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Title: Family buying practices for citrus and non-citrus products in the Atlanta market
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Title: Family buying practices for citrus and non-citrus products in the Atlanta market
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 5
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Full Text
September, 1963
IL' -o''


Agricultural Economics
Report EC 64-3


FAMILY BUYING PRACTICES FOR
CITRUS AND NON-CITRUS PRODUCTS
IN THE ATLANTA MARKET


raiI(ih? t,-q
S isa idl~k ia .jeiP i/"~~t ~i ~ ~ UJv C~P ~L.;'I


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TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page


INTRODUCTION .. ..........

Purpose of Study ..........
Method of Study ..........


PART I. THE AGGREGATE PURCHASE PATTERN FOR THE PANEL FAMILIES


Fresh Citrus Products ........
Canned and Frozen Citrus Juices .
Frozen Juice Products........
Canned Fruit Juices .........
Canned Tomato and Vegetable Juice
Soft Drinks and Synthetic Citrus Flavc


. . . . . 7

. . . . . 13
. . . . . 13
red Drink. . . . . 1
red Drinks . . . 17


PART 11I. VARIATIONS IN PURCHASING PATTERNS
AMONG INCOME GROUPS


Purchases of Fresh Citrus Fruit by Income Groups . . .
Purchases of Canned and Frozen Citrus Juices by Income Groups .
Purchases of Frozen Juice Products by Income Groups . . .
Purchases of Canned Fruit Juices by Income Groups . . .
Purchases of Canned Tomato and Vegetable Juices by Income Groups .
Purchases of Soft Drinks and Synthetic Citrus Flavored Drink Products
by Income Groups .. ... ... .. ... .. .. ... .


PART Il. THE PROPORTION OF THE PANEL FAMILIES
BUYING INDIVIDUAL PRODUCTS


Proportion of Families Purchasing
Proportion of Families Purchasing
Proportion of Families Purchasing
Proportion of Families Purchasing
Proportion of Families Purchasing
Proportion of Families Purchasing
Flavored Drink Products .


Fresh Citrus Fruit . . .
Canned and Frozen Citrus Juices .
Frozen Juice Products . .
Canned Fruit Juices . .....
Canned Tomato and Vegetable Juices.
Soft Drinks and Synthetic Citrus
. . . . . .


. .. ... . . 1

. . . . . 2
. . . . . 2
2















INTRODUCTION


Adverse weather conditions during the winter of 1962 served to temporarily al-

leviate the marketing problems confronting the Florida Citrus Industry. Viewed from

the long-run, however, the problems remain very much the same. Activities and in-

tentions on the part of producers suggest a future in which the industry will produce

a succession of record crops, and when the marketing sector will be called upon to

move steadily mounting per capital supplies of citrus fruit.

To a considerable degree, the success of the industry under anticipated future

conditions will depend upon achieving maximum distribution in the domestic market.

The measures taken by marketing firms and by the industry as a whole to achieve max-

imum distribution must be based upon an understanding of the market status of citrus

products in the broadest context if they are to be most effective in accomplishing this

task. Few would argue that the final consumer plays the most important role in estab-

lishing the market status of citrus products. The development and the execution of

programs of distribution and promotion should take into account the variations in the

use levels and consumption patterns throughout the national population and in the

greatest possible detail. Such information is needed not only for citrus products, but

for the full range of fruits and juices which may be likely substitutes in the consump-

tion on the part of the nation's families.












Purpose of Study

This study is designed to provide an overview of the consumption patterns of

families in the Atlanta Market area for citrus products and for a number of other proc-

essed fruit, juice, and beverage items. It affords an opportunity to look at the rel-

ative importance of various products in the aggregate market, and to examine how the

use of these products varies with the level of income of Atlanta families. Further,

this report provides a basis for examining the dynamics of consumption over time and

in response to radical changes in the supply of Florida Citrus fruit. The study repre-

sents a contribution to the informational base which the citrus industry needs in the

formulation of plans to more effectively market its products in the future.


Method of Study

The basic data on family food purchases presented in this report were obtained

from a consumer panel operated by the Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station for a

period of more than five years in the Atlanta market area. The panel was established

in 1957 and operated continuously from July of that year until the end of 1962. It

consisted of approximately 300 families who rendered a complete report of their food

purchases on a weekly basis during this time interval. The selection of households for

inclusion in the panel was done in a fashion designed to make the panel representative

of the households in Atlanta, and generally representative of urban areas in the South-

east. Consequently the full range of population variation with respect to income,

race, and family size was considered in selecting the participating families.












This study is focused on the aggregate consumption pattern of the Atlanta Mar-

ket and the variations due to differences in family income. The income classifica-

tions employed were as follows:

Low--A total family income of less than $4000 per year.

Medium--A total family income within the range from $4001 through $6000 per

year.

High--Families whose total income exceeded $6000 per year.

Using these income classifications, average weekly purchase data were obtained

for selected products by quarterly periods for the last half of the 1957, all of 1958 and

for all of 1961. The choice frame for study was based on two major considerations:

(1) That changes in consumption patterns between 1957 and 1958 would provide
insight into the after-effects of the freeze in Florida during December of
1957.

(2) That changes between 1958 and 1961 would indicate how consumers adjusted
their consumption of individual products as larger quantities of Florida citrus
became available during this time interval.

Interpretation of the panel data is a highly individualistic matter. Interest in the

consumption behavior for specific products and for product classes will probably vary in

conformance with the orientation of various groups in both the private and public sectors

of the Florida Citrus Industry. As a consequence, the discussion of the results is re-

stricted to a brief statement summarizing the salient features of the behavior of consum-

ers over time and as it varies as a result of family income.




























Part 1


THE AGGREGATE PURCHASE PATTERN FOR THE PANEL FAMILIES
























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Part 11


VARIATIONS IN PURCHASING PATTERNS AMONG INCOME GROUPS









SOranges


Pounds Per Person
Per Week


SLemons and limes


LOW INCOME GROUP CONSUMPTION PER CAPITAL


1957 1958 1961 1957 1958 1961 1958 1961 1958 1961
July-August-September October-November-December January-February-March April-May-June
MEDIUM INCOME GROUP CONSUMPTION PER CAPITAL


iJ1 _0 __D-
1957 1958 1961
July-August-September


k L LI
1957 1958 1961 1957 1961 1958 1961
October-November-December January-February-March April-May-June


HIGH INCOME GROUP CONSUMPTION PER CAPITAL
1.0-

0.8-

0.6-

I .4



0-i
1957 1958 1961 1957 1958 1961 1958 1961 1958 1961
July-August-September October-November- December January-February-March April-May-June


Fig. 7.--Per Capita Purchases of Fresh Citrus Fruit, by Income Groups, Atlanta,
Georgia, 1957-61.


E Tangerines


I Grapefruit






















Purchases of Fresh Citrus Fruit by Income Groups


Little difference exists in the levels of use of fresh citrus fruit among income

groups in Atlanta. Fresh orange purchases were about the same for the low and mid-

dle income groups, and high income consumers were only slightly heavier buyers of

this product. Fresh grapefruit was used somewhat more intensively by low income

consumers than by those in the middle income class. High income families were only

slightly heavier users of both oranges and grapefruit than families in the lower income

classes.

Lemons, limes, and tangerines show little variation in use level that can be

identified with differences in family income.












SCanned orange juice


Ounces per person Low income Group Consumpion Per u apita
per week
2.'
2.0 19 121 A
.12.5 1.6.
1.2 O1 0. 7 7 1 .9



1957 1958 1961 1957 1958 1961 1958 961 958 1961
July-August-September October-November-December January-February-March April-May-June
Medium Income Group Consumption Per Capita
4.3 4.3
4.0- 4.0 4.1
43.4



2.0- .8 a1.9

3.0 0 A 1 0 9/



1957 1958 1961 1957 1958 1961 1958 1961 1958 1961
July-August-September October-November-December January-February-March April-May-June
High Income Group Consumption Per Capita


10.5










6. '.0










1.7 1.6 1.6
1.2 0



1957 1958 1961
July-August-September


12.2







9.0





6.6











14.7
2









-1 1.0



1957 1958 1961
October-November-December


10.8





















17.9

S 1.3



1958 1961
January-February-March


.5 11.




1958 1961
April-May-June


Fig. 8.--Per Capita Purchases of Canned and Frozen Citrus Juices, by Income Groups,
Atlanta, Georgia, 1957-61.


I Canned grapefruit juice


I Orangeconcentrte (recostituted






















Purchases of Canned and Frozen Citrus Juices by Income Group


Consumer income had a pronounced effect on the use levels for frozen orange

concentrate. High income consumers generally bought about twice as much of this

product as middle income consumers. Low income families purchased only half as

much as middle income families.

Canned orange juice was used with about equal intensity by low and high in-

come families, and to a lesser extent by those in the middle income class. There was

little difference between the three income groups with respect to the use of canned

grapefruit juice.











SFrozen lemonade Frozen limeade Frozen grape juice
Ounces per person
per week


Frozen pineapple juice I Frozen Hawaiian punch base


w oL i ncome Group C a


1957 1958 1961 1957 1958 1961 1958 1961 1958 1961
July-August-September October-November-December January-February-March April-May-June

Medium Income Group Consumption Per Capita


1957 1958
July-August-September


1958


July-August-Septemb


1961


1957 1958 1961 1958 1961 1958 1961
October-November-December January-February-March April-May-June


High Income Group Consumption Per Capita


























1961 1957 1958 161 1958 1961
er October-November-December January-February-March


Fig. 9. --Per Capita Purchases of Frozen Juice Products, by Income Groups, Atlanta,
Georgia, 1957-61.


1957






















Purchases of Frozen Juice Products by Income Groups


There was little difference in the use levels for these products between the low

and medium income families. However, high income families used substantially larger

quantities of frozen lemonade than families in the other two groups. High income fam-

ilies were also somewhat heavier users of frozen grape juice than families in the middle

and low income class.











SCanned prune juice
Dunces per person
per week
1.0-


SCanned grape juice I Canned pineapple juice Canned Hawaiian punch


Low Income Group Consumption Per Capita


1957 1958 1961 1957 1958 1961 1958 1961 1958 1961
July-August-September October-November-December January-February-March April-May-June

Medium Income Group Consumption Per Capita


1957 1958 1961 1958
October-November-December Januar

High Income Group Consumption Per Capita


1957
October-


i p










1958 1961 1958 1961
November-December January-February-March


Fig. 10.--Per Capita Purchases of Canned Fruit Juices, by Income Groups, Atlanta,
Georgia, 1957-61.


1 .0-






















Purchases of Canned Fruit Juices by Income Groups


While the level of usage of each of these products was quite low, it appears

that there is a direct relationship between income status of the family and the quan-

tity of each consumed. Consumption differences appear to be greater between medi-

um and high income families than between the low and middle income classes. Most

pronounced income responses appear to be for canned grape and pineapple juice.







O Canned vegetable juice


Ounces per person
per week
0.6.


Low Income Group Consumption Per Capita


[ I L
1957 1958 1961
July-August-September


I 1
1957 1958 1961
October-November-December


L L L I
1958 1961 1958 1961
January-February-March April-May-June


Medium Income Group Consumption Per Capita


I L l
1957 1958 1961
July-August-September


1957 1958 1961
October-November-December


1958 1961 1958 1961
January-February-March April-May-June


High Income Group Consumption Per Capita


1957 1958 1961
July-August-September


i




1957 1958 1961
October-November-December


Fig. 11.--Per Capita Purchases of Canned Tomato and Vegetable juices, by Income
Groups, Atlanta, Georgia, 1957-61.


I Canned tomato juice






















Purchases of Canned Tomato and Vegetable Juices by Income Groups


Both of these products were purchased in very small quantities by Atlanta fami-

lies. Purchase rates for canned vegetable juice seldom exceeded one-half ounce per

person per week, and tomato juice purchases were above one ounce per week only for

the high income group.

While small in absolute amount, the purchase rates for both products varied di-

rectly with the income status of the family. The effect of income on the use level of

tomato juice was somewhat more pronounced than for vegetable juices.











SSynthetic citrus drinks

Ounces per person
per week


I Canned soft drinks


LOW INCOME GROUP CONSUMPTION PER CAPITAL


16.0-

12.0-




1.5- -



0.5-

0. A J A l
1957 1958 961 1957 1958 1961 1958 196i 1958 1961
July-August-September October-November-December January-February-March April-May-June


16.0-

12.0-

8.0.


1.5-

1.0-

0.5-




24.0-

20.0-

16.0-

12.0-

8.0-


1.5-

1.0-

0.5-

0-


MEDIUM INCOME GROUP CONSUMPTION PER CAPITAL


1957


July-At


HIGH INCOME GROUP CONSUMPTION PER CAPITAL


957


1958


July-August-September


961


11_
1957 1958 961
October-November-December


1958 961
January-February-March


IL







1958 961
April-May-June


















1958 1961
April-May-June


Fig. 12.--Per Capita Purchases of Soft Drinks and Synthetic Citrus Flavored Drinks,
by Income Groups, Atlanta, Georgia, 1957-61.


I I I I a I I






lT
1958 1961 1957 1958 1961 1958 96
ugust-September October-November-December January-February-March


1


95z"


I Bottled soft drinks






















Purchases of Soft Drinks and Synthetic Citrus Flavored Drink Products by Income

Groups


The consumption of soft drinks was slightly higher on the part of middle income

families than for low income families. Consumption intensity for these products in-

creased sharply for high income families, and was almost double in the rate for the

low income group. In all income groups, purchases of canned soft drinks showed ma-

terial gains between 1957-58 and 1961. The use of soft drinks in cans, however, re-

presented a comparatively small fraction of the total quantity consumed.

Atlanta families use synthetic citrus flavored drinks in very small amounts.

Middle and high income families tend to use these products to a somewhat greater ex-

tent than low income families.



























Part 111


THE PROPORTION OF THE PANEL FAMILIES BUYING INDIVIDUAL PRODUCTS













34












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