Title: Statistics on production, shipments and prices of Florida potatoes
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074539/00001
 Material Information
Title: Statistics on production, shipments and prices of Florida potatoes
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Greene, R. E. L.
Publisher: Department of Agricultural Economics, Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074539
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 123451868

Full Text
/


November, 1955


Agricultural Economics Mimeo. Report 56 -3


Statistics On Production, Shipments And


Prices Of Florida Potatoes


by

R. E. L. Greene and W. E. Black


Fig. 1. Production and Value of Florida Irish Potatoes
5 Season Averages 1919 20 to 1953 -54


DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS


GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA







TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page
SUMMARY........................ ..... *..... ................................ 1 .

INTRODUCTION.. ................................................ ...........

PRODUCTION OF POT.TOES IN FLORIDA........................................ 3

Trend in Acres, Yield, Production and Value..........................3
Relative Trend in the Production of Potatoes in
Florida dnd the United States........... ....................... ..6
Trend in Winter and Spring Acreage in Peninsular Florida,........... .6

MOVEMENT CF POTATO-S....... *... .................. .................. 12

Shipment of Stored Crop and New Crop Potatoes.......... ........... 12
Shipment of Stored Crop and Florida Potatoes......................1
Shipment of New Potatoes from Florida and Other States............. .3
Shipment of Potatoes from Various Areas of Florida.................. 1

PRICES OF POTATOES... **........ .................................. .. 18

Variation in Monthly Prices of Potatoes by Decades..................20
Seasonal Price Pattern for Florida Potatoes........................20
Farm Price of Potatoes in April in Florida and the United States....23
Relation Between Production and Price of Potatoes in Florida........23
Relation Between Shipments and Price of Potatoes..... ............. 26
Relation of Prices Received for Potatoes in Florida and the
General level of all Farm Prices in the United States ...........26
Comparison of Average Price Received for Potatoes with Parity
Price, 1946 to 1955 ................... .. ...... .......... .... ,,29

"CST OF PRODUCING POTATOES.................. o................. ........ 29




SU.lMARY
This publication was prepared to present selected statistical data relating
to the production and marketing of potatoes in Florida. These data were obtained
from Florida Vegetable Crops Annual Statistical Summaries and reports of the
Agricultural Marketing Service.

During the last 35 60 40 years there have been some significant trends in the
potato industry in the State. Some of the most important changes have occurred
in the last 15 years. During the five year period 1949-50 to 1953-54, an average
of 30,000 acres of potatoes were- harvested per season with an average yield per
acre of 258 bushels. This was 83 bushels per acre more than the average of the
preceding five-years. Average production during the 1949-50 to 1953-54 period
was 7,748,000 bushels and cash value ".13,201,000. Compared vith the five seasons
1939-40 to 1943-44, production increased 118 percent and value increased 172
percent.

At the present time Florida produces about 2.6 percent of the total United








-2-


States production compared to 0.9 percent during the 1935-39 period.

The trend in acres of potatoes in the winter and springcbals has been quite
similar from the 1937-38 season to the present time. Of the total acres of
potatoes in Peninsular Florida, the winter deal makes up about 38 percent and the [i
spring deal 62 percent. Approximately 70 percent of the winter potato acreage
is in Dade County and 80 percent of the spring acreage in the Hastings area.

Shipment of new crop potatoes begins in December and increases over the
season until April. The volume of movement of new crop potatoes is small com-
pared to the movement of stored potatoes. Stored crop potatoes reach a peak
movement of about $800 cars around the middle of January. Movement continues
high but at a declining rate until the middle of April after which the shipment
of stored crop potatoes declines quite rapidly.

Very few new potatoes move from states other than Florida before the latter
part of April. After that time shipments from other states increase rapidly and
about equal those from Florida by the middle of May.

Although potatoes are shipped from Peninsular Florida from December to June,
80 percent of the crop moves in April, Hay and June. During December, January
and early February, the bulk of the movement from Florida comes from the Lake
Okeechobee or Fort Myers areas. Dade County is the major source of supply in
the latter part of February, March, and early April. During the rest of the
season, the main source of supply comes from the Hastings area. Of the move-
ment from Peninsular Florida for the five seasons 1948-h9 to 1953-54, 58 percent
originated in the Hastings area, 27 percent in Dade County, and 15 percent in
all other areas.

Prices received for potatoes by Florida farmers are usually highest in
January and then decline throughout theseason. The difference in -rices between the
the beginning and end of the season has been increasing over the years. The
Florida price of potatoes usually moves with the price of all potatoes in the
United States but at a higher level. The relative spread between Florida prices
and all potato prices has been decreasing.

Normally there is an inverse relationship between Florida production and
price of potatoes. During the season prices decline as volume of shipments in-
crease. Prices do not increase when shipments decline in the State for volume
is high for new potatoes moving from other areas.

The index of prices received for Florida potatoes usually fluctuates with
and around the index of prices of all farm commodities in the United States.
Beginning with the 1936-37 season, the Florida price index has been below the
all farm commodity index for the United States. Florida potato prices have
averaged 74 percent or less of the Florida parity price equivalent in seven of
the last 12 seasons. However, during this period there was a substantial increase
in production. Because of improvement in pro-.uction technology, farmers appar-
ently have found it profitable to increase production even at lower relative
prices.

Production costs usually fluctuate less in the Hastings area than other
areas of the State. As a rule, the cost of growing and harvesting potatoes is
higher in the Everglades and Fort Myers areas than in the Hastings area or Dade
County.










Statistics on Production, Shipments and
Prices of Potatoes in Florida

by
R. E. L. Greene and W. E. Black /

INTRODUCTION

This publication was prepared to present selected statistical data relating

to the production and marketing of Irish potatoes in Florida. These data are

needed by commodity groups and others who need factual information as background

material for formulation of policies on n marketing and other problems related

to the Irish potato industry in the State.



PRODUCTION OF POTATOES IN FLORIDA

Most counties in Florida produce some Irish potatoes but commercial pro-

duction is limited to six major areas. The commercial crop is classified into

winter and spring production. The winter crop is produced in Dade, Palm Beach

and Lee Counties. The spring crop is grown in St. Johns, Flagler, Putnam, Clay,

Alachua and Escambia Counties.

Trend in Acres, Yield, Production and Value

Acres-The acres of Irish potatoes harvested in Florida has ranged from

16,000 in the 1920-21 season to 40,700 in the 1952-53 season (Table 1 and

Fig. 2). Acres harvested dropped sharply during the late forties but have in-

creased significantly in recent years. During the five year period 1949-50 to

1953-54, an average of 30,000 acres was harvested each season.

Yield per acre-Per acre yields of Irish potatoes have shown a significant

increase during the last 20 years, The greatest increase occurred during the

last five years. The highest yield on record was recorded during the 1953-54

season when the State average yield was 299 bushels per acre. The average

yield during the five year period 1949-50 1953-h4 was 258 bushels per acre.
1/ Agricultst, loridAgricural onoist, ial E::periment Station and
Vegetable Marketing Specialist, Florida Agricultural Externsion Service,
respectively.








Table 1.- Acreage, Yield, Production and
to 1954-55 and 5 Season Averages,


Season


C Acres
: Hafretid


1917-18
1918-19

1919-20
1920-21
1921-22
1922-23
1923-24
1924-25
1925-26
1926-27
1927-28
1928-29

1929-30
1930-31
1931-32
1932-33
1933-34
1934-35
1935-36
1936-37
1937-38
1938-39

1939-40
1940-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-44
1944-45
1945-46
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49


1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55

5 Season Averages
1919-20 1923-24
1924-25 1928-29
1929-30 1933-34
1934-35 1938-39
1939-40 1943-44
1944-45 1948-49
1949-50 1953-54


26,500
16,500

22,000
16,000
26,000
19,500
28,000
21,900
23,100
28,000
31,000
22,000

31,000
27,000
21,500
17,000
23,500
24,800
24,500
31,300
31,400
26,700

26,600
26,800
25,000
26,600
28,600
31,100
35,300
23,100
20,700
20,600

23,600
23,500
29,800
40,700
32,400
-75-800
37, 46o

22,300
25,200
24,000
27,740
26,520
26,160
30,000


:~~~ 'aetd


234
265
254
248
299
ger


97
118
109
118
134
175
258


-4-


Value of Florida Irish Potatoes, 1917-18
1919-20 to 1953-54.


: Proc
1"00C


: Average :
Luction S price s
SBushels Dollars per
Bushel
3,074 -1.0
1,650 2.04


Yield
per acre
Bushels

116
100

96
96
110
92
88
124
118
105
126
118

80
132
70
132
140
97
103
121
134
130

162
117
153
129
112
162
170
131
170
255


2,112
1,536
2,860
1,794
2,464
2,716
2,726
2,940
3,897
2,596

2,480
3,564
1,505
2,244
3,290
2,405
2,525
3,785
4,208
3,463

4,140
3,129
3,823
3,439
3,212
5,035
6,010
3,028
3,512
5,250

5,524
6,230
7,556
9,749
9,682



2,153
2,975
2,617
3,277
3,549
4,567
7,748


4.00
2.00
1.65
2.20
2.14
1.74
3.04
1.87
1.48
1.81

1.86
1.07
1.28
.85
1.13
1.04
1.45
1.32
.70
1.09

.91
.90
1.54
1.94
2.00
2.39
1.95
1.59
2.50
2.30

1.67
1.84
2.44
1.61
1.52

.2.39

2.37
1.95
1.22
1.09
1.44
2.16
1*79


"'


Total
Value
1,000
dollars
4,304
3,366

8,448
5,072
4,719
3,947
5,273
4,726
8,287
5,498
5,785
4,695

4,606
3,818
1,933
1,908
3,708
2,504
3,652
4,998
2,960
3,774

3,766
2,803
5,901
6,667
6,431
12,033
11,744
4,809
8,772
12,064


9,215
11,455
18,464
15,674
14,696



5,092
5,798
3,195
3,578
5,114
9,884
13,901













































































0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
Y _- (n (M _






-6-


This was 83 bushels per acre more than the yield during the preceding five year
period.

Production- The increase in yield per acre coupled with an increase in a

acreage from the low point reached during the 1948-49 season has resulted in

a substantial increase in total production of potatoes. The largest production

on record was in the 1995-55 season when slightly over 10 million bushels were

harvested. For the five seasons 1949-50 to 1953-L5 production averaged 7,748,000

bushels. This was more than double the production for the period 1939-40-

1943-44 during which average production was the highest than in any earlier five

year period.

Value- Increased production has resulted in a substantial increase in cash

income from potatoes. The highest income on record was recorded during the

1954-55 season when farmers received ,25,,593,C00 for their crop. Even with a

substantial increase in production, prices have remained good and income has

risen along with production. Cash income for the five seasons 1940-50-1953-54

averaged $13,901,000. This was slightly more than 21 times the income received

during the five year period 1939-40-1943-L4. (Fig. 1 )


Relative Trend in the Production of Potatoes in
Florida and the United States

During the past 20 years there has been little or no trend in the production

of potatoes in the United States (Fig. 3) During the same period Florida ex-

perienced a definite upward trend in production with a very substantial in-

crease occurring during the last six seasons. For the past three seasons pro-

duction has been almost three times what it was during the 1935-59 period.

At the present time Florida produces about 2.6 percent of the total potatoes

produced in the United states as compared to only 0.9 percent during the 1935-39

period.

Trend in Winter and Soring Acreage in Peninsular Florida

With the exception of a small acreage in Escambia County, commercial








-7-


Index



100 -


Florida -


200


4 4 I S

S 4


-United States


I # ., I s I .


-4 -


19h0


1945
Years


1950


Fig_,J.- Relative Trend in Production of Potatoes, United States and
Florida, 1935 to 1955 (1935-39 = 100)
i


100


0
193


15


3








8-

potato areas in Florida are located east and south of the Suwannee River (Fig. 4 ).

Since potatoes from Escambia County move as a part of the Alabama deal, acreage

in that area has been excluded in presenting data in some sections of this report.

Peninsular Florida has been divided into two areas North and South Florida.

All of the counties South of the Pasco, Sumter, Lake and Orange County lines

have been included in South Florida.

From the 1937-38 season to the present time, the trend in acres of potatoes

in the Winter and Spring deal has been quite similar (Fig. 5 ). Acreage de-

clined .in both areas from 1937-38 to 19U34-2. This was followed by an increase

in both areas for the next three seasons. After the 1945-46 season acreage

declined sharply in both areas and the decline continued for two seasons in

the Spring deal. After adjusting,acres increased steady in both areas, reaching

a peak in the 1952-53 season. For the five season 1949-50 to 1953-54, of the

total acreage in Peninsular Florida, 38 percent was in the Winter deal and 62

percent in the Spring deal.

Percent of Winter Potato Acreage in Various Areas.- The largest proportion

of the potatoes in the Winter deal is produced in Dade County (Fig. 6 ). How-

ever, the proportion of the winter crop grown in Dade County has fluctuated con-

siderably over the last 15 years. In the 1938-39 season acreage in Dade County

County accounted for 70 percent of the total winter plantings. For the next

several seasons the proportion of the winter crop grown in Dade County declined,

reaching a low of only 48 percent in the 1945-U6 season. The proportion of

the winter crop frown in Dade County increased rapidly for the next two seasons,

attaining a high of 80 percent in the 1947-48 season. Since that time the pro-

portion has fluctuated. During the five seasons 1949-50 1953-54 the acres

of potatoes in Dade County averaged 72 percent of the total acres in winter

potatoes.







-9-


North
Florida


ALPHABETICAL LIST OF COUNTIES IN FLORIDA
NUMBERED TO AGREE WITH KEY MAP


Alachua
Baker
Bay
Bradford
Brevard
Broward
Calhoun
Charlotte
Citrus
Clay
Collier
Columbia
Dade
DeSoto
Dixie
Duval
Escambia
Flagler
Franklin
Gadsden
Gilchrist
Glades
Gulf
Hamilton
Hardee
Hendry
Hernando
Highlands
Hillsborough
Holmes
Indian River
Jackson
Jefferson
Lafayette


35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
4l.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.


Lake
Lee
Leon
Levy
Liberty
Madison
Manatee
Marion
Martin
I honroe
Nassau
Okaloosa
Okeechobee
Orange
Osceola
Palm Beach
Pasco
Pinellas
Polk
Putnman
Santa Rosa
Sarasota
Seminole
St. Johns
St. Lucie
Sumter
Suwannee
Taylci
Union
Volusia
Wakulla
Walt on
Washington


South
Florida


Fig. 4.- Division of Peninsular
Florida into Areas.







- 10 -


Acres
24000 _


22000 ..


20000


18000 -

1600o -

16000 -


12000 -


10000 -


f.


17,842 i
$ yr.ave!


Spring
Acreage


A
11,120
5 yr. avei


N


8000


6000 -

093-3
19-14-35


1939-40


\ /
W- inter
\ Acreage


19hh-45


1949-50


1954-55


Seasons

Fig. 5 .- Trend in Acres of Potatoes, Winter and Spring Deal,
Peninsular Florida, 1938-39 to 1953-54.


I


?
*'*. ,.


\


,-







- 11 -


Percent


100


90

80


70

60


1939-40 194h-45 1949-50
Seasons


1954-55


Fig. 6.- Percent of Winter Potato Acreage in Various Areas,
Florida, Seasons 1937-38 to 1953-54.







- 12-


Percent of Spring Potato Acreage in Various Areas.- The Hastings area con-

tributes the major proportion of the Spring potato acreage (Fig. 7), Normally

80 percent or more of the deal is grown in that area. The proportion of the Spring

acreage grown in the Hastings area declined from the 190-41 to the 1945-46 season,

reaching a low of 62 percent in that year. Over the last 15 years the proportion

of the spring acreage grown in other north Florida counties has decreased. For the

five seasons 1949-50 to 1953-54, 85 percent of the spring acreage was grown in the

Hastings area, 6 percent in other north Florida counties and 9 percent in south

Florida counties.


MOVEMENT OF POTATOES
Potatoes in the late producing areas are stored as they are dug and are

shipped to market over the winter and spring months. The first new crop potatoes

begin to move to market from Florida in the latter part of December and early

January. During the early part of the season, volume is small and the volume of

movement of stored crop potatoes is an important factor in the demand for new

potatoes.


Shipment of Stored Crop and New Crop Potatoes

The movement of stored crop potatoes normally reaches a peak of about 5,800

cars a week about the middle of January of each year (Fig. 8). Movement continues

high but at a slightly declining rate until about the middle of April. After the

middle of April shipment of stored crop potatoes declines quite rapidly each week

and the movement is usually over by the end of June.

A few nfw crop potatoes begins to move in December. Volume is fairly low in

January but begins to increase in February when digging begins in Dade County.

Shipments of new crop potatoes increase fairly steady during February, March and

the first three weeks in April. The-papid-inerease jn new crop-potatoes-begnl-the










- 13 -


Percent
100
South Florida Counties
90 i r 9 ~

I Other N orth 4- 4 i 5 r

80 rFlorida Counties ,N N-



L44t 4 -
70 F I:fl;c:


1- 4- _" 44TJ 4 +
*~~~~~~~~1 -41 ~ .. : .44~.
+:t-~l- ,',. -,.. ;*~4 1


4.iL~ '4 4..& & 14- jt 4
r.' 4 -t4 47
:~;;'~::S;~,, :~~: .,.... ..:-js:l*.
60-4 ..................1
P4-,L+ +1+ L4.4 'A.
iZIF+




q. 4 ,+ v ++
4 4- 4-4.. ri q- +-, 4*,4':. *. +'4- 4- + 4++ +
-Y'; + 4 4!I -1 -t- + J~ i -M-. 4 '*






t-4~~~ Li,.. f.'.i4 --~ 4- 4--r 4--1:..
~ ~ 4$.4'44. 4 +q,4 I. + +,,44''4 .4. 44.- f
40 :
+.+ + .4

30 7 P e 'oatoAreagen aros Area s,









Floid, Seaon l97-i o192-4
~:4A I-'+IL
20 4"- -i,+;,.,~I
+14 ...,~;C 4 + + *fii.. ; .+ r
+:.
+ + 1.4
+ -1 W 4 +l
10 j- + j4- LS195



Fig. 7 1. .. .... P !.; I *;:. 41i V ri~us A eas



Florida, Seasons 1937-33 to 1953-554.







- 14 -


Carloads
7000 -


I'
I


/"'" N


Stored Crop

Stored Crop


\ I

\
\





New Crop -


I a I a t I


1 2 3 4 5
Jan.


1 2 3 4 1 2 3 1
Feb. Mar.


23 4
Apr.


S1 2 3
May


S1 23
June


Fig. 8 .- Weekly Carlot Shipments of Stored and New Potatoes, Average
1953-1955.


I
I
I


4000


3000 1


2000 -


1000 -


3 4
Dec.


-- I I ; I I I .


111 1








-15 -


The rapid increase in new crop potatoes begins the last Dart of April when the

Ha4tings deal starts to move in volume and -hipments begin front Alabama and

California. The rapid increase in shipments of new crop potatoes comes at the

time when the shipments of stored corp potatoes begins to decrease very rapid-

ly.




Shipments of Stored Crop and Florida Potatoes

Florida is almost the sole producer of potatoes during the early part of

the new crop deal. Therefore, a comparison of shipments of stored potatoes

and Florida potatoes resembles very closely the comparison of shipments of

stored potatoes and new potatoes (Fig. 8 and 9 ). The volume of potatoes

moving from Florida does not reach 500 cars per week until the early part of

March. During March, shipments increase gradually until they reach about 1,000

cars a week by early April. Uhen the Hastingd deal begins to move in volume

shipments increase rapidly reaching better than 2,00C cars a week about the middle

of May. By the third week in May shipments begin to decrease rapidly and the

movement is about over by the last of June. When the movement of potatoes

from Florida is at its peak, it about equals the movement of s.fred crop potatoes.


Shipments of New Potatoes from Florida and Other States

Up to the latter part of April, Florida growers in the sale of their pota-

toes are competing almost entirely with the sale of stored potatoes. The move-

ment of new crop potatoes from other states does not begin in volume until

after the middle of April (Fig. 10 ). After that tirnevolume increases rapidly

and by the peak of the Hastings season the volume of new potatoes from other

states is about equal to the volume from Florida.














6000





5000





o000





3000





2000





1000





0


12 3 4
Jan.


S1 2 3
Feb.


S12 3 4 12 3
Mar. Apr,


S5 1 2
May


3 1 2
June


Weekly Periods


Fig. 9 .- Weekly Carlot Shipments of Stored Crop and Florida Potatoes
(Florida Shipping Season) Average 1953-1955l


Carloads


- Stored Crop


3 4
Dec.


SFlorida



t L


j


..


.."' ~ **


- 16 -






- 17 -


Carloads

-4
i, !



6000.
i



o000-




ooo000 Other States -
/













3000-
i















2000 -/
i









.I lk
Florida -h S e

1000 -
I000 -' \ ,
F0a \





3 i 1 2 3 12 3 2 1 2 3
Dec. Jan. Feb. Iiar. Apr. May June
Weekly Periods


Fig. 10 .- Weekly Carlot Shipments of New Potatoes from Florida and
Other States, Average 1953-1955~








- 18-


Shipments of Potatoes from Various Areas of Florida

Although potatoes are shipped from Peninsular Florida from December to

June, 80 percent of the crop moves in March, April and May (Fig._ ). The two

peak months are April and May when the crop is moving in volume from the Hastings

area.

The first movement of potatoes in Florida is usually from the Lake Okeechobee

section. During December and January practically all shipments originate

there and in the Fort Myers area. Growers in Dade County usually begin shipping

in February. During that month about three-fifths of the volume origninates in

Dade County and two-fifths in other Sotth Florida Counties. In March most of

the shipments from the State are from Dade County with a small volume from

other South Florida Counties. Harvesting is usually completed in Dade County

by about April 10 and movement is usually just beginning in the Hastings area

about that time. During April about two-thirds of the shipments are from the

Hastings area, one-fifth from Dade County and the rest from other counties in

South Florida. The bulk of the movement in May and June is from the Hastings

area. Of the shipments from Peninsular Florida for the five seasons 19b9-50

1953-54, 58 percent originated in the Hastings area, 27 percent in Dade County

13 percent in other South Florida Counties and 2 percent in other North Florida

Counties.


PRICES OF POTF"TOIS

Prices received for potatoes by Florida farmers depend upon (1) the season

of the year in which the potatoes are sold, (2) the volume of stored potatoes,

(3) the size of the Florida crop, and (4) the general prive level.
























Percent monthly shipments are of yearly shipments


Percent
100 .-I



90 -



80 -



70 -


Dec. Jan.


Feb. Mar. Apr. 7ay.


June Year


Monthly Potato Shipments are of Yearly Shipments and
Shipments from Various Areas are of i'onthly Shiprments,
(East and South of Suwannee River) Five Season Average,
- 1953-5.


- 19 -


3


I,'

j./
*/ d,


'ii
A.
,-,:%













i'4
i.! ,''
,*...!.
r i.








.-' ".:

^ia;







*w4
4.,
;-^^
i i,






i:'..''' :
.:ti-.i:




'f;;-y
!i-:::
/':";si

''. i.,
.* I*
,", ^ ,

*j.,.;


36








-*--Y'
i4
4.,

. '4
,' 1-."
i," .**,
,


-.ii


.1~ '44
14
,v1
T:'^ it:


o
Iii

2I-
l-l-r .i





I


*|1.


~0,5





*. I
4 2,


*. .4




j il






I.,
$1I~


100




I,.

'I *.;







5!' I -r

*1* : -


*I- *? r--
.-l. t


0




g':1 :1.i
*l -1-j
'(4-J


Dade County
27 percent





Other South
Florida Counties
.1 percent





Hastings Area
.8 percent













Other North Florida
Counties 2 percent


Fig.11 .-


Percent
Percent
Florida
19h9-50






-.20 -


Variation in Monthly Prices of Potatoes by Decades

Average monthly prices received for potatoes by Florida farmers normally

decreases as the season progresses. For the decades since 1910 highest average

prices were generally received in January except for the decades 1910 and 1920

when prices were highest in March (Fig.12). In the six year period 1950-55,

the January price averaged ;2.50 per bushel, February $2.06, March '1l.83,

April $2.14, May $1.78 and June C1.41 per bushel. The increase in average price

during April over March was due primarily to high prices as the result of the

late March freeze in 1955.

The amount of spread between the January and June price has increased

each decade. During the 1920-a9 decade, the drop in price from January to

June was 54 cents per bushel, 64 cents in the 1930-39 decade, 71 cents in the

1940-49 decade and $1.09 per bushel for the period 1950-55.

Seasonal Price Pattern for Florida Potatoes

The normal pattern for Florida potatoes is for prices to rise from

December to January and then decline over the rest of the season (Fig. 13).

As a rule, prices in January average 20 to 30 percent above the season price.

In May prices usually are about 90 percent of the average price for the season.

The pattern of prices during the 1950-55 season was different from the 1930-39

or the 1940-49 period. The increase in April was due partly to high prices

in 1955 as a result of the freeze in that year. The large crop of potatoes

in Dade County the past few seasons has also resulted in a lower than normal

price for potatoes in March.







- 21 -


Price per
bu. (dollars)
3.00 -


, \


1920-29
\
\








/ -,
\











1930-5539
19UO-49-'-

19 \

42, 1930-39


0 1 1 ( 1 J J J
Dec. Jan. Feb. iHar. Apr. H ay June July
I months


Fig. 12 .- Average iionthly Prices Received for Potatoes by Decades,
Florida,1909-10 to 1950-55.


/



`'4





72


2.50





2.00





1.50





1.00






- 22 -


Index
10 -


' \ 1930-39


-19O0-49


100






80






60


I I i ,I I I I


Dec. Jan.


Feb.


Mar.


Apr.


May


June July


Months


Fig. 13 .- Seasonal Price Pattern, Florida Potatoes, Selected Periods,
1930 1955.


-1950-55










23 -








Farm Price of Potatoes in April in Florida and the United States

The price received for potatoes in April by farmers in Florida is very closely

correlated with the April price for all potatoes in the United States. (Fig.l_ ).

As a rule, the Florida price moves up or down with the United States but at a

higher level. However, with the increase in production of potatoes in Florida

during the past few years, the spread between prices in Florida and the United

States has tended to decrease. During the 1910 to 1955 period the largest re-

lative spread in prices between Florida and the United States came in the period

from 1920 to 1925.



Relation Between Production and Price of Potatoes in Florida

From year to year there tends to be an inverse relationship between pro-

duction and prices received by farmers for potatoes in Florida (Fig. 15 ).

If production increases, prices decline and if production decreases, prices in-

crease. However an upward trend characterized the production of potatoes from

1920 to 1930. During this period, although a year to year fluctuation, occurred,

prices also generally declined from the high levels attained during World War I.

During the thirties there was no particular trend in either production or price.

For the past 15 years, there has been a decided upward trend in the production

of potatoes in Florida. Production has increased each year since the 19h6-h7

season except in the 1953-54 season. Even though acr-age was decreased in some

years, production &creased because higher yields per acre. Although prices























0 K'
o 0 0 8 n



O
{e


0-,



O(D

0I
rf1






CD



O



oCD
r





(D
0






















DC






a.


LO
Ii




A)












Cl-

CD
ul


0
I-'-


O
0-
<*


CDi
P,















cf"
D --



















Mz




U)
II

-. -.





















Ca / /
C.'-.
pr














ci- -~> -



g


- 24 -









- 25 -


00
C" -0 0) \C 0
S 8 0 o o 0
0 00 0 0 -S C



r 0

*1 '- -
B .7







I-
C- --...


















InO
iVI
0 -- .-
0

ro
CI) *
0 w

00-

-a o
\0- -







VI
R-


0 1-- P









\0










0 0P
H 0

CI].







- 26"


have fluctuated considerably since the 1944-45 season, no upward trend has been

evident.


Relation Between Shipments and Prices of Potatoes

Prices received for potatoes by farmers in Florida usually show a month to

month decline over the Florida season (Fig. 16 ). During the season shipments

show a steady month to month increase, reaching a peak in May. Although ship-

ments are small in June, prices do not increase for new potatoes are moving in

volume from other areas. Because of the lateness in the season and hot weather,

quality of the potatoes from Florida shipped in Jtune is probably not as good

as that of those shipped earlier.



Relation of Prices Received for Potatoes in Florida and the
General Level of All Farm Prices in the United States

Prices received for potatoes in Florida tend to fluctuate with and around

the index of prices of all farm commodities in the United States (Fig.17 ).

Beginning with the 1936-37 season, the index of prices of potatoes in Florida

has been below the index of prices of all farm commodities in the United States.

This means that the increase in price of Flori'a potatoes has failed to keep

pace with the increase in prices of all farm commodities in the United States.

Potato growers are quite conscious of the fact that cost of items of produc-

tion for potatoes has continued to increase but they have not been able to sell

their product at a higher price. However, many probably fail to realize that

the volume of production has almost doubled. The volume being produced in Florida

at the present time is such that Florida potatoes are no longer a luxury item.

This means that they must be sold more in direct competition with the late crops.








- 27 -


Carlots per
Honth

6000



5000


4000 -




3000 -



2000 -



1000 ,


\ Price
\


Price per
Bu.
(dollars)
-3.00








,2.00








- 1.00


N


- Shipments


0 /-
Dec.


Apr..


June


iionths


Fig. 16 .- Monthly Trend in Shipments and
Five Season Average, 19h9-50 -


Price of Florida Potatoes,
1953-54.











- 28 -


09







HM,
0









H 0
0 "


CD
t yo
(D
0 H


Of



( ) H3
OO
0
O 0



n r


o o








H

co





(D O

&-. CD
-S0
via
cL



9 -(




Lrt
^sf

(0

^^.







-29-


During the past 15 years, because of better varieties, increased fertilizer,

better spray program and other improvements in technology, increases in yields

per acre have been large. This has helped to decrease per unit cost of produc-

tion or helped. unit cost from increasing as much as cost items. With an improve-
ment in technology, some of the savings is usually passed on to the consumer

in the form of a better quality product, a lower relative price or both. It

appears that consumers have received both of these benefits with respect to

Florida potatoes.


Comparison of Price Received for Potatoes with Parity Price,
1946 to 1955

In only two seasons since 196 has the average price received for potatoes

in Florida averaged higher than the Flori:a parity price equivalent (Table2 ).

In three other seasons average prices received have been equivalent to 92 to 99

percent of parity. During the past six years with the exception of the 1951-52

and the 1954-55 seasons, the average price received for potatoes in the State

has averaged only 70 to 7h percent of the Florida parity price equivalent.

From the 1949-50 to the 1953-54 seasons farmers becameespecially concerned a-

bout prices received for potatoes. However, it should be noted that total pro-

duction during this period was 70 percent more than the preceding five seasons

and the cash value of potatoes sold was 41 percent more. Due to improvements

in production technology farmers apparently found it profitable to increase

their production of potatoes, even at relativ4loer prices in relation to

parity.

COST OF PRODUCING POTATOES

The cost of producing potatoes in selected areas of Florida is shown in

Table 3 Over this period there his been a fluctuation in costs and returns








- 30 -


Table 2.- Potatoes: United States Parity Price, Florida Parity
Price Equivalent and Average Florida Price
per Bushels and Percent Florida Price was
of Florida Parity Price Equivalent for Crop
Years 1946 to 1955.

S Amount per Bushel :Peroeni-Florida
Year s United States: Florida pari-: Average :price of Florida
: Parity price ty. price : Florida :parity price
i : equivalent t Price :equivalent

1946 $ 1.31 $ 1.97 $ 1.95 99
1947 1.66 2.41 1.59 66
1948 1.85 2.42 2.50 103
1949 1.81 2.49 2.30 92
1950 1.70 2,39 1.67 70

1951 1.79 2.49 1.84 74
1952 1.74 2.49 2.44 98
1953 1.65 2.27 1.61 71
1954 1.53 2.11 1.62 72
1955 1.47 1.91 2.54 133



Costs have fluctuated less in the Hastings area than in any

of the other areas. In only one season, 1952-53, did prices

received for potatoes fail to equal cost. In Dade County cogts

have tended to increase. In three of the five seasons, average

costs were slightly more than the average price received. As

a rule, the cost of growing and harvesting potatoes is higher

in the Everglades and Fort Myers areas, than in the Hastings

area or Dade County. The lowest yields are usually obtained

in the Everglades area.









- 31 -


Table 3.- POTATOES -
I


YIELDS AND PER UNIT COSTS AND RETURNS IN SELECTED
AREAS IN FLORIDA, BY SEASONS, 1950-54 i


Yield and Costs

Yield per Acre in 50# sacks
Amoiut per 50# sack
Growing cost
Harvesting cost
Total crop cost
Crop sales
Net returns


Yield per acre in 50# sacks
Amount per 50# sack
Growing cost
Harvesting cost
Total crop cost
Crop sales
Net returns


Yield per acre in 50 sacks
Amount (per,-50# sack
Growing cost
Harvesting cost
Total crop cost
Crop sales
Net returns


Yield per acre in 50- sacks
Amount per- 50i sack
Growing cost
Harvesting cost
Total crop cost
Crop sales
Net returns


1950

282

$0.73
.43
1.16
1.55
.39


329

$0.83
.59
1.42
1.38
-.04


201

$1.02
.67
1.69
1.79
.10


$0.80
.59
1.39
1.54
.15


1951

338

$0.61
.51
1.12
1.32
.20


1952
Hastings Area
321

$0.77
.48
1.25
1.86
.61


Dade County
348 285


$0.92
.48
1.40
2.12
.72


$1.06
.60
1.66
2.06
.40


1953

296

$0.87
.43
1.30
1.22
-.08


327

$1.04
.56
1.60
1.51
-.09


1954

377

$0.61
.42
1.03
1.35
.32


390

$0.75
.55
1.30
1.25
-.05


Everglades
160 208


$1.44
.69
2.13
1.36
-.77


278

$1.25
.66
1.91
1.68
-.23


$0.87
.68
1.55
2.27
.72


Fort Myers
236

$1.05
.70
1.75
2.44
.69


$1.00 $0.91
.75 .69
1.75 1.60
1.91 1.66
.16 .06


300

$1.15
.68
1.83
1.79
-.04


317

$0.86
.58
1.44
1.45
.01


l/ Adapted from Reports on Costs and
Florida by Donald L. Brooke.


Returns from Vegetable Crops in


RELG:gdl 500 Copies
Dept. Agr. Econ.- 10/28/55


---- ---~


<
t




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs