Title: Statistics on production, shipments and prices of Florida cucumbers
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Agricultural Economics Series
Mimeo Report 56-9


STATISTICS ON PRODUCTION ,

SHIPMENTS AND PRICES OF FLORIDA CUCUMBER-'--=.-.

By
Donald L. Brooke


Legend:
U Value
Production


1925-26
1929-30


1930-31 1935-36
1934-35 1939-40
5 Season Averages


IN
1940-41
1944-45


1945-46
1949-50


1950-
1954-


Value
(1,000 Dollars)

9,000

8,000

7,000

6,000

5,000

4,000

3,000

2,000

1,000

o
51
55


FIG. 1. PRODUCTION AND VALUE OF FLORIDA CUCUMBERS, 5-SEASON AVERAGES,
1920-21 TO 1954-55


Department of Agricultural Economics
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Gainesville, Florida


April 1956


Production
(1,000 Bu.)

3,000-


2,500-


2,000 -


1,500-


1,000-


1920-21
1924-25















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page


SUMMARY. . . . . .

INTRODUCTION . . . .

PRODUCTION OF CUCUMBERS IN FLORIDA . . .

Trend in Acres, Yield, Production and Value .
Relative Trend in the Production of Cucumbers
in Florida and the United States. . .
Trend in Fall, W1inter and Spring Acreage in Florida
Estimated Current Season Production .
Trend in Acreage by District and Season in Florida.

MOVEMENT OF CUCUMBERS . . . .


Shipment of Cucumbers from Florida and Other States .
Imports from Cuba . o a .a
Shipment of Cucumbers by Districts from Florida .

PRICES OF CUCUMBERS. . . .


*@ *9 a

* a @ e .

*0 *eaO

* a


0 0 a 0 a 0


a..
a..


* 0 0


Relationship of Production and Price of Cucumbers . .
Variation in Monthly Prices of Cucumbers, . . .
Seasonal Variation in Cucumber Prices *. . *
Relationship of Seasonal Production to Price of Florida Cucumbers
Relationship of Prices for Florida Cucumbers to the General
Level of All Farm Prices and Prices Received for Commercial
Vegetables in the United States . .

COST OF PRODUCING CUCUMBERS IN FLORIDA. . . . .

COST OF HARVESTING, PACKING AND SELLING CUCUMBERS IN FLORIDA .










SUMMARY


Cucumbers for fresh market are produced primarily in the peninsular sec-

tion of Florida, east of the Suwannee River. The acreage planted to cucumbers

in Florida has doubled and production has tripled in the past 15 seasons,

During the five-season period 1940-41 to 19h4-h4 Florida growers harvested

an annual average of 760,000 bushels of cucumbers from 7,800 acres. During

the period 1950-51 to 1995-55 their annual harvest averaged 3,164,000 bushels

from 16,640 acres. The average yield during the two periods was 97 and 190

bushels per acre, respectively. The average value of the crop increased from

$2,434,000 in the earlier period to an average of $8,942,000 in the latter

five-season period.

United States production of cucumbers for fresh market has increased by

75 percent in the past 20 seasons. In the same period Florida production has
increased by more than four times. Florida is producing about 40 percent of

the total United States crop for fresh market use.

The general trend in seasonal acreage and production in Florida has been

upward since the early 19o40s. Winter acreage, first reported at 400 acres in

194h-45 has increased to 2800 acres planted in 1955-56 of which, it is estimated,
only 1500 acres were harvested. During the five-season period 1950-51 to 1954-

55 fall acreage represented 28 percent, winter 12 percent and spring acreage
60 percent of the State total. Nearly one-half of the fall, two-thirds of the

winter, and one-third of the spring acreage is in District II, District I

contained one-seventh of the fall, one-third of the winter and one-seventh of

the spring acreage during the 1950-51 to 1995-55 period.

Shipments of cucumbers from Florida normally begin in early October and
continue until June. Movement of domestic cucumbers is light during February








2
and early larch. Heaviest Florida shipments are in November, April and May,

Movement from other states, primarily Texas, begins in May and is not partic-

ularly heavy during Florida's season.

Imports from Cuba are increasing and are apparently Florida's principal

competition in the market. Imports run from December through March of most

seasons and are heaviest in February or early 2Jrch.

Prices received for Florida cucumbers are highest in February or March

and lowest during the fall and late spring months, Price is inversely related

to production, being high when production is low and vice versa. This same

relationship is evident in the seasonal price. Prices generally have declined

for cucumbers since their peak during World TWar II. Florida cucumber prices

tend to fluctuate with, but more erratically than, prices received by farmers

in the United States for commercial vegetables and all farm products. The

index of cucumber prices in Florida (1935-39 = 100) has been below United

States index of prices received by farmers for all farm products since 1946.

Costs of growing cucumbers have been increasing generally. Yield is a

most important factor in determining per-unit costs of production, and since

yields have been erratic by areas, so have per-unit costs.

Harvesting costs for the 1954-55 season varied from $0.51 to $1.46 per

bushel in Florida, depending upon how the harvest and sale was handled. For

sales in bulk at auction, costs to the grower include only picking, hauling

and sales charges -- ranging from $0.51 to $0.56 per bushel equivalent. Sales

on a packed-out basis include the cost of packing and container in addition

to picking, hauling and sales charges -- ranging from $1.21 to $1.46 per

bushel,











STATISTICS ON PRODUCTION, SHIPMENTS AND
PRICES OF CUCUMBERS IN FLORIDA

by
Donald L. BrookeI/


INTRODUCTION

This publication was prepared to present selected statistical data relat-

ing to the production and marketing of cucumbers for fresh market in Florida.

These data are needed by commodity groups and others as factual background

information for use in making policy decisions on marketing and other problems

relating to the cucumber industry in the State.


PRODUCTION OF CUCUMBERS IN FLORIDA

Cucumbers for fresh market are produced, for the most part, in the

peninsular section of Florida, east of the Suwannee River. Seasonality,

occasioned by weather differences, further divides the State into producing

areas. The fall and spring crops are grown generally throughout the peninsu-

lar portion of the State. The winter crop is confined to those areas in the

southern portion of the peninsula which are relatively free of killing frosts.

These areas include the Lower East Coast Area of St. Lucie, Indian River, Martin,

Palm Beach, Broward and Dade Counties and the Lower West Coast Area of Charlotte,

Glades, Lee, Collier and Monroe Counties.

Trend in Acres, Yield, Production and Value

Acres The harvested acreage of cucumbers in Florida since 1920 has ranged

from 5,000 acres in the 1933-34 season to 18,700 acres in the 1953-54 season,

1/ Associate Agricultural Economist, Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations,
Gainesville, Florida. Acknowledgments: The author wishes to express his
thanks for valuable assistance to Messrs. J. B. Owens, G. N. Rose and Clyas
L. Crenshaw of the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Orlando,
and to Mr. E. F. Scarborough, Florida State Marketing Bureau, Jacksonville,
Florida.









(Table 1 and Fig. 2). The acreage harvested was relatively high during the

decade of the 1920ts. From 1930-31 to 19hh-S4 harvested acreage was down,

averaging 7,800 acres or less in each of three consecutive five-year periods.

Acreage increased sharply after 1944-45. During the last five-year period,

1950-51 to 195h-5, an average of 16,640 acres was harvested per season,

Yield per acre Cucumber yields have shown a significant increase during

the past ten seasons Pleather is, of course, a most important factor in deter-

mining yield and price. is another. Increased applications of fertilizer,

improved spray and dust materials and better methods of insect and disease

control have also been factors of considerable import. In only two seasons

prior to Viorld T1ar II were average yields as high as 145 bushels per acre4

Since World Jfar II yields have averaged 145 bushels per acre or more in seven

out of ten seasons. The highest season average yield of record was 221 bushels

per acre reported in 1950-51. The average annual yield of the most recent five

year period was 190 bushels per acre. This was more than twice the average

yield of the period 1940-41 to 1944-45,

Production The 3,169,000 bushels sold in the 1952-53 season is the

greatest production of value on record. Total production was greater in 1953-

54 but not all of it was sold. For the five seasons, 19 0-51 to 1954-55, pro-
duction of value averaged 2,929,000 bushels. This was 65 percent greater than

the previous five-season average and from two to more than four times greater

than the production of any five-year period prior to 1946-0,.

Value Increased acreage, a greater yield, and the fifth highest season
average price on record combined to give the highest crop value of $10,529,000

to cucumbers in the 1951-52 season. Crop value during the past three seasons


2/ When prices are high growers tend to take better care of the plants in
order to harvest over a longer period of time, thereby increasing total
yield.








Table 1. -


All Cucumbers Acreage, Yield, Production and Value in Florida,
1920-21 to 1954-55 and Five-Season Averages, 1920-21 to 1954-55


: Acres : Yield : Production : Average : Total
Season :harvested: per acre: Total : Of value: price : value


1920-21
1921-22
1922-23
1923-24
1924-25
1925-26
1926-27
1927-28
1928-29
1929-30

1930-31
1931-32
1932-33
1933-34
1934-35
1935-36
1936-37
1937-38
1938-39
1939-4o

1940-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-44
1944-45
1945-46
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49
1949-50

19o0-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55


Five-season averages
1920-21 1924-25
1925-26 1929-30
1930-31 1934-35
1935-36 1939-40
1940-41 1944-45
1945-46 1949-50
1950-51 1954-55


(Bushels) (Thousand bushels)


6,500
10,380
10,760
12,370
10,830
7,590
7,720
9,420
11,400
12,100

9,650
7,300
5,600
5,000
5,100
5,700
5,600
7,000
7,600
8,200

8,800
9,700
6,500
6,300
7,700
11,200
14,750
14,600o
12,850
14,300

li,300
15,600
18,500
18,700
16,100


10,168
9,646
6,530
6,820
7,800
13,540
16,640


120
120
93
81
116
146
135
80
103
54

100
53
64
95
93
82
65
121
115
145

121
94
80
73
110
136
94
133
149
160

221
180
171
182
205


104
98
81
110
97
134
190


780
1,246
1,001
1,002
1,257
1,108
1,0o42
754
1,169
649

961
390
361
474
473
468
364
850
876
1,186

1,064
912
$20
459
844
1,520
1,380
1,942
1,917
2,283

3,157
2,806
3,169
3,395
3,294

1,057
9194
532
7149
760
1,808
3,164


780
1,246
1,001
1,002
1,257
1,108
1,042
754
1,169
649

961
390
361
474
473
468
364
850
876
1,186

1,064
912
520
459
844
1,444
1,380
1,891
1,876
2,247

2,647
2,806
3,169
2,935
3,089


1,057
944
532
749
760
1,768
2,929


(Dollars
per bushel)
2.50
1.95
3.10
2.13
2.42
3.19
1.90
2.)3
2.57
2.48

1.35
1.68
1.75
1.78
1.62
1.98
3.02
1.24
1.59
1.63

1.75
2.24
4.98
4.53
4.27
3.72
3.75
3.24
3.11
2.89

2.64
3.75
3.15
2.72
2.99


2.40
2.53
1.58
1.71
3.20
3.28
3.05


Source: U.S.D.A., A.M.S. Commercial Truck Crops 1918-41,
1939-50 and Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting
Vegetable Crops, 1955.


Commercial Vegetables,
Service, Florida


(Thousand
dollars)
1,950
2,430
3,103
2,137
3,038
3, 538
1,980
1,834
3,007
1,607

1,293
655
633
845
765
928
1,101
1,052
1,391
1,938

1,859
2,042
2,592
2,079
3,600
5,374
5,170
6,131
5,836
6,485

6,998
10,529
9,967
7,975
9,239


2,532
2,393
838
1,282
2,434
5,799
8,942
















- -


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so
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7
has been only slightly below the peak. The average annual value of the five-

season average, 1950-$1 to 1954-55, was nearly nine million dollars, 50 percent

above the annual average value of the 1946-50 period and ten times that of the

period 1931-35. (Fig. 1).

Relative Trend in the Production of Cucumbers
in Florida and the United States
From 1935 to 1955 there has been an increase of 75 percent in the total

production of cucumbers for fresh market in the United States, (Fig. 3). This

is a relatively small increase when compared with that of Florida for the same

period. Florida's production increased quite rapidly after 1945. In four of
the past five seasons Florida's production has been four times the average of

the 1935-39 period. Florida is presently producing about O0 percent of the

total United States crop for fresh market consumption. During the 1935-39

period Florida's production averaged only 13 percent of the United States total,

Trend in Fall, YJinter and Spring Acreage in Florida

Fall The general trend in acreage of fall cucumbers has been upward over

the past 15 seasons. (Table 2 and Fig. 4). The 5,000 acres harvested in the

1952-53 and 1954-55 seasons ere more than two and one-half time the acreage
of 1940-l41 By five-season periods the average of 4,160 acres per season for

1951-55 is more than double the average acreage of the 1941-45 period. The

greatest increase in fall acreage harvested occurred during the period 1944-45

to 1946-47. Acreage harvested in 1946-47 was nearly four times that harvested
two seasons earlier. The high prices of the 1943-44 and 1944-45 seasons were
largely responsible for this increase.

Winter Acreage of winter cucumbers was not large enough to be reported

as a definite seasonal movement until the 1944-45 season when O00 acres were

so noted. Since that time the winter plantings have increased more than six-

fold. Some 2,500 acres of winter cucumbers were harvested for fresh market in

















Index


r *


I'
I
/
VI


I


I
I


/'s /
/ ""
/1
I


/ \ ^
I



,' n /S

---\ --United States


200.


I I I 19
1950 19


Fig. 3. Cucumbers Relative Trend in Production, United
States and Florida, 1935 to 1955 (1935-39 = 100)


500






0oo






300


Florida---,
I


0
1935


19h0


, I J I


1945
Years


100










Table 2. -


Cucumbers Acreage, Yield, Production and Value by Seasons
in Florida, 1940-41 to 1954-55 and Five-Season Averages.


: Acres : Yield : Production : Average
Season :harvested: per acre: Total : Of Value: price
(Bushels) (Thousand bushels) (Dollars


1940-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-44
1944-45

1945-46
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49
1949-50

1950-51
1951-5.2
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55


Five-season averages
1940-41 1944-45
1945-46 1949-50
1950-51 1954-55


1944-45


1945-46
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49
1949-50

1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55


Five-season averages
1945-46 1949-50
1950-51 1954-55


1,800
2,000
2,000
1,800
1,200

2,700
4,700
4,200
, 000
3,700

3,100
3,300
5,000
4,400
5,000

1,760
3,860
4,160


o00

800
350
1,500
1,300
2,600

500
1,600
2,300
2,200
2,500


1,310
1,820


105
90
80
105
70
125
95
120
180
210

210
200
180
210
235

91
144
207


70

130
100
100
195
210

100
155
120
145
135

166
135.


Fall
189
180
160
189
84

338
446
504
720
777

651
660
900
924
1,175

160
557
862
Winter
28

lo0
35
150
254
546

o0
2,48
276
319
338


218
246


per bushel)


189
180
160
189
84

332
446
475
679
777

651
660
900
860
1,075

160
542
829


28

lo4
35
128
254
546

50
248
276
319
338


213
246


1.50
2.60
3.60
5.00
6.35

3.75
4.10
3.50
1.90
2.00

3.00
4.35
2.75
2.50
2.50

3.51
2.80
2.93


6.30

6.75
9.50
3.50
4.50
3.25

8.50
6.15
4.35
5.80
4.40

4.13
5.28


: Total
Value


(Thousand
dollars)

284
468
576
945
533
1,245
1,829
1,662
1,290
1,554

1,953
2,871
2,475
2,150
2,688

561
1,516
2,427


176

702
332
448
1,143
1,774

425
1,525
1,201
1,850
1,487


880
1,298









Table 2. -


Cucumbers Acreage, Yield, Production and Value by Seasons in
Florida, 1940-41 to 1954-55 and Five-Season Averages (Concluded).


: Acres : Yield : Production : Average : Total
Season :harvested: per acre: Total : Of value: price : value
(Bushels) (Thousand bushels) (Dollars (Thousand


1940-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-44
1944-45

1945-46
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49
1949-50

1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55


7,000
7,700
4,500
4,500
6,100

7,700
8,700
7,600
6,600
7,100

10,000
8,600
9,300
10,300
7,000


Five-season averages
1940-41 1944-45
1945-46 1949-50
1950-51 1954-55


1946-47
1947-48
1948-49
1949-50

1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
Five-season average
1950-51 1954-55


5,960
7,540
9,040


1,000
1,300
950
900

700
2,100
1,900
1,800
1,600

1,620


125
95
80
60
120

140
90
165
135
125

240
195
200
195
235

100
130
212


Spring
875
732
360
270
732

1,078
783
1,254
891
888

2,400
1,677
1,860
2,008
1,645

594
979
1,918


Processing
116 116
26 34
55 52
80 72


80
105
70
80
85


56
221
133
144
136

130


per bushel) dollars)


875
732
360
270
732

1,008
783
1,254
891
852

1,890
1,677
1,860
1,612
1,540

594
958
1,716


116
34
52
72

56
221
133
144
136


1.80
2.15
5.60
4.20
3.95

3.40
3.65
3.15
3.75
3.60

2.40
3.40
3.25
2.35
3.20


3.09
3.47
2.91


1.30
2.10
1.20
1.25

1.50
1.95
1.85
1.30
1.00


1.57


1,575
1,574
2,016
1,134
2,891

3,427
2,858
3,950
3,341
3,067

4,536
5,702
6,045
3,788
4,928

1,838
3,329
5,000


151
71
62
90

84
431
246
187
136


217


Source: U.S.D.A., A.M.S. Commercial Truck Crops 1918-41,
1939-50 and Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting
Vegetable Crops, 1955.


Commercial Vegetables,
Service, Florida


















Acres


10,000 \ /
/ \ / \
9,000 /
Spr /



7,000


6,000 /
\ /
/


Fall
U,000 //
4,000 -
3,000 -

2,000 W inter, /\\

1,000
S'" ;,'Processing ,'

1940-41 1944-45 1949-50 1954-.
Seasons
Fig Cucumbers Trend in Acreage Harvested Fall, Winter and
Spring Fresh Market and Spring for Processing, Florida,
Seasons 1940-41 to 1954-55.








12
the 1954-55 season. The average of the five-season period 1950-51 to 1954-55
was 1,820 acres annually as compared with 1,310 acres annually in the previous

five seasons.

Spring The trend in acreage harvested during the spring period has been

upward since 1942-43. Some 10,300 acres of spring cucumbers were harvested in

1953-54 as compared with 4,500 acres in 1942-43. The average of 9,000 acres
harvested per season for the period 1950-51 to 1954-55 is 52 percent greater

than the 5,960 acre average of the 1940-41 to 1944-45 period.

Estimated Current Season Production

Preliminary estimates of Florida cucumber acreage, yield and production
for the 1955-56 season are shown in Table 3. Some 5,600 acres of fall cucum-

bers produced an estimated total of 1,344,000 bushels of which 1,244,000 bushelE

were sold. This was an increase of 600 acres and 169,000 bushels of cucumbers

of value over the 1954-55 season.
Table 3. Cucumbers Estimated Acreage, Yield and Production
for Fresh Market in Florida, Season 1955-56

C : Acreage : : Production
Crop : Planted : Harvested : Yield : Totai : Of Value
bushels Thousand bushels
Fall 5,600 5,600 20 1,3L4 1,2L4
Winter 2,800 1,500 110 165 165
Springl/ 8,100 7,800 175 1,365 1,365
Total 16,500 14,900 2,874 2,774


1/ Fresh only. Pickle crop estimated at 1,200 acres additional.
Source: U.S.D.A., A.MI.S., Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting
Service, Preliminary Data, April, 1956.
Planted acreage during the winter is indicated at 2800 acres of which only

1500 were harvested. The winter crop was severely damaged by cold weather.

Production of value was only 165,000 bushels as compared with 338,000 bushels

in the 1954-55 season.








13
Spring production of 1,365,000 bushels from 7,800 acres is indicated for

the 1955-56 season. This is 175,000 bushels less than the marketed production

of 1954-55. WVeather, both cold and dry, has cut 1955-56 yields materially.

Total production for fresh market is estimated at 2,874,000 bushels for

the 1955-56 season, as compared with 3,158,000 bushels in 1995-55 and 3,026,000
bushels annually for the five-season period 1950-51 to 1954-55. Acreage har-

vested in 1955-56 is 400 acres greater than in the previous season and 120

acres smaller than the annual harvested acreage for fresh market consumption

during the 1950-51 to 1954-55 period.


Trend in Acreage by District and Season in Florida
For the purposes of this report and the convenience of the intended user

the State has been divided into four production districts according to the

terms of the proposed cucumber marketing agreement. These districts are shown

in Fig. 5.

The trend in acreage by districts and seasons for the past 11 seasons is

shown in Table 4 and Fig. 6, Acreage has increased from 10,170 acres in the

1945-46 season to l6,355 acres harvested in the 1952-53 seasons It is estimated
that 14,510 acres will be harvested in the 1955-56 season for fresh market use

in the four districts.

The acreage harvested during the fall has been more erratic by districts

than for the State as a whole. Acreage in Districts I and IV has decreased

slightly during the period. Acreage in District III has been fairly stable

while that in District II has been increasing rather rapidly.

In terms of relative importance during the two most recent five-season

periods, fall acreage in District I decreased from 25 percent to 14 percent of

the State total. Acreage in District III decreased from 4h to 30 percent and

that in District IV decreased from lh to 10 percent. Acreage harvested in















177 13
55 I46 32 -
5! :5. 6 ,<".. .- ., / : 1
66 67 --- 20 2 -- h
-Z 7 33 6 16

261 '12 .
39 65 62


1i 1
18
ALPHABETICAL LIST OF COUMTTIE3 IN FLORIDA 38
IIU :BERED TO AGREE '.iTH KEY iMP '2 :

1. Alachua 35. Lake 9
2. Baker 36. Lee -..60
3. Bay 37. Leon 27 3 4: g
4. Bradford 38. Levy 1 ...
5. Brevard 39. Liberty 14 4 5
6. Broward 40. Madison 29
7. Calhoun 41. Manatee 23
8. Charlotte 42. Marion 3
9. Citrus 43. Martin III 'i 25 7 '7
10. Clay b~. Monroe -
11. Collier 45. Nassau .. 28 '
12. Columbia 46. Okaloosa 1
13. Dade 47. Okeechobee 8
1 DeSoton Orane : 8


Dixie
Duval
Escambia
F agler
Franklin
Gadsden
Gilchrist
Glades
Gulf
Hamilton
Hardee
Hendry
Hernando
Highlands
Hillsborough
Holmes
Indian River
Jackson
Jefferson
Lafayette


49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
614.
65.
66.
67.


Osceola
Palm Beach
Pasco
Pinellas
Polk
Putnam
Santa Rosa
Sarasota
Seminole
St. Johns
St. Lucie
Sumter
Suwannee
Taylor
Union
Volusia
'lrakulla
1alton
,Washington


36 ;
II i


Fig. 5.- Division of Peninsular
Florida into Cucumber
Producing Areas.
(Proposed Marketing
Agreement Districts)


15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
3L.












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Fall


4 e.4-v..4 ,. T"t


Percel
100






75






50


25 N2



0 '


*' ": "' ', ." \-'s s." .. "
'" : t "i :* .. ,.'* .*'


S: :.. '1" District I


* -~--'--- A-:\~.~ .~" \\--d
. *;.*.
.. '~,.
*\ .. %*I. .
It '( N A.
~'. S .,~,*.* .i-..


.Winter





75 :' : '"' ...

... :: .. : ..' '. .- < A,:', : -. : ... ",:,: ,. District II
'. ', ." ,





.? ". '. : ..,. :,. . : .
25 ':.:. ,. :.. District I .' .,.










0 6 4
0 ... .. ` .. +.' : / ,, ,: .. +,+ + o ; p
"J | _" i .;- .. "t +. + : "


""
'NCZ\
"N' \\











i.~


Years
Fig. 6. Cucumbers Percent of Acreage Harvested by Season and Production
District in Florida, 1945-h6 to 1955-56.


nt

ooo


-'-N.






District III9.J .

'NN
A.::: ::: ... N\>$: \\\: \\.: :i \\QxN'..\ \ %\\\\'>
N K $ \ N N \ "- '





N..
NV N:.
:: : :: 'n, 4. 4








:: ~:::::--Z x


1 nn


C


Winter





17
Percent p 17
100 Spring




75 District IV



50. .. ... /... \.. ....\




SD'istrict III \
25:: -. ::.:- :, ;;:::' District II: ,.. : D:t.ri:
,"" --::' - ". "-"' ,:I 4 "
25", -',.\



: -;": .:-: r. c:-- I I strict I.


100 Total Fresh Market
.... ... ...........



:District: I:
.. .... District "-7 '",






















Fig. 6. Cucumbers Percent of Acreage Harvested by Season and Production
District in Florida, 19'5-46 to 195-5 (concluded).
.t !.District I : ". ,,'- ""





"" '" :', ." : i". .. ., ., .. .. :,.,, :: ,4,],~ :. .. .r .: .,,.... ,,, \....[ ,,:. ,
0 .... "" ...... .- t ... : .;: .. / t i : : : : ; : : ; I '





18
District II increased from 17 percent of the total fall acreage in the 1945-46

to 1949-50 period to 46 percent in the 1950-51 to 1954-55 period. An increase

is again indicated in fall acreage in District II during the 1955-56 season.

(Table $)/

Winter acreage is confined primarily to that portion of the State which

is relatively free of frost namely, Districts I and II. During the current

season acreage is quite evenly divided between these districts. During the

past 11 seasons, however, the acreage harvested in District I has decreased

while that in District II has increased. Only one percent of the winter acreage<

is grown in District III and none in District IV.

Planting is heavy in all districts during the spring season. The acreage

for harvest has been decreasing in Districts III and IV and increasing in

Districts I and II. During the 1955-56 season one-third of the spring acreage

is in District II and approximately one-fifth in each of the other districts.


MOVEMENT OF CUCUMBERS

Statistics on the movement of fresh cucumbers out of Florida are not as

reliable as would be desired because they include truck movement of cucumbers

imported into Florida from Cuba, the Bahamas or Puerto Rico. These imports are

sold through local Florida markets and either consumed in Florida or moved by

truck or rail to Northern markets. Imports moving out of Florida by rail are

so reported. Truck drivers passing road guard stations report the point of

loading in Florida and either do not know or fail to report part or all of the

load as imported cucumbers to be shown separately in truck movement. Thus,

carlot equivalent movement of cucumbers is inaccurate as to quantity moved by
producing districts by the amount of such imports reported originating as


3/ Season total acreages shown in Tables 4 and 5 do not include acreage har-
vested outside these designated districts. Therefore, the totals do not
agree with State totals for fresh market cucumbers shown elsewhere in this
report.








Table 5. -


Cucumbers Acreages and Percent of Acreages for Haivest by Producing
Districts and Crop Season, Florida, (East and South of the Suwannee
River). Five-Season Averages 1945-46 to 1949-50, 1950-51 to 1954-55
and 1955-56/ Season.


: :Perceht of-.District
: Acreage for Harvest by Crop Season: : and Season Acreage for Harvest
: Five-season: Five-season: : :Five-season: Five-season:
average : average : : : average : average :
District : 1945-46 to : 1950-51 to : 1955-56 : : 1945-46 to : 1950-51 to : 1955-56
1949-50 : 1954-55 : : : 19L9-50 : 1954-55 :


820
2,610
1,760
295


Fall


5,485

Winter
750
735
15

1,500

Spring/
1,55o
2,550
1,700
1,725


25.0
17.0
44.1
13.9

31.6


56.0
38.7
5.3


10.7


10.1
3.1
32.2
54.6


593
1,880
1,227
395

4,095

629
1,182
9

1,820


1,203
2,785
2,211
2,622

8,821


2,425
5,847
3,41h5
3,019

14,736


14,$10


100.0


Percent

14.5
45.9
30.0
9.6

27.8


34.6
64.9
.5


12.3


13.6
31.6
25.1
29.7

59.9


16.5
39.6
23.4
20.5

100.0


Preliminary.
Includes small acreage for pickles in District IV.


Source: U.S.D.A., A.M.S. Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Florida
Vegetable Crops, Vols. VII and XI.


Acreage


I
Total
III
IV

Total


960
655
1,695
534

3,844


I
II
III
IV


733
507
70


7,525 57.7
Total Fresh Iarket2/
3,120 19.7
5,895 11.3
3,475 33.1
2,020 35.9


Total


I
II
III
IV


I
II
III
IV

Total


1,310


707
215
2,265
3,806

7,027


2,400
1,377
4,030
4,374

12,181


16 .9
47.6
32.1
5.4

37.8


50.0
49.0
1.0


10.3


20.6
33.9
22.6
22.9

51.9

21.5
40.6
24.0
13.9

100.0







20

domestic shipment. The bulk of this movement is from District I with a small

portion from District II and perhaps a minor amount from District III. A

further breakdown of the statistics is not available.


Shipment of Cucumbers from Florida and Other States

Domestic cucumber shipments from Florida normally begin in early October

of each year. Movement is heavy by November 1, peaks in late November and de-

clines to a low point in February. April and early May are again periods of

heavy movement with a rapid decline in shipments in late May and early June.

(Tables 6 and 7 and Figs. 7 and 8).

Florida has very little competition from other states producing cucumbers,

Normally a few cars move from other states in the fall and none at all from

November through April. In May and June of each year movement is reported from

Texas and a minor amount from other Southern States. Florida movement (domestic

was approximately 6,100 carlot equivalents in the 1954-55 season and 3,600 cars

to April 1 of the 1955-56 season. Movement from other states totalled 459 cars

during the 19954-5 Florida season. The fact that all states are not reporting

truck movement, as Florida and Texas do.- makes the "Other States" data on

shipments relatively unreliable as to total movement.


Imports from Cuba

Imports of cucumbers from Cuba normally begin about mid-December of each

season. They reach a peak in February or early March and are usually out of

the picture by early April. During the 19954-5 season some 1L36 carlot equiv-

alents were imported from Cuba. During the current season to April 1 more than

1,800 carlots had been imported.

Shipment of Cucumbers by Districts from Florida
Some movement is reported from all districts from October through May with
a relatively light movement from Districts III and IV in June. January through





Table 6. -


Week :
ending :


Oct. 2
9
16
23
30
Nov. 6
13
20
27
Dec. 4
11
18
25
Jan. 1.
8
15
22
29
Feb. 5
12
19
26
Mar. 5
12
19
26
Apr. 2
9
16
23
30
May 7
14
21
28
June 4
11
18
Total


Cucumbers Weekly Summary of Carlot Shipments from Florida,
States and Imports During the Florida Season, 1954-$5.


SDome s t i c : Imports
: F'lorida : : : :


.tR
1


Other :
States :


Truck
22/
13
45
101
183
203
193
276
133
189
160
153
110
136
187
155
189
158
134
134
121
110
109
114
100
105
72
104
270
461
447
267
209
140
128
101
30
2
5744


: Ra
Truck Ra
b


ail & :
boat/ Total
2J
13
8 53
16 117
30 213
60 263
68 261
91 367
51 1814
70 259
42 202
27 180
21 131
19 155
24 211
24 179
48 237
25 183
26 160
24 158
15 136
10 120
10 119
10 124
7 107
5 110
3 75
8 112
74 344
203 664
270 717
209 476
173 382
36 176
2r 153
25 126
4 34
2
1761 7505


Competing


2
1
1






















6
20
32
32
84
158
123
459


1/ Includes mixed-car shipments.
2/ Imports moving out of Florida by truck are included in the Florida Truck
except for amounts removed in estimating Florida consumption. Total
Domestic volume has been corrected to reflect Florida and Other States movement
insofar as possible by subtracting imports moving out by truck. A more accurate
breakdown is not available,.
3/ Includes 1 car lot shipped week ending September 4.
17/ Repack shrinkage or local consumption.

Source: Florida State Marketing Bureau, Annual Fruit and Vegetable Report, 1995-55
Season and U.S.D.A., A. .S. Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service,
Florida Vegetable Crops, 1955.


Total :
Domestic2*
21/
13
,53
117
215
264
262
367
1814
259
202
163
111
111
104
60
147
95
640
61Y/
8

-lo/
23
42
79
41
97
341
664
717
482
102
208
185
210
192
125
6574


il & : Total : Total
cat : Imports: crop
22/
13
53
117
215
264
262
367
184
259
202
17 180
2 22 133
2 46 157
1 108 212
1 120 180
2 92 239
5 93 188
3 123 163
2 166 160
5 133 141
2 117 122
3 132 122
1 102 125
5 70 112
10 41 120
1 35 76
15 112
1 4 345
664
717
482
402
208
185
210
192
125
16 1136 8010


17
20
4h
107
119
90
88
120
164
128
115
129
101
65
31
34
15
3








1390







Table 7. Cucumbers Weekly Summary of Carlot Shipments from Florida, Competing
States and Imports During the Florida Season,
October 1, 1955 to April 1, 1956.


Don
lorida
: Rail & :
: boat]/:


nestic

:otal Oth
total: stall


11
53
137
176
263
199
267
313
277
257
234
194
159
228
208
147
1140
163
154
176
168
194
170
213
252
281
346


Im
:


er
tes :


Total T
domestics! Truck


19
60
140
178
263
199
267
313
277
257
234
187
115
139
118
55
34
5
0
13
7Y
8
-18&/
38
111
260
3l0o


1


Oct. 1
8
15
22
29
Nov. 5
12
19
26
Dec. 3
10
17
24
31
Jan. 7
14
21
28
Feb, 4
11
18
25
Mar. 3
10
17
24
31


ports r
Rail & Total :
boat /" Imports:


8
4o
101
138
192
160
209
255
193
188
173
157
133
186
169
126
119
143
136
157
143
161
148
176
204
236
286


7
44
89
90
92
106
160
157
166
178
187
192
180
146
26
11


Total 4337


1043 5380


3605


1795


36 1831 5436


1/ Includes mixed-car shipments.
/Imports moving out of Florida by truck are included in the Florida Truck
except for amounts removed in estimating Florida consumption. Total
Domestic volume has been corrected to reflect Florida and Other States movement
insofar as possible by subracting imports moving out by truck. A more accurate
breakdown is not available. .
3/ January 1956 the NYC unloads showed 1 Puerto Rico.
17/ Repack shrinkage or local consumption.
-/ Includes 1 Bahama.

Source: Unpublished data, Florida State Marketing Bureau, Annual Fruit and Vegetable
Report, 1954-55 Season and U.S.D.A., A.M.S. Florida Crop and Livestock
Reporting Service, Florida Vegetable Crops, 1955.


F
Truck


Week
ending


7
44
89
90
92
106
158
154
163
175
186
188
175
141
212/
6


23
3
3
3
1
4
5

5
5


Total
crop


19
60
140
178
263
199
267
313
277
257
234
194
159
228
208
147
14o
165
157
179
171
195
174
218
257
286
351


:
:*
















(DI
Cd 0(
-', 4'
COJ
H

,ii




co
.0 4




0)
1O. 0 V

r.l


: j :'i P4I
I 0I







i `Oi





4' Ha

EO~
~U















0
r-il










0)
04'















C\J PrA
C, E

H f
.I
cir -CM


a,0

0~. u~ 1~
C,-'~

H


\U 0
to


0 0
0 0
co


o O
C 0
--I C'.








Carlots
400 -


300




200


100


A. /t

PA / '?? e
t v /.',, I
iA. i -" ,:.: : ;\ ,' .

Other /;..l '' ^ / \
t;',,i l.. .: .
: ,., ".. ... \ I "

States,'. "' .' : ,- \ \/*


"": Imports
b j: .t\ p ..
,,........ ........ ..
'*'. I ', ... .'* .' ; F l r d . i/ ', -.'." .: :
-. : .. ": ," .'/.> .
:'- .s-. .', l" -J -".':o:-.,'.' ? :'.;
; ". '' .,'.'; ', : .'5 +>: ot ; 4
: .: !'"'% i: <" :.". i.".' ::." ,' '. ',. ,/ "?- ;
"; .': '" ;"':: ; ": : ;"," .'.: .. ;" I ,.:' '':.
1 :, "; : ""' .. '' '"" :J


1 15 29 12 26 10 24 7 21 4 18 3 17 31 14 2
Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr.
Weeks Ending
Fig. 8. Cucumbers 1Weekly Carlot ,Shipments from Florida, Competing States
and Imports during the Florida Season,
October 1, 1955 to April 1, 1956


8


April are the months of heaviest movement from District I. This also coincides
with the peak season of imports from Cuba, hence gives a biased picture. (Table

8 and Fig. 9). Shipments from District II are heavy from November through Jan-
uary and again in April. In District III shipments are heavy from October
through December and again in April and May, District IV movement is greatest
during May and June. Of the total Florida movement during the 1954-55 season

37 percent originated in District I, 26 percent in District II, 31 percent in
District III and 6 percent in District IV. The point of origin as reported at








the road guard stations does not reflect necessarily the districts in which the

cucumbers were grown. In many cases, cucumbers grown in one district are hauled

into another district for packing and loading for interstate shipments.


Table 8. -


Cucumbers Monthly Shipments in Carlot Equivalents by
Producing Districts in Florida, Season 19514-65/


Moth : Carlot Shipments by District
: ont : II : III : IV Total

September 3 3
October 22 37 327 30 416

November 219 324 518 46 1107

December 271 332 175 10 788

January 590 223 39 17 869

February 463 61 21 12 557

March 420 42 24 9 495

April 535 769 493 53 1850

May 206 122 734 173 1235
June 5 15 87 107

Total 2731 1910 2349 437 74272/


_3/ Includes imports from Cuba reported at road
originating in Florida, Florida origin for
of these imports is believed to be District
may appear in Districts II and III. A furtl
unavailable.


guard stations as
the major portion
I. Small amounts
ler breakdown is


2/ Add 87 cars of unknown origin to approximate totals given in
Table 6.


Source: U.S.D.A., A.M.S., Florida Crop and Livestock
Service, Florida Vegetable Crops, Volume XI,


Reporting
19.55























Percent Monthly Shipments Are


10.6 11.7 7.5 6.7


Percent


100


*-


























1. '


~=; .
"
~.


;j*i


'C".








N:

XX~

.XN
'N,


,'N













a.;


of Yearly Shipments


-;--~--


: .\

..~







..
'



.i
.~..

? ~


I i
-~

;'
1.

iii

,-..

'~t

~:~
.:', r ~~

.. ...
i:- .

.:..
;~
' :






``
.
.

\~~
.
;~i.:



:ir
:: 1.:
' r
I"


: ~
. i.
:::.
.-
.1.
... ';'

:I:~ -;

;1.. :

:. ?.
1.~
,....
'
~:'
: (::
1~
L~z :

ii'.
i'..

""~.




: :
-1_~
it~U


Months


X.,'



N"



\ N







4,*


N \N-

N 'N


Fig. 9. Cucumbers Percent Monthly Shipments / are of Yearly Shipments
and Percent District Shipments are of Monthly and Total Shipments,
Florida, (South of the Suwannee River) Season 1954-55.


1/ Includes imports from Cuba reported at road guard stations as originating
in Florida. Florida origin for the major portion of taese imports is
believed to be District I. Small amounts may appear in Districts II and
III. A further breakdown is unavailable.


24.9 16. 6 1.5;


90 -




80




70 -




60 .


30 -


10 ...


Mar. Apr. May June


Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan.


100.0

























N
V .




' N














,... Q

'' ''








Season

Total


District IV

6 percent









District III

31 percent









District II
26 percent











District I

37 percent








PRICES OF CUCUMBERS

Prices received by Florida growers for cucumbers depend upon (1) the size

of the Florida crop, (2) the season of the year when cucumbers are sold, (3) the

amount of foreign competition, (4) the amount of competition from other states,

(5) the volume of other competing vegetables available, and (6) the general
level of all prices in the United States. These are the factors generally be-

lieved to have a major effect on price. To explore their relative effect is

not within the scope of this report. Only general relationships can be shown.


Relationship of Production and Price of Cucumbers

In general there tends to be an inverse relationship between the production

of cucumbers in Florida and the average price received by farmers (Fig. 10).

If production increases, prices decline and if production decreases, prices in-

crease. After the 194hh-h season there was a definite upward trend in cucumber

production in Florida. From 1942-h3 until 1950-51 the price received showed a

general decline from its high Vforld W7ar II point. A decrease in production of

351,000 bushels from 1950-51 to 1951-52 resulted in an increase in average
prices received of $1,11 per bushel. Conversely, an increase of 363,000 bushels

from 1951-52 to 1952-53 resulted in a decrease in average prices for the season

of $0.60 per bushel. It is evident that factors other than production influence

the price of Florida cucumbers.

Variation in Monthly Prices of Cucumbers

Average cucumber prices by months for. three five-year periods are shown in

Fige ll From this it appears that average monthly prices received for cucumber

are normally highest in January, February and March, Prices tend to be lower in

the fall and in the spring months, when some supplies are available from sources

nearer the centers of consumption. In each of the periods shown January prices












Production
(1000 BU.



3000 -







2000 -


0
19h0-hl


Price
wr Bushel
-,- .00
- 5.00





h.oo





3.00




-2.00





100


I I I AI I $ I 0
1944-45 1949-50 1954-55
Seasons


Fig. 10 All Cucumbers Trend in Total Production and Price in
Florida, Seasons 19h0-1 to 195h-45















































June


Months


Fig. 11. Cucumrbers Average Monthly Prices by Five-Year
Seasons 19h0-hl to 195h-55


Periods, Flor ida,












Index


O "-1950-51 to 1954-55
150.
I- ---

/ .
100
/ \

''....J" ****

50- .' v 1945-46 to 1949-50





Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June
ilonths
Fig. 12. Cucumbers Index of Seasonal Variation in Price
Received by Florida Growers, Five-Season Averages
1945-46 to 1995-55

are from $2.00 to $3.00 higher than October or November prices. Prices in
Iarch generally averaged $3.00 or more higher than June prices and $2,00 to
$3.00 higher than iay prices received for cucumbers.

Seasonal Variation in Cucumber Prices
The index of seasonal variation in cucumber prices for the two most recent
five-year periods indicate lowest prices in the fall months, increasing to a
peak in February and Uarch and declining again in the spring. Short supplies
during any month, usually are associated with high prices such as that indicated


for March of the 1950-51 to 1954-55 line (Fig. 12).








Relationship of Seasonal Production to Price of Florida Cucumbers

The inverse relationship between production and price of Florida cucumbers

is quite evident when the component parts of the crop year are shown separately

(Figs. 13 and 14) An increase in production of the fall, winter or spring crop

is accompanied by a decrease in the price received for that crop in most

instances. The same general upward trend in production and downward trend in

price is evident here as was indicated in the previous chart of total production

and average price#


Relationship of Prices for Florida Cucumbers to the
General Level of All Farm Prices and Prices Received
for Commercial Vegetables in the United Sbates

Prices received for cucumbers in Florida tend to fluctuate with, but more

erratically than, prices received by farmers in the United States for commercial

vegetables and all farm products. (Fig. 15). Florida cucumber prices rose more

rapidly than United States commercial vegetable prices and all farm prices dur-

ing l orld WVar II. Since that time they have also declined further and more

rapidly than either of the other indexes. Florida cucumber prices are, of

course, more closely allied to United States prices of commercial vegetablss

than to all farm prices, Cucumber prices in Florida have been below United
States prices since 1946.
A comparison of prices received for Florida cucumbers and prices paid by
farmers in the United States would short the same general trend, indicating that
costs of production have risen more than prices received for the product.

COST CF PRODUCING CUCUIBERS IN FLORIDA

The cost of producing cucumbers in selected areas in Florida is shown in
Table 9. Growing costs are highest in the Sumter, Pampano, Fort Myers and
Immokalee areas. Growers would agree that yield is the most important item in

determining the unit cost of producing a crop. When yields are high production

costs per-unit are low. Growing costs have fluctuated widely in the various








Production
(000 Bu.)


1000


800 -


600


0oo-


Fall

/-


Price


/ '
/ -
J^/
i/


Price
(Dollars)


6.25


5.00


3.75



2.50
1.25


0~~ I rr


1940-41


1944-45


1949-50


or


1954-55


Winter


600 -


5oo00


4oo


300

200


100


0


1940-41


Price '


' /


9.00


7.50


6.00


4.50


3.00


1.50


e 1949-50 19-5455
Season


Fig, 13 Cucumbers Relationship of Total Production and Average
Price Per Bushel for Fall and Winter Crops, Florida,
Seasons 1940-41 to 1954-55


'1'1


^\












Price


Spring


2200-


2000


1800


1600-


5,00


S,-Price
!


4.oo


1400- \


1200 \ /3.00


\1000 \

800 \ 2.00


600


200- 1.00
\ / 'Production 1*00

200

0-_ \ .____cio 0
1940-41 1944-45 1949-50 1954-55
Seasons

Fig. 14. Cucumbers Relationship of Total Production and Average
Price Per Bushel for the Spring Crop, Florida,
Seasons 1940-41 to 1954-55



































o0 1 io 1 T' 1 1 I '
193 1940 19h5 1950
Years
Fig, 15. Indexes of Prices Received for Cucumbers by Florida Farmers
and Prices Received for Commercial Vegetables and
All Farm Products in the United States, 1935-1955
(1935-39 = 100)







Table 9.- Cucumbers Yields and Per Unit Costs and Returns in Selected
Areas in Floridaj by Seasons, 1950-51 to 1994-55.


Item : 1950-51 : 1951-52 1952-53 : 1953-54 : 199-55


Yield per acre in bushels

Amount per bushel
Growing cost
Harvesting cost
Total crop cost
Crop sales
Net return



Yield per acre in bushels


Amount per bushel
Growing cost
Harvesting cost
Total crop cost
Crop sales
Net return


Alachua Area
134.6 86,0


$0.67
.87i/
1.54
2.29
.75



220.0


$1.79
1.28
3.08
3.12
.04


80.85
.52_2/
1.37
1.94
.57


$1.42
1.19
2.61
3.33
.72


Fort Myers Area
255.2 197.0


$1.34
1.17
2.51
4.0o
1.50


$1.91
1.32
3.23
3.07
-.16


Yield per acre in bushels

Amount per bushel
Growing cost
Harvesting cost
Total crop cost
Crop sales
Net return



Yield per acre in bushels


Amount per bushel
Growing cost
Harvesting cost
Total crop cost
Crop sales
Net return


170.6


$1.76
1.48
3.24
2.34
-.90



168.0


$1.90
1.18
3.08
1.57
-1.51


Immokalee Area
214.0 192,0


$1.42
1.54
2.96
4.23
1.27


$1.84
1.52
3.36
2.96
-.40


186.0


$1.51
1.56
3.07
2.31
-.76


Manatee-Ruskin Area
227.3 309.0 227.5


01.17
1.32
2.49
2.69
.20


$1.02
1.24
2.26
2.63
.37


$1.33
1.30
2.63
1.63
-1.00


117.3


$1.00
1.18
2.18
1.45
-.73



203.3


$1.41
1.48
2.89
2.06
-.83


86.7


01.52
1.21
2.73
1.96
-.77



227.0


$1.41
1.36
2.77
2.78
.01


218.5


$1.36
1.46
2.82
2.58
-.24



263.2


$1.17
1.46
2.63
2.51
-.12




*,,*l


36


Table 9.- Cucumbers Yields and Per unit Costs and Returns in Selected
Areas in Florida, by Seasons, 1950-51 to 1954-55 (Concluded).


Item : 1950-51 : 1951-52 : 1952-53 : 1953-54 : 1954-55

Pompano Area
Yield per acre in bushels 129.8 141.6 167.0 240.2 133.0

Amount per bushel
Growing cost $2.50 $2.04 $1.84 $1.34 $2.26
Harvesting cost.? 1.06 .98 .95 .96 .93
Total crop cost 3.56 3.02 2.79 2.30 319
Crop sales 3.92 4.94 3.27 2.09 4.04
Net return .36 1.92 .48 -.21 .85


Sumter Area3/
Yield per acre in bushels 465.2 226.8 266.0 418.3 66.0

Amount per bushel
Growing cost $1.16 $2.40 $2.14 $1.27 07.63
Harvesting costI/ .51 .58 .62 .59 .56
Total crop cost 1.67 2.98 2.76 1.86 8.19
Crop sales 1.16 3.59 2.59 2.43 3.59
Net return -.51 .61 -.17 .57 -4.60


Wauchula Area
Yield per acre in bushels 326.4 290.8 207.0 213.8 367.0
Amount per bushel
Growing cost $1.51 O1l.l7 $1.L $1.47 .89
Harvesting cost/ .53 .61 .56 .52 .51
Total crop cost 2.04 2.08 2.00 1.99 1.40
Crop sales 1.57 2.60 2.09 1.53 2.07
Net return -.47 .52 .09 -.46 .67


1/ Costs of picking and hauling to market for sale in field boxes plus
selling charge only.
2/ Farm packed; no packinghouse charge included except few farmer operated
grading belts.
3/ Trough-grown crop only.

Source: Brooke, D. L., Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, Costs and
Returns from Vegetable Crops in Florida, Volumes VI X.








areas. In from one to four of the past five seasons in all areas, prices re-

ceived for cucumbers have failed to equal the per-bushel cost of production,

harvesting and initial sale. Neither have areas shown the same profits or

losses in any one year. Weather conditions, quality of the crop, market

supplies and prices received vary with the particular season and area of

production*

COST OF HARVESTING, PACKING AND SELLING CUCUMBERS IN FLORIDA
The cost of harvesting, packing and selling cucumbers in selected areas for
the 1954-5 season is shown in Table 10. In the Sumter and Wauchula areas cucum

bers do not go to a packinghouse prior to sale but are sold in field crates at
the local auction market. Picking, hauling and selling costs averaged $0.56 and
$0O.1 per bushel in the Sumter and VTauchula areas, respectively. In the Pompano
area cucumbers are packed at the farm and sold on the local market at an average
cost of $0.93 per bushel for picking, hauling, container and selling.

Table 10, Cucumbers Harvesting, Packing and Selling Costs Per
Bushel in Selected Areas in Florida, Season, 1954-S5

: Ala- : Ft, :Immok-:tanatee: Pom- : 2/: Jau-_
Item : chua : Myers: alee :-Ruskin: pano :Suter : chula2

.Cost per bushel
Picking : $0.37: $0.31: $0.h4s: $0.7 : $0.41: $0.39 : $0.35
Hauling : .09: .10: .10: .11 : .09: .10 : .09
Packing : .31: *.2: ,o0: ,37 : 1/:
Containers : .34: .38: .37: .36 : .38: :
Commission : .10: .15: .15: .15 : .05: .07 : .06

Total harvesting,
packing and
selling cost : $1,21: $1.36: $1.46: $1.46 : $0.93: $0.6 : $0.51

l/ Farm packed; no packinghouse charge included.
2/ Harvested for sale in bulk field boxes at local markets.
In the other areas shown the total cost of picking, hauling, packing, con-
tainers and selling charge ranged from $1.21 per bushel in the Alachua area to

$1l46 per bushel in the Immokalee and Manatee-Ruskin areas.


DLBrcc 5/17/56
Exp. Sta., Ag. Ec. 500




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