Title: Recent trends in number, size, type, and value of farms in Florida
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Title: Recent trends in number, size, type, and value of farms in Florida
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June, 1956


Agricultural Economics
Mimeo Report No. 56-8


RECENT TRENDS IN NUMBER, SIZE, TYPEAND

VALUE OF FARMS IN FLORIDA

(Based on the Census of Agriculture)














Prepared by L. A. Reuss
Production Economics Research Branch
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. D. A.

Department of Agricultural Economics
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
Gainesville, Florida

in cooperation with
Production Economics Research Branch
Agricultural Research Service, U.S.D.A.











PURPOSE


In recent years there has been much popular discussion of trends in farm

numbers, sizes, values, and types in the United States. Among the chief

sources of information concerning these subjects are the periodic Censuses of

Agriculture. Recently, with the publication of the Preliminary Releases of

the Census of Agriculture 1954, another benchmark has become available for

reference and study.

It is believed that new data should be considered in relation to that

which has gone before and that background information often is essential to

the proper interpretation of trend data. The purpose of the present report is

to provide, in text and graphs, a condensed review and interpretation of

recent trends in number, size, type, and value of farms in the State of Florida

and its four districts-Northwest, Northeast, Central, and South Florida.




ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


Grateful acknowledgment is made of the contribution of Mrs. Jane

Maddox and Miss Louise Phillips, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, to

the work of tabulating and graphing data and typing of materials.










TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

Districts and counties .. ... . . ... 1
Discussion

Recent trends in number, size, type and value of farms:
Florida ........ . . ....... 2-6
NcrthwestFlorida. ...... .. . .12-14
Northeast Florida .. . ., .. .. 2 2 20 22
Central Florida . .... ...... .. ..28 30
South Florida . ..... .....,. 36- 38

Charts
Fig. 1 Number of farms, Florida, 1940-54 . .... 7
Fig. 2 Land in farms, Florida, 1940-54 . .. . 7
Fig. 3 Average size of farm in acres, Florida, 1940-54 . . 7
Fig. 4 Change in number of farms by size of farm, Florida,
1940 to 1954 .* ....... . . 8
Fig. 5 Change in land in farms by size of farm, Florida,
1935to 1950 ..... .. .* *. 8
Fig. 6 Change in number of farms by type of farm, Florida,
1945 to 1954 . . .. . .. ..*. 9
Fig. 7 Change in number of commercial farms by economic
class, Florida, 1950 to 1954 .... . ... 9
Fig. 8 Acres of cropland harvested, Florida, 1939-54 . ... 9
Fig. 9 Approximate percentage of all cropland harvested
according to acres harvested per farm, Florida,
1944 and 1954 ..... . ... .. 10
Fig. 10 Number of farms reporting according to acres of crop-
land harvested per farm, Florida, 1944 and 1954 ... 10
Fig. 11 Value of land and buildings per farm, Florida, 1940-54 ... 11
Fig. 12 Value of land and buildings per acre, Florida, 1940-54. 11
Fig. 13-24 Set of charts for Northwest Florida ..... .. 15 19
Fig. 25-86 Set of charts for Northeast Florida . . 23 27
Fig. 37-48 Set of charts for Central Florida . . 31 35
Fig. 49-60 Set of charts for South Florida ... . ... 39- 43
Appendix

Tables 1, 2, 3 and 4 ........ . ... .. 44 45










KEY MAP


Districts and Counties


Bay, Calhoun, Escambia, Franklin, Gadsden, Gulf,
Holmes, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty, Okaloosa,
Santa Rosa, Wakulla, Walton, Washington


Alachua, Baker, Bradford,
Duval, Flagler, Gilchrist,
Madison, Marion, Nassau,
Taylor, Union, Volusia


Clay, Columbia, Dixie,
Hamilton, Lafayette, Levy,
Putnam, St. Johns, Suwannee,


Central: Brevard, Citrus, De Soto, Hardee, Hernando, Highlands,
Hillsborough, Indian River, Lake, Manatee, Okeechobee,
Orange, Osceola, Pasco, Pinellas, Polk, St. Lucie,
Sarasota, Seminole, Sumter

South: Broward, Charlotte, Collier, Dade, Glades, Hendry,
Lee, Martin, Monroe, Palm Beach


Northwest:


Northeast:








2

Recent Trends in Number, Size, Type, and Value of Farms in Florida


The total number of farms in Florida, as reported by the Census of

Agriculture, decreased approximately 8 percent from 1940 to 1954 (Fig. 1).

The sharpest decline came from 1945 to 1950; it amounted to more than 4,000

farms. However, changes in the census definition of a farm in 1950 resulted

in a decrease in the reported number of farms, a circumstance which suggests

that the true change in total number of farms was something less than the

indicated decline of 7 to 8 percent. A slight increase in the total number of

farms was recorded from 1950 to 1954. As is shown later, the 1950-54 in-

crease is the net result of decreases in farms in Northwest and Northeast Florida

and increases in Central and South Florida.

Available evidence indicates that the moderate decline in the total

number of farms, recorded from 1940 to 1954, obscures a marked reduction

in the number of forms classified as commercial farms and a sizable and largely

offsetting increase in the number of farms classified as noncommercial farms.

These two types of changes were most notable from 1945 to 1950. Again, it is

to be observed that the census adopted a new system of classification of farms

in 1950. Between that date and 1954, the number of noncommercial farms de-

creased slightly and the number of commercial farms increased enough to produce

a net increase in totalnumbers. During this recent intercensus period, decreases

in the number of commercial farms in northern Florida were more than offset by

increases in central Florida. As is shown later, some sizes and types of farms










have been involved more than others in these trends in farm numbers.

A tremendous increase in the acreage of land in farms was recorded from

1940 to 1954; during this period, the area of farmland more than doubled (Fig. 2).

The rapid increase in farmland is believed to represent a limited expansion of

agriculture to additional land, coupled with the fact that large acreages of

unfenced rangeland were fenced during this period and reported by farmers as

farmland for the first time. Increases were greatest from 1940 to 1950 and

fencing of open rangelands probably was largely completed in most portions of

the state by 1950. It is likely that an expanding agriculture was largely re-

sponsible for the increase of approximately 10 percent of land in farms from

1950 to 1954, an increase that tended to be concentrated in Central Florida.

With a declining number of farms reported and an increasing acreage of

land in farms, the average size of Florida farms rose from 134 acres in 1940 to

316 acres in 1954 (Fig. 3). This trend continued to 1954 with the average size

of farms increasing 25 acres, or nearly 9 percent, from 1950 to 1954. Behind

this 1950-54 trend for the state were two divergent movements, one that in-

volved increases in average size of farms in northern Florida and another that

involved decreases in Central and South Florida.

The decline in number of farms from 1940 to 1954 tended to occur in

the small to medium-sized farms--size classes 3 to 139 inclusive (Fig. 4). This

decline was large enough to more than offset substantial increases in number of

farms under 3 acres in size and in farms.containing 140 or more acres. Especially









4

noteworthy is the gain of nearly 4,000 farms containing 260 or more acres each

and the loss of more than 7,500 farms in the size classes centering around 20

and 40 acres. The decline in the number of small to medium-sized farms was

most noticeable in Northeast Florida and least noticeable in Central Florida.

The census data indicate the trend toward concentration of farmland in

large farms. Farms of 1,000 or more acres contained 9.7 million acres more

farmland in 1950 than in 1935 (Fig. 5). At the same time, farms of less than

100 acres contained 437,000 fewer total acres. The greatest decline in acreage

in small farms was in Northeast Florida and the greatest increase in acreage in

large farms was in Central Florida.

From 1945 to 1954, there was a sharp decline in the number of vegetable

and field-crop farms. Declines also occurred in the number of fruit-and-nut

farms, poultry farms, and general farms. Dairy farms increased slightly in num-

ber, and more than 7,000 farms were added to the miscellaneous and unclassified

group (Fig. 6). Among the interesting district differences are the following:

Fruit-and-nut farms increased only in Central Florida; dairy farms increased

only in Northwest Florida; other livestock farms, largely beef cattle ranches

and hog farms, decreased only in Northeast Florida; vegetable farms decreased

in all districts; general farms increased, especially in northern Florida; and,

miscellaneous and unclassified farms increased, especially in Central Florida.

Farms with products sold valued at less than $2,500 have declined in

number from 1950 to 1954. However, all farms with products sold valued at











more than $2,500 have risen in number, with particular increases in the

number producing products sold valued at $2,500 to $9,999 (Fig. 7). Central

Florida enjoyed the largest increase in number of farms with large gross sales

in dollars,

During the period when the area in farms more than doubled, the

acreage of cropland harvested changed from 1.7 to 1.9 million acres (Fig. 8).

This was the not result of decreases in northern Florida and increases in Central

and South Florida. Concentration of cropland harvested is indicated. Farms

having more than 100 acres of cropland harvested had 32.4 percent of all

cropland harvested in 1944 and 52.2 percent in 1954 (Fig. 9). A larger

percentage of farms reported less than 10 acres of cropland harvested and

also a larger percentage reported more than 100 acres of cropland harvested.

(Fig. 10).

Value of land and buildings per farm rose 450 percent from 1940 to

1954. (Fig. 11). During this period, the general price level trended upward;

more land was reported in farms, increasing the average size of farm in acres;

much land was improved by clearing, ditching, and diking; and other capital

outlays were made for buildings, fences, wells, pumps, planted fruit and nut

trees, and other improvements. The change per acre in value of land and

buildings was more modest, amounting to an increase of 133 percent (Fig. 12).









6

There was virtually no change in per acre values from 1940 to 1945,but it must

be remembered that this was a period when the acreage of land in farms in-

creased tremendously, largely by the addition of recently fenced native

rangelands having relatively low market values. From 1950 to 1954, value

per acre increased 58 percent.








Commercial farms Other farms
____-C~.~ ~ ) 13~Cl~


(32, 122) : (25,481)
(30, 145) (26, 776) (1


I 'I


57, 603)
i6,921)
1(61,159)
S(62,248)


Thousands of farms



Fig. 1--Number of farms, Florida, 1940-54.


S18.2
S16.5
i 13.1
S8.3


Millions of acres



Fig. 2--Land in farms, Florida, 1940-54.


S315.7
I290.4
| 213.9
I 133.9


100


k


200


300


Acres


Fig. 3--Average size of farm in acres, Florida, 1940-54.


1954
1950
1945
1940
0


1954
1950
1945
1940


1954
1950
1945
1940


400


I


1


j






Size of farm,
in acres
1,000 up
500 999
260 499


220 259
180 -219
140 179
100 139
70 99
50- 69
30-49
10-29
3-9
Under 3


(+1,420)
-1,087)
(+1,409)


(+348)
S(+372)
(+34)


(-1,562)


(-4,499)


-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2


Thousands of forms


Fig. 4--Change in number of farms by size of farm, Florida, 1940 to 1954.


Size of farm,
in acres
1,000 up
500 999
260 499
220 259
180- 219
140 -179
100- 139
70- 99
50- 69
30 49
10- 29
Under 10


1(+628,33
1 (+415,298)
S(+86,813)
S(+73,631)
(+9,835)
(+39,551)


(-71,248)
(-22,491)1
(-194 713)L__
(-122,376) _
,(-24.610) 1


-500


+500


+1,


)J(+9,663,101)
9)













000 +10,000


Thousands of acres


Fig. 5--Change in land in farms by size of farm, Florida, 1935 to 1950.







Type of farm
Fruit-and-nut (-851)
Vegetable (-3,437)
Other field crop (-3,261)
Dairy
Poultry (-732)
Other livestock (-1
General (-951)
Miscellaneous, unclassified


(+68)


-4 -2 0 +
Thousc


S I j X+7, 415)
2 +4 +6 +8


nds


of farms


Fig. 6--Change in number of farms by type of farm, Florida, 1945 to 1954.


Economic class
(value of products
sold, per farm)
$25, 000 up
$10, 000 24,999
$5,000 9,999
$2,500 4,999
$1,200- 2,499
$250 1,199


(-862) ;
(-3,19Q) ,
-4 -2

T


- (+774)
__+1, 422)
(+ (1,952)
(+1,881)

I i


3 +2 +4

thousands of farms


+6 +8


Fig. 7--Change in number of commercial farms by economic class, Florida, 1950 to 1954.


I 1,9
1,728
S1,809
S, I 1,600


37


0 400 800 1,200 1,600 2,000
Thousands of acres


Fig. 8--Acres of cropland harvested, Florida, 1939-54.


1954
1949
1944
1939


I







----Size class----
(acres of cropland
harvested per farm)

200 up
.100-199
50 99
30 -49
20 29
10-19
1-9


15.6
I 16.8
1 25.9
S19.0
S9.5
J 8.1
541 i


S30.6
21.6
120.4
1 10.8
__ .5.9
6.2
14.0 j


0 10 20
Percent
1944


30 40


0 10 20
Percent
1954


30 40


Fig. 9--Approximate percentage of all cropland harvested according to acres
harvested per farm, Florida, 1944 and 1954.*


----Size class----
(acres of cropland
harvested per farm)
200up- l 1.8
100- 199 3.8
50-99 i 11.8
30-49 | 16.3
20-29 13.0
10-19 i 18.6
1 -9 3J 7
0 10 20 30 40
Percent
1944


_ 3.2

11.8
11.7
1- 0.22
j 17.8
t *:


10 20
Percent
1954


: I39.1
30 40


Fig. 10--Number of farms reporting according to acres of cropland harvested
per farm, Florida, 1944 and 1954.



*Based on the median acreages for closed class intervals and the residual
acreage for farms having 200 or more acres of cropland harvested.


A














1(28,584)


I (15,460)


I (8,149)
SI 5.211


SI $ I I


0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32
Thousands of dollars


Fig. 11--Value of land and buildings per farm, Florida, 1940-54.


I 90.54


I 57.23
38.09
I I 38.9q


I I I I


0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
Dollars


Fig. 12--Value of land and buildings per acre, Florida, 1940-54.


1954
1950
1945
1940


1954
1950
1945
1940


\-I-










Northwest Florida


The total number of farms in Northwest Florida gradually increased

from 1940 to 1950. A reversal in trend occurred from 1950 to 1954, when

the number of farms decreased by more than 15 percent. Both commercial

and noncommercial farms declined in number with the greatest decline occur-

ring in the latter classification (Fig. 13).

Land in farms increased continuously from 1.5 million in 1940 to 2.3

million in 1954. The increase from 1950 to 1954 was modest, amounting to

only about 4 percent (Fig. 14).

With a decline in total number of farms and an increase in land in

farms, the average size of farms in Northwest Florida increased approximately

one and a half times from 1940 to 1954 (Fig. 15). On the average, farms

in Northwest Florida are substantially smaller than in any other part of the

state. Although the average size of farms has increased rapidly in each census

period since 1940, in Northwest Florida growth has been less rapid than that

of the average size of farms in other districts in Florida.

From 1940 to 1954, farms in the size classes 10 through 99 acres de-

creased in number. The sharpest decline was a reduction of more than 2,000

in the number of 30 to 49 acre farms. Small farms (under 10 acres) and '

medium-sized to large farms (100-1,000 or more acres) (Fig. 16) increased

in number.

From 1935 to 1950, farms of less than 100 acres generally accounted








13

for fewer total acres of farmland, whereas larger farms increased their

holdings (Fig, 17). The very large farms (1,000 acres and waer) contained

442,000 acres more in 1950 than in 1935.

In Northwest Florida there were over 2,400 fewer field-crop farms in

1954 than in 1945 (Fig. 18). Examination of data for the various counties

of Northwest Florida indicates that about half of this decline occurred in

Jackson County alone from 1945 to 1950. It will be recalled that the number

of farms 30 to 49 acres in size declined drastically during this period. Farms

classified as dairy, livestock, general, and miscellaneous and unclassified

showed increases between the two census years 1945 and 1954.

The number of farms producing products valued at $250 to $1,199 de-

creased by 1,200 from 1950 to 1954. On the other hand, there were an added

500 farms with value of products of $2,500 through $9,999 in 1954. In all of

Northwest Florida there were 49 more farms that produced products valued

in excess of $10,000 in 1954 compared with 1950 (Fig. 19).

The acreage of cropland harvested in Northweit Florida reached a

peak--almost 600,000 acres--in 1944. It declined rapidly from 1944 to 1949

and had fallen to 480,000 acres in 1954 (Fig. 20).

Concentration of operation of cropland harvested is clearly shown from

1944 to 1954. For example, in 1944, farms having 200 acres or more of

cropland harvested contained 5.3 percent of all cropland harvested, whereas

by 1954 this group contained 18.3 percent of all cropland harvested

(Fig. 21).









14

Relatively more farms had small acreages of cropland harvested per

farm (less than 20 acres) in 1954 than in 1944; relatively more farms had

100 acres or more of cropland harvested; and relatively fewer farms had

from 20 to 99 acres inclusive (Fig. 22).

The average per farm value of land and buildings was about $1,900

in 1940; by 1954 the per farm value was 4 1/2 times the 1940 value. The

largest percentage increase came from 1945 to 1950 (Fig. 23).

The average value of land and buildings per acre increased 167

percent from 1940 to 1954. Although the largest dollar increase occurred

from 1950 to 1954, the largest percentage increase came between 1945 and

1950 (Fig. 24).








Commercial farms Other farms
1-


(6,226)


(7.031)


I
0 2 4


(8,174) (14,400)
( (10,009) (17,040)
(17,003)
j I ,J (16,345)
6 8 10 12 14 16 18


Thousands of farms


Fig. 13--Number of farms, Northwest Florida, 1940-54.


S1.8
J 1.5
1 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0


Millions of acres


Fig. 14--Land in farms, Northwest Florida, 1940-54.


156.5


1 127.8
S108.3


S0 8 i i
20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180


Acres


Fig. 15--Average size of farm in acres, Northwest Florida, 1940-54.


1954
1950
1945
1940


1954
1950
1945
1940


S2.3
.2


12


1954
1950
1945
1940
0


i


12


I 91 _X







Size of farm,
in acres
1,000 up
500 999


260 499
220 259
180 219
140- 179
100- 139
70- 99
50- 69
30 49
10-29
3-9
Under 3


(-439)I
(-496)


(-2,231)1


(-437)


I a_ i I


16

-- (+178)
i+177)
-_ (+349)
J.(+146)
_J (+200)
J (+152)
S(+22)





S(+460)
1(+177)


-20 -16 -12 -8 -4


0 +4


Hundreds of farms


Fig. 16--Change in number of farms by size of farm, Northwest Florida, 1940 to 1954.


Size of farm,
in acres
1,000 up
500 999
260 499
220 259
180 219
140 179
100- 139
70- 99
50- 69
30- 49 (-7,
10- 29 (-
Under 10


1(+442,680)


(+92,949)
i(+99, 317)
i (+23,853)
(+21,322)
J (+29,101)
S(+30,315)


(-5, 234) [

4,249)
24,967) i


(+129)


(+1,294)


-100 0 +100 +200 +300 +400 +500
Thousands of acres


Fig. 17--Change in land in farms by size of farm, Northwest Florida, 1935 to 1950.


I


' t' II


I i i i







Type of farm
Fruit-and-nut
Vegetable
Other field crop(-2,459-
Dairy
Poultry
Other livestock
General
Miscellaneous, unclassified
-25


(-200)
(-237)


(-50)


-20 -15 -10 -5
Hundreds of farms


j (+121)

+91
(+479)
I(+137)
+5


Fig. 18--Change in number of farms by type of farm, Northwest Florida,
1945 to 1954.
Economic class
(value of products
sold, per farm)
$25,000 up (+23)
$10,000- 24,999 (+26)
$5,000- 9,999 I(+271)
$2,500- 4,999 (+249)
$1,200- 2,499 (-137)
$250- 1, 199 (-1, 237) j
-12 -6 -4 -2 0 +2 +4
Hundreds of farms

Fig. 19--Change in number of commercial farms by economic class, Northwest
Florida, 1950 to 1954.


1954
1949
1944
1939
(


1481.4
S501.


I i I I 1 5


)


100 200 300 400 500
Thousands of acres


0
I 592.4
41.0
500


Fig. 20--Acres of cropland harvested, Northwest Florida, 1939-54.


<







--Size- class----
(acres of cropland
harvested per farm)
200 up 75.3
100-199 14.4
50- 99 34.2
30-49 26.3
20-29 10.7
10- 19 _I 6.3
1 -9 12.81 I i j


0 10 20
Percent
1944


30 40


118.3
1j23.6
S27.8
S14.4
S_6.9
15.8
S3.2 1 j
0 10 20 30 40
Percent
1954


Fig. 21--Approximate percentage of all cropland harvested according to acres
harvested per farm, N6rthwest Florida, 1944 and 1954.*


----Size class----
(acres of cropland
harvested per farm)
200 up 1.2
100-199 3.6
50- 99 17.1
30- 49 1 24.9
20-29 16.1
10-19 15.9
1 -9 ,| 21.2,


0 10 20
Percent
1944


L2.2
17.0
I 16.6
16.0
S12.4
17.4
I 1 I 8.4


30 40


0 10 20
Percent
1954


30 40


Fig. 22--Number of farms reporting according to acres of cropland harvested
per farm, Northwest Florida, 1944 and 1954.



*Based on the median acreages for closed class intervals and the residual
acreage for farms having 200 or more acres of cropland harvested.













I (8,822)
' (5,184)


1 (2,905)
I (1,938)
0 2 4


6 8 10 12


Thousands of dollars



Fig. 23--Value of land and buildings per farm, Northwest Florida, 1940-54.


1954
1950
1945
1940


J56.36


S40.56
1 26.86
!, S21.18 L
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Dollars


Fig. 24--Value of land and buildings per acre, Northwest Florida, 1940-54.


1954
1950
1945
1940











NIbrtheast Florida


Northeast Florida is the only district in the state in which the total

number of farms reported by the Census of Agriculture declined in aMrch census

period from 1940 to 1954 (Fig. 25).

The acreage of land in farms in Northeast Florida in 1954 was a little

less than double that of 1940 (Fig. 26). Whereas the number of farms decreased

most between 1945 and 1950, the acres of land in farms increased most in the

same period.

With the number of farms decreasing and land in farms increasing,

the average farm in Northeast Florida more than doubled its acreage from

1940 to 1954 (Fig. 27). In comparison with other districts in the state, this

percentage increase in average size was exceeded only in South Florida.

The number of farms in size classes 3 through 219 acres decreased from

1940 to 1954. Increased numbers of farms were in the size class having less

than 3 acres and in farms of 220 acres or more (Fig. 28). The tendency for the

number of small farms to increase was less pronounced in Northeast Florida

than in other districts. Also, the decline in number of farms between 100 and

500 acres in size was more pronounced than in other districts.

All farms of less than 180 acres contained less total land, and all farms

having 180 acres or more gained in total land in farms from 1935 to 1950

(Fig. 29). According to the Census of Agriculture, farms of 1,000 acres and

over gained almost 2 million acres in*lhesa years. In this category, great








21

increases were recorded in Marion, Levy, Putnam, and Flagler Counties.

Northeast Florida is the only district in which the number of farms

in each type-of-farming class decreased from 1945 to 1954. The largest

declines occurred in numbers of general farms and fruit-and-nut farms, with

the smallest decline in dairy farms (Fig. 30).

Farms with products sold valued at $2,500 or more increased in

number from 1950 to 1954; farms selling products valued at less than $2,500

were fewer in number (Fig. 31).

The number of acres of cropland harvested in Northeast Florida has

fluctuated from one census year to another from 1939 to 1954 (Fig. 32).

Although the acreage in 1954 exceeded that of 1949, it was below the report-

ed acreage harvested both in 1939 and 1944. This pattern of change is some-

what similar to that in Northwest Florida. It differs from the rising trend

in cropland harvested in Central and South Florida.

From 1944 to 1954, substantial concentration of cropland on larger

farms occurred in Northeast Florida (Fig. 33). In 1944, all farms reporting

100 or more acres of cropland harvested contained approximately 31 per-

cent of all cropland harvested; by 1954 such farms contained approximately

52 percent of all cropland harvested. The increase was particularly great

in farms that contained 200 or more acres of cropland harvested.

During these 10 years, a larger proportion of the farms reporting

had less than 10 acres of cropland harvested and a larger percentage had










50 acres or more of cropland harvested (Fig. 34).

The average value of land and buildings per farm in Northeast Florida

increased steadily from 1940 to 1954, reaching $17,000 in 1954 (Fig. 35).

This substantially exceeds the value in Northwest Florida but in turn it is

exceeded by values in Central and South Florida.

From 1940 to 1945, the reported average value of land and buildings

per acre was practically unchanged at about $24. As indicated, this may

have been due to the addition of much rangeland to the acreage reported

in farms. The value rose an additional $11 per acre from 1945 to 1950; 4

years later the per acre value of farmland in Northeast Florida was approxi-

mately $53 (Fig. 36).











1954
1950
1945
1940


Commercial Other
farms farms


(8,736) (5,722) 1 (14,458)
(9,114) (7,124) 1(6,238)
1(18,548)
S1 ,(19,598)
0 4 8 12 16 20 24
Thousands of farms


Fig. 25--Number of farms, Northeast Florida, 1940-54.


I4.7
4.4

i I


1954
1950
1945
1940


I 3.3
S215


0 1 2 3 4
Millions of acres


Fig. 26--Land in farms, Northeast Florida, 1940-54.


I326.2
I 269.3
S177.7
i I 128.7 i ,


100 200 300
Acres


400 500 600


Fig. 27--Average size of farm in acres, Northeast Florida, 1940-54.


5 6


1954
1950
1945
1940


...







Size of farm,
in acres
1,000 up
500 999
260 499
220 259
180 219
140 179
100 139
70- 99
50- 69
30 49 (-1,835)
10-29 (-1
3-9
Under 3


(+363)


(+457)


(+73)


(-330)


(-1,062)


-20 -16 -12



Fig. 28--Change in number of farms
Size of farm,
in acres
1,000 up
500 999
260 499
220 259
180 219
140 179 (-29,820)
100-139 (-9,366)
70- 99 (-57,333) __
50 69 (-19, 908) I
30-49 (-69,105) (1__
10-29 (-33,101) _
Under 10 (-8, 26)
-100 -50 0


-8 -4 0
Hundreds of farms


+4 +8


by size of farm, Northeast Florida, 1940 to 1954.



_ij (+1,982,714)
(+175,586)
(+149,783)
(+36,887)
J (+27,760)









+50 +100 +150 +200 +2,000
Thousands of acres


Fig. 29--Change in land in farms by size of farm, Northeast Florida, 1935 to 1950.







Type of farm
Fruit-and-nut (-73
Vegetable
Other field crop
Dairy
Poultry
Other livestock
General (-822)
Miscellaneous, unclassified
-1,000


6) I


(-564)
(-550)
(-8)
(-331)
(-483) 1


S (-344),
-800 -600 -400 -200
Farms


Fig. 30--Change in number of farms by type of farm, Northeast Florida, 1945 to 1954.


Economic class
(value of products
sold, per farm)
$25,000 up
$10,000 24,999
$5,000 9,999
$2,500- 4,999
$1,200- 2,499 (-791)
$250-1,199 (-1,276)1,
-1,200 -800 -400
Farms


Fig. 31--Change in number of commercial farms by
'1950 to 1954,.


1954
1949
1944
1939


S(+90)
-1 (+199)
S(+792)
S(+608)

i I


3 +400 +800


economic class, Northeast Florida,


15
54

I I i I II


0 100 200 300 400 500
Thousands of acres


74.4
8.9
( 613.3
592.0
)0


6(


Fig. 32--Acres of cropland harvested, Northeast Florida, 1939-54.


0 +200 +400
0 +200 +400







-----ize class----
(acres of cropland
harvested per farm)
200 up 8.5
100-199 22
50- 99
30-49 19.
20-29 19.1
10-19 6.4
1-9 T 3.
0 10 20
Percent
1944


I 22.3
I 30.1
S25.0
1 10.2
-I 5.0
4.3
13.1 1


30 40


0 10 20
Percent
1954


30 40


Fig. 33--Approximate percentage of all cropland harvested according to acres
harvested per farm, Northeast Florida, 1944 and 1954.*


----Size class----
(acres of cropland
harvested per farm)
200 up 2.0
100-199 | 5.7
50-99 15.5
30-49 19.1
20- 29 14.0
10-19 116.3
1 -9 1 27.4


10 20
Percent
1944


30 40


S10.2
S16.9
I12.9
S10.1
114.5
S y !|31.3 ,
0 10 20 30 40
Percent
1954


Fig. 34--Number of farms reporting according to acres of cropland harvested
per farm, Northeast Florida, 1944 and 1954.


*Based on the median acreages for closed class intervals and the residual
acreage for farms having 200 or more acres of cropland harvested.


I


I















1954 j (17,161)
1950 1 (9,626)
1945 1 (4,477)
1940 i (3, 070), J
0 4 8 12 16 20 24
Thousands of dollars

Fig. 35--Value of land and buildings per farm, Northeast Florida, 1940-54.









1954 52.61
1950 I 35.75
1945 25.20
1940 2 23,85
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Dollars

Fig. 36--Value of land and buildings per acre, Northeast Florida, 1940-54.










Central Florida


According to the Censuses of Agriculture, the total number of farms in

Central Florida declined from 1940 to 1950 (Fig. 37). However, from 1950 to

1954, the reported number of farms increased 24 percent in a movement contrary

to the downward trend for the entire state and for the northern districts of the

state. Increases occurred in numbers of both commercial and noncommercial

farms.

Census data concerning the acreage of land in farms by counties and by

districts are affected by what is known as "cross-line acreages." This arises

from,"...the fact that the entire acreage of a farm is tabulated as in the county

in which the headquarters is located, even though a part of the farm may be

situated in an adjoining county" (or adjoining district).- This is a factor in

all parts of the state but it is thought to be especially important in Central and

South Florida because of the large acreages involved in certain individual

farm and ranch establishments.

Data unadjusted for "cross-line acreages" indicate an increase in

acreage of land in farms in both Central and South Florida from 1940 to 1950.

Because the indicated decline in South Florida from 1950 to 1954 may be due to

"cross-line acreages," land in farms in Central and South Florida is shown to-

gether in Figure 38. In combination, the acreage of land in farms increased

in each census period. However, the actual increase in number of acres and

the percentage increase have become smaller in each 5-year period.

1/ Census of Agriculture, 1950, Vol, I, Pt. 18, p. 60.











The average size of farms in Central Florida increased rapidly from

1940 to 1950. Thereafter, from 1950 to 1954, the increase in number of farms

outdistanced the increase in land in farms and the average size of farm declined

(Fig. 39). This development is found only in the central and southern districts.

In Central Fiorida, net changes from 1940 to 1954 in number of farms

according to size of farm included increases in numbers of all sizes of farms

(size classes), except the two classes that center around 20 and 40 acres in

size (Fig. 40). The tendency for the number of farms containing 50 to 260

acres to increase is more pronounced in Central Florida than in other districts

of the state.

Concentration of land among the larger farms--those containing 1,000

acres or more--has been extreme in Central Florida. Comparing 1950 with 1935,

farms in this size class contained an added 4.8 million acres (Fig. 41).

All types of commercial farms, except fruit-and-nut and livestock

farms (other than dairy and poultry), decreased from 1945 to 1954 (Fig. 42).

The number of miscellaneous and unclassified farms increased by more than

6,000.

The number of farms producing products sold valued at $250 to $1,199

decreased from 1950 to 1954 while the number of farms in all other economic

classes increased (Fig. 43). The number of farms with value of products sold

ranging from $2, 500 to $25, 000 increased especially.









30

Cropland harvested in Central Florida gradually increased from 1939 to

1949 and then jumped 33 percent between 1949 and 1954 (Fig. 44).

Concentration of cropland harvested into larger holdings is shown for

1944 to 1954 by the decreased percentage of cropland harvested found in

farms with less than 30 acres of cropland harvested (Fig. 45)., Also, a

smaller percentage of a! farms reported low acreages of cropland harvested

in 1954 as compared with 1944 (Fig. 46).

The average value of land and buildings per farm in Central Florida

rose from about $8,500 in 1940 to more than $40,000 in 1954 (Fig. 47). As

indicated previously, during this period the general price level trended up-

ward; more land was reported in farms, thus increasing the average size of

farm measured in acres; much land was improved by clearing, ditching, and

diking; and buildings, wells, pumps, fences, planted fruit and nut trees, and

other items representing capital outlays were added to the land.

Average per acre value of land and buildings declined from 1940 to

1945, possibly because of the addition of large acreages of native range or

pastureland (Fig. 48). After 1945, per acre values rose in each censusiperiod

and in 1954 they averaged $120 per acre.











1954
1950
1945
1940


Commercial farms Other farms

(14,832) (9,894) (24,726)
(11,705) (8,219) (19,924)
1(21,171)
S5 10 15 (2, 197)5 3
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35


Thousands of farms


Fig. 37--Number of farms, Central Florlda, 1940-54.



Central South


1954
1950
1945
1940


(8,277,390)
(6,9' 7 738 )


(6.155.84A7


(3. 332,84A~;i 4.3,


11.2
! 10.0


1-~J 7.9


I I i I


D 2 4 6 8 10 12 14


Millions of acres


Fig. 38--Land in farms, Central and South Florida, 1940-54.


1954
1950
1945
1940


I290.8
, 150.1


200


300


Acres


Fig. 39--Average size of farm in acres, Central Florida, 1940-54.


334.8
347.2






S ize of farm,
in acres
1,000 up
500 999
260 499
220- 259
180-219
140 179
100 139
70- 99
50- 69
30- 49
10-29 (-;
3-9
Under 3


S(+664)
S(+412)
(+477)
S(+120)
S(+176)
(+181)
] (+312)
(+ 136)
S(+199)


(-372)


152)


-8


I (+187)


-6 -4 -2
-6 -4 -2


i I J (+789)
0 +2 +4 +6 +8


Hundreds of forms


Fig. 40--Change in number of farms by size of farm, Central Florida, 1940 to 1954.


Size of farm,
in acres
1,000 up
500 999
260 499
220- 259
180 219
140- 179
100 139
70- 99
50- 69
30- 49
10-29 (
Under 10


(+4,799,938)

((+283,289)


S(+133,213)
(+21,375)
S(+20,485)
1+10,860)
-.. (+23,286)


(-7,475) [


(+859)


(-45,585)j
-51,839) I
II i ,'\ I


-5


0 0 +50 +100 +150 +200 +250 +4,800
Thousands of acres


Fig. 41--Change in land in farms by size of farm, Central Florida, 1935 to 1950.







Type of farm
Fruit-and-nut
Vegetable (-1, 36
Other field crop
Dairy
Poultry
Other livestock
General
Miscellaneous, unclassified


-1


33
I (+333)
2)1
(-248)
(-35)
(-213) L_
___ 1(+196)
(-569) L _
Si+6, 331)
5 -10 -5 0 +5 +65
Hundreds of farms


Fig. 42--Change in number of farms by type of farm, Central Florida, 1945 to 1954.


Economic class
(Value of products
sold, per farm)
$25,000 up
$10,000 24,999
$5,000- 9,999
$2,500 4,999
$1,200 2,499
$250 1,199


(-517)
-8


(+479)
S(+1, 177)
(+956)
(+957)
(+77)

-4 0 +4 +8 +12
Hundreds of farms


Fig. 43--Change in number of commercial farms by economic
1950 to 1954.


1954
1949
1944
1939
0


class, Central Florida,


1659.8


I i


1497.0
| 436.4
S, 404.4


100 200 300 400 500
Thousands of acres


600 700


Fig. 44--Acres of cropland harvested, Central Florida, 1939-54.




















0 10 20 30
Percent
1944


0 10 20 30
Percent
1954


Fig. 45--Approximate percentage of all cropland harvested according to acres harvested
per farm, Central Florida, 1944 and 1954.*


11.6
_2.3
_L5.2
8.2
S10.5
i 23.5


48


I I I


0 10 20 30
Percent
1944


40


.7

50 0


12.4
S3.6
__17.0
[ 9.4
19.7
(20.6


SI jI


10 20 30
Percent
1954


Fig. 46--Number of farms reporting according to acres of cropland harvested per farm,
Central Florida, 1944 and 1954.



*Based on the median acreages for closed class intervals and the residual acreage for
farms having 200 or more acres of cropland harvested.


Size
class
200 up
100 199
50- 99
30- 49
20- 29
10- 19
1-9


Size
class

200 up
100 199
50 99
30 49
20 -29
10- 19
1 -9


40 50


47.3,


I


>













I (40,418)


1(27,016)
I (13,981)
11(8,559)


0 10 20 30 40
Thousands of dollars


I I


50 60


Fig. 47--Value of land and buildings per farm, Central Florida, 1940-54.


I 120.74
S77.81
S48.08
i i, ,57.00,
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Dollars


Fig. 48--Value of land and buildings per acre, Central Florida, 1940-54,


1954
1950
1945
1940


1954
1950
1945
1940









South Florida 36

Since 1940 the trend in total number of farms in South Florida has been

variable with a net decline of 4 to 5 percent for the 14 years from 1940 to

1954 (Fig. 49). Changes from 1940 to 1950 may have been caused partly by chang

in the census definition of a farm. From 1950 to 1954, the number of commer-

cial farms increased moderately and the number of noncommercial farms in-

creased by nearly 19 percent.

The acreage of land in farms in South Florida increased rapidly

between 1940 and 1945 and again between 1945 and 1950 (Fig. 50). The

decline in land in farms recorded from 1950 to 1954 amounted to 4 percent.

As was stated in the discussion of trends in Central Florida, the recorded area

of land in farms in the Central and South Florida districts appears to be greatly

affected by "cross-line acreages." When data for Central and South Florida

are combined, the acreage of land in farms shows an increase of 12 percent

from 1950 to 1954 (Fig. 38).

The average size of farms in South Florida more than tripled from 1940

to 1950 (Fig. 51). However, from 1950 to 1954 the average size declined

about 11 percent, going from 823 to 731 acres. This recent decline in average

size of farm is a little more extreme than that in Central Florida. Even so,

the average size of farms in South Florida is more than double that in Central

Florida or in Northeast Florida and nearly five times that in Northwest Florida.

From 1940 to 1954, the number of farms containing from 3 to 69 acres

decreased by nearly 850; yet, farms of less than 3 acres and those of 70 to











1,000 acres and over increased by more than 650 in South Florida

(Fig. 52). Much of the latter increase came in the group of farms having

260 or more acres each.

Farms of less than 180 acres had less aggregate acreage in 1950

compared with 1935. Farms of 180 acres and over showed an increase so

far as acreage is concerned, particularly those containing 1,000 acres or

more (Fig. 53).

From 1945 to 1954, the greatest changes in number of farms accord-

ing to type of farm included a decline of nearly 1,300 in number of vegetable

farms and an increase of similar magnitude in the number of farms listed as

miscellaneous and unclassified (Fig. 54).

The 1950-54 trend in number of farms by economic class, in terms

of value of products sold,varied in South Florida more than in other districts

of the state. The number of farms in the lower economic class declined and

the number in the upper economic class increased (Fig. 55). However, change

in the intermediate economic classes were variable. They appear to be incon-

sistent with data from other districts.

The acreage of cropland harvested increased by 64 percent from 1939

to 1954, reaching 221,400 acres in 1954 (Fig. 56). Percentagewise the in-

crease is approximately the same as that taking place in Central Florida

during the same period.

In 1944, farms having 200 acres or more of cropland harvested con-

tained 62.6 percent of all cropland. By 1954, this percentage had increased











to 71.2 percent (Fig. 57).

Comparing 1954 with 1944, the percentage of farms having more

than 30 acres of cropland harvested increased (Fig. 58).

The value of land and buildings per farm increased nearly seven times

over from 1940 to 1954, reaching a level of $67,500 (Fig. 59). Value per

farm nearly doubled between 1950 and 1954, despite a decline in average

size of farm.

The value of farmland and buildings per acre in South Florida re-

mained almost stationary from 1940 to 1950 at about $40. It is probable that

the per acre value of improved lands increased during this period, but that

large acreages of unimproved land of relatively low market value were added

to the farm area. From 1950 to 1954, the value of farmland and buildings

more than doubled, rising from $42 to $92 per acre.







Commercial Other
farms farms


1954
1950
1945
1940


(2,328)
(2, 295)


S(1,691) J (4,019)
(1,4241) (3,719)


(4,437)
S (4,198)


0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Thousands of farms


Fig. 49--Number of farms, South Florida, 1940-54.


1954
1950
1945
1940


I ;

S 1.8
I 1.0 ,


0 .5 1.0 1.5 2.0
Millions of acres


Fig. 50--Land in farms, South Florida, 1940-54.


1954
1950
1945
1940


2.9
3.1


2.5 3.0


S731.2
1 822.5


1404.2
,1 237.9


I I I I


0 200 400 600


800 1,000 1,200


Acres


Fig. 51--Average size of farm in acres, South Florida, 1940-54.







Size of farm,
in acres
1,000 up
500 999
260 499
220 259
180-219
140- 179
100- 139
70- 99
50 69
30 49
10- 29 (-388)
3-9 (-369)
Under 3


S(+215)
(+123)
(+126)


(+9)
(+26)
(+31)
(+30)
(+3)


(-27)


-4 -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2
Hundreds of farms

Fig. 52--Change in number of farms by size of farm, South Florida, 1940 to 1954.


Size of far
in acres
1,000 up
500 999
260 499
220 259
180- 219
140- 179
100- 139
70- 99
50 69
30- 49
10- 29
Under 10


iJ (+2,437,769)
1(+76,515)


S(+32,985)
_ (+4,698)
(+4, 064)


(-306)
(-4,684) i
(-1,206)
(-3,571)1
(-7, 783)
(-12,469)
(-6,436)
-20 0 +20 +40 +60 +80 +2,440
Thousands of acres


Fig. 53--Change in land in farms by size of farm, South Florida, 1935 to 1950.







Type of farm
Fruit-and-nut
Vegetable (-1,274)
Other field crop
Dairy
Poultry
Other livestock
General
Miscellaneous, unclassified,
-16 -12 -8


(-248) r

(-4)
(-10)
(-138)

(-39)


-4 0
Hundreds of farm.


j(+178)


I jI l(+1,291)


+4 +8 +12


Fig. 54--Change in number of farms by type of farm, South Florida, 1945 to 1954.


Economic class
(value of products
sold, per farm)
$25,000 up
$10,000 24,999 (+2C
$5,000 -9,999 (-67) [
$2,500 -4,999
$1,200- 2,499' (-11)
$250- 1,199 (-158)1,
-150 -100 -50 0 +50
Farms


I (+182)


I)

i(+67)


+100 +150 +200


Fig. 55--Change in number of commercial farms by economic class, South Florida,
1950 to 1954.


1954
1949
1944
1939


S221.4
I 181.2
S167.3
S i I l 135.1 ,


0 50 100 150 200
Thousands of acres


250


Fig. 56--Acres of cropland harvested, South Florida, 1939-54.


'-








----Size class---- 42
(acres of cropland
harvested per farm)
200 up 162.6 71.2
100-199 11.6 11.7
50- 99 J 7.3 1 6.6
30-49 4.4 J3.1
20-29 3.3 1.6
10-19 34.8 2.3
1 9 6. 3.5
0 20 40 60 80 0 20 40 60 80
Percent Percent
1944 1954


Fig. 57--Approximate percentage of all cropland harvested according to acres harvested
per farm, South Florida, 1944 and 1954. *


----Size class----
(acres of cropland
harvested per farm)
200 up 1 4.6 __ 9.0
100-199 3.8 6.1
50-99 I 4.8 6.9
30-49 5.5 6.1
20 29 J 6.5 5.2
10-19 1 15.7 12.2
1-9 1,59. 1 4.5 ,
0 20 40 60 80 0 20 40 60 80
Percent Percent
1944 1954


Fig. 58--Number of farms reporting according to acres of cropland harvested per farm,
South Florida, 1944 and 1954.


*Based on the median acreages for closed class intervals and the residual acreage
for farms having 200 or more acres of cropland harvested.













1954
1950
1945
1940


(67,505)


I (34,349)
I(15,776)
S(10,293)


Thousands of dollars


Fig. 59--Value of land and buildings per farm, South Florida, 1940-54.


1954
1950
1945
1940


92.32
I 41.76
39.02
ij 42.89
3 40 80 120
Dollars


Fig. 60--Value of farm and buildings per acre, South Florida, 1940-54.









APPENDIX

Table 1.--Number of Farms by Size of Farm, Florida and
Districts of Florida, 1954

Item Florida Districts
Ncrthwest Northeast Central South
Size class - - -Number of farms ------- -- ----
Under 3 acres 2,140 203 356 1,173 408
3-9 8,313 1,435 1,535 4,452 891
10-29 13,733 2,524 2,202 8,078 9 9
30-49 7,833 2,495 1,674 3,330 334
50-69 3,781 1,190 979 1,451 141
70- 99 4,946 1,840 1,496 1,436 174
100- 139 3,846 1,421 1,200 1,071 154
140- 179 2,930 986 1,157 666 121
180 219 1,768 562 690 425 91
220 259 1,219 349 554 269 47
260 -499 3,182 760 1,389 812 221
500 -999 1,840 360 695 596 189
1,000 up 2,072 275 531 967 299
Total number of
farms reporting 57, 603 14,400 14,458 24, 726 4, 019
Census of Agriculture, Florida, 1954 (Preliminary).
!


Table 2.--Land in Farms by Size of Farm, Florida and
Districts of Florida, 19501/

Districts
Item Florida Districts
Northwest j Northeast Central South
Size class - - Acres of farm land - - - -
Under 10 acres 42,896 .8,955 9,335 20,099 4,507'
10-29 218,895 52,446 47,411 103,237 15,801
30-49 342,574 136,418 86,439 106,983 12,734
50- 69 244,490 97,332 64,592 73,241 9,325
70-99 460,233 199,190 148,247 99,136 13,660
100- 139 467,132 180,611 170,712 102,663 13,146
140-179 476,141 169,043 206,547 85,680 14,871
180-219 329,449 99,765 152,030 63,962 13,692
220- 259" 273,845 72,156 137,615 52,480 11,594
260-499 966,862 252,135 430,170 222,911 61,646
500-999 1,014,000 206,389 364,301 343,596 99,714
1,000 up 11,691,019 703,490 2,555,459 5,643,750 2;788,320
Total land in
farms, acres 16,527,536 2,177,930 4,372,858 6,917,738 3,059,010
I/ Censmuof;Agriculture, 1950; data not yet available for 1954.











APPENDIX (Cont'd.)

Table 3.--Number of Forms by Types of Farms, Florida and Districts
of Florida, 1954

Item Florida Districts
Northwest NortheastI Central South
Types of farms -------------- --Number of farms -----------
Fruit-and-nut 11,163 33 691 10, 054 385
Vegetable 3,085 171 555 1,646 713
Other field crop 7,153 2,705 4,364 20 64
Dairy 946 264 213 339 130
Poultry 1,890 304 484 931 171
Otherlivestock 4,134 1,171 1,402 1,154 407
General 2,200 1,421 625 127 27
Miscellaneous and
unclassified 26,939 8,401 5,913 10,573 2,052
Total number of
farms]/ 57,510 14,470 14,247 24,844 3,949
Census of Agriculture, Florida, 1954 (Preliminary).
1/ These estimates for all farms were made on the basis of reports from a sample of
approximately 20 percent of the farms. These estimates are subject to sampling
errors and hence will not agree exactly with totals obtained by a tabulation of
data for all farms.

Table 4.--Number of Commercial Farms by Economic Class, Florida and
Districts of Florida, 1954

item Florida Districts
Northwest Northeast Central south
Value of products.
sold, perform -----------Number of farms ---------- --
$ 250- 1,199 3,750 1,576 993 1,054 127
$ 1,200 2,499 7,695 2,035 2,367 2,896 397
S2,500 4,999 7,587 1,371 2,332 3,495 389
5 000- 9,999 5,706 744 1,755 2,903 304
$10, 000 24,999 4,188 325 771 2,664 428
$25,000 more 3,196 175 518 1,820 683
Total number of
commercial farmsl/ 32,122 6,226 8,736 14,832 2,328


Lensus ot Agriculture, Florida, IY54 i
1/ See footnote 1, Appendix Table 3.


IAR:d 6/11/56
Expt. Sta., Ag. Econ. 700


[Preliminctry).




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