Title: Twenty years of citrus costs and returns in Florida, 1931-51
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 Material Information
Title: Twenty years of citrus costs and returns in Florida, 1931-51
Physical Description: Book
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
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Bibliographic ID: UF00074564
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Full Text





TWENTY YEARS
of
CITRUS COSTS AND RETURNS
in
FLORIDA

1931-51




Through the cooperation of interested citrus growers, the Florida Agri-
cultural Extension Service, which includes County Agents of the citrus pro-
ducing counties, has conducted a citrus costs and returns study since 1931.
The study has included an average of 248 groves each season for 20 seasons,
1931-51, Costs only have been tabulated for an additional season, 1951-52,
as returns from all groves have not been compiled to date.

The groves included in this study were scattered over the citrus pro-
ducing area of Florida. From 75 to 85 percent of the groves have been in the
four counties of Polk, Lake, Orange, and Highlands, varying somewhat in dif-
ferent seasons. The location of the 219 groves of all ages included in the
1950-51 season is shown by counties in Figure 1 and Table 1, page 2. During
this season 84 percent of the groves and 86 percent of the acreage were in
the four counties named. Fourteen counties were represented in the study that
season.

Averages of data from these groves are by no means taken to represent
averages for the entire state of Florida. Groves included in these records
are those of cooperators who would supply the records. The total acreage in
groves of all ages included in these records expressed as a percentage of the
total Florida acreage of orange, grapefruit, and tangerine trees over 4 years
of age is shown by season in Table 2, page 3. The proportion included in these
records varied from 0.93 percent in 1931-32 to 3.34 percent in 1936-37 and
averaged 2.60 percent for the 20 seasons. The proportion that the total num-
ber of boxes of fruit harvested from record groves was of the total Florida
production of oranges, grapefruit, and tangerines is given by seasons in Table
2, also. The latter figure was larger each season except four, 1932-35 and
1936-37, than the corresponding season figure for percent of acreage and aver-
aged 12 percent more. This indicates that the average yield for all ages of
groves for the 20-year period was approximately 12 percent higher on the re-
cord groves than for the state as a whole.

Official data on tree ages of 16 years and older for the state are not
available which eliminates making a comparison of average age of trees. Over
this period 23 percent of the trees in the state were grapefruit and 30 per-
cent in the case of all record groves. Also it is thought that the average of
the growers who will cooperate in supplying copies of their grove records is
above the average for all growers of the state. Consequently it seems plau-
sible to assume that the average grove of these records was a better grove
than the average for the state as a whole. Therefore, data from these groves
are expected to show more favorable results, in most cases, than corresponding
data for all groves of the state. However, it is believed that trends in







Tweny Yers o Cirus ostsandRetuns Pge


FLORIDA


Figure 1. -- LOCATION BY COUNTIES
OF CITRUS COST ACCOUNT GROVES
1950-$1 SEASON


-


- .-


Table 1. -- LOCATION BY COUNTIES AND AGE GROUPS
)F 219 CITRUS COST ACCOUNT GROVES, 1950-51 SEASON


County
Polk
Lake
Orange
Highlands
Pasco
Pinellas
Hillsborough
Osceola
Marion
Manatee
Indian River
Brevard
St. Lucie
Seminole


Age in Years
10 & Under Over 10 All
3 84 87
8 ho 48
7 26 33
0 17 17
0 11 11
o 6 6
1 $5
L 0 4
1 1 2
0 2 2
1 0 1
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 0 1


Percent I


All
39.7
21.9
15.1
7.7
5.0
2.7
2.3
1.8
.9
.9
.5
.5
.5
.5


-- -~-1-



/,i


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192 219 100.0


C


Twenty Years of Citrus Costs and Returns


Pape 2


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Total 27








averages for these groves are similar to the trends in averages for all Flor-
ida groves of corresponding ages.

Table 2. -- PROPORTION OF FLORIDA ORANGE, GRAPEFRUIT, AND TANGERINE
ACREAGE AND PRODUCTION INCLUDED IN GROVE RECORDS


Percent Acreage
in Records
.93
2.71
3.60
3.17
3.51
3.34
3.20
3.13
3.09
3.19
2.94
2.54
2.35
2.28
2.04
2.18
2.18
1.98
1.86
1.83

2.60


Percent Boxes Harvested
of Florida Production
1.05
2.17
2.62
2.75
3.54
3.27
3.91
3.$6
4.01
3.67
3.77
3.24
3.o0
2.$9
2.35
2.67
2.66
2.72
2.07
2.44

2.91


AGE OF GROVE

Citrus trees produce fruit somewhat in proportion to age. Age of tree
from time of setting in the grove is the easiest and most convenient method
of designating groves when comparing yields, costs, and returns. From the
inception of this work, groves have been divided into two age groups: groves
10 years of age and under, and groves over 10 years of age.

Distribution according to average age of trees of the 219 groves included
in these data in 1950-51 is shown in Table 3, page 4. The average age of in-
dividual groves varied from those just set to 54 years. Twelve percent of
these groves were 10 years of age or less and the average age of these two
groups was 7 years. Eighty-eight percent were over 10 years of age and the
average age of these 9 groups was 28 years. Two-thirds of all groves were 21
to 35 years of age and these same ages made up three-fourths of the groves
over 10 years of age.

Trees seldom produce fruit for the first two seasons after setting. Some
fruit is usually produced during the third season. Substantial increases in
yield are common each season after the third year for a number of seasons.

Many groves included in this study had mixed ages of trees. In such cases
the average age is used. This average is weighted by the number of trees of


Season
1931-32
1932-33
1933-34
1934-35
1935-36
1936-37
1937-38
1918-39
1939-4o
19lo-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-44
1944-45
1945-46
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51

Average


Page 3


Twenty Years of Citrus Costs and Returns








of each age. This procedure often results in some individual groves show-
ing rather high yields at young ages as well as higher figures for other
items for groves of the quoted age than would ordinarily be expected.


Table 3.
ACCORDING


Average
Age
Under 6
6 to 10
11 to 15
16 to 20
21 to 25
26 to 30
31 to 35
36 to 40
41 to 45
L6 to 50
51 to 55

0 to 54


-- DISTRIBUTION OF 219 GROVES
TO AVERAGE AGE, 1950-51 SEASON


Number
Groves
8
19
5
20
4o
66
38
b1
3
4
2

219


Percent
3.7
8.7
2.3
9.1
18.3
30.1
17.3
6.4
1.4
1.8
0.9

100.0


Cumulative
Percent
3.7
12.4
14.7
23.8
42.1
72.2
89.5
95.9
97.3
99.1
100.0

100.0


PERCENT OF TREES GRAPEFRUIT


The proportion or percent of the trees that were grapefruit influenced
yield and cost. Grapefruit trees of comparable ages have higher yields than
orange trees. Production costs of bearing ages of grapefruit trees are usuk
ally higher per acre and lower per box than orange. Table 4 gives the dis-
tribution of groves according to the percent of trees that were grapefruit in
the 1950-51 season for groves averaging 10 years of age and under, groves
over 10 years of age, and groves of all ages. A higher proportion of the
younger group had 10 percent or less of the trees that were grapefruit than
the older group. Nine percent of the trees in the younger group were grape-
fruit as compared to 30 percent in the older group.

Table 4. -- DISTRIBUTION OF 219 GROVES ACCORDING
TO PERCENT OF TREES GRAPEFRUIT, 1950-51 SEASON

::10 Years and Under:Over 10 years of age: All Groups
: Percent : : :Cumu- : : :Cumu- : : :umu-
:Grape- :Number: Per-:lative :Number: Per-:lative :Number: Per-:lative .:
: fruit :Groves: cent:Percent:Groves: cent:Percent:Groves: cent:Percent:
: 0 to 10: 20 : 74.1: 74.1 : 71 : 37.0: 37.0 : 91 : 41.6: 41.6 :
:11 to 20: 2 : 7.4: 81.5 : 16 : 8.3: 45.3 : 18 : 8.2: 49.8 :
:21 to 30: 1 : 3.7: 85.2 : 21 : 10.9: 56.2 : 22 : 10.0: 59.8 :
:31 to 0: 1 : 3.7: 88.9 : 27 : 14.1: 70.3 : 28 : 12.8: 72.6 :
:41 to 50: 0 : 0.0: 88.9 : 28 : 14.6: 84.9 : 28 : 12.8: 85.4 :
:51 to 60: 1 : 3.7: 92.6 10 : 5.2: 90.1 : 11 : 5.0: 90.4 :
:61 to 70: 1 :3.7: 96.3 : 5 : 2.6: 92.7 : 6 : 2.7: 93.1 :
:71 to 80: 0 : 0.0: 96.3 : 4 : 2.1: 94.8 : 4 : 1.8: 94.9 :
:81 to 90: 0 : 0.0: 96.3 : 3 : 1.6: 96.4 : 3 : 1.4: 96.3 :
:91 to 100: 1 :3.7: 100.0 : 7 : 3.6: 100.0 : 8 : 3.7: 100.0 :

: 0 to 100: 27 :100.0: 100.0 : 192 :100.0: 100.0 : 219 :100.0: 100.0 :


Page 4


Twenty Years of Citrus Costs and Returns








GROVES 10 YEARS OF AGE AND UNDER

Seasonal averages, four 5-year averages, and the 20-year average for
groves averaging 10 years and under are shown in Table 5, pages 6-8. The
numbers of groves of these ages have been rather limited in our records dur-
ing recent seasons, although the average for the 20 seasons has been 33 groves
per season. The average age per season has varied from 6 to 9 years, and the
average of all seasons was 7 years. The acreage included has varied from 319
to 3,210 acres per season, with the average being 1,111 acres.

The average number of boxes of fruit harvested from this group of groves
was 96 boxes per acre for the entire period. This yield is less than the
average for all groves 7 years of age during the period of 1931-50, which
yielded 111 boxes per acre. The average yield of 96 boxes per acre is 44 per-
cent of the yield of the older group of groves 21 years of age.

Operating costs per acre averaged $60.18 for the 20 seasons. This aver-
age is 67 percent of the operating costs of the older group of groves which
had an average age of 21 years. The percentage of each item making up the
operating costs of the two groups of groves is shown in Table 6.

Table 6. -- PERCENT EACH COST ITEM IS
OF TOTAL OPERATING COSTS PER ACRE, 1931-51

Age of Groves in Years
Item of Cost 10 & Under Over 10

Labor, power, and equipment 49.6 44.2
Fertilizer materials 33.4 37.0
Spray and dust materials 6.0 7.5
State and county taxes 5.3 6.7
Miscellaneous costs 5.7 4.6

Total operating costs 100.0 100.0

Returns from fruit averaged $109.97 per acre for the 20-year period.
This was 47 percent of the returns for the older group. Returns per box were
slightly higher on the younger group. This was due, in part at least, to the
smaller proportion of grapefruit in the younger group, since grapefruit usu-
ally brings a lower price.

Returns above operating costs averaged $49.79 per acre annually for the
period. This was 34 percent of the corresponding figure of the older group*
There was only one season, 1932-33, when returns from fruit failed to pay
operating costs. Per-box returns above operating costs averaged 52 cents
for the 20-year period. Upon dividing the first 15 years of this period into
three 5-year periods, the per-box returns above operating costs were 16, 30,
and 111 cents, respectively, for the three periods. High fruit prices during
the latter period accounted for the good showing of the period when prices by
seasons ranged from 96 cents to2.02 per box. The last five seasons, 1946-51,
averaged 40 cents in returns above operating costs.

Interest on investment in grove land and trees was calculated from the
grove operator's estimate of the valuation. The estimate requested was for


Page 5


Twenty Years of Citrus Costs and Returns






Twenty Years of Citrus


Costs and Returns


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Twenty Years of Citrus Costs and Returns


the investment in land and trees from the point of view of a long-time, fruit-
growing enterprise. Such valuations are often less than prices of grove sales
during periods of high prices, and are usually higher than grove sale prices
during periods of depressed fruit prices.

Interest on estimated grove valuation at 6 percent averaged $24.84 per
acre for the 20 seasons. This figure was 70 percent of the interest on the
older group of groves.

Total cost without owner supervision includes operating costs and inter-
est on the grove investment. Interest on the grove investment is a produc-
tion cost, although many growers do not so consider it. When such is not con-
sidered as a cost, the operating costs figure is the one desired. But for
those who consider interest on the grove investment as a production cost, ad-
ditional calculations are here shown in order to determine the total cost with-
out owner supervision, and the net returns after considering interest as a co*.

Total cost without owner supervision averaged (85.13 per acre, or 89 cents
per box. This per-acre figure was 68 percent of the corresponding figure for
the older group of groves. The per-box figure of 89 cents was 53 percent
higher than that of the older groves.

Net returns, after considering interest on the grove investment as a pro-
duction cost, averaged $24.84 per acre annually, or 26 cents per box. There
were 9 of the 20 seasons when returns from fruit were less than the total cost
without owner supervision.

GROVES OVER 10 YEARS OF AGE

The number of groves of these records over 10 years of age varied from
45 to 272 per season and averaged 215 (Table 7, pages 10-12). The first two
seasons, 1931-32 and 1932-33, had considerably less than the average number of
groves included. The grove acreage varied from 583 acres in 1931-32 to 9,853
acres in 1940-41, and averaged 7,427 acres per (eason. The latter figure was
2.6 percent of the average acreage in Florida bearing groves over this period.

The acreage per grove included in these records has not varied violently
since the second season. The average acreage per grove was 13 acres for the
1931-32 season. Since that time the seasonal average has varied from 31 to
37 acres per grove, and the average for the 20 seasons was 35 acres. The acre-
age per individual grove varied from slightly over one acre to 537.5 acres,
with 63.0 percent with less than 20 acres in the 1950-51 season and 83.9 per-
cent with less than 40 acres.

The average age of groves from time of setting the nursery stock varied
by seasons from 17 to 28 years and averaged 21 years for the 20-year period.
The average age of the 192 groves included in the 1950-51 season was 28 years
(Table 7, page 11). The age of grove should be kept in mind when comparing
data, as it is accountable for a sizable portion of the variations between
groves or groups of groves of different ages. Over the 20-year period the
average increase per acre of 28-year-old groves over the 17-year-old groveswas:

Number of boxes harvested 34 percent
Total operating costs 33 percent
Returns from fruit 34 percent
Returns above operating costs 35 percent


Page 9








Twenty Years of Citrus


Costs and fleturns


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Twenty Years of Citrus Costs and Returns Pre1


The number of trees setper acre remained rather static around 60 trees
for the older group of groves throughout the record period. Such is not true
of the younger group. This group increased from 60 in 1931-32 to 65 trees per'#-
acre in the 1935-36 season, and subsequent seasons were higher than the latter ".
figure. The two seasons with the largest number of trees per acre were 1943-
h4 and 19h-h45 with 78 each. The average for this group during the entire
period was 68 (Table 5, pages 6-8). The average for the older group was 61.

It should be pointed out that these data include records for some groves
for only one season. Other groves were included for varying numbers of seasons
up to the entire 20 seasons. There were 16 groves included in these data for
the 20 successive seasons. This turnover of the groves making up the records
materially affected the number of trees per acre from season to season. The
S-year averages for the younger group were 62 during 1931-36, 70 during 1936-
41, 75 during 1941-46,and 68 during 1946-51. Thus during recent seasons in
the groves of these records, trees have been set with a larger number per acre.
The sample of younger groves has been rather small of recent seasons, so much
so that upon the groves attaining the age of 11 years and transfer into the
older group, there have not been sufficient acreages to increase materially
the average number of trees per acre of the older group.

The percent of trees grapefruit is another important consideration when
comparing the fruit harvested, costs, returns, and net returns. Grapefruit
groves usually have higher yields, higher costs per acre, lower returns and
net returns per acre than orange groves of comparable ages, The cost per box
is usually lower for grapefruit due to the higher yields. The lower price usu-
ally received for grapefruit results in lower returns per acre, and lower net
returns per acre and per box. The distribution of the groves according to the
percent of trees grapefruit for the 1950-51 season is shown in Table 4, page U.

The percentage of trees grapefruit averaged 31 for the 20 seasons., Indi-
vidual seasons varied from 28 to 35 percent grapefruit trees.

Boxes harvested per acre averaged less than 200 each season prior to 1942-
43, with the exception of the 1938-39 season when the average was 205 boxes.
Average fruit harvested since that time, 1942-51, ranged from 225 boxes in
19t4-45 -- which was materially lowered by hurricane damage -- to 360 boxes in
1950-51. The 1950-51 figure was the highest of the 20 seasons and was 5 per-
cent higher than the second highest, 342 boxes, in 1948-49, and 291 percent
higher than the 92-box average in 1933-34. The average age of groves in 1950-
51 was 28 years, which was 2 years older than in 1948-49 and 11 years older
than in 1933-34. There were 10 of the 20 seasons, 50 percent, when less than
200 boxes were harvested per acre (Table 8, page 1h).

The average number of boxes harvested per acre for each of the five-year
periods were: 1931-36 -- 126; 1936-41 -- 175; 1941-46 -- 250; and 1946-51 --
314 boxes. Yield for the third period was double that of the first and the
fourth period was 248 percent of the first. Some of the reasons for these in-
creases in the number of boxes harvested per acre were increases in average
age of trees, better fertilizer practices, larger proportion of fruit harvested
due to good prices and the development in fruit processing; and the increasing
proportion of grove acreage irrigated may have been a factor. Fruit prices
were low for some seasons of the first two S-year periods, resulting in some
of the fruit remaining unharvested. Less damage from low temperatures and
better grove care in general during the last two periods contributed to higher


Pare 13


Twentu Years of Citrus Costs and Returns







Twenty Years of Citrus Costs and Returns


yields for these periods, and higher prices together with the development of
fruit processing facilities, contributed to higher proportions of the fruit
being harvested.

There were considerable variations in fruit harvested per acre between
different groves for the same season as well as seasonal average variations.
The number of boxes harvested per acre varied from 32 to 786 on 192 .groves
over 10 years of age in the 1950-51 season (Table 9). Forty-seven percent of
these groves had less than 350 boxes harvested per acre that season, and 91
percent had less than 550 boxes. From 17 percent of these groves less than
250 boxes were harvested per acre.

Table 8. -- DISTRIBUTION OF SEASONAL AVERAGES
OF BOXES HARVESTED PER ACRE, 1931-51


Boxes per acre
Less than 100
100 to 149
150 to 199
200 to 249
250 to 299
300 to 349
350 to 399

92 to 360


Number
Seasons
1
4
5
2
4
3
1


Percent
5
20
25
10
20
15
5


100


Cumulative
Percent
5
25
50
6o
80
95
100


100


Table 9. -- DISTRIBUTION OF 192 GROVES ACCORDING TO
FRUIT HARVESTED PER ACRE, 1950-51 SEASON
Number Cumulative
Boxes per acre Groves Percent Percent
Under 100 3 1.6 1.6
100 to 149 5 2.6 4.2
150 to 199 12 6.2 10.4
200 to 249 13 6.8 17.2
250 to 299 23 12.0 29.2
300 to 349 35 18.2 L7.4
350 to 399 30 15.6 63.0
4oo to h49 22 11.5 74.5
450 to 499 23 12.0 86.5
500 to 549 8 4.2 90.7
550 to 599 11 5.7 96.4
600 to 649 3 1.6 98.0
650 to 699 2 1.0 99.0
700 to 749 0 0.0 99.0
750 to 799 2 1.0 100.0

32 to 786 192 100.0 100.0 6


Operating costs for the first 8 years of this study, 1931-39, averaged
Q57.90 per acre. The following season, 1939-40, such costs were $$3.45. There
was an increase in operating costs each year from 1939-40 to 1946-47, an in-


Page 14









crease each season for 7 successive seasons. During part of this time the in-
crease was rather rapid, and these costs were $159.89 per acre in 1946-47.
Operating costs in 1947-48 were only $1.51, or 1 percent, less than for the
previous season. Such costs in 1949-50 were 21 percent less than in 1946-47,
and 8 percent less than in 1948-49. The 1950-51 operating costs were $160.67,
or 27 percent more than 1949-50, and 78 cents more than the next highest sea-
son of 1946-47. The 1951-52 costs were 10 percent higher than 1950-51 and 392
percent of the lowest cost season of 1934-35.

Operating costs in 1951-52 were three and one-fourth times the average for
the 9 seasons from 1932-41. Furthermore, these 1951-52 costs exceeded the
fruit receipts for each of these 9 seasons and exceeded the average by $85.66,
or 95 percent. In other words, if the costs for these 9 seasons had been the
same as the costs for 1951-52, there would have not been one of the 9 when the
fruit receipts would have equaled or exceeded operating costs. There would
have been a loss in each season and the average loss would have been ,85.66
per acre.

Operating costs exceeded 50 cents per box four times in the 20 seasons,
1931-32, 1933-34, 1944-45 and 1946-47. The average for all seasons was 42
cents. During the 1939-44 period, when operating costs were increasing on
the per-acre basis, the per-box costs fluctuated from 30 to 33 cents. Such
costs were 52 cents in the 1944-45 season. Hurricane winds materially re-
ducedthe fruit harvested in 1944-45, which increased the costs per box. Also,
an increase of 25 percent over the previous season in operating costs per acre
further increased the per-box costs. Eight of the 20 seasons had operating
costs of less than 40 cents per box, and 7 of these seasons were in the 1937-L4
period.

Operating costs per box averaged 45 cents per box during the 1950-51 sea-
son, and the range was from 20 cents to $6.73. See Table 10. Fifty-seven per-
cent of the groves had such costs of less than 50 cents. Another 30 percent
had costs of from 50 to 79 cents and 13 percent had costs of 80 cents or more
per box.

Table 10. -- DISTRIBUTION OF 192 GROVES ACCORDING
TO OPERATING COST PER BOX, 1950-51 SEASON

Number Cumulative
Cost per box Groves Percent Percent
$.20 to $ .29 22 11.5 11.5
.30 to .39 51 26.6 38.1
.bo to .49 36 18.7 56.8
.50 to ..59 34 17.7 74.5
.60 to .69 15 7.8 82.3
.70 to .79 9 4.7 87.0
.80 to .89 5 2.6 89.6
.90 to .99 8 4.2 93.8
1.00 to 1.79 11 5.7 99.5
1.80 and over 1 .5 100.0


.20 to 6.73 192 100.0 100.0


Page 15


Twenty Years of Citrus Costs and Returns


.20 to 6.73


192 100.0 100.0







TwnyYaso irsCot n eun ae1


Operating costs per acre by individual groves
$368.31 in the 1950-51 season and averaged Q160.67
cent of the groves $200 or more per acre was spent
season.


ranged from $66.62 to
(Table 11). On 32 per-
for operating costs that


Operating costs were made up of five items: (1) labor, power, and equip-
ment, (2) fertilizer materials, (3) spray and dust materials, (4) state and
county taxes and (5) miscellaneous costs. The distribution of the 20-year
averages of these costs is shown in Table 6, page 5. Average operating costs
by seasons ranged from $44.90 to $160.67 per acre and from 30 to 55 cents
per box (Table 12,page 16).

Table 11. -- DISTRIBUTION OF 192 GROVES ACCORDING TO
OPERATING COSTS PER ACRE, 1950-51 SEASON


Cost per acre
$ 50 to $ 74
75 to 99
100 to 124
125 to 149
150 to 174
175 to 199
200 to 224
225 to 249
250 to 274
275 to 299
300 and over

66.62 to 368.31


Number
Groves
2
17
32
31
27
21
20
12
12
13
5

192


Percent
1.0
8.9
16.7
16.2
14.1
10.9
10.4
6.2
6.2
6.8
2.6

100.0


Table 12. -- AVERAGE AND RANGE OF


OPERATING COST ITEMS


Cumulative
Percent
1.0
9.9
26.6
42.8
56.9
67.8
78.2
84.4
90.6
97.4
100.0

100.0


PER SEASON, 1931-51


Per Acre


Cost Items


Labor, power, and equipment
Fertilizer materials
Spray and dust materials
State and county taxes
Miscellaneous


Average


0 39.99
33.49
6.77
6.09
4.14


Range


S17.33
17.74
2.99
4.07
.53


Per Box

Average Range
Cents Cents


$ 79.31
57.33
14.38
11.76
11.85


Operating costs
* Less than 00.005.


90.148 44.90 to 160.67


42 30 to 55


More money was spent for labor, power, and equipment than any other cost
item. The average was 039.99 per acre per season and ranged from 017.33 to
$79.31. This cost exceeded the cost of fertilizer materials in 13 of the 21
seasons shown in Table 7, pages 10 12. The spread between the costs of the


Page 16


Twenty Years of Citrus Costs and Returns








two items increased during recent seasons with the cost of labor, power, and
equipment increasing faster. There were 10 seasons, 1932-42, when the operat-
ing costs did not amount to as much as the cost of the one item of labor,
power, and equipment for any one of the past 7 seasons, 1945-52. Honey spent
for this item was `79.31 per acre in 1950-51, the highest of the 21 seasons.
The increases in the number of boxes harvested as this period progressed les-
sened very materially the increases in costs on a per-box basis. Labor, power,
and equipment costs per box were 27 cents in 1946-47, an increase of 4 cents
over the previous season. Such costs were 3 cents less in 1947-48 than in
1946-47, and decreased to 19 cents in 1948-49 which was 5 cents less than 1947-
48. The average for the 20 seasons was 19 cents.

Table 13 shows the distribution of the amount of money spent per acre for
labor, power, and equipment on the 192 groves over 10 years of age in 1950-51.
The amount spent varied from $12.17 to $188.67 per acre. Ten percent of these
groves had less than $30 per acre cost for labor, power, and equipment, 50 per-
cent had less than 070, and 65 percent had less than $90. Sixteen percent of
these groves had more than 0130 per acre spent for this item.

Table 13. -- DISTRIBUTION OF 192 GROVES ACCORDING TO MONEY SPENT
FOR'LABOR, POWER, AND EQUIPMENT PER ACRE, 1950-51 SEASON

Number Cumulative
Cost per acre Groves Percent Percent
0 10 to $ 29 19 9.9 9.9
30 to h9 42 21.9 31.8
50 to 69 36 18.7 50.5
70 to 89 27 14.1 64.6
90 to 109 26 13.6 78.2
110 to 129 11 5.7 83.9
130 to 149 13 6.8 90.7
150 to 169 11 5.7 96.4
170 to 189 7 3.6 100.0
12.17 to 188.67 192 100.0 100.0

The cost item of second importance was fertilizer materials. This item
was 37 percent of the average operating costs and amounted to $33.49 per acre.
The range in the seasonal cost per acre for fertilizer materials was from
$17.74 to $57.33, and increased to $61.45 in 1951-52. During h8 percent of
the seasons this averaged less than 030 per acre. Fertilizer cost was $37.92
per acre in 1931-32 but was not that high again until the 1943-44 season.
These costs increased for the following 3 seasons when the high up to that
time of $57.33 was reached in 1946-47. There was a reduction of 32 percent in
such costs in 1948-49 as compared to 1947-48, and a further reduction of 5.6
percent in 1949-50 under 1948-49. A major contributing factor was low fruit
prices. Fertilizer material costs increased to 061.45 in 1951-52 which was the
highest of the 21 seasons.

Table 14, page 18, shows the distribution of the amount of money spent for
fertilizer materials per acre for the 192 groves over 10 years of age in the
1950-51 season. The amount spent varied from O18.61 to "1.6.22 per acre, and
averaged $50.48. Thirty percent of these groves had less than $50 per acre
cost for fertilizer, and 19 percent had such cost of $80 or more. On 51 per-


Page 17


Twenty Years of Citrus Costs and Returns









cent of these groves, the money spent for fertilizer ranged from $50 to
$79.99.

Fertilizer costs per box varied from 22 cents in 1931-32 to 11 cents in
1939-40 and 1940-41. There were 14 seasons with such costs less than 18 cents
Fertilizer cost was 18 cents in 1947-48, which was a decrease of 2 cents from
the previous season: and 1948-49 showed a fertilizer cost of 12 cents, a de-
crease of 6 cents under the previous year. Such cost for 1950-51 ranged from
6 to 88 cents per box and averaged 14 cents. Sixty-four percent of the groves
had a fertilizer cost of less than 20 cents per box and 80 percent less than
25 cents. See Table 15.

Table 14. -- DISTRIBUTION OF 192 GROVES ACCORDING TO MONEY
SPENT FOR FERTILIZER MATERIALS PER ACRE, 1950-51 SEASON


Cost per acre
Under $ 20
020 to 29
30 to 39
h0 to 49
50 to 59
60 to 69
70 to 79
80 to 89
90 to 99
100 & over

18.61 to 146.22


Number
Groves
1
6
17
33
37
39
22
18
9
10

192


Percent
,5
3.1
8.8
17.2
19.3
20.3
11.5
9.4
4.7
5.2

100.0


Cumulative
Percent
.5
3.6
12.6
29.6
48.9
69.2
80.7
90.1
94.8
100.0

100.0


Table 15. -- DISTRIBUTION OF 192 GROVES ACCORDING TO IONEY
SPENT PER BOX FOR FERTILIZER MATERIALS, 1950-51 SEASON


Cents per box
5 to 9
10 to 14
15 to 19
20 to 24
25 to 29
30 to 34
35 to 39
4o to 59
60 to 89

6 to 88


Number
Groves
10
57
55
32
17
11
4
3
3

192


Percent
5.2
29.7
28.6
16.7
8.8
5.7
2.1
1.6
1.6

100.0


Cumulative
Percent
5.2
34.9
63.5
80.2
89.0
94.7
96.8
98.4
100.0

100.0


Nitrogen is an important element in fertilizers added in citrus produc-
tion. The distribution of the groves in the 1950-51 season according to the
amount of nitrogen in fertilizers applied per box of fruit harvested is shown'
in Table 16, page 19. The range was from 0.16 to 2.71 pounds applied per box,
and the average was 0.44 pounds. There was 55 percent of the groves that had


Page 18


Twenty Years of Citrus Costs and Returns









less than 0.50 pounds applied per box, and 82 percent had less than 0.80
pounds. There were 36 percent of the groves that received 0.60 pounds or
more. The usual recommendations as to the amount of nitrogen to apply range
from 0.30 to 0.40 pounds p'er box of fruit anticipated. There were 22 percent
of these groves that received amounts of nitrogen within this range. An ad-
ditional 9 percent received less than these amounts, making 31 percent that
received less than 0.40 pounds of nitrogen per box harvested. The remainder,
69 percent of the groves, received more than 0.40 pounds of nitrogen per box.
Hore than 0.80 pounds per box was added on 18 percent of these groves. Nitrogen
added per box of fruit harvested for the 9 seasons of 1942-51 averaged 0.51
pounds.

Spray and dust material costs averaged 06.77 per acre for the 20 seasons
and constituted 7.5 percent of the operating costs. There were 13 seasons,
65 percent, with spray and dust material costs of less than 08.00. The range
of the seasonal averages was from $2.99 in 1935-36 to '14.40 in 1950-51. The
range in such costs per box was from 2 to 4 cents, and the average was 3 cents.
Sixteen seasons, or 80 percent, had such costs of 3 cents per box or less.

Table 16. -- DISTRIBUTION OF 192 GROVES ACCORDING TO THE AMOUNT
OF NITROGEN APPLIED PER BOX OF FRUIT HARVESTED, 1950-51 SEASON

Number Cumulative
Lbs. N Per Box Groves Percent Percent
.10 to .19 1 0.5 0.5
.20 to .29 16 8.3 8.8
.30 to .39 42 21.9 30.7
.4o to .49 46 24.0 54.7
.50 to .59 17 8.9 63.6
.60 to .69 25 13.0 76.6
.70 to .79 11 5.7 82.3
.80 to .89 10 5.2 87.5
.90 to .99 5 2.6 90.1
1.00 & over 19 9.9 100.0

.16 to 2.71 192 100.0 100.0

Spray and dust materials cost )14.38 per acre, or 4 cents per box, in
1950-51. This cost per acre varied from nothing to l44.92 (Table 17, page
20). There were 13 groves that received no spray or dust. Sixty-seven per-
cent of the groves had such costs of less than $20 per acre, and 35 percent
had such costs ranging from 4.O00 to $11.99. These costs averaged $18.07 per
acre in 1951-52.

State and county taxes averaged "6.09 per acre for the 20-year period, or
3 cents per box. The range in such costs per season was from ::;.07 per acre in
1942-43-to 011.76 in 1931-32. The seasonal average was less than ?6.00 in 14
seasons, or 70 percent of the time. The second highest season was 1950-51 at
$9.64 per acre. Such costs for the 1951-52 season were 010.06.

Miscellaneous costs averaged 5 percent of operating costs for the 20-year
period, or $4.14 per acre. This amounted to 2 cents per box. Variations in
seasonal averages were from 00.53 per acre in 1934-35 to $11.85 in 1948-49.
The average for 1950-51 was 06.86.. Such costs for 1951-52 were $7.09 per acre.


Page 19


Twenty Years of Citrus Costs and Returns









Table 17. -- DISTRIBUTION OF 192 GROVES ACCORDING TO MONEY SPENT
FOR SPRAY AND DUST MATERIALS PER ACRE, 1950-51 SEASON


Cost per acre
No spray or dust
$ 0.01 to 0 1.99
2.00 to 3.99
4.00 to 5.99
6.00 to 7.99
8.00 to 9.99
10.00 to 11.99
12.00 to 13.99
1.o00 to 15.99
16.00 to 17.99
18.00 to 19.99
20.00 to 21.99
22.00 to 23.99
24.00 to 25.99
26.00 to 27.99
28.00 to 29.99
30.00 to 39.99
40.00 to 49.99

0.00 to 44.92


Number
Groves
13
1
5
14
23
21
10
17
9
9
7
14
2
8
9
6
18
6

192


Percent
6.8
.5
2.6
7.3
12.0
10.9
5.2
8.9
4.7
4.7
3.6
7.3
1.0
4.2
4.7
3.1
9.4
3.1
100.0


Cumulative
Percent
6.8
7.3
9.9
17.2
29.2
40.1
45.3
Sh.2
58.9
63.6
67.2
74.5
75.5
79.7
84.4
87.5
96.9
100.0

100.0


Miscellaneous costs include such items as overhead, trees for replacement,
drainage district assessments, and fuel for grove heating.

Returns from fruit averaged 3236.28 per acre for the entire period, or
01.09 per box. Seasonal averages per acre varied from "50.10 in 1932-33 to
$544.94 in 1945-46. The per-box averages varied from 38 cents in 1932-33 to
02.02 in 1944-45. Returns from fruit amounted to 0136.41 per acre in 1947-48,
the lowest since 1940-41. However, there were 8 of the 20 seasons with lower
returns per acre. The price received for fruit in 1947-48 was 43 cents per
box, the third lowest of these seasons. There were 13 seasons in which the
per-acre returns were less than the average for the period and in these same
13 seasons the per-box returns were less than the average. Fruit returns were
:;391.03 per acre in 1948-49, an increase of 187 percent over the previous sea-
son. Another increase of 26 percent in 1949-50 brought fruit returns to
O493.02 per acre, which was the fourth highest of the 20 seasons. Likewise the
returns per box showed an increase and was 43 cents in 1947-48, 1.14 in 1948-
49, and "1.96 in 1949-50, The latter price is 4.6 times that for 1947-l8.
The price dropped to ?1.14 in 1950-51.

Yield and price determine the per-acre returns from fruit. High yields
and high fruit prices resulted in pyramided returns per acre during the 7 sea-
sons of 1942-L6 and 1948-51, so much so, that the average of the 20 seasons
was above any of the other 13 seasons. Average returns per acre for these 7
seasons were 4.7 times the average for the first 10 years of these records.

There were 2 of the 20 seasons when operating costs were higher than the
returns from fruit. The operating cost figure for 1951-52 was larger than the
returns from fruit for any one of 11 seasons, 1931-41 and 1947-48. Twelve sea-


Page 20


Twenty Years of Citrus Costs and Returns







Twentyv Years of Ciftrus Costs and RleturnsPae2


sons, 60 percent, had less than $200 in returns from fruit.
8 seasons, 40 percent, were chiefly during the war period.
sons, 35 percent, when-returns from fruit were less than 60
13 seasons, 65 percent, when less than $1.10 per box,


The remaining
There were 7 sea-
cents per box, and


There were no groves in the 1950-51 season in which the fruit cost the
grove operators more money to market than they received for it (Table 18).
Often groves do not pay operating costs, and some seasons when fruit prices
are low it costs the grower more money to market the fruit than he receives
for it. In such cases the amount of the operating costs constitutes just
that much additional loss.


Table 18. -- DISTRIBUTION OF
RETURNS FROM FRUIT PER


Returns per acre
$1 to 0 99
100 to 199
200 to 299
300 to 399
o00 to 499
500 to 599
600 to 699
700 to 799
800 to 899
900 to 999
1000 and over

4L875 to 1151.15


Number
Groves
3
21
34
38
h2
22
20
8
3
0
1

192


192 GROVES ACCORDING TO
ACRE. 1950-51 SEASON


Percent
1.6
10.9
17.7
19.8
21.9
11.4
10.
4.2
1.6
0.0
0.5

100.0


Cumulative
Percent
1.6
12.5
30.2
50.0
71.9
83.3
93.7
97.9
99.5
99.5
100.0

100.0


There were 3 groves in 1950-51, 2 percent, that had returns from fruit
less than $100 per acre, and 24 groves, 12 percent, with returns from fruit
less than $200 per acre. Thirty-eight percent of the groves had from $200 to
0399.99 returns from fruit per acre. The range was from 48.75 to l151.15
per acre, and the average was Y408.32.

The average on-tree price received in 1950-51 was 1.14 per box, the
seventh highest of the 20 seasons. The range in price was from 15 cents to
$2.24 per box (Table 19, page 22). One out of three of the groves had an
average fruit price of less than $1.00 and four out of five received less than
$1.60 per box. The price received varied with a number of factors including
kind and variety of fruit, whether processed or sold fresh, managerial sales-
manship, internal and external fruit quality, fruit size, total volume pro-
duced, and grove location with reference to market outlets.

Returns above operating costs dropped from (?407.33 per acre in 1945-46 to
$56.09 the following season, a drop of 86 percent. Yet there were 8 of the 20
seasons of these records that averaged lower returns above operating costs
than in 1946-47. There were 7 seasons, 1942-46, 1948-49, 1949-50, and 1950-51,
with income above operating costs exceeding the average for all seasons. These
same 7 seasons and one additional, 1941-42, had income above operating costs
per box higher than the 67-cent average. There were 2 seasons, 1932-33 and


Page 21


T~F~nt;v YFFLr.S Of C~it.P11~ rn~ts And r-letums









Table 19. -- DISTRIBUTION OF 192 GROVES ACCORDING
TO PRICE RECEIVED FOR FRUIT, 1950-51 SEASON
/-
Number Cumulative
Price per box Groves Percent Percent
Under 0 .20 1 0.5 0.5
0 .20 to .39 6 3.1 3.6
.ho to .59 13 6.8 10.4
.60 to .79 20 10.4 20.8
.80 to .99 26 13.6 34.4
1.00 to 1.19 33 17.2 51.6
1.20 to 1.39 30 15.6 67.2
1.4h to 1.59 24 12.5 79.7
1.60 to 1.79 20 10.4 90.1
1.80 to 1.99 14 7.3 97.4
2.00 to 2.19 4 2.1 99.5
2.20 to 2.39 1 0.5 100.0

.15 to 2.24 192 100.0 100.0

1947-48, when operating costs exceeded returns from fruit. The returns
above operating costs per acre ranged from -$21.97 in 1947-48 to $h25.07 in
1943-4h, and averaged '0145.80. There were 12 seasons, 60 percent, when re-
turns above operating costs were less than $100 per acre, and 9 seasons, 45
percent, when they were less than 40 cents per box.

There was considerable difference between the average returns above
operating costs per acre for the first 10 seasons, .40.07, and for the re-
maining 10 seasons, 0251.53. The latter figure is 6.3 times the former.
Average returns above operating costs per box for the latter period were 3h4
percent of the former period (93 and 27 cents, respectively). There was one
season in each period with negative returns above operating costs.

Returns above operating costs were the lowest in 1947-48 of the 20 sea-
sons, when the returns from fruit lacked q21.97 of paying operating costs. On
a per-box basis the loss was 7 cents. During this season there were 141 groves,
65 percent, on which the fruit did not return operating costs. However, the
following season, 1948-49, only 5 groves, 2.5 percent, failed to return oper-
ating costs. In 1950-51, 19 groves, 10 percent, failed to return operating
costs (Table 20, page 23). One out of four of these groves returned less than
$100 per-acre above operating costs and two out of three less than $300.

In the 1950-51 season 41 percent of these groves returned less than 50
cents per box above operating costs and 73 percent less than 01.00 (Table 21,
page 23). The variation was from a loss of .5.21 per box to a net of 01.81.
One out of four of these groves returned $1.00 or more per box above operating
costs that season.

At the rate of returns above operating costs in 1946-47, 65 acres of grove
would be necessary to return $3,600 to the owner for interest on the grove in-
vestment, interest on borrowed money, his own supervision, and profit, if any.
However, at the 1948-49 rate of returns above operating costs only 15 acres
would be required for a return of 03,600, and in 1949-50 10 acres and in 1950-
51 15 acres. There were 8 of these 20 seasons when returns above operating


Page 22


Twenty Years of Citrus Costs and Returns







Tweny Yars f Ctru Coss ad Rturn Pae 2


Table 20. -- DISTRIBUTION OF
RETURNS ABOVE OPERATING COSTS


192 GROVES ACCORDING TO
PER ACRE. 1950-51 SEASON


Net returns
-$300 to -$201


- 200
- 100
0
100
200
300
400
5oo
600
700


- 101
- 1
99
199
299
399
499
599
699
799


- 255.80 to 759.28


Number
Groves
1
4
14
31
34
42
28
19
13
3
3

192


Percent
0.5
2.1
7.3
16.1
17.7
21.9
14.6
9.9
6.7
1.6
1.6

100.0


Cumulative
Percent
0.5
2.6
9.9
26.0
43.7
65.6
80.2
90.1
96.8
98.4
100.0

100.0


Table 21. -- DISTRIBUTION OF 192 GROVES ACCORDING TO
RETURNS ABOVE OPERATING COSTS PER BOX. 1950-51 SEASON


Net per box
Less than -$..25
-$ .25 to .01
0 to .24
.25 to .49
.50 to .74
.75 to .99
1.00 to 1.24
1.25 to 1.49
1.50 to 1.74
1.75 to 1.99

- 5.21 to 1.81


Number
Groves
5
14
25
34
34
29
25
18
7
1

192


Percent
2.6
7.3
13.0
17.7
17.7
15.1
13.0
9.14
3.7
0.5

100.0


Cumulative
Percent
2.6
9.9
22.9
40.6
58.3
73.4
86.4
95.8
99.5
100.0

100.0


costs were lower than in 1946-47 and 14 when they were lower than i948-4'.
The averages for these two groups were $18.21 and $57.71 per acre, respectively.
At $18.21 per acre returns above operating costs, 198 acres would be necessary
to net $3,600 while 63 acres would be necessary at the rate of $57.71 per acre,
and 25 acres at the 20-year average of $145.80.

Interest on grove valuation has been figured at 6 percent since the in-
ception of this project. The cooperators were asked for their estimate of the
valuation of their grove when considered as a long-time fruit growing enter-
prise. The results were that conservative figures were given and there has
been a reluctance on the part of the cooperator to change his valuation even
after a substantial change in fruit prices and grove sale prices. Interest on
grove valuation by seasons varied from $28.87 per acre in 1940-41 to $57.17 in
190-'1. The average was 35.32. for the 20 seasons. Tntorost nor box varied


I


Page 23


Twenty Years of Citrus Costs and Returns









from 10 cents in 19h3-44 to 40 cents in 1933-34, and averaged 16 cents. In-
terest in 1951-52 was 061.21 per acre, the highest of the 21 seasons.

Interest in 1950-51 averaged 057.17 per acre, or 16 cents per box (Table
7, page 11). The distribution of groves according to interest per acre is
shown in Table 22. One out of four groves had interest charged at less than
$54 per acre and three out of four groves at less than $66.

Table 22. -- DISTRIBUTION OF 192 GROVES ACCORDING
TO INTEREST ON GROVE VALUATION, 1950-51 SEASON

Number Cumulative
Interest per acre Groves Percent Percent
Less than $ 42 5 2.6 2.6
$42 to 47 11 5.7 8.3
48 to 53 31 16.2 24.5
54 to 59 32 16.7 41.2
60 to 65 62 32.3 73.5
66 to 71 10 5.2 78.7
72 to 77 25 13.0 91.7
78 to 83 6 3.1 94.8
84 and over 10 5.2 100.0

30.00 to 123.08 192 100.0 100.0

Total cost without owner supervision is made up of 5 items included as
operating costs plus the item of interest on estimated grove valuation. This
item of interest added 39 percent to the ,operating costs on the average. An-
other way of stating the same thing is that on the average the total cost with-
out owner supervision was 39 percent higher than the operating costs. This
increase varied from 23 percent in 1945-46 to 80 percent in 1931-35 and did
not amount to less than 47 percent until the 1942-43 season. During the 6 sea-
sons of 1944-50, this increase of interest charge amounted to 30 percent or
less. In 1950-51 and 1951-52 interest on the grove valuation was 36 percent,
and 35 percent, respectively, of the operating cost.

There are growers who do not consider interest on grove valuation as a
part of production costs, while there are others who do so consider it. Hence,
the reason for presenting both calculations of costs and returns to the grower.
However, interest is a production cost and should be so considered by all.

The distribution of costs per acre with owner supervision omitted for the
1950-51 season is shown in Table 23, page 25. Such costs averaged 0217.84 that
season. Twenty-two percent of the groves had such costs of less than 175 and
64 percent with less than 0250. The distribution of such costs per box is
shown in Table 24, page 25. All groves averaged 61 cents per box in 1950-51
with one out of four having such costs of less than 50 cents and three out of
four with less than 80 cents. One out of six of these groves had such costs
of $1.00 or more.

Net returns in this study mean the amount left to the grower of his re-
turns from fruit after paying operating costs and interest on the grove val-
uation. It is the amount left for owner supervision and profit, if any. There
were 6 of the 20 seasons when returns from fruit failed to pay total cost with-


Page 24


Twenty Years of Citrus Costs and Returns









Table 23. -- DISTRIBUTION OF 192 GROVES ACCORDING TO
TOTAL COST PER ACRE WITHOUT OWNER SUPERVISION, 1950-51 SEASON


Cost per acre


$100
125
150
175
200
225
250
275
300
325
350
375
400


108.90 to


$124
149
174
199
224
249
274
299
324
349
37l4
399
424


416.31


Number
Groves
2
11
29
28
28
25
16
18
10
11
8
'4
2

192


Cumulative
Percent Percent


1.0
5.7
15.1
14.6
14.6
13.0
8.4
9.4
5.2
5.7
4.2
2.1
1.0

100.0


1.0
6.7
21.8
36.4
51.0
64.0
72.4
81.8
87.0
92.7
96.9
99.0
100.0

100.0


Table 24. -- DISTRIBUTION OF 192 GROVES ACCORDING TO TOTAL
COSTS PER BOX WITHOUT OWNER SUPERVISION, 1950-$1 SEASON


Cost per box
0 .20 to $ .29
.30 to .39
.40 to .49
.50 to .59
.60 to .69
.70 to .79
.80 to .89
.90 to .99
1.00 to 1.09
1.10 to 1.39
1.20 to 1.29
1.30 to 1.39
1.40 and over

.20 to 8.42


Number
Groves
1
13
32
38
34
23
17
4
8
5
3
5
9

192


Percent
0.5
6.8
16.7
19.8
17.7
12.0
8.8
2.1
4.2
2.6
1.5
2.6
4.7

100.0


Cumulative
Percent
0.5
7.3
21 .0
43.8
61.5
73.5
82.3
84.4
88.6
91.2
92.7
95.3
OO. o
100.0

100.0


out owner supervision. There were 2 of these seasons when operating costs
were more than returns from fruit. Net returns per acre ranged from -,"61.76
in 1947-48 to $395.18 in 1943-44, and averaged $110.48. The first 5 years of
these records, 1931-36, averaged -'.1.70 per acre for net returns. The 1936-
41 period averaged %13.39, 1941-46 ""291.95, and 1946-51 :?138.25 per acre. There
were 11 seasons, 55 percent, with average net returns of less than 0$0.00 per
acre. There were 10 seasons, 50 percent, with net returns of less than 20 cents
per box, and 4 seasons had net returns of $,1.30 or more per box. The average
was 51 cents per box with only 8 of the 20 seasons exceeding this amount,


Page 25


Twenty Years of Citrus Costs and Returns









In 1950-51 net returns averaged $190.48 per acre or 53 cents per box. How
ever, 20 percent of the groves that season did not have sufficient income to
pay all costs (Table 25). Thirty-seven percent of these groves had net returns
of less than $100 per acre and 77 percent with less than 0300. One-half of
these groves had net returns per box of less than 50 cents in 1950-51 and 84
percent with less than 1,.00 (Table 26).

Table 25. -- DISTRIBUTION OF 192 GROVES ACCORDING
TO NET RETURNS PER ACRE, 1950-51 SEASON


Net returns per acre


-"300
- 200
- 100
0
100
200
300
0oo
500
600


-$201
- 101.
- 1
99
199
299
399
499
599
699


- 273.80 to 687.28


Number
Groves
2
5
31
33
40
37
18
16
6
4

192


Percent
1.0
2.6
16.2
17.2
20.8
19.3
9.4
8.3
3.1
2.1

100.0


Cumulative
Percent
1.0
3.6
19.8
37.0
57.8
77.1
86.5
94.8
97.9
100.0

100.0


Table 26. -- DISTRIBUTION OF 192 GROVES ACCORDING
TO NET RETURNS PER BOX, 1950-51 SEASON


Net returns per box
Less than -$ .50
-$ .50 to .26
- .2 to .01
0 to .24
.25 to .49
.50 to .74
.75 to .99
1.00 to 1.24
1.25 to 1.49
1.50 to 1.74

- 6.90 to 1.57


Number
Groves
5
10
23
26
40
33
25
17
9
4

192


Percent
2.6
5.2
12.0
13.5
20.8
17.2
13.0
8.9
4.7
2.1

100.0


Cumulative
Percent
2.6
7.8
19.8
33.3
54.1
71.3
84.3
93.2
97.9
100.0

100.0


ZS:sl-AgriEconExt
2/10/53 1500


Page 26


Twenty Years of Citrus Costs and Returns




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