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Title: Labor and material requirements for gladiolus and chrysanthemums by areas in Florida
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Title: Labor and material requirements for gladiolus and chrysanthemums by areas in Florida
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Full Text
6 -'; b ri,--


'- r November, 1969 Agricultural Economics
Mimeo Report EC70-6


TRIAL REQUIREMENTS


FOR


A ND C H R Y S A N T H-E M LT M S


Y AREAS


IN


ORI DA


by

D. L. Brooke
culturall Economist


DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


LABOR













CONTENTS

Item Page


Introduction.............................. .................... 1

Gladiolus.. ................................................... 1

Production areas .......................................... 1

Seasonality.............................. ................. 2

Varieties................................. ................ 3

Labor requirements....................................... 3

Material requirements.................................... 7

Chrysanthemums................................................ 7

Production areas .......................................... 7

Seasonality............................................... 9

Varieties................................ ................. 10

Labor requirements......................................... 10

Material requirements.................................... 16









Labor and Material Requirements for Gladiolus and
Chrysanthemums by Areas in Florida


Introduction

During the summers of 1968 and 1969 interviews were conducted in

South Florida with 12 producers of gladiolus and 18 producers of chrysanthe-

mums. The purpose of this study is to provide information for the two most

important producing areas on the usual amount of labor required by opera-

tions, approximate dates of performance, and amounts of materials used in

the production of gladiolus and chrysanthemums. Data requested of each

grower pertained to the multitude of tasks required in the production,

harvesting and packing of the flower grown and the number of people and

type of equipment required to perform each task. Data were also obtained

on the amount and kind of each type of material used in the production

or harvesting and packing of the crop. Data presented herein are

averages of the information furnished and probably represent practices

of the more progressive firms. The sample interviewed represents about

55 percent of the acreage of gladiolus and 56 percent of the number of

chrysanthemum.-growers in Florida. Data in this publication relate only

to the East and West Coast areas of South Florida.

Gladiolus

Production Areas: Gladiolus are grown in four general areas in

Florida. These are West Coast, East Coast, Hastings and Marianna.

Production on the West Coast is in the counties of Lee, Collier, Charlotte

and Hillsborough. East Coast production is confined primarily to eastern

Palm Beach and Brevard counties. Production in the Hastings Area is in

Putnam and St. Johns counties. Growing in the Marianna Area is confined

to Jackson County.









Seasonality: Harvesting in the East and West Coast areas is in the

late fall, winter and early spring. The Hastings Area may have an early

fall crop and a late spring crop while the Marianna Area produces only in

the summer.

The seasonality of production and harvesting operations for the two

South Florida areas is shown in Table 1. Both the East and West Coast areas

begin preparing land in July to plant their first bulbs around the middle

of August. Land preparation and planting activity continues into late Febru-

ary. The fertilizing, cultivating, spraying and water control operations

begin as soon as the bulbs are planted and continue until the spikes are

harvested to assure as high quality flowers as possible.


1/
Table l.--Gladiolus: Usual Season- of Operations in Selected Areas in Florida


East Coast West Coast
Operation Begin End Begin End
Ditching and diking July 1 June 1 July 1 June 15
Land preparation July 15 Feb. 10 July 1 Feb. 20
Planting Aug. 15 Feb. 20 Aug. 18 Mar. 1
Fertilizing and
cultivating Aug. 20 May 1 Sept. 20 May 1
Spraying Sept. 1 May 15 Sept. 1 May 20
Irrigating Aug. 15 May 15 Aug. 15 July 1
Cutting spikes Oct. 15 May 15 Nov. 1 May 20
Digging bulbs Dec. 15 July 1 Jan. 20 June 15
Cleaning bulbs Dec. 15 July 1 Feb. 1 July 1


I/ Period of most activity. Some growers may vary as much as 15 days
each way.

Harvesting begins in late October in both areas shown and continues to

Mother's Day in late May. After the flowers have been harvested the bulbs

must be removed from the soil, cleaned, and stored under refrigeration for

at least three months. Digging and cleaning bulbs starts in December or

January and continues until about July 1. Thus, while flower harvesting










operations are confined to about seven months the production and handling

process is a year around operation in the South Florida areas.

Varieties: Growers in each of the major production areas all reported

growing the same major varieties. In addition growers have tended to settle

on a minimum selection of varieties for gladiolus spikes of the major colors

grown. Table 2 shows the six principal colors planted, the main varieties

named in each color and the percentage by color planted in each of the produc-

tion areas. With the exception of red, there was little difference in percent-

age planted by color between areas. East Coast growers reported 15 percent

red and West Coast growers only 10 percent red varieties.
1/
Labor Requirements:- The labor requirements reported here are confined

to the hours of human labor and tractor use which can be estimated by growers.

The hours of use or irrigation pumps and trucks are not included because of

the difficulties of allocating time to them on an annual or average basis.

It should be pointed out that the total amount of labor required in

operating a farm cannot be obtained exclusively from the data given in these

tables. A great deal of labor is required for jobs not directly related to

an individual crop or enterprise. One might approximate this by adding 10

percent of man and tractor hours per acre in production as miscellaneous

labor. General supervision of the operation is another item not covered in

the tables. It too may be approximated at 10 percent of the man hours required.

The man hours and tractor hours required to produce and harvest spikes

and to harvest and handle bulbs are shown in Table 3. There was little differ-

ence between the areas in total man hours for flower production, but there

were some differences in hours required for categories of tasks. Ditching

1/ For a very lucid description of production practices see: R. O.
Magie and W.G. Cowperthwaite, Commercial Gladiolus Production in Florida,
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 535, January, 1954.






4

required more than twice the man and tractor hours on the East Coast as were

reported by West Coast growers. Some of the latter are using tiled land

where cross ditching and hand shovelling are seldom required. More time

was spent in land preparation on the East Coast where growers plowed the

land before discing and leveling. More time was spent in planting bulbs

on the West Coast where a larger percentage of the growers hand-placed the

bulbs in the row during the planting operation.

More time was reported spent by West Coast growers in the cutting and

lugging of spikes in the field and in the packing and handling of spikes and

cartons in the packinghouse than that reported by growers on the East Coast.

Table 2.--Gladiolus: Principal Varieties Planted and Percentage of Plantings
by Color in Selected Areas in Florida


Percent Planted
East Coast West Coast
37 40


Variety
Friendship
June Bells
Tequendawa
T-500

\ Friendship
Traveler
Spick and Span

Hopmans Glory
Vinks Glory
T-590

Valeria
Victory
Minaret

Beverly Anne
Trophy

Orange Gold
Peter Peers


Minor differences in practices can add to many hours of labor where handwork

is involved.

Differences may be noted between the areas in digging, hauling and

cleaning bulbs but they are small. There is relatively little difference


Color
White


Pink


Yellow


Lavender


Orange










Table 3.--Gladiolus: Labor Requirements in Hours
Areas in Florida


Per Acre in Selected


Percent of
Times Acreage Hours per Acre
Item Over Covered 1/ Man Tractor


East Coast


Flower Production:
Ditching
Land preparation
Fertilizing, preplant
Dipping and hauling bulbs
Planting bulbs
Cultivating and fertilizing
Insect and disease control
Irrigating
Hand weeding
Total flower production


Flower Harvesting and Handling:
Cutting spikes
Lugging spikes
Hauling to packinghouse
Grading spikes
Packing spikes
Handling spikes and cartons
Hauling to shipping area
Total flower harvesting and handling


8.4
"4.8
1.5
,......2.

8.8
3.9
3.0
33.0
101.6


4.8
4.4
1.1

5.2
6.8
3.9


26.2


60.0
29.0
8.6
34.5
20.4
9.6
2.0
164.1


Bulb Harvesting and Handling:
Cultivating
Insect and disease control


.9


Cutting tops, mowing 2 100 2.3 2.3
Digging bulbs 1 100 5.2 1.8
Hauling bulbs 1 100 4.2 2.6
Cleaning and storing bulbs 1 100 42.4
Total bulb harvesting and handling 55.0 7.6
Post Harvest Field Work 2.7 2.7
Total All Operations 323.4 36.5
------------------------------------------------------------------------


Average yield per acre


2100 dozen spikes










Table 3.--Gladiolus:


Labor Requirements in Hours Per Acre in Selected
Areas in Florida (Continued)


Percent of
Times Acreage Hours per Acre
Item Over Covered Man Tractor
West Coast


Flower Production:
Ditching
Land preparation
Fertilizing, preplant
Dipping and hauling bulbs
Planting bulbs
Cultivating and fertilizing
Insect and disease control
Irrigating
Hand weeding
Total flower production


Flower Harvesting and Handling:
Cutting spikes
Lugging spikes
Hauling to packinghouse
Grading spikes
Packing spikes
Handling spikes and cartons
Hauling to shipping area
Total flower harvesting and handling


3.3
3.6
1.6
6.4
45.0
6.0
4.5
5.8
32.0
108.2


71.7
34.7
5.8
30.1
27.8
29.0
1.3
200.4


1.5
3.6
1.6
.7
3.4
4.2
4.5


19.5


Bulb Harvesting and Handling:
Cultivating 2 50 1.7 1.3
Insect and disease control 2 50 .3 .3
Cutting tops, mowing 1 75 1.4 1.4
Digging bulbs 1 100 7.5 1.7
Hauling bulbs 1 100 8.4 2.2
Cleaning and storing bulbs 1 100 35.8
Total bulb harvesting and handling 55.1 6.9
Post Harvest Field Work .7 .7
Total All Operations 364.4 27.1


Average yield per acre


2200 dozen spikes


1/ Indicates prevalence of the particular practice. Has not been applied
to hourly aata.








7

between the areas in total man hours and tractor hours for bulb harvesting

and handling.

Material Requirements: None of the growers in either area reported

planting of bulbs smaller than No. 1 size for flower production. Each area

reported an average of 39,000 bulbs planted per acre, Table 4. Each area

uses about the same amount of complete fertilizer with the West Coast using

slightly more supplemental fertilizer material.

Half of the growers in the West Coast Area reported using soil fumigants

and herbicides as compared to three-fourths who used those materials in the

East Coast Area. All growers treated the bulbs before planting and all but

one mentioned some treatment of bulbs for insects or diseases after digging

and before storage.


Chrysanthemums


Production Areas: Commercial chrysanthemum production is confined

primarily to Martin and eastern Palm Beach counties on the East Coast and

to Lee, Charlotte, Hillsborough and Manatee counties on the West Coast of
2/
Florida. According to Magie and Overman- not more than 10 percent of the

Florida production is in counties outside of those named above. While the

location of production was dictated by climatic advantages in the areas

named there are additional advantages in proximity to other growers. Such

advantages may be cooperative purchasing of supplies, established route

hauling of flowers in refrigerated truckload quantities and rapid exchange

of information.


2/ R.O. Magie and A. J. Overman, Chrysanthemum Diseases in Florida,
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 637A, October, 1966.











Table 4.--Gladiolus:


Item


Material Requirements Per Acre in Selected Areas
in Florida


Amount
Kind per Acre
East Coast


Bulbs

Soil amendments
Fertilizer
Supplemental ferti-
lizer
Spray

Fumigant

Herbicide
Bulb treatment

Containers, flower

Parchment
Bulb trays


Selected colors and varieties, Jumbo and
No. 1 sizes
Dolomite, lime
4-8-8; 5-5-10; 6-8-8

13-0-44; 15-0-15
Inorganic copper; organic fungicide;
organic phosphate insecticides
DD or
EDB (75% of growers)
Trifluralin (75% of growers)
Organic fungicide; organic phosphate
insecticides
Cardboard cartons, 13" x 13" x 42";
44" x 48" x 50"
60 lb. bond, 36" x 72"
Wooden,24" x 32" x 6" hold average of 500
bulbs, Jumbo and l's (last 4 years)


39,000
2,000 Ibs.
2,200 lbs.

250 lbs.


1,300
25
6
1


gals.
gals.
gals.
qt.


50 gals.

110
110

80


West Coast


Bulbs

Soil amendments
Fertilizer
Supplemental ferti-
lizer
Spray

Fumigant
Herbicide
Bulb treatment

Containers, flower

Parchment
Bulb trays


Selected varieties and colors, Jumbo and
No. 1 sizes
Dolomite, superphosphate
4-8-8; 6-8-8; 5-10-10; 8-8-12

14-0-16; 13-0-44
Inorganic copper; organic fungicide;
organic phosphate insecticides
EDB, DD, SMDC, (50% of growers)
CDEC, CDAA or Trifluralin (50% of growers)
Organic fungicide; organic phosphate
insecticides
Cardboard cartons, 13" x 13" x 40";
44" x 48" x 50"
60 lb. bond, 36" x 72"; 60" x 72"
Wooden,24" x 32" x 6" hold average of 500
bulbs, Jumbo and l's (last 4 years)


39,000
2,000 Ibs.
2,000 Ibs.

400 Ibs.


1,600
6-25
1


gals.
gals.
qt.


50 gals.

118
118










Seasonality: Land preparation for the earliest fall-harvested plantings

begins in late June or early July. It is closely followed by soil fumiga-

tion and these activities continue for each successive planting period,

Table 5. Most growers fumigate the land only once per year although many

replant from one-fourth to one-third of the beds.

Saran is, hopefully, handled only twice per year, when it is installed

for the first planting and when it is removed after the last harvest for

storage. Should a hurricane threaten, some growers remove the saran for the

storm period and then replace it. Other growers tie the saran down more

securely and leave it in place, thereby saving labor. Losses from handling

are reported to be more costly than probable damage by wind.

End posts on the beds and mesh wire for plant support are installed

before planting. The mesh wire serves also as a guide in the proper place-

ment of plants. Metal support posts placed within the bed to support the

wire are installed two or three weeks after planting.

Planting for the first fall production begins about the third week in

July in each area. Growers make regular plantings each week until the first

of February on the West Coast and the middle of March on the East Coast.

The necessary cultural operations of plant feeding, watering, spraying,

light control, pinching and crown budding follow an established sequence

for each successive planting. Some growers on the East Coast using black

cloth to promote growth and flowering during the fall and early winter,

add installation, daily handling and removal of the cloth to the routine.

Harvesting begins around the first of November on the East Coast and

about 10 days later on the West Coast. Flowers are harvested each week

until late May on the West Coast and mid-to-late June on the East Coast.








10
1/
Table 5.--Chrysanthemums: Usual Season- of Operations in Selected Areas
in Florida


Operation

Preparing land
Fumigating
Installing saran
Installing posts and bed wire
Planting
Fertilizing
Spraying
Irrigating
Pinching
Pruning
Crown budding
Handling black cloth
Light control
Harvesting
Removing bed wire and posts
Removing saran


East Coast
Begin End

June 15 Mar. 1
July 1 Jan.
Aug. 1 Jan.
July 15 Mar. 1
July 24 Mar. I
July 1 June 1
Aug. 1 June 1
July 24 June 2
Aug. 10 Apr. 1
Sept. 1 Apr.
Sept. 20 June
Sept. 15 Feb. 1
July 24 June
Nov. 1 June 2
Dec. 15 July
Apr. 1 July


West Coast
Begin -. End

July 1 Feb.
July 10 Jan.
July 15 Jan.
July 10 Jan.
July 20 Feb.
July 20 May
July 20 May
July 20 May
Aug. 5 Feb.

Oct. 1 Apr.

July 20 Mar.
Nov. 10 May
Dec. 1 June
Jan. 1 June


1/ Period of most activity. Some growers may vary as much as 30 days
each way.

Varieties: Varieties were fairly well stablized among growers although

West Coast growers named a larger number of varieties in all colors. Only

the percentage of white and bronze planted in the areas was different, Table

6. None of the West Coast growers reported the production of standards. One

variety dominated among growers of standards on the East Coast.

Labor Requirements: The most intensive floricultural crop in the use

of man labor encountered by the author is that of chrysanthemum production.

Too, there was a wide variation in practices among growers, particularly

among East Coast producers, whether they grew a pinch or a no-pinch crop

and both standards and pompon.

Growers rooting their own cuttings for a pinch crop of pompons

reported 155 hours of labor to root enough plants to set an acre in the

field. No-pinch crop plantings are of unrooted cuttings obtained usually

by direct purchase.






11

Table 6.--Chrysanthemums: Principal Varieties Planted and Percentages of
Plantings by Color in Selected Areas in Florida


Percent Planted
East Coast West Coast
Pompons
55 50


30



10





10







Standards


Color

White


Tilling and preplant fertilizing of the planting area made up the

first field operations. These required about 12 man hours and 12 tractor

hours on the East Coast and about 8.6 hours of each on the West Coast. West

Coast growers allocated more time to fumigating and to wiring and staking

than growers in the other area, Tables 7 and 8.

Pulling plants and planting of the pinch crop required about the same.

number of man hours per acre in each of the areas. About 50 additional man

hours per acre were required to stick the many unrooted cuttings of a no-pinch

crop.


Variety

Iceberg
Iceland
Icicle
Shasta

Iceberg
Jubilee
Shasta

Blue Chip
Delmarvel
Telstar
Portrait

Bronze Chip
Beauregard
Jet Fire
Showoff
Stingray
Red Bronze
Rub iyat

Indianapolis

Indianapolis

Indianapolis

Beauregard


Yellow


Pink


Bronze


White

Yellow

Pink

Bronze









Table 7.--Pompon Chrysanthemums: Labor Requirements in Hours Per Acre,
East Coast, Florida

Percent of Pinch No-Pinch
Times Acreage Hours per Acre
Item Over Covered 1/ Man Tractor Man Tractor


Production:
Plant propogation-
Taking cuttings
Sticking cuttings
Bed preparation and
maintenance
Subtotal


72.6
72.0


10.7
155.3


Field -
Tilling
Fertilizing, preplant
Fumigating
Making beds
Wiring and staking
Pulling plants and planting
Fertilizing, dry
Fertilizing, liquid
Spraying
Irrigating
Pinching
Pruning
Center budding
Raising bed wire
Weeding, hand
Installing black cloth and
frames
Handling black cloth
Removing black cloth and
frames
Setting up light breaking
cloth
Handling light breaking
cloth
Handling saran
Electrical maintenance
Removing bed wire and
posts 2/
Digging and handling
stubble 2/
Supervision and maintenance
Subtotal


1 100


8.0 8.0
4.0 4.0
34.2- 4.8
12.5 5.5
70.0 8.5
187.7
12.0
49.9
36.0 31.0
41.6
65.9
148.0
153.1
49.6
36.4

85.4
364.0

70.0

23.0

37.5
41.8
13.6

31.0 7.3


13.9
167.5
1756.6


13.9

83.0


8.0
4.0
34.2
12.5
70.0
239.5
12.0
44.9
32.4
41.6


174.4
49.6
36.4

85.4
364.0

70.0

23.0

37.5
41.8
13.6

31.0

13.9
167.5
1607.2


8.0
4.0
4.8
5.5
8.5



28.0


7.3

13.9

80.0









Table 7.--Pompon Chrysanthemums, East Coast


Percent of Pinch No-Pinch
Times Acreage Hours per Acre
Item Over Covered 1/ Man Tractor Man Tractor


Harvesting and Marketing:
Cutting flowers
Hauling to packinghouse
Lugging flowers
Bunching and collaring
Hand packing, labelling,
loading
Hauling to shipping area
Box making
Clean up
Subtotal


313.2
38.1
33.5
296.4


276.8
38.1 33.7
29.6
261.9


33.7


65.1 57.5
11.6 10.3
15.7 13.9
10.1 8.9
783.7 38.1 692.6 33.7


Total All Operations 2695.6- 121.1 2299.8 113.7


Yield per acre (bunches) 22,476 19,863
Plants per square foot 3.0 7.2
Percent of total acreage 33.6 66.4


1/ Indicates prevalence of the particular practice. Has not been applied
to hourly data.


2/ Post harvest operations.


(Continued)









Table 8.--Pompon Chrysanthemums: Labor Requirements in Hours Per Acre,
West Coast, Florida

Percent of Pinch
Times Acreage Hours per Acre
Item Over Covered 1/ Man Tractor
Production:
Plant propagation 2/
Taking cuttings
Sticking cuttings
Bed preparation and maintenance

Field -
Tilling 4 100 6.6 6.6
Fertilizing, preplant 2 60 2.0 2.0
Fumigating 1 100 80.0 3.8
Bed making 2 100 14.0 5.5
Wiring and staking 1 100 125.0 19.0
Pulling plants and planting 1 100 178.4
Fertilizing, dry 3 100 13.5 4.0
Fertilizing, liquid 12 100 20.0
Spraying and dusting 38 100 51.6 27.0
Irrigating 20 100 72.0
Pinching 1 100 60.0
Pruning 1 50 196.0
Crown budding 1 100 120.0
Raising bed wire 9 100 62.0
Weeding 1 50 7.1 4.4
Handling light breaking cloth 5 60 43.5
Handling saran 2 100 39.2 9.6
Electrical maintenance 100 4.0
Removing bed wire and posts 2/ 1 100 21.5 8.2
Digging and handling stubble 3/ 2 20 29.0 6.1
Supervision and maintenance 115.8
Subtotal 1261.2 96.2

Harvesting and Marketing:
Cutting flowers 436.0
Hauling to packinghouse 90.0 71.8
Lugging flowers 36.4
Bunching and collaring 327.6
Hand packing, labelling, loading 100.0
Hauling to shipping area 16.9
Box making 26.0
Clean up 18.4
Subtotal 1051.3 71.8

Total All Operations 2312.5 168.0

Yield per acre (bunches) 27,660
Plants per square foot 2.9

1/ Indicates prevalence of the particular practice. Has not been applied
to hourly data.
2/ Most growers purchased unrooted or rooted cuttings. Too few grew own to
establish an average.
3/ Post harvest operations.








From two to three dry fertilizer applications are made while the

crop is growing. Muchof the plant food is applied in liquid form through

the irrigation system.

Liquid fertilization, spraying and irrigating are accomplished on

a scheduled basis designed to keep the crop growing at a rapid pace. Some

growers on the West Coast sprayed with hand hoses, requiring a greater

number of man hours per acre. Several growers are purchasing truck-mounted

speed- sprayers to reduce the time needed for the job.

All growers of a pinch crop on the East Coast also pruned the plants

while only 50 percent of the West Coast acreage was pruned. Center or

crown budding was a regular practice for all growers.

Installing and handling black cloth was a costly operation in terms

of man hours. Only 30 percent of the East Coast acreage was so handled.

Lighting of each planting for four to six weeks is a common practice

and is handled by a timer. Moving of the light breaking cloths from one

planting to another consumed 37 to 44 hours per acre where practiced.

Many growers are trying to eliminate the use of both the light breaking

and the black cloth.

An estimate of 10 percent of total man hours was added to cover

supervision of labor and maintenance of equipment. Growers had little

idea of how to estimate either of those items.

Total man hours required to produce an acre of no-pinch pompons

was 1757 on the East Coast and 1261 on the West Coast. If the black cloth

hours are subtracted from the East Coast crop, the revised total becomes

1237 hours closely akin to that of the other area.

Harvesting and marketing consumed a greater number of hours among

West Coast growers. Some of it can be explained by differences in yield

per acre between areas. Hauling and hand packing, labelling and loading










were more than proportionally higher on the West Coast. Distance of haul

or waiting to unload may be responsible for some of the difference.

Man hour requirements for standard chrysanthemums are shown in

Table 9 for East Coast production. The principal differences in labor

use from the pinch crop pompons are in planting time and in disbudding.

The latter consumes about 500 man hours per acre. The purchase of rooted

cuttings eliminates the time required to pull plants from the plant bed.

Material Requirements: From 78,600 to 80,000 rooted cuttings are

required to set an acre of pinch-crop pompons. Fo.r unrooted direct field

planting about 194,000 cuttings are required, Tables 10 and 11. Not all

growers were using peat moss. Some applied it annually and others at

three-year intervals. When used it required from 900 to 1200 cubic

feet per acre per application.

All growers used some form of soil conditioner on an annual basis.

The amount used depended upon the results of soil analyses. Methyl

bromide was the most used fumigant, requiring from 500 to 667 pounds

per acre.

Fertilizer use varies among growers and between areas. From

2,000 to 3,300 pounds of a complete fertilizer were required with

1,700 to 4,300 pounds of high nitrate source materials being reported.

So many different trade name insecticides and fungicides were

named by growers that they could not be listed. In their places are

shown the compounds from which they originate and the total gallons

of mixed liquid applied to control insects and diseases.

Additionally listed are all of the expendable materials plus those

which are not fixed capital outlay items such as irrigation and lighting

systems, poles, wire and bracing for house frames.









Table 9.--Standard Chrysanthemums: Labor Requirements in Hours Per Acre
East Coast, Florida

Percent of
Times Acreage Hours per Acre
Item Over Covered 1/ Man Tractor
Production:
Tilling 3 100 8.0 8.0
Fertilizing, preplant 2 100 4.0 4.0
Fumigating 1 100 34.2 4.8
Bed making 1 93 12.5 5.5
Wiring and staking 2 100 70.0 8.5
Planting 2/ 1 100 159.8
Fertilizing, dry 2 19 12.0
Fertilizing, liquid 30 100 49.9
Spraying 30 100 36.0 31.0
Irrigating 12 100 41.6
Pinching 1 100 65.9
Stripping 1 33 136.8
Disbudding 1 100 499.8
Raising bed wire 8 100 49.6
Weeding, hand 3 78 36.4
Installing black cloth and frames 1 30 85.4
Handling black cloth 42 30 364.0
Removing black cloth and frames 1 30 70.0
Setting up light breaking cloth 1 36 23.0
Handling light breaking cloth 6 36 37.5
Handling saran 2 100 41.8
Electrical maintenance 38 100 13.6
Removing bed wire and posts 3/ 1 100 31.0 7.3
Digging and handling stubble 3/ 2 74 13.9 13.9
Supervision and maintenance 100 167.5
Subtotal 2064.2 83.0

Harvesting and Marketing:
Cutting flowers 1 100 636.6
Hauling to packinghouse 1 100 29.9 29.9
Lugging flowers 1 100 90.7
Hand packing, labelling, loading 1 100 294.5
Hauling to refrigerated area 1 40 15.2
Box making 1 100 21.1
Clean up 1 100 10.6
Subtotal 1098.6 29.9

Total All Operations 3162.8 112.9

Yield per acre (dozens) 11,604
Plants per square foot 3.0

1/ Indicates prevalence of the particular practice. Has not been applied
to hourly data.
2/ Assumes rooted cuttings purchased. Apparently a common practice.
3/ Post harvest operations.









Table 10.--Chrysanthemums: Material Requirements Per Acre, East Coast, Florida


Amount
Item Kind Per Acre


Plants
Cuttings
Soil conditioner



Fumigant
Fertilizer


Spray

Saran

Polyethylene







Tie-down cord
Posts, end

Posts, wire support
Mesh wire

End braces
Bulbs, light
Containers, flower

Containers, shipping


Sleeves
Cleats
Waxed paper

Ties

Newspaper

Staples, wire
Straps, wire


Rooted cuttings for pinch crop (65%)
Unrooted for direct field planting (35%) 1
Peat moss (40% of growers 3 year cycle)
Milorganite or sludge (20% of growers)
Dolomite (45% of growers)
Superphosphate (337 of growers)
Methyl bromide
4-8-8; 6-6-6; 6-8-8
13-0-44; 16-0-0; 33-0-0; 20-20-20; Urea,
plus minor elements
Inorganic coppers; organic fungicides; organic


30,000
94,000
900
1,200
1,000
825
500
2,000


cu. ft.
lbs.
Ibs.
Ibs.
Ibs.
Ibs.


4,300 Ibs.


phosphate insecticides 8,400 gals.
Bound edges, grommeted-overhead and sides,
last 5 years (70% of growers) 50,280 sq. ft.
Fumigating cloth-heavy duty 24' x 125', last
4-5 years or 2-3
1 mil in 10' roll, used once 7,200 lin. ft.
Black cloth-6 mil 24' x 135', last 3-4 years
(20% of growers) 2-6
Light breaking cloth 6 mil, 6' x 150', last
4-5 years, (80% of growers) 900 lin. ft.
Nylon 100 ft.
Wooden or steel, 5', 4 per bed, last 10-15
years 240
Steel, 5', 16-20 per bed, last 10 years 960
Galvanized 12-16 guage, 6" x 8" mesh 3'-4' wide,
last 5 years 7,200 lin. ft.
Wooden or metal, 2 per bed, last 3 years 120
150 200 watt (10% replacement per year) 460
Transport buckets, plastic 14" 18" high,
last 3 years 100
Corrugated paper, 20" x 11" x 54"; 20" x 18" x 54"
Pompons 780
Standards 1,250
Polyethylene or waxed, 1 per bunch, Pompons 21,045
Wood, w/metal points, 1-3 per box 780 3,750
60 lb. bond, 24" x 36", 2 per box Pompons
to 8 per box Standards 1,560 10,000
Rubber bands or plant ties, 1 per bunch
Pompons, 1 per dozen Standards 12,500 21,045
Rolled pillow cushion, 2 per box
Pompons, 4 per box Standards 1,560 5,000
15 inches per box 975 1,563 ft.
1/2" wire strapping w/clamp, 2 per box 1,560 2,500









Table ll.--Chrysanthemums: Material Requirements Per Acre, West Coast,Florida


Item
Plants
Soil conditioner



Fumigant
Fertilizer


Spray

Saran

Polyethylene

Fumigation cloth

Tie-down cord
Posts, end
Posts, wire support
Mesh wire

End braces
Bulbs, light
Containers



Sleeves
Cleats
Ties

Waxed paper
Newspaper
Wire straps


DLB/eh 10/28/69
Exp. Sta., Agr. Ec.


Kind


Rooted or unrooted cuttings (pinch crop only) 7t
Peat moss (60% of growers 3 year cycle)
Gypsum (30% of growers)
Dolomite, calcite, lime (40% of growers)
Superphosphate (90% of growers)
Methyl bromide
4-8-8; 5-5-10; 6-8-8
Ammonium nitrate, Nitrate potash, Urea, plus
minor elements
Inorganic copper; organic fungicide; organic
phosphate insecticide
Bound edges, grommeted-overhead and sides,
last 6 years 5(
Light breaking cloth 6.0 mil., last 5 years,
6' x 150'
Heavy plastic, 24' x 125', last 4-5 years or,
Polyethylene, 1 mil. in 10' roll, used once
Nylon
Wooden or steel, 5', 4 per bed, last 10-15 years
Steel, 5', 16 per bed, last 10 years
Galvanized, 14 guage, 6" x 6", 6" x 7", 6" x 8",
7" x 7", 7" x 8" mesh, 3w'wide, last 5 years
Wooden or metal, 2 per bed, last 3 years
150 watt (10% replacement per year)
Flower transport buckets, plastic 14" 18"
high, last 3 years
Shipping, corrugated paper, 20" x 11" x 54",
20" x 18" x 54"
Polyethylene 2
Wood, w/metal points
Rubber bands or wire plant ties for bunches
1 per bunch 2
60 lb. bond, 24" x 36"
Rolled pillow cushion, 2 per box
1/2" wire strapping w/clamp, 2 per box


Amount
Per Acre
3,600
1,200 cu.
2,000 Ibs.
1,000 Ibs.
1,000 Ibs.
667 Ibs.
3,300 Ibs.


ft.


1,700 Ibs.

7,600 gals.

0,280 sq. ft.


900
2-3
7,200
100


lin. ft

lin. ft


7,200 lin. ft
120
460

100


950
7,660
950

7,660
1,900
1,900
1,900


- 500 copies




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