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Title: appraisal of attainable production in Florida agriculture, 1955
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Full Text

AT~ 6eL* ~5e//~T


An Appraisal of Attainable Production in
Florida Agriculture, 1955












Prepared by the

Agricultural Production Capacity Committee
for the State of Florida













Florida Agricultural Experiment Station; Florida
Agricultural Extension Service; and Production
and Marketing Administration, Soil Conservation
Service and Crop Estimates, United States
Department of Agriculture cooperating.


Gainesville, Florida
November 1, .1951


, / -/Y-










Foreword


An Appraisal of Attainable Production in Florida Agriculture 1955 is one

segment of a study to appraise the agricultural production capacity of the nation

in 1955. The study was recommended by the joint Land-Grant College Association-

Department of Agriculture Committee on Appraisal of Agricultural Production

Capacity appointed by President Hannah of the Land-Grant College Association and

Secretary Brannan of the United States Department of Agriculture.

At the request of Dr. E. W. Trullinger of the Office of Experiment Stations,

Director Willard M. Fifield of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station,

appointed on June 20, 1951 the Agricultural Production Capacity Committee for the

State of Florida. The members of this committee are:

Clyde Murphree, Florida Agricultural Extension Service
Fayette Parvin, Florida Agricultural Extension Service
Russell Henderson, Florida Agricultural Extension Service
F. P. Lawrence, Florida Agricultural Extension Service
F. S. Jamison, Florida Agricultural Extension Service and
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
R. B. Becker, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
T. J. Cunha, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
N. R. Mehrhof, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
F. H. Hull, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
R. S. Dennis, Production and Marketing Administration, U.S.D.A.
J. C. Townsend, Crop Estimates, U.S.D.A.
Olin C. Lewis, Soil Conservation, U.S.D.A.
H. G. Hamilton, Chairman, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

This study is of particular value to the National defense. Not only is a

high level of agricultural Production necessary under a high level of national

mobilization, but should total mobilization become necessary a knowledge of the

potential production of individual products would be of great value. Aside from

national security values the study will serve as a guide for research and

Extension programs of work.








INTRODUCTION


This study attempts to appraise the agricultural production capacity

of Florida for 1955. It was assumed that the general level of prices received

for Florida products will reflect a parity ratio of 105 to 110. It was also

assumed that production materials and equipment will be available in quantities

needed to achieve the potential production indicated.

The bases for making the estimates were first to determine what yields

of crops and livestock could be obtained if the best known production practices

were adopted and second to determine to what extent producers will accept and

put to use these practices.

Land Utilization

The estimated attainable production for 1955 provides for an increase

in land used for crops of 445,000 acres or an increase of 18 percent. Total

land in farms is increased by 1,274,000 acres or 9 percent. Grazing land

not in farms is decreased by 580,000 acres and other land not in farms by

694,000 acres.

Field Crops (intertilled): It is estimated that the acreage of the important

crops, peanuts, cotton, and flue-cured tobacco will each be increased by more

than 25 percent.

Vegetable Crops: The bearing vegetable acreage is estimated to be 13 thousand

acres more or 3.5 percent larger in 1955 than in 1951.

Tree Crops: The bearing citrus acreage is estimated to be 44,000 acres more

or 10 percent larger in 1955 than in 1951. Non-bearing citrus acreage will

be 6,000 acres more or 12 percent larger in 1955 than in 1951.

Oats: Acreage in oats will be 79,000 acres more or 56 percent greater in

1955 than in 1951.





3

Pastures-improved: It is estimated by 1955 there will be 2,000,000 acres of

improved pasture. This is an increase of 1,000,000 acres or 83 percent.

Cover Crops: It is estimated that crops for cover will more than triple by

1955.

New Crops: Rice and three fiber crops ramiee, sansevieria and kenaf) have

recently been introduced in the muck land area of Florida. Florida acreages of

these crops are quite small but it is probable that the acreage of rice in 1955

will be several thousand and the fiber crops, depending on world condition, may

reach 50,000 acres.

Improved Production Practices

Through improved production practices the per acre yield of crops can be

greatly increased. The more important improved production practices are given

in Table 2 for each crop. It will be observed that the practices are classified

as complementary, those practices which are dependent on adopting more than one

practice and noncomplementary, those practices which may be successfully used

independently of other practices. The extent that these practices can be

attained and influences that these practices will have on yield also are given

in Table 2. The maximum yield per acre that would result with the best known

practices is given in Table 3.

Corn: Through use of hybrid seed, proper fertilization, cover crops and shallow

cultivation, corn should yield 30 bushels per acre. This is more than twice the

1951 yield. It is believed that these practices will be adopted to an extent

that the yield of corn in 1955 will be 23 bushels as compared to the 1950 yield

of 14 bushels.

Cotton: Through proper spacing, fertilization and insect control it is estimated

that cotton will yield 400 pounds of lint per acre, It is estimated that 327

pounds yield is attainable for 1955.

Oats: Through proper fertilization, seed treatment and the use of the best

variety of oats maximum yields of 40 bushels per acre can be obtained, It








is believed that by 1955 these practices will be adopted to the extent that

the average yield of oats will be 34 bushels as compared to 18 bushels in

1950. Oats for pasture should yield pasture for 3.3 AUM per acre as compared

to 2.3 AUM per acre in 1950.

Peanuts: The use of improved varieties, closer spacing, seed treatment,

fertilization and rotation will increase yield by 200 pounds per acre. In

addition, the use of sulphur will increase yields by 200 pounds per acre.

The adoption of these and other improved practices would result in an aver-

age yield of 1300 pounds per acre. Adoption of improved practices should

extend to a large enough acreage to result in a yield of 1010 per acre

in 1955.

Tobacco (flue-cured): Proper spacing, fertilization, fumigation, suckering

and insect control of tobacco will obtain yields of 1500 pounds per acre.

It is believed that these improved practices will be adopted to an extent

that yields will average 1,286 pounds per acre by 1955.

Tobacco (Shade): Best known practices now are used extensively by shade

tobacco growers. Unless there are new varieties or technological develop-

ments discovered the yield of shade tobacco will remain near present levels.

Pasture (improved): Improved pasture now yields approximately 5.5 AUM per

acre. By adopting the best known production practices which include proper

fertilization, mowing and chopping, controlled grazing and adaption of

varieties to soil, pastures will yield 8.5 AUM per acre. It is estimated

that there will be an increase of 1,000,000 acres of improved pastures by

1955. It is believed that the best known production practices will be

adopted to the extent that pastures on the average will yield 6 AUM per acre

by 1955.

Vegetable Crops: In general, vegetable producers are using many of the best

known production practices. However, yields would be increased by approximately





5

one-third if the best known practices were extended to the entire acreage. The

best production practices will be extended to enough acreage by 1955 to raise

present yields by 20 percent on the average. In general, improved fertilization

and pest control, better water control (irrigation and drainage) and better

varieties are the practices which will increase yields most. The improved

production practices are given for each crop in Table 2. The estimated attain-

able yields for 1955 and maximum yields are given in Table 3.

Citrus: The best known citrus production practices are widely used by producers.

However, with the use of the best known production practices orange production

would be about 30 percent greater, grapefruit about 12 percent, and tangerines

about 16 percent greater than currently obtained. It is estimated that by 1955

further adoption of the best production practices will increase yields of

oranges by 20 percent, grapefruit 3 percent and tangerines 5 percent.

Fertilizer Requirement: In order to allow for the increased attainable acreage

of Florida crops and to provide for improved practices to attain estimated yields

it will require in 1955 29,740 tons of nitrogen, 16,444 tons of phosphoric acid,

and 24,837 tons of potash more than was used in 1950. This is an increase of

70 percent, 26 percent, and 39 percent respectively. The amount of each element

for each crop is given in Table 4. In addition, 2,160,000 tons of CaCo3

equivalent is needed to meet the requirement for lime, Table 5.

Farm Equipment: The estimated requirement of farm equipment and the portion of

crop acreage that will be covered by this requirement is given in Table 6.

Labor Requirements: The man hours of preharvest and harvest labor per acre

required to produce each crop in 1950 and in 1955 is given in Table 7. Because

of improved machinery it is believed that the amount of labor required per acre

will be slightly less, on the average, in 1955 even with expected increased

yields than used in 1950.

Except for milk cattle and poultry the labor requirements are expected to






6

be about the same in 1955 as in 1950. It is estimated that it will require a

total of 96,000 man years of labor to take care of agriculture labor needs in

1955.

Feed Needs: Feed supplies and pasture will be far greater in 1955 than in 1950.

But even so it will require an inshipment to the state of 18,575 tons of feed

to take care of the livestock in 1955. The amount of pasture will be greatly

increased and should adequately take care of the estimated livestock except

during certain months of the year. Table 8. Actually, during the summer

months there will be a surplus of pasture.

Improved Livestock Practices:

Meat Animals: Improved feeding practices, such as use of B-12 and anti-

biotics for swine, better balanced rations, avoidance of starvation periods for

cattle, and better use of improved.pastures are means of getting better live-

stock production. On the average, less than 50 percent of the meat animals are

being fed according to the best practices. It is believed that about two-thirds

of the meat animals will be properly fed in 1955.

Improved breeding practices such as use of production and progeny records,

culling of males and females and stressing of production when buying replace-

ments will result in better livestock production.

Disease and parasite controls, such as vaccination to prevent diseases,

test for and eradication of diseases, prevention of and treatment for internal

parasites will be extended to about two-thirds of the meat animals by 1955.

By the use of the best known practices the number of pigs saved per litter

would be increased from 5.5 to 6.8, the average weight of hogs marketed would be

increased from 173 pounds to 195 pounds, and the calf crop would be increased

from 60 percent to 72 percent. It is estimated that by 1955 there will be 6.5

pigs saved per litter, hogs will average 190 pounds when marketed, and that

there will be a 68 percent calf crop. Table 9.






7

Poultry: Through improved poultry practices such as better feeding, breeding,

disease and parasite control, and better housing, the production per hen would

be increased from 8.6 dozens to 15 dozens per year. The time required to

produce a 3-pound bird would be decreased by 25 percent and the amount of

concentrate feed per pound of meat reduced from 3.2 pounds to 2.9 pounds.

Table 9.

Dairy Cattle: The kind of improved practices needed for dairy cattle are given

in Table 9-b. If these practices were used milk production per cow could be

increased from 4,200 pounds to 7,000 pounds. Adoption of these practices will

extend to enough animals to result in milk production of 4,500 pounds in 1955.

More pasture and better feeding should result in a decrease of 10 pounds of

concentrate feed to produce 100 pounds of milk.

Livestock Numbers and Production: The total number of cattle in 1955 is esti-

mated at 1,983,000 of which 164,000 are dairy cattle 2 years of age or older,

and 902,000 beef cattle, 2 years or older. This represents an increase of 43

percent for all cattle, 8 percent for dairy cattle and 54 percent for beef

cattle.

The number of pigs saved in 1955 (spring and fall) should approximate

1,300,000 head, or an increase of 33 percent over 1950.

Broiler production should reach 17,000,000 head in 1955 or an increase

of 88 percent over 1950. Egg production in 1955 should be 37,000,000 dozen or

an increase, over 1950, of 77 percent.

Milk production in 1955 of 615,000,000 pounds is only 44,000,000 pounds or

8 percent greater than in 1950.

Feed Needed: The amount of feed needed for feeding livestock in 1955 is given

in Table 11-b.








Table 1.- Estimates of Use of Farm Land, 1955 Attainable.


: : Reported :Reported or : Estimated
Use of farm land : Acreage : for : estimated : 1955
: : 1950 1/ :for 1951 1/ :attainable
Column : 1 2 : 3 : 4


Corn, all
Corn for grain
Sorghums, all except syrup
All sorghums for grain
Soybeans, grown alone
Soybeans for beans
Covpeas, grown alone
Cowpeas for peas
Cowpeas for hay
Peanuts, grown alone
Peanuts picked and threshed
Peanuts for hay
Cotton, all upland
Tobacco, all
Flue cured
Other domestic
Sugarcane for sugar
Irish potatoes
Sweet Potatoes
Other intertilled crops, total
Adjustment for multiple use 2/
Total field cropland used for
intertilled crops


Beans, snap Planted
Cabbage do.
Celery do.
Cucumbers do.
Peppers do.
Strawberries do.
Sweet Corn do.
Tomatoes do.
Watermelons do.
Miscellaneous Vegetables do.
Total cropland used for Veg. Crops


Oranges
Grapefruit
Tangerines
Limes
Bearing Citrus, all

Non-bearing Citrus
Tree Crops, Other
Total Tree Crops


Harvested
do.
do.
do.


Planted


Planted
do.
Planted
Harvested
Planted
Harvested
Planted
Harvested
do.
Planted
Harvested
do.
Planted
Harvested
do.
do.
do.
Planted
do.
do.


1,000
acres
723
723




39
8
200
72
67
32
22.2
18
4.2
38.5
26.1
15
200
,


1,000
acres
737
737




38

9
200
77
70
69
25
20.9
4.1
39.6
25.3
12
205


1,295.8 1,350.9


79.5
18.0
9.8
17.0
16.2
5.4
34.0
43.8
70.0
81.3
375.0

300.9
98.5
24.2
4.7
428.3

48.0
25.0
501.3


88.9
19.0
10.8
17.9
12.8
6.5
27.2
53.2
64.0
74.7
375.0

309.5
100.0
24.2
4.8
438.5

54.0
26.0
519.0


1,000
acres
740
740
30
30
40
40
40
30
10
325
110
85
90
31
26
5.0
44.0
35
20
200
80

1,515


90.0
19.0
12.0
18.0
16.0
8.0
40.0
55.0
55.0
75.0
388.0

341.0
112.0
24.5
5.0
482.5

60.0
30.0
572.5








Table i.- Estimates of Use of Farm Land, 1955 Attainable-Concluded.

S: Reported :Ieported or: Estimated
Use of farm land : Acreage : for : estimated : 1955
S: 1950 1/ :for 1951 1/:attainable
Column : 1 : 2 : 3 : 4


Oats
Oats for grain
Other Close-growing crops
Adjustment for multiple use 3/
Hay, all tame--except soybean,
peanut and small grain hay
Grass silage
Seeds, hay and cover crop, all
Other


Total cropland used for sod crops 3/
Total cropland used for crops c/
Idle cropland
Adjustment for multiple use 2/
Total cropland 3/
Open permanent pasture-improved
Other grass
Woods pastured
Woods not pastured
Other land in farms
Total land in farms
Grazing land not in farms
Other land not in farms
Total land area

Cover crops:
Lupine
Other Legumes
Non-legumes


Planted
Harvested


cowpea,
Harvested
do.
do.
do.


1,000
acres

123
16
50
25

13

40o
10
63
2,333
627


3,000
- 1,000
- 3,000
- 4,110
- 1,274
700
- 13,084
- 10,465
11,179
34,728


Planted
do.
do.


114
26
2


1,000 1, WO
acres acres


144
20
60
85

14

45
12
-71
2,434
466

2,900
1,200
2,800
4,400
1,150
700
13,150
10,604
10,974
34,728


115
25
5


225
60
65
32

50
2
65
20
137
2,870.5
450
97
3,223.5
2,000
2,600
4,000
1,800
800
14,423.5
10,024.5
10,280
34,728


170
200
10


I/ Source-Bureau of Agricultural Economics (or distributions by areas of BAE reports
for States) except as otherwise indicated. 2/ In making the adjustment for
multiple use of land by crops in the same group or in two or more groups, the
first use in the crop year is considered to be the primary use. 3/ Total acres
used for crops is less than the sum of the acreages of individual crops to the
extent that two or more crops were, or will be, planted on or harvested from
same land during the year.








Table 2*- Improved Production Practices, 1950 and 1955 Attainable.


: Extent of Use
Crop 1950 : 1955
: estimated : attainable
Acres Acres
Corn:
Complementary practices:
Non-hybrid and fertilized 170,000 52,000
Hybrid and fertilized 231,000 592,000
None of above practices 320,000 x_6,OC0
Total 721,000 740,000

Noncomplementary practices:
Cover crop legumes winter 100,000 150,000
Shallow cultivation 200,000 400,000

Yield per acre (bushels) 14 23

Cotton:
Complementary practices:
Spacing )
Proper fertilization) 6,000 60,000
Insect control )
None of above practices 26,000 30,000
Total 32,000 90,000

Yield per acre (pounds) 218 327

Oats for grain:
Complementary practices:
Improved variety)
Fertilization ) 6,000 50,000
Seed treatment )
None of above practices 10,000 10,000
Total 16,000 60,000

Yield per acre (bushels) 18 34

Oats for pasture:
Complementary practices:
Improved varieties)
Fertilization ) 10,000 120,000
Seed treatment )
None of above practices 67,000 45,000
Total 107,000 165,000


Yield per acre (AU))


3.3









Table 2.- Improved Production Practices, 1950 and 1955 Attainable Continued.


: Extent of Use
Crop : 1950 t 1955
: estimated : attainable


Acres


Acros


Peanuts planted alone:
Complementary practices:
Improved varieties)
Closer spacing )
Seed treatment )
Fertilization )
Rotation )
Improved varieties and one of above
None of above practices
Total

Noncomplementary practices:
Sulphur

Yield per acre (pounds)

Tobacco-flue cured:
Complementary practices:
Spacing )
Proper fertilization)
None of above practices
Total

Noncomplementary practices:
Fumigation
Top and sucker
Better insect control

Yield per acre (pounds)

Pasture improved:
Complementary practices:
Proper fertilization)
Mowing and chopping )
None of above practices
Total

Noncomplementary practices:
Adaptation of varieties to soil
Control grazing


90,000


70,000
40,000
200,000


50,000

826




11,000
.7,000
18,000



14,500
9,000


1,020


600,000
600,000
1,000,000


800,000
200,000


200,000


100,000
25,000
325,000


100,000

1,010




22,000
4,000
26,000


10,000
10,000
20,000


1,286


1,200,000
1,000,000
2,200,000


2,000,000
600,000


Yield per acre (AUM!


7.0









Table 2.- Improved Production Practices, 1950 and 1955 Attainable-Continued.

: Extent of Use
Crop 1950 : 1955
: estimated : attainable
Beans-Snap:
Complementary practices:
Better water control )
More reliable seed source) 15,900 54,000
Better cultural practices)
None of above practices 63,600 36,000
Total 79,500 90,000

Noncomplementary practices:
Higher yielding varieties 4,000 18,000
More efficient fertilizer usage 15,900 36,000

Yield per acre (bushels) 91 113

Cabbage:
Complementary practices:
Better disease control)
Better insect control ) 5,400 14,300
None of above practices 13,600 4,700
Total 19,000 19,000

Noncomplementary practices:
Wider use of high yielding
long standing varieties 3,600 9,500
More efficient use of fertilizer 9,000 14,300
Use of irrigation 10,800 15,200

Yield per acre (tons) 10.2 11.5

Celery:
Complementary practices:
Improved fungicides )
Improved insecticides )
Better control of non-parasitic) 5,900 9,600
conditions such as root knot )
and black heart )
None of above practices 3,900 2,400
Total 9,800 12,000

Noncomplementary practices:
Increase in use of high yielding
green varieties 3,900 8,400
Better control of soil fertility factors 4,000


Yield per acre (crates)


632 725






13

Table 2.- Improved Production Practices, 1950 and 1955 Attainable-Continued.

: Extent of Use
Crop 1950 : 1955
: estimated : attainable
Cucumbers:
Complementary practices:
Better fungicides for mildew control )
and better application ) 8,500 14,400
Better insecticides from pickle worm )
control and more efficient application)
None of above practices 8,500 600
Total 17,000 18,000

Noncomplementary practices:
Wider use of fertilizers, placement
equipment 10,200 14,400
Improved varieties 6,800 16,200
More efficient use of fertilizer -9,000

Yield per acre (bushels) 206 225

Peppers:
Complementary practices:
Better insecticides and wider use )
More effective and efficient means) 8,100 12,800
of application )
None of above practices 8,100 3,200
Total 16,200 16,000

Noncomplementary practices:
More effective use of fertilizer 4,800
More effective control of some
virus diseases 32,000
Better liming program 4,000 9,600

Yield per acre (bushels) 264 300

Strawberries:
Complementary practices:
More efficient method of applying and
using fertilizer 800 4,000
None of above practices 4,600 4,00
Total 5,400 8,000

Noncomplementary practices:
New varieties with high yielding
percent of marketable berries 2,000
Control of nematodes 1,100 4,800
Increased use of berries for purposes
other than fresh market 3,200 6,400
Irrigation 1,400 6,000


Yield per acre (24-qt. crates)


60 100








Table 2.- Improved Production Practices, 1950 and 1955 Attainable-concluded.

: Extent of Use
Crop 1950 : 1955
: estimated : attainable
Sweet Corn:
Complementary practices:
None 34,000 40,000

Noncomplementary practices:
Efficient insect control 28,900 38,000
Better cultural methods 17,000 32,000

Yield per acre (5-dz. crate) 113 125

Tomatoes:
Complementary practices:
Improved fungicides and better )
application )
Improved insecticides and better) 26,300 46,700
application )
None of above practices 17,500 8,300
Total 43,800 55,000

Noncomplementary practices:
More efficient water control 14,000
More improved disease resistant
practices -14,000
Better control of vine diseases -8,000
More improved harvesting and
handling techniques 19,000

Yield per acre (bushels) 175 200

Watermelons:
Complementary practices:
More efficient use of fertilizer )
Better control of white heart and) 17,500 33,000
other physiological diseases )
None of above practices 52,500 22,000
Total 70,000 55,000

Noncomplementary practices:
New disease resistant varieties
giving high yield of good quality 17,500 44,000
Increased use of irrigation 10,500 16,500


Yield per acre (melons)


300 350








Table 3.- Estimates of Crop and Pasture Yields Per Acre,
1955 Attainable and Maximum


Crop : Acreage


1

Corn, all :Planted
All sorghums for grain :Harvested:
Soybeans for beans : do.
Peanuts picked & threshed: do.
All upland cotton : do
Flue-cured tobacco : do.
Other domestic tobacco do.
Sugarcane for sugar : do.
Irish potatoes : Planted
Sweet potatoes : do.
Beans, snap : doo
Cabbage : do
Celery : do.
Cucumbers : do.
Peppers : do.
Strawberries : do, :


Sweet corn

Tomatoes
Watermelons
Oranges
Grapefruit
Tangerines
Limes
Oats for grain
Hay, all tame
Grass silage (S*C.)
Open improved permanent
pasture
Oats pasture
Woodland pasture
Other pasture in farms 1
Grazing land not in farn


d

d


Lo. :

o~0.
l0o :I


Harvested:
do.
do.
do.
S do.
do.
do.


Planted
: :
-/: :


Is:


- :


SYield per acre
: :Average: : :
Unit : Base : for : 1950 : 1955 :
:period: base :adjusted: attain-:Maximum
: : period: : able t
2 3 : 4 5 : 6 : 7


Bu. : 40-49:


do. :
do* : "
lb. : :
do, : "
do. : "
do. : "
ton : "
bu. : 45-49:
do. : 40-49:
do. : 45-o0:
ton : "
crate: "
bu. : "
doe :
24 qt:.
crate: "
5 doz.-:
crate: "
bu.: "
nelons: "
boxes: "
do. : "
do. : "
do. : "
bu. : 40-h9:
ton "
do0 : "

AUM : xx
do. : xx
do. : xx
do* :
do. : xx


11 14
-l --


664
169.4
920
1,086
30
176
67
97
9
525
134
268


820
218
1,015
1,190
31.2
217
70
91
10.2
632
206
264


23
25
25
1,010
327
1,286
1, 050
33
275
75
113
11.5
725
225
300


65 60 100


105
159
269
198
318
187
43
1608
.55


xx
xx
xx
xx
xx


113 125
175 200
300 350
221 265
330 340
190 200
56 60
18 34
.6 1.0
300


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2.3
.*4
.6
.2


6.0
3.3
.4
.6
.175


30
35
35
1,300
4oo00
1,500
1,300
35
300
85
124
12.5
800
247
330


110

137
220
385
290
370
220
65
40
1.5
4.5

8.5
6.0
.h
.6
.175


I/ Aftermath of harvested crops, oat and rye pastures, etc.






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Table 5.- Estimated Acreage Limed, Acreage Needing Lime, and Quantities of
CaCo3 Equivalent That Would Be Needed.

: Required to : Required annually
: At end of 1950 : establish on : for maintenance on
: acreage in Col. 2 : acreage in Col. 1
Item :Total acres : Total acres: : CaCo3 : CaCo3
: limed and : needing : Material: : Material:
:needing lime: lime l/ : :equivalent equivalentn
Column 1 2 : 3. : 4 t 5 : 6
Acres Acres Tona Tons Tons Tons
Cropland 1,500,000 1,000,000 100,000 900,000 333,000 300,000
Permanent pasture 900,000 800,000 80,000 720,000 266,000 240,000
Total 2,400,000 1,800,000 180,000 1,620,000 599,000 540,000
l/ Includes acreage that needs initial application and acreage on which previous
applications were inadequate*


Table 6.- Extimated Use and Needs for Specialized Machines and Equipment,
1950 and 1955 Attainable.

n : Number of machines: Portion of acreage covered
Kind of machine : Crop : In use : Needed: Estimated a Recommended
or equipment : 1950 : 1955 : 19 19 155
Number Number Percent Percent
Field equipment:
Mechanical pickers Corn 138 338 5 12
Mechanical pickers Cotton 12 0 4
Pick-up balers Hay 80 300 10 10
Mowing machine Hay & pasture 13,508 17,000 75 90
Rakes, side delivery Hay 1,117 2,000 10 10
Combines, grain Oats 478 800 60 80
Hay & seed dryers Seeds 75 300 20 60
Tractors All 27,000 32,400 60 75
Peanut combines Peanuts 10 100 1 8
Field forage harvesters Silage 25 125 30 70
Sprayers, power Field crops 900 1,100 60 70
Groves 9,000 12,000 97 100
t" Vegetable 12,000 15,000 60 70

Barn equipment:
Milking machines 691 750
Manure spreader, power 323 700
Silos, upright 75 175
Silos, pit and trench 50 50






Table 7.- Estimated Man-Hour Requirements Per Acre, 1950 and 1955 Attainable.

: 1950 : Changes 1950-1955 : 1955
Crop : Pre- :IIarvest:Total: Pre- :Harvest:Total: Pre- :Harvest'Total
:harvest: :harvest : :harvest: t
: Hours : Hours :Hours: Hours : Hours :Hours: Hours i Hours :Hours
Corn 12 5 17 -2 2 0 10 7 17
Cowpeas 8 14 22 -1 -2 -3 7 12 19
Peanuts 35 15 50 0 -3 -3 35 12 47
Cotton 50 55 105 0 0 0 50 55 105
Tobacco 233 334 567 0 0 0 233 23 567
Sugar Cane 60 175 235
Irish Potatoes 34 5S 88 1 -4 -3 35 50 85
Sweet Potatoes 90 72 162 0 0 0 72 162
Other 20 15 35 -2 -1 -3 18 lb 32
Pasture Oats 5 5 0 0 0 5 0 5
Cover Crops 5 5 -1 0 -1 h 0 h
Tomatoes 196 146 342 0 0 0 196 146 342
Celery 316 183 499 +5 -10 -5 321 173 4h9
Cucumbers 152 144 296 -20 -10 -30 132 134 266
Peppers 234 225 459 0 0 0 234 225 459
Strawberries 7)l 653 1,394 0 0 0 741 653 1,394
WYatermelons 32. 21 53 0 0 0 32 21 53
Snap Beans 23 118 141 0 -10 -10 23 108 131
Cabbage 92 84 176 0 0 0 92 84 176
Sweet Corn 19 23 42 -3 -2 -5 16 21 37
Other Vegetables 105 125 230 -5 -5 -10 100 120 220
Oranges 50 30 80 0 0 0 50 30 80
Grapefruit 50 30 80 0 0 0 50 30 80
Tangerines 50 35 85 0 0 0 50 30 80
Limes 80 25 105 0 0 0 80 25 105
Non-bearing citrus 20 0 20 0 0 0 20 0 20
Other tree crops 12 20 32 0 0 0 12 20 32



Table 7a- Estimated Man-Hour Requirements Per Unit of Livestock,
1950 and 1955 Attainable,

Livestock 1/ 1950 Changes 1950-1955 1955
Total Total Total
Hours Hours Hours
Hogs 16 1 17
Cattle and calves 13 0 13
Cattle, milk 200 -5 195
Hens and pullets 1,6 -O.1 1o5
Horses and mules 75 0 75
Broilers 0.3 0 0.3
Sheep and lambs 7.0 0 7
Turkeys 2.0 0 2

I/ Unit of livestock or livestock production*







Teble 8.- Estimates of Supply of Feeds Available for Feeding Livestock
and for Other Purposes, 1955 Attainable.


: Year beginning October 1
Item 1950-51 atta955
: :- attainable
: 1 : 2
Tons Tons
Feed grains


Corn, net supply
Sorghums for grain, net supply
Oats, net supply
Total net supply

Total needed for food and industrial use
Total available for feeding livestock
and outshipments
Total needed for feeding livestock
Total inshipments needed

Other farm-produced concentrates

Peanuts fed (including hogged off)

Hay

Tame and wild hay, net supply
Total needed for feeding livestock
Inshipments needed

Other roughages produced and fed

Grass silage

Carrying capacity of pastures and ranges



Open permanent pasture and range in farms
Woods pastured
Other pasture in farms
Grazing land not in farms
Total carrying capacity
Total requirements for livestock


255,075 2


35,424
290,499

25,507

264,992
432,340
167,348



41,000



7,800
312,855
305,085


Animal
unit
months


5,500,000
1,644,000
1,842,000
2,093,000
11,079,000
13,768,050


428,850 _1/
21,000
122,400
572,250

42,885

529,365
547,940
18,575


113,625


50,000
389,390
339,390



6,000

Animal
unit
months


12,000,000
1,600,000
1,608,000
1,798,387
17,006,387
17,973,300


l/ Net allows for rat and weevil loss and shrinkage.






20

Table 9.- Extent of Use of Improved Livestock Practices, Production Rates,
and Concentrates Feeding Rates, 1950 and 1955 Attainable.

Class of livestock MEAT ANIMALS

SPercentage of total number on which
a practice used
Practice : 1950 : 195
S estimated : attainable


Improved feeding:

Adequate use of B-12 and antibiotics
for swine
Make use of better balanced ration in-
cluding mineral supplements
Avoid starvation and restricted feed-
ing periods
Reduce feed wastage
Make maximum use of improved pastures
Make use of local by-product feeds-

Improved breeding & selection:

Use production and progeny records
Stress production in buying replacements
Strict culling of females for production
Sample and cull sires on production and
use of proven sires

Disease and parasite control:

Vaccinate to prevent diseases
Test for and eradicate diseases
Prevent and/or treat for internal and
external parasites
Practice strict sanitation

Other:


Percent

:

s 15

S335

a 45

S60
: 60


Percent


Have constant supply of clean fresh water : 65 75
: 1950 : 1955 :
I estimated : attainable :
Production rate:
Pigs per litter saved 5"5 6.5 6.8
Weight of hogs marketed, average 173 190 195
Calf crop, percent 60 68 72
Concentrates feeding rate:
Hogs feed per 190-pound gain, pounds 500 425 400








Table 9a.- Extent of Use of Improved Livestock Practices, Production Rates,
and Concentrates Feeding Rates, 1950 and 1955 Attainable.

Class of livestock POULTRY

:Percentage of total number on which
: practice used
Practice 1950 1955
: estimated : attainable
: Percent Percent
Improved feeding:
Adequate use of B-12 and antibiotics--
Broilers 50 95
All others :20 50
Encourage full feeding practices 50 80
Make use of better balanced ration 60 70
Reduce feed wastage rats, feeders : 0 60
Have constant supply of clean fresh water : 60 75
Make use of local by-product feeds 15 20

Improved breeding & selection:
Use of 100-percent pullet flocks 30 60
Practice strict culling for production :60 70

Disease and parasite control
Vaccinate to prevent diseases
when applicable 60 75
Prevent and/or treat for internal
and external parasites 65 70
Practice strict sanitation 50 60
Judicial use of proven remedies :25 50
Test breeders for pullorum disease 90 95

Other:
Follow approved and recommended
management practices 60 75
Use of satisfactory shelter and equip-
ment, labor-saving devices :65 70
Market higher quality poultry products 65 80
1950 : 1955 Maximum
: estimated : attainable :
Production rate
Dozen eggs per bird 8.6 12.3 15
Time to produce 3-pound bird 11-12 10-11 9*5
Concentrates feeding rate:
Pounds feed per pound meat 3.2 30 2.9








Table 9b.- Extent of Use of Improved Livestock Practices, Production Rates,
and Concentrates Feeding Rates, 1950 and 1955 Attainable*

Class of livestock DAIRY CATTLE

: Percentage of total number on which
t practice used
Practice 1950 : 195
: estimated attainable


Improved feeding:

Make use of better balanced concentrates
including mineral supplements
Avoid starvation and restricted feed-
ing periods
Reduce feed wastage; feed concentrates
according to production
Make maximum use of improved pastures
and leafy roughage
Have constant supply of clean fresh water
Make use of local by-product feeds

Improved breeding & selection:

Use production and progeny records
Stress production in buying replacements
Strict culling of females for production
Sample and cull sires on production
and use proved sires
Raise home-grown replacements from the
better cows by artificial breeding
by proved sires

Disease and parasite control:

Vaccinate to prevent disease
Test and eradicate disease
Prevent and/or treat for parasites
Practice strict sanitation

Other:

Follow approved and recommended manage-
ment practices
Market a high quality product to best
price advantage


I




































1950


recentt


Percent


30
80
7.5
87


1955


MaxYimmum


: estimated : attainable
Production rate:
Milk per cow per year, pounds 4t,200 4,500 7,000
Concentrates feeding rate:
Concentrates, per cwt. milk, pounds 61 51
Pasture, months 9.5 9.5 10
Hay & equivalent, pounds per day for 120 days 8.5 9.0 9.75


-g


S








Table 10.- Estimates of Number of Livestock and Production of Livestock
and Livestock Products, 1955 Attainable.

: : Reported :Reported or: 1955
Item of livestock and i Unit : for : estimated : attain-
livestock products 1 : 1950 : for 1951 : able
Column : 1 2 3, :


1,000
units


1,000
units


1,000
units


On farms, January 1:

Horses, mules and colts :Number: 51 51 49
Cattle and calves, all : dro : 1,392 1,503 1,983
Cows kept for milk, 2 yrs. : do. : 152 152 164
Other cows, 2 yrs. / : do. : 584 64 902
Sheep and lambs, all do. : 12 12 12
Ewes, 1 yr. / s do.: 7 7 7
Hens and pullets do. : 2,31 2,293 3,000

During year:
Sows farrowed, spring do. : 102 108 116
Pigs saved, spring : do. : 551 670 754
Sows farrowed, fall : do. : 76 81 88
Pigs saved, fall do. : 426 421 554
Chickens raised (excl. comm. broilers) : do. : 4 068 4,353 7,500
Commercial broiler production : do. : 9,035 10,000 17,000
Turkeys raised : do. : 131 144 200
Cattle put on feed / : do. : 5 8 11
Milk cows, average during year : do. : 136 138 145
Calves born :do. : 109 122 131
Lambs saved : do. : 4.2 4.2 4.2

Milk produced : Pound: 571,000 579,f00 615,000
Eggs produced : Dozen: 20,917 20,000 37,000
Wool produced : Pound: 36 36 36
Chickens raised : do. : 22,695 20,340 30,000
Commercial broiler production : do. t 27,108 30,000 49,300
Turkeys raised : do. : 1,572 1,812. 3,600
Net production, cattle and calves : do. : 191,000 206,000 267,000
Net production, sheep and lambs : d. : 200 200 200
Net production, hog : do. : 125,000 140,000 165,000
1/ Twelve-month period beginning October 1.


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