Title: Cost analysis of bulk handling methods for fresh citrus
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074544/00001
 Material Information
Title: Cost analysis of bulk handling methods for fresh citrus
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Thor, Eric.
Publisher: Department of Agricultural Economics, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station in cooperation with the Agricultural Marketing Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074544
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 123894226

Full Text










S0 NTI N T S

Page
SUMMARY 1

INTRODUCTION 3

SCOPE OF THIS STUDY ;3

DMVLOEP:i:; OF COST 6

Fixed Cost . . . . . 7

Direct Cost . . . . ... . 7

Average Total Cost per Box . . . . 9

ANALYSIS OF HANDLING I.TEMODS

The Tractor, Bulk Trailer Bulk Degreening Method.. 9

Goat Truck Field Box Degreening, Hand Dump Method 13

Tractor Basket, Semi-Trailer Truck Bulk Degreening
Method . . . . . . 14

Goat Truck, Semi-Trailer Truck Field Box Degreening,
Hand Dump Method. . . . . 17

Goat Truck, Semi-Trailer Truck Automatic Dump, Bulk
Degreening Method. . . . . ... 22

Goat Truck, Semi-Trailer Truck Field Box Degreening,
Automatic Dump Nethod. . . . ... 23

COPiARISOP OF COST . . . . . 27







- 1 -


Summary

In this study the costs of the three bulk methods of handling fresh cit-

rus from the tree onto the dump belt are compared with the standard field box

procedures in use by the industry at the present time.

The average total cost per box based on the volume picked and received

was determined for each method by calculating average fixed cost and average

direct cost for various weekly and seasonal volumes. Comparisons of costs

were made for two distinct types of operation.

First the tractor, bulk trailer bulk degreening method was compared

with the goat truck field box degreening, hand dump method. It was found

that for a house picking, hauling, receiving and dumping at an average rate

of approximately 5,000 boxes per week and 100,000 boxes per season, the esti-

mated savings possible in the choice of the tractor bulk trailer bulk de-

greening method over the conventional goat truck field box method would be

approximately 7 3/4 cents per box. If volume were increased to 10,000 boxes

per week, and the seasonal volume to 300,000 boxes the savings would be about

7 cents per box. Increasing the picking, hauling, receiving and dumping vol-

ume to 15,000 boxes per week and the total seasonal volume to 400,000 boxes

resulted in an estimated saving of approximately 6 3/4 cents per box.

The other two bulk handling methods, (1) tractor basket, semi-trailer

truck bulk degreening and (2) goat truck, semi-trailer truck automatic

dump, bulk degreening were compared with the standard methods of loading goat

trucks with full field boxes, transferring these to the semi-trailers, hauling

the citrus to the packing house and then either hand dumping or automatic dump-

ing the full field boxes after they were removed from the degreening rooms.

The average total cost per box for the tractor basket, semi-trailer truck-

bulk degreening method was lower than any of the other three methods. The es-

timated saving in the choice of the bulk semi-trailer truck method over the








conventional field box automatic dump method was approximately 7 cents per box

for a weekly volume of 5,000 boxes and a seasonal volume of 100,000 boxes. This

calculated differential decreased slightly as weekly volumes and seasonal vol-

umes were increased. The estimated saving for a weekly volume of 10,000 boxes

and seasonal volume of 300,000 boxes was 6 1/2 cents and for a weekly volume of

15,000 boxes and a seasonal volume of 400,000 boxes the differential was ap-

proximately 6 1/4 cents per box. The method of hauling the citrus from the

grove to the packing house in field boxes, dumping the citrus with an auto-

matic dump immediately upon arrival at the packing house and bulk degreening,

also had lower estimated cost than the conventional field box methods. The

calculated saving was approximately 1 1/2 cents per box.

There are other cost advantages to bulk handling methods over the con-

ventional field box methods which were not included in the above calculations.

These are:

1. Reduction in the amount of skilled labor required.

2. Reduction of "non-work" time of packers, lidders, checkers, truckers

and loaders during packing operation due to a more even flow of fruit

through the house.

3. Fruit can be dipped and chemically treated with dowicide immediately

after entering the packing house.

4. Citrus fruit that is not going to be packed can be sold to a pro-

cessor as "field-run", fruit rather than as packing house.eliminations.


- 2 -











COST ANALYSIS OF BULK HANDLING 1ETHODS

FOR FRESH CITRUS

by

Eric Thor 1/

Introduction

This analysis is part of an overall research program aimed at improving

the efficiency and lowering the cost of moving fresh citrus from the tree to

the consumer. This report deals with picking, hauling, receiving and dumping

which are only small segments of the many operations involved in preparing

fresh citrus fruit for market.

This study was made cooperatively by the Department of Agricultural Eco-

nomics, The Citrus Experiment Station of the Florida Agricultural Experiment

Station and the Market Organization and Costs Branch of the Agricultural

Marketing Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture.

A detailed study including the effects of bulk handling upon damage and

decay of fresh citrus and a description of construction of bulk bins is being

published as a Florida Aricultural Experiment Station Bulletin, "Bulk Handling

of Fresh Fruit", by D. S. Prosser, Jr., W. F. Grierson, Eric Thor, W. F. Newhall

and J. K. Samuels.

Scope of this Study

analysis limited to cost of handling oranges.--This analysis is limited

to a comparison of the cost of the various methods of picking, hauling, re-

ceiving and dumping oranges. The cost of moving grapefruit from the tree onto

the dumping belt would be slightly less because of the lower picking cost and

larger volume that could be handled per hour. However, the calculated differ-

ential in cost between the methods of handling grapefruit and handling oranges

would not be significantly different.

l/ Associate Agricultural Economist, Department of Agricultural Economics,
University of Florida.


- 3-





- 4 -


Six methods were studied.--The six methods studied are:

(a) tractor, bulk trailer bulk degreening

(b) goat truck field box degreening, hand dump

(c) tractor basket, semi-trailer truck bulk degreening

(d) goat truck, semi-trailer truck field box degreening, hand dump

(e) goat truck, semi-trailer truck automatic dump, bulk degreening

(f) goat truck, semi-trailer truck field box degreening, automatic

dump.

Detailed innut-output data were used in this study.--The data used in

this study were collected by: (1) detailed time studies, (2) examination of

accounting records of handling and packing firms and (3) personal interviews

with workers, managers and equipment dealers. The detailed data were collected

during the seasons of IC52-53 and 1953-54.

Cost analyses were made for two distinct situations.--These are: (1) where

the distance from the groves to the packing house is relatively short and re-

quires little travel on a major highway, and (2) where the distance from the

packing house to the groves is considerable and requires several miles of travel

upon state highways.

For the purpose of this study the first condition was analyzed under the

assumption that the major portion of fruit packed by a specific house was grown

within a five-mile radius of the packing house. The tractor, bulk trailer -

bulk degreening and the goat truck field box degreening, hand dump methods

were compared for this situation.

The analysis of the cost for the second condition was made on the assump-

tion that the citrus packed by an individual house was grown within a thirty-

mile radius of the packing house. Greater distances could have been used for

comparisons but the calculated cost differential between the methods would have





-5-


been the same even though the total costs would have been greater. The methods

studied under the second situation are: (1) tractor basket, semi-trailer truck -

bulk degreening method, (2) goat truck, semi-trailer truck field box degreen-

ing, hand dump method, (3).goat truck, semi-trailer truck automatic dump,

bulk degreening method and (4) goat truck, semi-trailer truck field box de-

greening, automatic dump method.

This study includes those costs directly associated with the picking,

hauling, receiving and dumping of the citrus fruit.--It does not include the

savings made possible by a more even flow of fruit through the packing house

when using the bulk degreening rooms rather than the conventional hand dumping

or automatic dumping methods, These savings were not included in the calcu-

lated cost because theoretically hand dumping and mechanical dumping could be s:

so regulated that the volume of fruit going over the grading table would be as

uniform as when the fruit is dumped from a bulk degreening room. However in

the group of packing houses in which detailed time studies were made, it was

found that neither hand dumping nor mechanical dumping kept as constant a flow

of fruit going over the grading table as did the bulk degreening method. An

analysis of the observed delays of the graders, lidders, hand truckers, checkers

and loaders indicated that there was a saving of approximately one cent per box

as a result of the reduction of "non-work" time in the choice of the bulk de-

greening room over the other methods of dumping.

In addition to the savings made possible by a more uniform flow of fruit

there are two other potential savings which are not included in the calculated

costs. These are: (1) the advantages of being able to dowicide the fruit

shortly after it has been picked compared with waiting until it has passed

through the degreening process and (2) the savings that may occur by sending

fruit to the cannery plant within a few hours after it has been picked as





- 6 -


"field-run" fruit compared with sending it as packing house eliminations.

Development of Cost

Both fixed and direct cost were calculated for each method.--First, fixed

cost was considered independent of the hours used per season. It included

such annual charges as depreciation, taxes, insurance and interest. Second,

direct cost included those costs directly associated ,rith operating expenses

such as: labor, fuel, oil, electrical power, repairs and tires. Fixed cost

and direct cost were combined to obtain total cost.

Fixed cost calculated on new enuinment valued at 1954 price level.--In

order to facilitate direct comparison of the various methoCs all fixed costs

are based on new equipment valued at the July 1, 1954 price level. It was im-

possible to determine a precise value for fixed costs because the disposal value

or trade-in value of equipment is unknown. Also, there is a large degree of

uncertainty as to the physical life of equipment and the possibility that it

may become obsolete before it is actually worn out. The estimate of the service

life of equipment is based on information obtained from the packing house and

field foreman.

The cost for constructing bulk degreening rooms will vary from packing

house to packing house, depending upon the type of construction used, the amount

of salvageable material available and the ~wa e rate paid. The estimate include(

in this study is based upon new building material valued at the 1954 price level

The data for this estimate were obtained by calculating the amount of lumber,

concrete, electrical wire and other supplies actually used by firms that have

constructed bulk bins. The labor costs were obtained front the above firms'

accounting records.

The estimated cost per 1,000-box degreening room space was $7,721.00.

This cost includes: labor, $2,425.00; lumber, $1,936.00; concrete, $185.00;





-7-


other materials such as degreening room equipment materials for the baffles,

etc., 1.2,075.00; electrical wiring, $335.00 and conveyor belts, $765.00.

The annual fixed cost of the bulk degreening rooms has been included in

the calculation of cost for the bulk degreening methods.

Fixed Cost

Development of fixed costs includes six components.--The components of

fixed coet (summarized in Table 1) are divided into: (1) estimated replacement

cost, (2) estimated salvage value, (3) estimated service life, (4) deprecia-

tion, (5) licenses and (6) taxes, insurance and interest. The explanation of

each component part of fixed cost is included in the footnotes of Table 1.

Total annual fixed cost for each item of equipment was determined by adding

depreciation, licenses, taxes, insurance and interest.

Direct Cost

Direct costs are calculated on a minimum cost por thousand boxes.--Direct

costs, which are summarized separately for each method, have been calculated

on a minimum cost per thousand boxes. These costs include: (1) labor cost for

all workers directly associated with picking, hauling, receiving and dumping

citrus and (2) equipment operating cost such as fuel, oil, electric power,

repairs and tires.

Labor costs are based on uniform ware rates.--Uage rates were fairly uni-

form for all firms studied. However, to facilitate comparison among methods,

labor costs in this study are based on equal wage rates for comparable jobs

for all firms and for all methods. The wage rates selected for use in this

analysis are considered to be representative of those actually paid in the in-

dustry during the 1953-54 season.

Direct costs are based on efficient capacity operation.--The volume hand-

led per week by a picking and handling crew varied with the number of pickers,







- d -


SO O LO O O r-IO LO O
SOOw- 0 C0 001
SOHHHO HtOO 0tD1
as oe o


4-,
w C



H OH
E-I 0 0
- g4 r-9






*rl

Po
M a i


o
*dr




-A t











m :
*H 10
















cam
H n


a





0.






















p r
Crj tc












)
M 4-













ko
-'1







rl















611
a o




43











r)-
F1 M


0 10 0 0C

0 01
OOH


000
000
1J0 LOLO
0 L
se\


1 1 I I II


0010
0 0 t0


K!e


C 0 o 0

S 4 *

10
Uo


H r-lH H


0 0 0 0
0000
a9a9


00000000
OOOOOOO

00000020
0 1o L0 oo r-
-S C; ,0 r-;


r-i
S4r




o
F.a
4-,
Cd Cd
41 0
H$


P-I



0 H
4-- rd
0H rl


0.-4 4
$40 .
o $ 43



$4 4
^! rl 4
>) 4o l-c
0>0I 0 rr -
o o 0iS *B n3 *r


100 0
l00 o
*


o 10 0 C-

HO ) r-i
CoqHqc


0000

C0 0o O


I I I I


000t--
0 0 0"')

0 L4 0 t40
O00
owomJcT
grxc'j


CO0 toC 10
Hi


000 0
5i 9 9 9


000
000
SOOo
000


r-


a 0

0 0
Q vB r F4


m0 .0 o

'o 02 $4 N
p rdc
4A $ U,


SU 00 H 0
Sa0 o0 C



Srf o H
*r Ba 0 0
e fo o oo or


,o 4 u pq


000

oa
000







q000q
000
L0 L
H


V)
aD
0

or.






4



O13
".


4, 0 0


a







4 Cd
Cd rl'H








4- 0










. 0
t-l
5a)













p4











4,
't-


0 03l 0 0


10 CC 0)


00
00
00


a
r-1
.e)
















a,
$4



o













0
av










0)
P4





O
































0
0
43










+r
So

























0
4rl
o



0









-o,
$4




0f


rl















0 M O
'


a
.o
s
4,









o
0









*r
Hc








43
0' 0

$- 4














.j
Sri
S00
;
r0


ri VL


=r
0
-A
+,
S$4
0 )
doo

aI o a)

r34E-1
0


CdI ,-I


.


O
-I



0













o





o



o
0




















o
0
a



4,



















0
t











o
0












Q0
a






no

o
0


0
0
0
*ro






0





WH
or
0 r
0r
0a






-9-


type and variety of fruit, and the age of trees. However, in order to facili-

tate direct cost comparison of all methods, the volume handled per week and

upon which direct costs vere calculated is based on the assumption that the

picking and handling crews operate at an "efficient" capacity rate a rate of

production that can be expected of a crew working without undue fatigue and with

allowances for personal and unavoidable equipment delays.

Average Total Cost per Box

This analysis includes a comparison of the average total cost per box for

the various methods studied.--Average total cost was calculated by adding aver-

age fixed cost and average direct cost for the specific weekly and seasonal

volumes. The comparison of the average cost per box is shown in Table 14 and

illustrated graphically in Figure 1.

ANALYSIS OF HATDLING METHODS

1. The Tractor, Bulk Trailer Bulk Degreening Method

In this method the pickers empty the fruit from their picking sacks into

small two-wheeled bulk trailers. The trailers are towed to a collection point

near the picking site by a medium-sized grove tractor driven by the picking

foreman. Here the trailers are assembled in groups of five with one trailer

being hitched directly behind the other. From this point medium-sized grove

tractors are used to tow the five trailers in tandem from the picking area to

the packing house. At the packing house the trailers are pulled alongside a

dumping belt, the side gates are opened and the fruit rolls out of the trailers

onto the conveyor belt. The conveyor belt carries the fruit to a pre-sizer

where sizes that are not to be packed are sorted and conveyed to the cannery

bin. The remaining fruit passes through a washer and over a pre-grading table

where a considerable portion of the under-grade fruit is removed. The fruit

thit has not been removed by pre-sizing and pre-grading passes through a set of





- 10 -


dryers and on into the bulk degreening bins. After the citrus is ready to be

packed it is released from the bulk bins and rolls out onto a conveyor belt

which carries the fruit onto the color-add tank or to the transverse polisher.

The field crew consists of approximately fifteen pickers, a field foreman

and necessary tractor drivers. The persons employed in the receiving section

at the packing house include a receiving foreman, a bulk bin receiver and a

bulk bin dumper. The field foreman supervises the picking crew, keeps records

and drives a tractor in the process of assembling the full trailers in groups

of five. The tractor drivers drive the grove tractors which tow the five

trailers in tandem from the picking area to the packing house and unload the

fruit at the packing house. The receiving foreman supervises the receiving

of the fruit, the washing and pre-grading operation and the delivery of the

fruit into the bulk bin. The bulk-bin receiver regulates the flow of the fruit

into the bulk degreening bin. The bulk-bin dumper handles the flow of citrus

from the bulk bins onto the dump belt after the fruit has been degreened or

collected as a lot.

The hauling and receiving equipment normally used by this method includes

medium-sized grove tractors, small two-wheeled grove trailers with bulk capa-

cities of 20 field boxes each, conveyor belts and bulk degreening bins. The

amount of equipment needed to receive and dump by this method will vary with the

volume of fruit handled per week.

Fixed Cost

Estimated annual fixed cost of hauling and receiving equipment used by the

tractor, bulk trailer bulk degreening method is summarized in Table 2. The

estimated annual fixed cost for each item of equipment was obtained from Table 1.

Annual fixed cost for each item of equipment has been multiplied by the number

of units of equipment required for crews operating at weekly volumes of 5,000,




- 11*


10,000, and 15,000 boxes. The total estimated fixed cost was obtained by

adding estimated annual fixed cost for each type of equipment. The calcu-

lated total annual fixed cost was approximately $4,006.00 for a packing house

having a weekly average volume of 5,000 boxes, $7,196.00 for a packing house

having a weekly rate of 10,000 boxes, and $10,387.00 for a packing house

handling 15,000 boxes per week.


Table 2.-


Fixed Cost for the Tractor, Bulk Trailer Bulk Degreening
Method for Hauling, Receiving and Dumping Oranges, Florida
Citrus Packing Houses, 1954.


Estimated Annual Fixed Cost -
:at 5,000 Boxes:at 10,000 Boxes:at 15,000 Boxes
Estimated Per Week : Per eek Per Week
Item :Annual Fixed:Number: Total :Number: Total :Number: Total
Cost Per Re- : Fixed Re- : Fixed Re- Fixed
Unit a/ :quired: Cost :quired: Cost quired: Cost
dollars : dollars: dollars dollars
Grove tractor 315.00 3 945 : 5 1,575 : 7 2,205
Two-wheel trailer l 18,75 50 938 : 100 1,875 : 150 2,812
Conveyor belts
401 x 24' 108.50 1 108 1 108 1 108
100' x 24' 195.30 :2 391 : 2 391 : 2 391
Bulk degreening
rooms 811.77 2/ 1,624 4 3,247 6-/i 4,871
Total $ 4,006 $ 7,196 $10,387
a/ For development of fixed cost see Table 1.
b/ (000) box capacity.

Direct Cost

Direct cost was calculated as a minimum cost per 1,000 boxes for each spe-

cific labor and equipment expenditure and is summarized in Table 3. This table

shows the minimum man-hours required per thousand boxes and the wage rate or

the piece rate paid. Direct cost per 1,000 boxes was determined by multiplying

either the hourly wage by the number of hours required per 1,000 boxes or multi-

plying the piece rate by 1,000. Total direct cost for weekly volumes of 5,000,

10,000 and 15,000 boxes per week was determined by adding the estimated labor

costs and the equipment costs.








- 12 -


OoH

rHOO
H 0 r-1
r-4


0 .0 0 C\) W r-I -l
W r-I
t~ H o'
~ HOI~c


10

rdH
0








0 --






'Cd

A,
4 W0



















to
SI
-H

o
P4

40





H
b .0





*-l
4,






-9
. -










m o
E-q
QH



$40





-rl4

P-4


0


8
o




0
OO
rO I







o
(D
0)
o0
o



0






0 p
OO


(8






(0
.0$
0
0 H$











0 0
.rt



....



4
0






0 0 c!
P, 0
it












HNd
*r 3



* .. .. *


N- 0 0 'd
NON o
**


LO LO LO
o00 C0 o c0
* S *


S S
** *
-o


Vt 0
*- *


SCcOD 00
CO 0 0 0

cN ti t; cM
r-i


rdl


.1 4
$4 -1)0 0

Sch .,I 4-4, o4
F0 >0 o- 1 0 4-2

H H 0
0r M 4 .rl U 0 4 43 rl $4
S, 4. 4 d l

0 c I) .,-4 .,-
.** O M- S O U-

A(lA&(iMpcff >.43 I^p
^ ^ ^o


00 H N to O O0

H 0 0 CQ* m3 rH <
H co
r-


OlH

00
oo
C r-
H*


4-
..4


4rl

94
ar
&


0
>
40



0
44






4-1
0



0







Cd
o
r4
4)





o(
4,









(rt







o
SU











-4
00
o43






.C 0
r-





0
rl 4
4$3

0 (D
0 .t-
.rl 0
.f-t

.00

4,

2 r
5 0


*rd





fr-s (f


0
(D



$4
r0





0,


a,

> 0



$4
o



P
0









ttr
+ O



































0tO
r4 Ea

P6








41 0


















0 .,-t
(









4-
0

H *-1








Hrl *H
w u

P0
*- *
o &
4 0




r-











ao







w
o to
m


o


(3 CH
0 0
R
4 4)
(' 0
4,
a $4

*i i
.3-4
0

4

S 0




21 402
0 Q
0
.3-


*H k




4, A t
1d o a)
.4,





a4-5 >
94 d rl
0 0
0 o N

CH A
*r: r-I 0
0

-f r -1 ( )










.0 1 M
* -4 H $


*r4 'd


4. 0





5 a 0
4,.i a: -
.-0 0(




r-0 0 V



4 4 p0
SHo















4 -21 (1 0
CH^ *rt
0 d 4,




a ,C E S
H- p +3,
0 .-4 H- t


43 ? 0



0
00 o ed *d
C12r-4 (e O
r-I .,-1 43 Mo
prd i 4,


.2) 4 0?

0 Q) *ro Q
M0 (

toa ^
(3 .,-1 *i (U

*H r-0 0r M
4' 3d 0
4, $4
0 .r- 0




{- ed 1-1 to
.04 (4 0
*D $4 -P9


0








-1
0


4,
$3
o







18
Cd
0


ed



$4
0



'i-
a


a
C I0
94



0



-4
0




.a





0
00

a,
00
o








N
'H

34
a


o n




0m 0
W 4
p ,o


-*4
m
mo

w 0

dO
0

:rd











m C
'cs




o
o





mo
fl p,
f,-

Po

O




0



P4


0 *.
00



Po-
.4 $4
.r -



o


c4
0 0




0
0



0


CD 0


bO

4- *
r4 0

0

0
o a
S-0
a


a S


0 0

0 ,C



.?-1 C0
0 -cc p.
-'> 90



a w i-






- 13 -


2. Goat Truck Field Box Defreening, Hand Dumwo Method

In this method pickers empty the fruit from their picking sacks into the

standard field boxes, which are then loaded manually onto a goat truck to be

hauled from the picking area to the packing house. Here the full field boxes

are hand trucked from the goat truck into the degreening room. After the fruit

has been degreened or assembled as a lot during non-degreening periods, it is

hand trucked from the degreening rooms to the damping table where the full field

boxes are dumped by hand onto the dump belt. The empty field boxes are placed

on a conveyor belt which carries the boxes out of the packing house onto an

empty box platform. The empty boxes are then either stacked on the platform

or loaded directly onto the goat truck which hauls the field boxes back to the

picking area. The boxes are distributed to the pickers and the goat truck is

ready to start another cycle.

The number of workers per field crew includes approximately fifteen pickers,

a field foreman, two loaders and the necessary goat truck drivers. The loaders,

usually two working together, place the boxes on the goat truck. The goat truck

driver drives the truck in the grove and to the packing house. He also hand

trucks the fruit from the goat truck to the degreening room. The workers at

the :house usually included a receiving foreman, one or more hand dumpers and

the necessary hand truckers and empty field box handlers. The receiving fore-

man supervises the receiving and dumping of the citrus and keeps records of vol-

ume received and volume dumped. The hand truckers transport the fruit from the

degreening room to the dumping table. The dumper empties the fruit from the

full field box onto the dumping belt and places the empty field box on a con-

veyor belt. The empty box handlers work on the empty box platform and either

stack the boxes on the platform or place them directly on a goat truck. They

also assist in loading field boxes on the goat truck when the packing house is

not in operation.






- 14 -


Fixed Cost

The normal amount of equipment used depends upon the volume of fruit hand-

led per week. A summary of the equipment requirements and annual fixed cost

is shown in Table 4. The estimated annual fixed cost of equipment for operat-

ing at 5,000 boxes per week was approximately $5,679.00, for 10,000 boxes per

week was approximately $11,064.00 and for 15,000 boxes per week was approxi-

mately $16,007.00.

Direct Cost

Direct operating cost of labor and equipment for the goat truck field

box .egreening, hand dump method has been calculated as a minimum cost per

1,000 boxes and is summarized in Table 5.



Table 4.- Fixed Cost for the Goat Truck Field Box Degreening, Hand
Dump Method for Hauling, Receiving and Dumping Oranges,
Florida Citrus Packing Houses, 1954.


: Estimated Annual Fixed Cost -
at 5,000 Boxes:at 10,000 Boxes at 15,000 Boxes
Item Estimated Per Week Per Week Per Week
.Annual Fixed.Number: Total number Total .Number. Total
Cost Per I Re- : Fixed : Re- :Fixed Re- : Fixed
Unit a/ :quired: Cost *quired Cost .quired. Cost
:dollars dollars: dollars: : dollars

Goat truck : 442.50 5 1,327 : 6 2,655 : 8: 3,540
Field boxes 1.01 :4,000 : 4,040 :8,000 8,080 :12,000: 12,120
Dumping table : 66.65 1 : 67 : 1 67 : 1: 67
Hand truck : 8.80 4 5: : 6 52 : 8: 70
3mpty box conveyor: 210.00 : 1 : 210 : 1 210 : 1: 210
Total $5,679 $11,064 $16,007

a/ For development of fixec cost see Table 1.

3. Tractor Basket, Semi-Trailer Truck Bulk Degreening Method

In this method the pickers empty their fruit into a bulk 10-box container.

A medium-sized grove tractor, equipped with front and rear hydraulic lifts,











- 15 -


LOOL O LO cO


H-I co r-l H
H


I





- 4

a*ri
0
0



ci
a Cd



4 Z

ed ri



.a


r4 r-Id






04

0
U G
*H *
M
9- ar-







a


3 T







oC
00 ,
cu.c


m

o
0

0
o
O0



0>
H











ro
0
a
a
p4







*rt

I






0


4,

0






*r
p4




























o
t
:2


















0t


0




o



0
O







-C
00







a$




O
0 -4








4O
Cd
04














Io
0
0 (1

A 04
0}








a4







oP4
ft (l


0 0c
**
CO


Hf l


H-


00 0 LCO 0 C
0r 0 ''D0 0)
H- H


r-I Z'
ON
t0o


HO
* *


00 0 u) 0 Uj
0o 0o 03 0 0
rt


00 M
0 0 !
10 to ton


Ha 1 o
tg .( o o) ro
0. c0 0 0-+ d 4



-4 0e 'P4I c t. '0 V
j (1o a) rl ~,, 4C-
rd 4- rd^ 0) j d 4-2 M r:l" 4 j V
Cd Cd R-4 0 r-I -4p1 CD
0rl a p DiO q o c
to4 t ( 0 43 E4 o
*r U< *l 0 > -1 O 4 r


000
0 q 01
co t r-
fl


288
H0
rq co
r-l


0u)0
1' 4 Q 0
4 IIJ L


r i
o
r-4
0-4
I:,,


'd
H
0





cr4
--



0

P'i
rl
P-,
Cod
0(
0

a
r4

'd


C)







o
0


-IP


-4
ri



P.
p
4,



0




K d





^a -
I
u< 'Ti



o .







p p




0 r
.0

-y >
Di 'd

+>4


0 o4













4'i->o


a,4
0



C)
P4





rl
o$









a
u '











rd
0
rd
to











C o
.4-




0
1.










CD
0
4,



t0 )

40

gti

rd oa








Sa ,
c 0 0
0 CM CM

0 4

M .rl 4
0)0(D
0 0 a
,gP1'T


Cd
* D


.to
to





ko
4 0

















-H
04
Otd
n P

















Po
I .







0


















to
m c
10 0










4'
Od









0







a)4
0




















:> ^
44











43
o r-t













-s,
a

0 r-d
0 4,



















^ b












picks up the baskets in the grove one basket on the front and one basket on

the rear and transports them to the semi-trailer truck. The tractor operator,

by use of the front hydraulic lift, dumps the fruit from the 10-box container

into the bulk box of the semi-trailer truck. The fruit is then transported

from the picking area to the packing house where the semi-trailer is pulled

alongside a conveyor belt. Here the trap doors on the side of the semi-trailer

box are opened and the fruit rolls out of the truck box onto the conveyor belt.

The fruit is conveyed to a pre-sizer whera the over-and under-sized fruit is

eliminated and sent to the cannery bin. The remaining fruit passes through a

soak tank, a washer and on to a pre-grading belt where a considerable proportion

of the under-grade fruit is removed. The fruit that has not been eliminated by

pre-sizing or pre-grading passes through a set of fan dryers and into the bulk

degreening bins. Here the fruit is degreened or assembled in lots. The fruit

is removed from the bulk degreening room by opening the trap doors of the de-

greening room. The fruit rolls out of the bull bin onto a conveyor belt. The

number of workers per field crew consists of approximately 15 pickers, a field

foreman and the necessary semi-trailer truck drivers. The number of workers

receiving the fruit at the packing house usually includes a receiving foreman,

a bulk-bin receiver and a bulk-bin dumper. The field foreman drives the tractor

with the hydraulic lifts, transports the fruit after it has been picked and dumps

it into the semi-trailer truck box. He also supervises the picking crew and keep!

a record of the volume picked and volume loaded. The semi-trailer truck drivers

drive the semi-trailer truck from the grove to the packing house. They also un-

load the fruit at the packing house. The receiving foreman supervises the re-

ceiving and dumping processes and keeps a record of the volume received and

dumped. The bulk-bin receiver handles the incoming flow of fruit and the bulk-

bin dunmpr regulates the flow of fruit from the bulk. bin onto the dump belt.






- 17-


Fixed Cost

A summary of the estimated annual fixed cost is shown in Table 6. The

calculated annual fixed cost for equipment to handle 5,000 boxes per week is

.-5,831.00, for 10,000 boxes per week is $10,053.00 and for 15,000 boxes per

week is $14,276.00.

Table 6.- Fixed Cost for the Tractor Basket, Semi-Trailer Truck Bulk
Degreening Method for Hauling, Receiving and Dumping Oranges,
Florida Citrus Packing Houses, 1954.


: Estimated Annual Fixed Cost -
at 5,000 Boxes:at 10,000 Boxes:at 15,000 Boxes
Item : Estimated Per Week : Per Week :Per Week
:Annual Fixed:Number Total :Number: Total :Number: Total
Cost Per : Re- : Fixed : Re- : Fixed : Re- : Fixed
Unit a/ :quired: Cost :quired Cost :quired: Cost
dollars llars : dollars: : dollars
Semi-trailer truck:
Tractor : 690.00 : 2 1,380 3 2,070 : 4 2,760
Trailer : 419.42 : 1,258 5 2,097 : 7 2,936
Tractor with lifts: 800.00 : 1 : 800 : 2 :1,600 : 3 : 2,400
Bulk basket 15.00 18 270 36 540 :54 810
Conveyor belts
40' x 24 : 108.50 1 108 1 108: 1 108
100' x 24'' : 195.30 : 2 : 391 2 391 : 2 : 391
Bulk degreening : :
rooms 811.77 : 32b: 1.624 4~: 3.247 6b-/ 4,871
Total $ 5,831 $10,053 $14,276

a For development of fixed cost see Table 1.
S(000) box capacity.
Direct Cost
Direct cost calculated on a minimum cost per 1,000 boxes is summarized in

Table 7. The calculated direct labor and equipment cost per 1,000 boxes when

operating at 5,000 boxes per week is $251.90, at 10,000 boxes per week is

$248.05, and 15,000 boxes per week is $246.76.


4. Goat Truck, Semi-Trailer Truck Field Box Degreening, Hand Dump Method

In this method pickers empty the fruit from their picking sacks into stand-

ard field boxes which are then loaded manually onto a goat truck for hauling











- 13 -


00
H 0
H o
Hc
r-


0




o a





0

D 4)
6 *r












o o


0 '0 0

00













o 0











Erl f


o
o

0




m o et
O m

O P
0
I 0 <1
O 8"

g o
mo
0 m
ON






P-4




*- o
t 00




4
0




.4 0
e2 o
I r-
to p4
I 1




)N
I 43







000
0



*r-t



a,

0

0 1


S4







S0
I 4











00


** ** **



o


4)
.-i


* 0 *

H


*l 0
H l


':4 0 C0 l


r-l H


' 0
uDN

H
CO C"
r-i


NO C-
* S *
C'oHo
H


* "
0


H.


"*
03


SCU

*C *
N


H


LO LO LO
o 0 to to
C2 01 CCO
** *
1-1


r 0 00
CO to 0 C
H


0O
tO 0
* *


c0) Co
c.- C;


cddi






3 9193 r c-3 4 U
S -4 o C -P -H4- 45 oa-) F-l
0 ) 0- (I 1 H 004)
E0 -H 0 o0
0-l -4 (1 k .,I ; 0 a
t -i 1.4 w l d P 4l 4 o
S a ac3 0 a 0 E

o 0 F- 0 i *r- E -4 4 *r- H
p., a~a 9 :- ,,o caj
-43 rl > O e ) .-1
*r l m .. | r -) ol r-1 pf oU4

O *r-1 *U Q. UO 0 0 0 Qr
PI p o (I *d FF pm p 4E ch n to


"cd


N N
LON


) m

0 0
00
oo


00
o o




c4)4


to
0 0
00


00
0 -H

a x-c
4HH4


0
4O
HO
r-1


O 0
r- 0

H CO
1*"


,ri
,C







0
P-1




0





0
0
4-

0
N
o


,0
Cd


I-1















0
*rt



















4)
o
t-













0*
Ct-









0

0:
a c
0





rF-i









M i-
SF

r1a
*i-l 01


**







- 19 -


from the picking area to the loading site at the roadside. At the roadside

the full field boxes are transferred from the goat truck onto the semi-trailer

truck. The fruit is then hauled to the packing house where it is hand-trucked

from the semi-trailer truck to the degreening rooms. After the citrus has been

degreened or assembled in a lot during non-degreening periods, it is hand-

trucked from the degreening room to the dumping table. Here the full field

boxes are lifted manually and the fruit dumped onto the dump belt. The empty

field boxes are placed on a belt conveyor and conveyed to the box platform.

The empty boxes are either transferred directly onto the semi-trailer truck or

stacked on the platform. The empty field boxes loaded on the semi-trailer are

hauled to the grove.

At the roadside loading area the empty field boxes are transferred from

the semi-trailer truck onto the goat truck which distributes the empty field

boxes to the pickers, thus completing a cycle.

A normal picking and hauling crew usually includes approximately 15 pick-

ers, a field foreman and the necessary loaders and semi-trailer truck drivers.

The picking foreman supervises the picking of the fruit and handling from the

tree onto the semi-trailer truck. The loaders haul the full field boxes from

the tree and then transfer them onto the semi-trailer truck and distribute the

empty boxes to the pickers. The semi-trailer truck drivers drive the semi-

trailer truck.

The receiving and dumping crew usually consists of a receiving foreman an

the necessary hand truckers and hand dumpers. The receiving foreman supervised

the receiving and dumping of the fruit and keeps a record of the volume handle

The hand truckers at the packing house unload the full field boxes from

the semi-trailer truck and transport the fruit to the degreening room. They

also hand truck the fruit from the degreening room to the dumping table. The

hand dumper empties the fruit from the full field boxes onto the dumping belt..







- 20 -


and places the empty field boxes on the empty field box conveyor belt. The

empty box handlers stack the boxes on the box platform and load the empty field

boxes on the semi-trailer truck.

Fixed Cost

A summary of the estimated annual fixed cost is shown in Table 8. The

calculated annual fixed cost for equipment to handle 5,000 boxes per week is

$6,742.00, for 10,000 boxes per week is $12,772.00 and for 15,000 boxes per

week is $18,801.00.

Table 8.- Fixed Cost for the Goat Truck, Semi-Trailer Truck Field Box
Degreening, Hand Dump Method for Hauling, Receiving and Dumping
Oranges, Florida Citrus Packing Houses, 1954.


Estimated Annual Fixed Cost -
at 5,000 Boxeslat 10,000 Boxes at 15,000 Boxes
Item estimated er Week Per Week Per Week
Estimated :
:Annual Fixed:Number Total Number: Total :Number: Total
:Cost Per : Re- :Fixed : Re- : Fixed : Re- : Fixed
Unit a/ :quired Cost :quired Cost :quired Cost
dollars dollars dollars: dollars
Semi-trailer truck: d
Tractor 690.00 1 690 2 1,380 3 2,070
Trailer 419.42 3 1,258 : 5 2,097 7 : 2,936
Goat truck 442.50 1: 442 2 : 885 3 1,328
Field boxes 1.01 4,000 : 4,040 8,000 :8,080 .12,000: 12,120
Dumping table 66.65 1 : 67 1 67 11: 67
Hand truck 8.80 4 35 6 53 8 70
Empty box
conveyor 210.00 1 210 1: 210 1 210
Total $6,742 $12,772 $18,801

a/ For development of fixed cost see Table 1.

Direct Cost

Direct cost calculated on a minimum cost per 1,000 boxes is summarized in

Table 9. The calculated direct labor and equipment cost per 1,000 boxes iwhen

operating at 5,000 boxes per week is $307.43, at 10,000 boxes per week is

$302.62, and 15,000 boxes per week is $301.01.















00
-O 0
* .


on
0
p q



( ii
ho
I d

.a




















Sdt
01 H













a
4.

cii
00.





0 0
P,


o
0O 4
0







00





0
$.4 .


4-1


0
H
c 4)


I 0 2
00


O D
0 *L
o to


0
4 O
0


O
* H8

$ 0




o (D

0
H o




o~



I (.
10 ^
I







01 H k

0
col'





Co w
0 )







.Q1 0
o R











4J
i4


H
u0 t 0
r""~l


LO 0 0
* 0
o to
asH1


o e to io
w0000
LoHo
oa)1oC
Hee


oH


m 0
*.
Hi-4


00 C0
H*
H


HO
* 9
0 '


Cd LO
S 1
r4 M
0 r4


.O ^
OO 0
* *I


LOOL00
10 0 Ho 0
m 0 00 0


co
m o
Cl: LO


t 0O
L)1 0
0-1 L0


H



o 4 o $4 (D 0


4* a) 4 0O- 0-
S ood ri 00 H o4p
rdi Er4 4 5ciiQ
Cd El0a a r O k .- 0 p, H d
*0 *H O l ao o 04 O
iF-lpq4p A 0 0
P AiPi4W 40 a): -


0 0
H
oo

00
00
00


.~94,.
00



S00

I C, d 0

0 '
H H


01
U,


000

H..
rog C


r r r r


00
Hoo
HO 0
H


0

0 *
4o*
mp
ok I

0
0


gO a
$40 (D
.0



cd d
So* o



H
d 4- 4d
c84' ) $






4 o o
oii 0
ci Na







a a CH
Cr, $- 0
u tif a l
-H co 0

0
td d)

CM 0 0 0



cM (l mH N
r 0
0 0



> d
S0 ( ) *i :3


y 0 a-g
oHY e5:?
o rl c3 ap r


C.)40 40
ip cdd ( 0

0 4 0 fr


$a 0
0 El r 0 Q
a) ciig


Is %i '3
g-tM &< M 0











5. Goat Truck. Semi-Trailer Truck Automatic Dump, Bulk Degreening Hethod

The picking and hauling of the fruit from the tree to the packing house and

the handling of the empty field boxes from the packing house to the grove by

this method is similar to the goat truck, semi-trailer truck field box de-

greening, hand dump method. The difference in the two methods is in the hand-

ling of the fruit after the semi-trailer truck arrives at the packing house.

In this method the fruit is hand trucked directly from the semi-trailer

truck to the automatic dumping machine. The automatic dumper empties the fruit

out of the full field boxes onto the dump belt and places the empty boxes onto

a conveyor belt which carries the boxes out of the packing house and onto a

box platform as described in the above method. After the fruit has been dumped,

it passes through a pre-sizer and washer, over a pre-grading table, through a

set of dryers and into the bulk-degreening bins as described in the tractor bas-

ket, semi-trailer truck bulk degreening method.

The receiving and dumping crew for this method usually consists of a re-

ceiving foreman, a bulk-bin receiver, a bulk-bin dumper and the necessary hand

truckers.

Fixed Cost

A summary of the estimated annual fixed cost is shown in Table 10. The

calculated annual fixed cost for equipment to handle 5,000 boxes per week is

$6,613.00, for 10,000 boxes per week $11,218.00 and for 15,000 boxes per week

is $15,824.00.

Direct Cost

Direct cost was calculated on a minimum cost per 1,000 boxes and is sum-

marized in Table 11. The calculated direct labor and equipment cost per 1,000

boxes when operating at an "efficient" capacity rate was approximately '0.29

per box.





- 23 -


Table 10.- Fixed Cost for the Goat Truck, Semi-Trailer Truck Automatic
Dump, Bulk Degreening Method for Hauling, Receiving and Dump-
ing Oranges, Florida Citrus Packing Houses, 1954.


Estimated Annual Fixed Cost -
Sat 5,000 Boxes:at 10,000 Boxes:at 15,000 Boxes
Item :Estimated : Per Week : Per Week : Per Week
:Annual Fixed:Number: Total :Number: Total :Number: Total
Cost Per Re- : Fixed : Re- :Fixed : Re- : Fixed
Unit a/ quired: Cost :quired: Cost :quired: Cost
dollars dollars: dollars dollars
Goat truck 442.50 1 442 2 885 3 1,328
Semi-trailer truck
Tractor 690.00 1 690 2 1,380 3 2,070
Trailer 419.42 3 1,258 5 2,097 2,936
Automatic dump 962.50 1 962 1 962 1 962
Conveyor belt W/motor:
1001 x 24'' 195.30 2 391 2 391 2 391
1001 x 1211 on
wood rollers 210.00 1 210 1 210 1 210
Field box 1.01 1,000 1,010 .2,000 2,020 :3,000 3,030
Hand truck 8.80 3 26 26 3 26
Bulk degreening room 811.77 2 1,62r4 4: 3,247 6/: 4,871
Total $ 6,613 $11,218 $15,824

a/ For development of fixed cost see Table 1.
b/ (000) box capacity.

6. Goat Truck. Semi-Trailer Truck Field Box Degreeninr, Automatic Dump

Method

The picking and hauling of the fruit to the packing house by this method

is not materially different than the system used by the goat truck, semi-trailer

truck field box degreening, hand dump method. The difference in the two meth-

ods is in the manner in which the fruit is dumped. In this method the fruit is

also hand trucked from the semi-trailer truck to the degreening rooms and from

the degreening rooms to the automatic dump. However, instead of the fruit being

dumped by hand, it is dumped mechanically by the automatic dumping machine.

The work crews are the same in the two'methods except that instead of hav-

ing one or more hand dumpers, one man operates the automatic dumping machine.









- 24 -


8 00


u1-


0
0


00
0


rt-


0
0


0
0 <


o3
a





0
oa
a




Ok
o0


0



*rI
oa









c~o
0 C)
o
E 0






H
Sg.







. d U

0) lo










oa






10
0



0 .











IV









r-I
o -





*rr
0 rfc









a


9, c%.
* -
Q 02
H1


ION


o H
H-*


r--
9.. -


N HrN


CaC o t)


m to to
C'2HC CV


. 1 .


* 0 9
to


. .
rq


H0 O

* c LID


0


10 o10

r* *


S 10 10 t10o
c CO CC CC


10 H C\2
& --4 4


t000


tU)o t-
O0 H 0
r4 k


9,


0 0
o TO
-6\- -4


O0
00
00
00

S00


44P0 4"1

40-- 0
i ,-1 IL V, zi m MI k .,4
~mm .~~~ oc o ., o
.r, N r q a) ,-,o 0 H.
P4 ;Hl 413 ON o 40L) |d 4 3; p C

4-' 0 1;- $2, o -i

0 .4 H : A ri i r, 1 -4 0 0 I0 ( 1 k r


M fl< &; 4


000
HOO
r04 0


000
HOO

r-H


4I H



0




a,





43
A 0






3a)

a
.,


P




0
C4









o
Mr


0
a)



o
g .

4'0


0 o





a





o




0











oN
0 -






0


a




Ca,
SN
4+


..


~


0; 0
*d
CO CO3






. 25 *


Fixed Cost

A summary of the estimated annual fixed cost is shown in Table 12. The

calculated annual fixed cost for equipment to handle 5,000 boxes per week is

$7,637.00, for 10,000 boxes per week is $13,667.00 and for 15,000 boxes per

week is $19,696.00.



Table 12.- Fixed Cost for the Goat Truck, Semi-Trailer Truck Field
Box Degreening, Automatic Dump Iethod for Hauling, Re-
ceiving and Dumping Oranges, Florida Citrus Packing
Houses, 1954.


S Estimated Annual Fixed Cost -
at 5,000 Boxes:at 10,000 Boxes at 15,000 Boxes
Item : Per Week Per Week Per Week
SEstimated :
:Annual Fixed:Number Total ber Total Number Total
Cost Per :Re- Fixed : Re- Fixed Re- Fixed
:Unit a/ :quired Cost quired Cost quired Cost
dollars : dollars: : dollars: : dollars
Goat truck 442.50 1 : 442 : 2 : 885: 3 : 1,328
Semi-trailer truck : : :
Tractor 690.00 1 : 690 : 2 : 1,380 : 3 : 2,070
Trailer 419.42 3 : 1,258 5 : 2,097 : 7 : 2,936
Automatic dump 962.50 1 : 962: 1 : 962: 1 : 962
Conveyor belt IT/motor : :
100' x 12" W/wood : : :
rollers 210.00 1 : 210: 1 : 210: 1: 210
Field boxes 1.01 4,000 : 4,040 :8,000 : 8,080 :12,000: 12,120
Hand trucks 8.80 : 35 : 6 : 53: 8 : 70
r Total $7,637 $13,667 $19,696

a/ For development of fixed cost see Table 1.



Direct Cost

Direct cost was calculated on a minimum cost per 1,000 boxes and is sum-

marized in Table 13. The calculated direct labor and equipment cost per 1,000

boxes when operating at an "efficient" capacity rate was approximately $0.30

per box.








- 26 -



- 00
ts-001
NOS c3


m
0



O
0
rqsk


*Mrj
-d


0 ^









cd0





o1-
o0 q








4 4
000
- 0



11 0
1i PN.






43











ow
'4 0










434




0,
a-r









0 O
( HP



,0C
c 0
o
0 g
+ (


0
I o
M
rq,

oa
o
0






I 0











. M0






S0






a) N
omH
.H
Op" P*



















P4


0
Se



0 (





U,
in 0
O!

0
4.> k
(tf ^


M tor f
0 0

H \


r-)
1 1002
H D


to 'cli m

.0 02
*** l


0 100
0) COC0)


to0 *


ro

0*

oo .

00
00
0
0 0


(D 0 )
7;il P4f P.
c *~o5a 4 43 o
rD l Pi 4-) V2 oi -.0
8 0o o0 0
,-$ -4 > 0 H U 0 r
0o (Hd 4- a 'd a
'i 5 U 00 4 k H
4il *M0 I 050 0 O O a 0 r
(l3 ?j o O C H O 0
.- co00 tn t, -( k0 .o r4
$4 'r, 0 o 0 10 4-2 0 o 0 C

r4, r, 0 O ) o c) o *r-l a 4. E! L- 0E-4e o&
Or4 a) r 43o 4 0) pra e(d C3 E
*I i .i4< Q$ a Cp H 3 I < 4 h 0 0 fn oA 0
(30 cr
P4 U-i r7


* *

Sa)
-H r-



C/)
C.O t.


0
0
0

.,4
0

aI
-i





0



o







a


a,
.4














to




rd
0














H
0







cid 9
o






,d
H
0-


'fI3lf


* 9
H10
OO.


00
00
* 9
H;


000
HOC
0 *


10
010

go


10m
* 9
S10


0 10
0 co

r-,


co 0

rH


WOH
CO 0 r
C- 0

r-


O


TO
C \2
H M


10 10

r-I


tC
cCOl






- 27 -


COPiRISOiT OF COST

In this section the calculated average total cost per box of the three bulk

methods is compared with the average total cost per box of the standard field

box methods.

The comparison of cost is divided into two sections. In section A the

tractor, bulk trailer bulk degreening method is compared with the goat truck -

field box degreening, hand dump method. These two methods are analyzed in a

situation in which the citrus groves are within a five-mile radius of the pack-

ing house. This distance makes it possible for the grove tractors to pull five

trailers in tandem from the grove to the packing house without traveling any

great distance on a regular highway.

In section B the average total cost per box and total cost per season is

compared for four methods under the assumption that the citrus packed in an in-

dividual packing house is obtained within a thirty-mile radius of the packing

house. As stated in the introduction, other distances could have been used for

the comparison of these four methods, but the cost differential between the method

would not have been significantly different. The four methods compared are:

(1) tractor basket, semi-trailer truck bulk degreening, (2) goat truck, semi-

trailer truck field box degreening, hand dump, (3) goat truck, semi-trailer

truck automatic dump, bulk degreening and (4) goat truck, semi-trailer truck -

field box degreening, automatic dump method.

Section A

Average total cost of tractor, bulk trailer bulk degreenine method is less

than the average total cost for the coat truck field box degreenina. hand dump

method.--The effect of volume per week and volume per season on the average

total cost per box for picking, hauling, receiving and dumping oranges for the

tractor, bulk trailer bulk degreening and goat truck field box degreening,












hand dump methods is shown in Table 14 and illustrated graphically in Figure 1.

Differences in average total cost can be estimated for various weekly and sea-

sonal volumes from Table 14. Figure 1 illustrates the effect of increasing

volume per season for weekly average volumes of 5,000, 10,000 and 15,000 boxes.

In the chart the average total cost per box is shown on the vertical scale and

the volume per season is shown on the horizontal axis.

Part "A" of the chart shows that for a weekly average volume of 5,000

boxes the tractor, bulk trailer bulk degreening method had a lower cost

throughout the range of observed data. The difference in average total cost

per box for the two methods was approximately 7 3/4 cents per box for a sea-

sonal volume of 100,000 boxes.

Part "B" of the chart shows the relationship between volume handled per

season and average total cost per box when operating at a weekly average vol-

ume of 10,000 boxes. For this weekly rate of output the bulk degreening method

had a lower average total cost per box than the goat truck field box degreen-

ing, hand dump method of approximately 9 1/2 cents for a seasonal volume of

100,000 boxes, 7 1/2 cents per box for a seasonal volume of 200,000 boxes and

7 cents per box for a seasonal volume of 300,000 boxes.

Part "C" shows the relationship between seasonal volume and average total

cost per box for a weekly average volume of 15,000 boxes. The difference in

cost between the two methods is approximately 11 cents per box for a seasonal

volume of 100,000 boxes, 8 1/4 cents per box for 200,000 boxes, 7 1/4 cents per

box for 300,000 boxes and 6 3/4 cents per box for 400,000 boxes.


- 28 -








- 29 -


Table 14.- Comparison of Average Total Cost Per Box for Picking, Hauling,
Receiving and Dumping Oranges by the Tractor, Bulk Trailer -
Bulk Degreening Method and the Goat Truck Field Box Degreening,
Hand Dump Method, Florida Citrus Packing Houses, 1954.


:e:Average Cost Per Box for Total Seasonal Volume a/
Volume
Method Per :at 100,000: at 200,000: at 300,000: at 400,000
Week Boxes Boxes Boxes Boxes
Sboxes - dollars per box -
Tractor
bulk trailer 5,000 0.2674 / -
bulk degreening : 10,000 .2993 .2633 ,2513 c/
S15,000 .3312 : .2793 .2620 .2533

Goat truck -
field box de- 5,000 : .3446 -
greening, : 10,000 .3937 .3384 .3199 c/
hand dump 15,000 : .4415 .3615 .3348 .3215

a/ Average total per-box cost was calculated by adding average per-box
fixed cost and average per-box total cost.
b/ Maximum volume that can be handled per season when operating at this
weekly volume is slightly in excess of 100,000 boxes.
c/ Maximum volume that can be handled per season when operating at this
weekly volume is slightly in excess of 300,000 boxes.

Section B

The average total cost per box for the tractor basket, semi-trailer truck -

bulk degreening method is less than the average total cost per box for the rest

of the methods included in this section.--The effect of volume per week and

the volume per season upon the average total cost per box for picking, hauling,

receiving and dumping oranges for all four methods is compared in Table 15.

Comparison of the average total cost per box of the different methods for vary-

ing weekly and seasonal volumes can be made directly from this table.

The average costs shown in Table 15 are illustrated graphically in Figure 3.

This chart shows the effect of increasing the volume per season for weekly vol-

umes of 5,000, 10,000 and 15,000 boxes, The volume per season is shown on the

horizontal axis, and the average total cost per box is shown on the vertical

axis.





-30-


x _
o E



*-
0 0
La 0


u r
0 C




o-0


1


* -
C C
a
e 0




0 -0
t.-
E-5
0- -


I I I I I


-O I
x
03 1


(D e
av) 0-








u --
0I
C --c

















-p I I _____i______


(s4uae) xog jad 490so3 o401 SojaV


-a-

S0

0


8 0
D O E
o-
O O





00
a


o E
o D
mO


C
e-



O

0.
c






0

0 0




> a



0 Ln
0
.8*



















O-

0
a) )
UI










0
U.
> a


2 3




















o C














A-
(1)2



















>L
0 o-
.-a-






-c

-O 0






.2c
La- 0


0>












La-






U-Z


I








- 31 -


Table 15.-


Comparison of Average Total Cost for Four Methods for
Picking, Eauling, Receiving and Dumping Oranges,
Florida Citrus Packing Houses, 1954.


Average Cost per Box for Total Seasonal Vo
Hethod : Volume at at at at
Per : 100,000 :200,000 : 300,000 : 400,00C
: eek : Boxes : Boxes : Boxes : Boxes

boxes - dollars ner box- -
Tractor basket, 5,000 $0.3102 -
semi-trailer truck 10,000 : .3486 .2983 .2816 : c/
bulk degreening 15,000 .3895 .5181 : .2944 .2824


Goat truck, semi-
trailer truck field 5,000 : .3748 : -
box degreening, hand 10,000 .4303 : .3665 : .3452 c/
dump 15,000 .4890 .3950 : .3637 .3480


Goat truck semi-trailer 5,000 .3594 / -
truck automatic dump, 10,000 .4054 : .3494 .3307 c/
bulk degreening 15,000 .4515 .3724 .3460 .3328


Goat truck, semi-trailer: 5,000 .3800 / :
truck field box de- : 10,000 .4355 .3672 .3444 c/
greening, automatic dump: 15,000 .4942 .3957 .3629 .3465
*


a/ Average total cost per box was
cost and average per box total


calculated by
cost.


adding average per box fixed


.b/ Maximum volume that can be handled per season when operating at this
weekly volume is slightly in excess of 100,000 boxes.

S/ Maximum volume that can be handled per season when operating at this
weekly volume is slightly in excess of 300,000 boxes.






- 32-


0.




-01.- .a I




O ) -I
u -




U Q


.1 u .1-
SE) E
2 E"
.o


g o!
3 0 0) 3





I I
w U.


Stos a 0 O O


(s4U3u) xog jed 4so) 10401 GBOJsAV


0








o














O
O)














O

0







0
0

0 I
0




0



8 E
o >
o


* -


0


LI..




0-



0
o
..


og


-6C

0 -

O C




>

O u
go











.4-
) 0






0




0- a
'-
C 0-


>


u,0
,4.."
0 a





E



0
u
LI*-





LL
ti


I









Part A of this chart illustrates the average cost relationship of the four

methods for a weekly operation of 5,000 boxes. This chart shows that the trac-

tor basket, semi-trailer truck bulk degreening method had lower cost than any

of the other methods. The estimated saving per box in the selection of the trac-

tor basket, semi-trailer truck bulk degreening method for a seasonal volume

of 100,000 boxes would be approximately 5 cents per box over the goat truck,

semi-trailer truck automatic dump, bulk degreening method, 6 1/2 cents per

box over the goat truck, semi-trailer truck field box degreening, hand dump

method and approximately 7 cents per box over the goat truck, semi-trailer

truck field box degreening, automatic dump method.

Part B of the chart shows the cost relationship of the four methods for

a 10,000-box-per-week operation. The graph shows that the difference in cost

among the methods varied slightly with the volume handled per season. For a

seasonal volume of 300,000 boxes the tractor basket, semi-trailer truck bulk

degreening method had approximately 5 cents lower cost per box than the goat

truck, semi-trailer truck automatic dump, bulk degreening method; approxi-

mately 6.4 cents per box lower cost for the goat truck, semi-trailer truck -

field box degreening, hand dump method; and approximately 6.3 cents per box

over the goat truck, semi-trailer truck field box degreening, automatic dump

method.

Part 0 of Figure 3 shows the cost relationship of the four methods for a

15,000-box-per-week operation. With this weekly volume the cost relationship

among the methods was similar to the other two charts. The tractor basket,

semi-trailer truck bulk degreening method had the lowest cost, the goat

truck, semi-trailer truck automatic dump, bulk degreening had the next low-

est cost, and there was very little difference in cost between the other two

methods.


Ag. Econ.-500
TL 9/8/54


f
r




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs