected for interviews.

The sample firms included 24 tomato repackers, 18 of which specialized in this

operation and 6 of which combined repacking activities with other fresh produce

operations. The remaining 22 sample firms included wholesale receivers, service

wholesalers, wholesale grocers, and commission merchants. These firms generally









handled an assortment of fresh fruit and vegetable items, including vine-ripened

tomatoes, and did not possess the specialized equipment and facilities typical of

repacking operators. In selecting representative firms to be interviewed, only those

known to handle vine-ripened tomatoes were considered.

A narrative report of the results of this study is presented in Florida Agri-

cultural Experiment Station Circular S-147 entitled" Marketing Florida Vine-ripened

Tomatoes--An Appraisal by Terminal Market Handlers" In this circular emphasis

was placed upon the identification of the relevant findings and upon examining the

economic implications of these from the standpoint of the Florida tomato industry.

Detailed statistics collected during the course of the field investigations were delib-

erately omitted in the interest of brevity and effective presentation. However, many

in the Florida tomato industry may desire to examine the market status of vine-ripened

tomatoes in some detail, or may wish to investigate certain facets of the problem

intensively. To provide the basic data for such investigations is the purpose of this

report. It contains the detail statistical data produced by the research effort. To

facilitate the use of the data, a brief statement has been prepared to point out the

most important aspects of each tabulation.











































o Repackers

* Non-Repackers


Figure 1 Location of firms included in study classified
as repackers and non-repackers.













TABLE 1 .--Classification of firms interviewed by type of business and geographic
location.




Geographic Area
Type of Business Total

South Midwest East


No. Pct. No. Pct. No. Pct. No. Pct.

Tomato repacker 10 71 7 50 7 39 24 52

No repacking facilities 4 29 7 50 11 61 22 48

Total number of firms 14 100 14 100 18 100 46 100


COMMENT



Forty-six terminal handlers of vine-ripened tomatoes in 27 markets

were contacted. The total number of firms was about equally dis-

tributed among the eastern, midwestern, and southern regions of the

United States.












TABLE 2.--Proportion of vine-ripened and mature green tomatoes handled by
geographic location of firm, 1960-61 marketing season.




Geographic Area

Proportion Handled Total
South Midwest East


No. Pct. No. Pct. No. Pct. No. Pct.

More vine-ripened 9 64 8 57 11 61 28 61

More mature green 5 36 4 29 7 39 16 35

Same amount -- 1 7 -- 1 2

No information -- 1 7 -- 1 2

Total number of firms 14 100 14 100 18 100 46 100


COMMENT



Of the firms included in this study, 61 percent handled more vine-

ripened than mature green tomatoes during the 1960-61 marketing

season. The percentage offirms handling larger proportion of vine-

ripened fruit was about the same for all geographic regions of the

eastern United States.











TABLE 3.--Proportion of vine-ripened and mature green tomatoes handled by type
of business, 1960-61 marketing season.




Type of Business

Proportion Handled Total
Tomato Repacker No Repacking
Facilities


No. Pct. No. Pct. No. Pct.

More vine-ripened 10 42 18 82 28 61

More mature green 12 50 4 18 16 35

Same amount 1 4 -- 1 2

No information 1 4 -- 1 2

Total number of firms 24 100 22 100 46 100


COMMENT



Practically all firms not having repacking facilities handled a

larger proportion of vine-ripened fruit. However, this was true

for only half of the firms having repacking facilities.












TABLE 4.--Comparison of volumes of vine-ripened tomatoes handled by firms in three
geographic regions during the 1959-60 and 1960-61 marketing seasons.




Geographic Area
Comparison of Volumes
Handled Total
South Midwest East


No. Pct. No. Pct. No. Pct. No. Pct.

More vine-ripened in
1960-61 7 50 10 71 8 45 25 54

More vine-ripened in
1959-60 3 21 -- 4 22 7 15

Same volume for both
seasons 4 29 4 29 6 33 14 31

Total number of firms 14 100 14 100 18 100 46 100


COMMENT



In genera firms reported an increase in the volume of vine-ripened

tomatoes handled. Only 15 percent reported handling a smaller

volume during the 1960-61 season than during the 1959-60season.

The trend toward increases of vine-ripened fruit was most evident

in the midwestern part of the country.












TABLE 5.--Comparison of volumes of vine-ripened tomatoes handled by firms during
1959-60 and 1960-61 marketing seasons by type of business.




Type of Business
Comparison of Volumes Total
Handled
Tomato Repacker No Repacking
Facilities


No. Pct. No. Pct. No. Pct.

More vine-ripened in
1960-61 11 46 14 64 25 54

More vine-ripened in
1959-60 4 17 3 13 7 15

Same volume for both
seasons 9 37 5 23 14 31

Total number of firms 24 100 22 100 46 100


COMMENT



Forty-six per cent of the firms having repacking facilities reported

increases in sales volumes of vine-ripened fruit as compared to 64

percent of the firms having no repacking facilities.












TABLE 6.--Opinions of terminal receivers about anticipated volumes of vine-ripened
tomatoes to be handled in future marketing seasons by geographic location
of firms.




Geographic Area
Anticipated Volume Total

South Midwest East


No. Pct. No. Pct. No. Pct. No. Pct.

More vine-ripened in
future 9 64 9 64 9 50 27 59

Less vine-ripened in
future 2 14 1 7 1 6 4 9

Same volume in future
as now 3 22 4 29 8 44 15 32

Total number of firms 14 100 14 100 18 100 46 100


COMMENT



In over half of the cases, firms anticipated an increased volume of

vine-ripened tomatoes in future years. This opinion was about

equally dominant in all three regions of the eastern United States.












TABLE 7.--Opinions of terminal receivers about anticipated volumes of vine-ripened
tomatoes to be handled in future marketing seasons by type of business.




Type of Business
Anticipated Volume Total

Tomato Repacker No Repacking
Facilities


No. Pct. No. Pct. No. Pct.

More vine-ripened in
future 13 54 14 64 27 59

Less vine-ripened in
future 1 4 3 13 4 9

Same volume in future
as now 10 42 5 23 15 32

Total number of firms 24 100 22 100 46 100


COMMENT



The proportion of firms not having repacking facilities that believed

they would handle an increased volume of vine-ripened fruit in

future years was only slightly greater than the proportion having

repacking facilities.












TABLE 8.--Terms on which terminal receivers purchased vine-ripened tomatoes by
geographic location of firms.




Geographic Area

Terms of Purchase Total
South Midwest East


No. Pct. No. Pct. No. Pct. No. Pct.

F.o.b. 14 100 3 22 8 44 25 54

Consignment -- 9 64 7 39 16 35

Combination of f.o.b.
and consignment -- -- 2 14 3 17 5 11

Total number of firms 14 100 14 100 18 100 46 100


COMMENT



The importance of consigned sales of vine-ripened tomatoes is

indicated by the fact that 35 percent of the firms in this study

operated exclusively on a consignment basis. Consigned saleswere

more important in the Midwest than in either the East or the South.











TABLE 9.--Terms on which terminal receivers purchased vine-ripened tomatoes
by type of business.



Type of Business

Terms of Purchase Total
Tomato Repacker No Repacking
Facilities


No. Pct. No. Pct. No. Pct.

F.o.b. 15 62 10 45 25 54

Consignment 5 21 11 50 16 35

Combination of f.o.b.
and consignment 4 17 1 5 5 11

Total number of firms 24 100 22 100 46 100


COMMENT



Only a small proportion of tomato repackers had handled vine-

ripened tomatoes on a consigned basis.












TABLE 10.--Length of time vine-ripened tomatoes were usually stored by terminal
receivers by type of business.




Type of Business

Usual Storage Time Total
Tomato Repacker No Repacking
Facilities


No. Pct. No. Pct. No. Pct.

One day 1 4 1 4 2 4

1-2 days 5 21 7 32 12 26

2-3 days 11 46 9 41 20 44

3-4 days 2 8 2 9 4 9

Over 4 days 2 8 1 5 3 6

No information 3 13 2 9 5 11

Total number of firms 24 100 22 100 46 100


COMMENT



Almost half, or 44 percent, of the firms estimated the usual storage

time for vine-ripened tomatoes at two to three days. There were

only small differences in storage time between handlers with

repacking facilities and those without repacking facilities.












TABLE 11 .--ncidence of necessity for reprocessing of vine-ripened tomatoes by
terminal receivers by geographic location.




Geographic Area
Necessity for Total
Reprocessing
South Midwest East


No. Pct. No. Pct. No. Pct. No. Pct.

Existed 5 36 10 71 10 56 25 54

Did not exist 9 64 4 29 7 39 20 44

No information 1 5 1 2

Total number of firms 14 100 14 100 18 100 46 100


COMMENT



Over one-half of the firms reported the necessity for reprocessing

vine-ripened tomatoes after receiving them from the shipping point.

The need for reprocessing existed most in the midwestern region of

the country.











TABLE 12.--lncidence of necessity for reprocessing of vine-ripened tomatoes by
terminal receivers by type of business.




Type of Business

Necessity for Total
Reprocessing Tomato Repacker No Repacking
Facilities


No. Pct. No. Pct. No. Pct.

Existed 13 54 12 55 25 54

Did not exist 11 46 9 41 20 44

No information -- 1 4 1 2

Total number of firms 24 100 22 100 46 100


COMMENT



The need for reprocessing of vine-ripened tomatoes in the terminal

markets was unrelated to the type of handlers.











TABLE 13.--Reasons given by terminal receivers for reprocessing vine-ripened tomatoes
by geographic area.




Geographic Area
Reasons Total

South Midwest East


No. Pct. No. Pet. No. Pct. No. Pct.

Variations in color 4 80 7 70 8 80 19 76

Variations in quality -- 1 10 -- 1 4

Green fruit 2 20 2 8

Other 1 20 1 10 -- 2 8

Not ascertained -- 1 10 -- 1 4

Total number of firms 5 100 10 100 10 100 25 100


COMMENT



The necessity for reprocessing or repacking vine-ripened tomatoes

was almost entirely because of variation in color condition within

individual packs. Variations in color conditions, sufficient to

warrant repacking of the fruit, were reported by an approximately

equal proportion of firms in each of the three geographic regions.








14



TABLE 14.--Comparison of spoilage losses for vine-ripened and mature green tomatoes
among terminal market handlers by geographic area.




Geographic Area
Comparison Total

South Midwest East


No. Pct. No. Pct. No. Pct. No. Pct.

Losses greater for
vine-ripened 1 8 3 60 4 45 8 31

Losses greater for
mature green 6 50 1 20 3 33 10 38

Losses same for both
types 5 42 1 20 2 22 8 31

Total number of firms 12 100 5 100 9 100 26 100


aOnly those firms which had handled both vine-ripened and mature green tomatoes.




COMMENT



There isevidence toindicate that, at the wholesale level, spoilage


losses are about equal for vine-ripened and mature green tomatoes.












TABLE 15.--Type of shipment by which terminal handlers received vine-ripened
tomatoes by geographic location of firms.




Geographic Area

Type of Shipment Total
South Midwest East


No. Pct. No. Pct. No. Pct. No. Pct.

Solid load 5 36 5 36 9 50 19 41

Mixed load 9 64 4 28 7 39 20 44

Combination of solid
and mixed load -- 5 36 2 11 7 15

Total number of firms 14 100 14 100 18 100 46 100


COMMENT



About 4out of 10firms handled vine-ripened tomatoes in sufficient

volumes to justify solid load shipments. Solid load shipments were

most prevalent in the eastern part of the country.












TABLE 16.--Type of shipment by which terminal handlers received vine-ripened
tomatoes by type of business.




Type of Business

Type of Shipment Total
Tomato Repacker No Repacking
Facilities


No. Pet. No. Pct. No. Pct.

Solid load 14 59 5 23 19 41

Mixed load 8 33 12 54 20 44

Combination of solid
and mixed load 2 8 5 23 7 15

Total number of firms 24 100 22 100 46 100


COMMENT



A substantially higher proportion of repackers received vine-

ripened tomatoes in solid loads than did those firmswithout repack-

ing facilities.












TABLE 17.--Opinions of terminal receivers about effectiveness of promotional
activities in expanding market for vine-ripened tomatoes by
geographic area.




Geographic Area
Opinion Total

South Midwest East


No. Pct. No. Pct. No. Pct. No. Pct.

Promotion would
expand market 7 50 11 79 10 56 28 61

Promotion would not
expand market 4 29 1 7 5 28 10 22

No reaction 2 14 1 7 2 11 5 11

No information 1 7 1 7 1 5 3 6

Total number of firms 14 100 14 100 18 100 46 100


COMMENT



About 6 out of 10 terminal market handlers believed that promotional

activity was effective in expanding the market for vine-ripened

tomatoes.












TABLE 18.--Opinions of terminal receivers about adequacy of grading system for
vine-ripened tomatoes.




Opinion Number Percent


Adequate grading system 27 58

Inadequate grading system 13 28

No opinion 3 7

No information 3 7

Total number of firms 46 100


COMMENT



Less than two-thirds of the terminal handlers believed that the

current system used for grading vine-ri opened tomatoeswas adequate.












TABLE 19.--Responses of terminal receivers as to whether supplies of vine-ripened
tomatoes were adequate to meet market demands.




Response Number Percent


Concerned about obtaining
adequate supplies 16 35

Not concerned about obtaining
adequate supplies 28 61

No information 2 4

Total number of firms 46 100


COMMENT



Only one-third of the terminal market handlers were concerned

about obtaining adequate supplies of vine-ripened tomatoes.












TABLE 20.--Responses of terminal receivers as to whether quality levels of vine-
ripened tomatoes were adequate to meet market demands.




Response Number Percent


Concerned about quality level 14 31

Not concerned about quality level 30 65

No information 2 4

Total number of firms 46 100


COMMENT



Only one-third of the terminal market handlers were concerned

about obtaining the desired quality in vine-ripened tomatoes.
I












TABLE 21 .--Incidence of quality and color variations within shipments and packs of
vine-ripened tomatoes received by terminal market handlers.




Variations Number Percent


Quality variations 1 2

Color variations 16 35

Both color and quality variations 14 30

No color or quality variations 12 26

No information 3 7

Total number of firms 46 100


COMMENT



Two-thirds of the firms reported variations in color and quality

conditions within shipments and individual packs of vine-ripened

tomatoes.












TABLE 22.--Opinions of terminal handlers about quality of vine-ripened tomatoes
classified by type of business.




Type of Business

Opinion Total
Tomato Repacker No Repacking
Facilities


No. Pct. No. Pct. No. Pct.

Vine-ripened superior
to mature green 14 59 14 64 28 61

Mature green superior
to vine-ripened 7 29 4 18 11 24

No difference between
two types 2 8 -- 2 4

Other 1 4 1 4 2 4

No information --- 3 14 3 7

Total number of firms 24 100 22 100 46 100


COMMENT


About 6out of 10 handlers contacted were of the opinion that vine-

ripened tomatoes were superior in quality to mature green fruit.

Tomato repackers were about as likely to regard vine-ripened

tomatoes as a superior product as were those firms not having

repacking facilities.












TABLE 23.--Opinions of terminal receivers about ability of consumers to discern
differences between vine-ripened and mature green tomatoes.




Opinion Number Percent


Can discern differences 19 41

Can discern differences on basis of
appearance but not taste 2 4

Can discern differences on basis of
taste but not appearance 5 11

Cannot discern differences 17 37

No information 3 7

Total number of firms 46 100


COMMENT



A little more than a third of the terminal market handlers were

of the opinion that consumers could not discern differences be-


tween vine-ripened and mature green tomatoes.









TABLE 24.--Grade preferences of terminal receivers for vine-ripened tomatoes
classified by geographic location of firm.




Geographic Area

Grade Preference Total
South Midwest East


No. Pct. No. Pct. No. Pct. No. Pct.

U.S. No. 1 only 2 14 6 43 11 61 19 41

U.S. No. 2 only 6 43 -- 2 11 8 17

U.S. No. 1 and
U.S. No. 2 3 22 4 29 3 17 10 22

U.S. No. 2 and
U.S. No. 3 1 7 -- 1 2

All grades 1 7 2 14 3 7

No preference -- 1 7 -- 1 2

No information 1 7 1 7 2 11 4 9

Total number of firms 14 100 14 100 18 100 46 100


COMMENT


Only two handlers in the southern region believed that shipments

of vine-ripened tomatoes to that area should be restricted to the

U.S. No. 1 grade. In the East and Midwest about half of the

handlers thought that the marketing of vine-ripened fruit should

include only the U.S. No. 1 grade.











TABLE 25.--Recommendations of terminal receivers for improved practices to
increase efficiency in marketing vine-ripened tomatoes.




Recommendation Number Percent


Co lor 38 82

Maintain color uniformity within
packs and shipments 25 54
Do. not ship.mature green :as vine-ripened 11 24
Tailor color conditions to weather
in terminal 2 4

Quality 35 77

Be more consistent with grades 8 17
Do not ship packinghouse eliminations 4 9
Do not ship U.S. No. 3 grade 4 9
Ship only U.S. No. 1 grade 3 7
Regulations on quality should extend to
grade, size, and transportation methods 3 7
Maintain quality product 3 7
Ship U.S. No. 2 only with advice of
terminal receivers 3 7
Return to marketing agreement 2 4
Maintain uniform sizes in packs 2 4
Do not ship commercial grade 1 2
Ship U.S. No. 2 only when supplies are short 1 2
Label all packs as to grade designations 1 2

Supplies 12 26

Control of production levels 9 20
Establish central sales agency 3 6

Selling method 12 26

Avoid f.o.b. and consignment in same market 5 11
Eliminate consignment sales 4 9
Avoid direct sales to chain stores 3 6





26


TABLE 25.--Continued


Recommendation Number Percent


Packaging 8 16

Ship 8-pound carton only 2 4
Ship 20-pound carton only 2 4
Do not use small packs 1 2
Adopt a combination cardboard and
wood container 1 2
Use containers that facilitate warehousing 1 2
Mark carton as to color and maturity condition 1 2

Transportation 6 13

Vary temperature to accommodate color 4 9
Do not load vine-ripened with field heat 1 2
Load in lots by size 1 2

Improved varieties 3 6

Variety with better taste 1 2
Too much fertilizer--poor taste 1 2
Develop better variety 1 2

Other 8 17

Protect reputable tomato handlers in
terminal I markets 3 7
Use count system for size designations 2 4
Leave stems on vine-ripened 2 4
Ship vine-ripened in bulk 1 2

Number of firms 46 a


aAdds to more than 100 percent because of multiple answers.

COMMENT

Three-fourths of the handlers recommended more rigid control on the

quality of fruit moving into interstate trade channel Is. Other recom-

mendations related to selling, packaging, and transportation methods


currently employed by the industry in Florida.










TABLE 26.--Opinions of terminal receivers about future volumes of shipments of
vine-ripened tomatoes.




Opinion Number Percent


Shipments will increase 33 72

Shipments will decrease 2 4

Shipments will remain the same 9 20

No information 2 4

Total number of firms 46 100


COMMENT



Seven out of 10 terminal handlers were of the opinion that vine-

ripened fruit would gain a larger proportionate share of the market

for winter tomatoes in future years.




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