Title: Monthly rail and truck unloads of celery, Irish potatoes and tomatoes on 16 terminal markets
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 Material Information
Title: Monthly rail and truck unloads of celery, Irish potatoes and tomatoes on 16 terminal markets
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Brooke, Donald Lloyd,
Publisher: University of Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station,
Publication Date: 1952-1953
Copyright Date: 1954
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074535
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 123445797

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Agricultural Economics
Series No, 54-6



MONTHLY RAIL AND TRUCK UNLOADS OF CELERY,

IRISH POTATOES AND TOMATOES ON 16 TERMINAL MARKETS

1952-53 SEASON


by

Donald L. Brooke

Associate Agricultural Economist







University of Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station
Gainesville, Florida
September 23, 1953


The above numbered publication contains 82 pages of tables relative
to the monthly rail and truck unloads of celery, Itish potatoes and
tomatoes from Florida and other states on 16 selected terminal mar-
kets for the 1952-53 season. It is typewritten and intended for
limited distribution. Two copies are available at the main station
for loan to those interested in this type of data*


V119 I & ^As9





-24-


Small Farms


Medium Farms


Large Farms


Fig. 2.--Variation in labor income, small, medium, and large
wholesale dairy farms in three areas of Florida.





-25-


Thirty percent of the farms had a cost of less than 60 cents per gallon
and 35 percent a cost of 68 cents or more. Net cost per gallon on medium
farms varied from 47.3 cents to 72.0 cents. On large farms there was a
variation from 46.8 cents to 69.6 cents. In both the medium and large
size groups, the low third of the farms had a cost of less than 55.5 cents
and the high third a cost of 60.0 cents or more.

Relation of net cost per gallon of milk sold to selected factors.--With
the exception of the medium farms, as net cost per gallon of milk sold in-
creased the number of cows per farm decreased (Table 16). There was no
consistent relationship between net cost per gallon and the number of cows
cared for by one man except on large farms where there was an inverse
relationship between cows per man and net cost per gallon. Purchased feed
cost per gallon of milk sold increased on small farms as net cost per gallon
increased but showed no consistent relationship on medium or large farms.
Capital invested per man, acres of cropland and open pasture per cow,
average number of years in the milking herd and percent of replacements pur-
chased showed little or no relationship to net cost per gallon of milk sold.

Relation of net cost per allon of milk sold to labor income.--There
was a definite inverse relationship between net cost per gallon of milk
sold and labor income. On small farms with the lowest cost, the average
labor income was $4,875 compared to $-1,797 on the group of farms with the
highest cost (Table 17). Labor income per cow varied from $56 to $-25 per
cow for the two groups of farms. On medium farms the average labor income
was $13,107 in the low cost group and $-3,149 in the high cost group. The
variation in labor income on large farms was from $22,590 to $-4,759. On
both medium and large farms, labor income per cow showed similar variation
to labor income per farm.

On small and medium size farms, the amount of milk sold per cow de-
creased as the net cost per gallon increased. However, on large farms,
the group with the highest costs also had the highest average production
per cow. In each size group of farms, the amount of milk sold per man
was considerably lower on farms with high costs than on farms with low costS.


Milk Sold Per Cow

The variation in the amount of milk sold per cow annually was from
416 to 1,153 gallons. On small farms sales per cow varied from 416 gallons
to 1,089 gallons, Approximately one-third of the farms had sales of less
than 650 gallons and one-third had sales of 800 gallons or more per cow
per year. Sales on medium farms varied from 523 to 1,086 gallons per cow.
About 31 percent of the producers sold less than 675 gallons per cow
annually, and an equal number sold 800 gallons or more. The lowest pro-
ducer in the large farm group averaged 520 gallons of milk sales annually
per cow as compared to 1,153 gallons for the highest producer. About one-
third of the producers sold less than 770 gallons of milk annually per cow,
while another third sold 850 gallons or more.








TABLE 16.--Pelation of Net Cost per Gallon of Milk Sold to Selected Factors, Small, Medium and Large
Wholesale Dairy Farms in Three Areas of Florida

: : Average: : : Purchased :Cropland: Years : Percent
Net cost per : Number:net cost: Number of cows : Capital : feed cost :and open: in :of replace-
gallon of : of : per : Per : Per:invested : per gallon :pasture :milking: ments
milk sold : farms: gallon : farm : man: per man : of milk sold:per cow : herd : purchased


Cents


Under 60.0
60.0 to 67.9
68.0 or more
Total or average


Under 55.5
55.5 to 61.9
62,0 or more
Total or average


Under 55.5
55,5 to 59.9
60.0 or more


Cents


54.61
63.46
72,83


Cents Acres Number


86.4
81.0
71.7


37 63.01 79.4


33,2
30.2
34.6


Small Farms
$26,351 23.03
30,460 27.62
28,556 31.62


32.5 28,592


27.16


Medium Farms


51.59
59.59
65.87


176.4
167.4
182.2


32 58.92 175.3


52.33
57.53
63.12


441.3
343.1
330.4


35.9
33.9
38.5


$26,422
26,483
29,233


36.1 27,384


46.4
42.0
35.5


27.01
25.90
29.71
27.52


Large Farms
$34,953 24.98
33,575 29.93
36,642 28.54


Total or average 46 57.39 370.7


1.3
1.8
1.2
1.5



1.0
1.1
1.1
1.0



1.1
1.0
1.4
1.2


5.1
4.4
3.1
4.1



4.0
5.1
3.1
3.9


3.7
4.0
3.7


--


41.2 35,153 27.64










TABLE 17.--Relation


of Net Cost per Gallon of Milk Sold to Labor Income and Other Factors,
and Large Wholesale Dairy Farms in Three Areas of Florida


Small, Medium


Net cost per : Number: Average : Number : Gallons of milk sold annually : Labor income
gallon of :of : net cost : of men : Per : Per : Per : Per : Per
milk sold farms : per gallon : per farm: cow : man : farm : cow : farm


Cents


Under 60,0
60.0 to 67.9
68.0 or more


Total or average


Under 55.5
55.5 to 59.9
60.0 or more

Total or average


Cents


54.61
63,46
72.83

63.02


51.59
59.59
65.87

58.92


52.33
57.53
63.12


Under 55.5
55.5 to 59.9
60.0 or more


Small Farms

2.6
2.7
2.1


724
753
594


2.4


Medium Farms

4.9
4.9
4.7

4.9

Large Farms


9.5
8.2
9.3


760
805
818


$24,089
22,759
20,545

22,519


28,635
25,421
25,986

26,626


$35,278
33,832
29,066


62,632
61,012
42,638

55,038


140,742
125,487
122,841

129,344


335,279
276,155
270,204


$56
12
-25


$ 4,875
1,003
-1,797


15 1,170


$74 $13,107
18 3,024
-17 -3,149

23 4,053


$51
37
14


$22,590
12,846
-4,759


Total or ara 46 57.38 9.0 791 32,617 27


293.365 27 9.900


To+nl or avprnp~ th


57_38 9.0 791 32.617





-28-


Relation of milk sold per cow to selected factors.--For each size
group of farms, as the gallons of milk sold per cow increased the average
number of cows per farm decreased consistently. On small farms, the de-
crease was 34 cows, medium farms 38 cows, and on large farms 100 cows
(Table 18). Purchased feed cost per gallon of milk sold also decreased as
the quantity of milk sold per cow increased on medium farms, but this
item showed no consistent relationship on small and large farms. Acres
of cropland and open pasture per cow and average number of years in the
milking herd showed little, if any, relationship to the quantity of milk
sold per cow. On each group of farms, the percent of replacements purchased
was significantly less on farms with the highest production. The capital
investment per cow was considerably higher,

Relation of milk sold per cow to net cost per gallon of milk sold
and labor income.--On small farms, labor income per farm and per cow in-
creased as the amount of milk sold per cow increased (Table 19). Medium
farms with the highest production per cow had a lower average labor income
per farm and per cow than farms with medium production. On large farms,
the labor income per cow increased as production per cow increased, but
there was only a small change in the farm labor income. On each group of
farms, there was no consistent relationship between amount of milk sold per
cow and the amount of milk sold per man. Also, in each size group, farms
with the highest average sales per cow had a higher average net cost per
gallon of milk sold than farms with medium sales per cow.


Labor Efficiency

Cows per man.--The number of cows tended per man varied from 17 to 62
on small farms. Eight of the small farms, or 22 percent, had 40 or more
cows per man. Forty percent of this group had less than 30 cows per man.
The number of cows per man on medium farms varied from 21 to 58. The lower
one-third had less than 33 cows per man and the top one-third 43 or more.
On large farms the number of cows per man varied from 21 to 74. The lower
30 percent had less than 38 cows per man as compared to the top 37 percent
which had 48 or more cows per man. For the three groups together, 43
percent had 40 or more cows per man, but only 3 percent had over 60 cows
per man.

Relation of number of cows per Sin to selected factors.--The average
number of cows per farm increased consistently as the number of cows per
man increased (Table 20). The average number of men per farm decreased
as the number of cows per man increased. On medium size farms, the group
with the least cows per man averaged 6.0 men per farm as compared to 4.0
men in the group with the largest number of cows per man. The low sub-
group of the large farms averaged 10.4 men per farm as compared to 7.9
in the high group. Capital investment per man increased in each of the
three groups of farms as cows per man increased, but the investment per
cow decreased. Acres of cropland and open pasture per cow, percent of
replacements purchased, and average years in the herd showed little if any
relationship to number of cows per man.








TABLE 18.--Relation of Milk Sold per Cow to Selected Factors, Small, Medium and Large Wholesale Dairy
Farms in Three Areas of Florida


: :Gallons of: : Purchased :Cropland: Years :Percent of:
Gallons of : lumber: -milk sold: Cows : feed cost :and open: in : replace- : Capital
milk sold : of : per : per : per gallon :pasture : milking: ments : invested
per cow : farms :. cow : farm : of milk s6ld:per cow : herd : purchased: per cow
Cents Acres Number


Small Farms


Under 650
650 to 799
800 or more
Total or average


Under 675
675 to 799
800 or more
Total or average


Under 770
770 to 849
850 or more


547
719
882
693


608
734
905
738


664
801
946


Total or average 46 791


90.8
89.4
57.0
79.4


193.2
177.4
154.9
175.3


421.6
363.6
322.1
370.7


29.60
25.40
27.18
27.16


1.4
1.4
1.7
1.5


Medium Farms
30.53 1.0
26.78 1.0
25.82 1.1


27,52


1.0


Large Farms
27.92 1.0
27.56 1.1
27.47 1.6


27.64


1.2 3.8


3.3
5.4
3.9
4.1


3.5
4.6
3.5
3.9


4.3
3.6
3.5


$ 781
873
1,051
881


$ 652
729
934
759


$ 746
775
1,089
853








TABLE 19.--Relation of IMilk Sold per Cow to Net Cost per Gallon, Labor Income and Other Factors, Small
Medium and Large Wholesale Dairy Farms in Three Areas of Florida

Gallons of : Number: Number : Amount of milk sold annually : Net cost :Labor income
.milk sold : of : of men :Gallons : Per cow : Gallons : per gallon : Per : Per
per cow : farms:per farm :per farm : Gallons : Pounds : per man :of milk sold : cow : farm

Cents
Small Farms


Under 650 12
650 to 799 13
800 or more 12
Total or average 37


2.4 49,701
2.7 64,318
2.1 50,321
2.4 55,038


547
719
882
693


4,704
6,183
7,585


20,265
23,428
23,858


5,961 22,519


68.14
60.14
61,92
63,02


$-16
20
54


$-1,434
1,815
3,077


16 1,170


Medium Farms


Under 675 10
675 to 799 12
800 or more 10
Total or average 32


4.3 117,490
5.1 130,180
5.1 140,196
4.9 129,344


608
734
905


5,229
6,312
7,783


27,084
25,442
27,668


6,341 26,626


64,22
55 75
58.01
58.92


t
-8 -1,695 0
46 8,212
31 4,773
23 4,053


Large Farms


Under 770
770 to 849
850 or more


Total or average 46 9.0 293,365


280,052
295,209
304,710


664
801
946


5,710
6,889
8,136


32,716
34,349
30,91.8


57.82
56.45
57.95


9,580
9,893
10,228


--


791 6,806 32,617


57.38 26 9,900











TABLE 20.--Relation


of Number of Cows per Man to Selected Factors, Small,
Farms in Three Areas of Florida


Medium and Large Wholesale Dairy


~ : : : Cropland : Percent of: Years
Number of cows Number Number of cows Numer Capital invested : Cropland : Percent of: Years
per man :: o: : of men : and open : replace-: in
per man 0 of men
Sfarms : Per : Per :per farm : Per : Per : pasture : ments : milking
: man : farm : : cow : man : per cow : purchased: herd
Acres Number

Small Farms
Under 29 12 23.7 61.7 2.6 $913 $21,687 1.8 84 4.6
29 to 35 13 32.2 83.8 2.6 848 27,296 .8 60 5.3
36 or more 12 43.6 92.3 2.1 890 38,781 1.8 66 3.1

Total or average 37 32.5 79.4 2.4 881 28,592 1.5 71 4.1
Medium Farms

Under 33 11 26.1 157.5 6.0 $871 $22,761 1.0 58 4.2
33 to 42 11 38.3 169.6 4.4 769 29,450 1.1 52 4.8
43 or more 10 49.8 201.1 4.0 653 32,482 .9 93 3.1

Total or average 32 36.1 175.3 4.9 759 27,384 1.0 70 3.9

Large Farms

Under 38 14 29.8 311.5 10.4 $978 $29,136 1.5 71 3.8
38 to 47 15 41.4 365.9 8.8 845 34,980 1.0 87 3.6
48 or more 17 53.4 423.7 7.9 783 41,854 1.1 80 3.9

Total or average 46 41.2 370.7 9.0 853 35,153 1.2 80 3.8





-32-


Relation of number of cows per man to net cost per gallon of milk
sold and labor income.--On small farms there was no consistent relation-
ship between number of cows per man and labor income per cow or per farm
(Table 21). On medium farms there was an inverse relationship between
these factors and cows per man but on large farms there was a definite
positive relationship. Labor income on medium farms with a large number
of cows per man was only about half of that of farms with a low number of
cows per man. However, on large farms labor income increased from $5,377
on farms with a low number of cows per man to $15,592 on farms with a
high number of cows per man.

In all three groups of farms, the amount of milk sold per cow de-
creased as cows per man increased but there was an increase in the amount
of milk sold per man and some increase in the total amount of milk sold
per farm. The decrease in the amount of milk sold per cow on small and
medium farms appeared to have been a major factor in the behavior of the
average farm labor income. Farms with a large number of cows per man
tended to have sales per cow too low for profitable production. On large
farms, operators with a large number of cows per man still maintained a
reasonably good sales per cow. On small and medium farms, net cost per
gallon of milk sold was higher on farms with a large number of cows per
man than on farms with a medium number of cows per man.

Milk sold per man.--On small farms, the amount of milk sold per man
varied from 14,012 gallons to 41,348 gallons. About 30 percent of the
farms sold less than 20,000 gallons of milk per man and an equal percent-
age sold 27,000 gallons or more. On medium farms, sales ranged from 15,962
to 44,538 gallons of milk per man. The lowest 30 percent of the medium
farms had sales of less than 23,000 gallons of milk per man compared to
30,000 gallons or more for the top 37 percent. In the group of large farms,
the least amount of milk sold per man was 20,478 gallons as compared to a
high of 48,946 gallons. The lowest third of the large farms had sales of
less than 30,000 gallons of milk per man and the highest third 35,000
gallons or more.

Relation of milk sold per man to selected factors.--The number of cows
per man increased fairly consistently as the gallons of milk sold per man
increased (Table 22). Except for one group of farms, cows per farm also
increased as the amount of milk sold per man increased. On farms in each
size group the amount of capital invested per cow showed little if any
relationship to gallons of milk sold per man but there was a consistent
increase in the amount of capital invested per man. Acres of cropland and
open pasture per cow, average number of years in the milking herd and the
percent of replacements purchased showed little if any relationship to the
amount of milk sold per man.

Relation of the amount of milk sold per man to net cost per gallon of
milk sold and labor income.--With the exception of one group of medium
size farms, there was a definite positive correlation between the amount
of milk sold per man and labor income per cow and per farm (Table 23). On
medium farms with the largest amount of milk sold per man the average labor
income was less than on farms with a medium amount of milk sold per man.
In each size group of farms, net cost per gallon of milk sold showed a
consistent decrease as the amount of milk sold per man increased. Sales








TABLE 21.--Relation of Number of Cows per Man to Net Cost per Gallon, Labor Income and Other Factors,
Small, Medium and Large Wholesale Dairy Farms in Three Areas of Florida

Number : Number: Number : Amount of milk sold annually : Net cost : Labor income
of cows : of : of cows:Gallons : Per cow : Gallons : per gallon : Per Per
per man : farms : per man:per farm:Gallons :Pounds : per man : of milk sold: cow farm
Cents


Small Farms


Under 29
29 to 35.9
36 or more
Total or average


Under 33
33 to 42.9
43,0 or more
Total or average


Under 38
38.0 to 47.9
48 or more


12 23.7
13 32.2
12 43.6
37 32.5


11 26.1
11 38.3
10 49.8
32 36.1


29,8
41.4
53.4


48,185
57,758
58,945


781
689
639


55,038 693


6,717
5,925
5,495
5,961


18,550
22,195
27,815
22,519


Medium Farms


127,377
127,948
133,045


808
754
662


129,344 738


279,674
294,656
303,500


898
805
716


6,949
6,484
5,693


21,121
28,900
32,924


6,346 26,626
Large Farms


7,723
6,923
6,158


26,748
33,350
38,267


64.58
61.09
63.78
63.02


58.51
58.34
59.97
58.92


59.15
57.60
55.86


$ 1
34
5


$ 40
2,884
444


1,170


$34
25
12


$ 5,439
4,185
2,383


23 4,053


$17
21
37


$ 5,377
7,671
15,592


Tota oraveage 6 4.2 93,65 71 6806 32,17 5.38 26 ,90


293,365 791 6,806 32,617


57.38 26 9,900


Total or average 46 41.2










TABLE 22.--Relation of Amount


of Milk Sold per Man to Selected Factors,
Dairy Farms in Three Areas of Florida


Small, Medium and Large Wholesale


: Cropland : : Percent
Gallons of Number Gallons .Number of cows Capital invested d open : Years in of replace-
milk sold of sold : anopmlkg : of repla milking
per man farms ; per man : Per : Per : Per : Per : pasture : herd : ments
S: man : farm : cow : man : per cow : : purchased


Acres


Number


Small Farms


Under 20,000
20,000 to 26,999
27,000 or more

Total or average


Under 23,000
23,000 to 29,999
30,000 or more

Total or average


Under 30,000
30,000 to 34,999
35,000 or more

Total or average


16,928
22,858
30,691


26.1
33.1
41.5


71.7
92.5
72.8


$945
754
992


$24,630
24,924
41,130


1.5
1.2
1.8


37 22,519 32.5 79.4 881 28,592
Medium Farms


20,318
26,518
34,501


26.9
36.7
46.7


158.9
178.4
186.4


32 26,626 36.1 175.3


$769
826
698


$20,733
30,331
32,583


759 27,384


Large Farms


26,194
32,276
40,997


32.8
41.2
51.8


339.5
366.9
403.5


$933
775
856


$30,572
31,896
44,363


46 32,617 41.2 370.7 853 35,153 1.2


7.0
3.6
3.3


4.0
5.6
3.1


3.9


3.5
4.5
3.6


3.8 80







TABLE 23.--Relation of Amount of Milk Sold per Man to Net Cost per Gallon of Milk Sold, Labor Income
and Other Factors, Small, Medium and Large Wholesale Dairy Farms in Three Areas of Florida


Gallons of : Number: Number : Amount of milk sold annually : Net cost : Labor income
milk sold : of : of men :Gallons : Per cow : Gallons : per gallon : Per : Per
per man : farms :per farm :per farm:Gallons:Pounds : per man :of milk sold: cow : farm
Cents


Small Farms


Under 20,000
20,000 to 26,999
27,000 or more
Total or average


Under 23,000
23,000 to 29,999
30,000 or more
Total or average


Under 30,000
30,000 to 34,999
35,000 or more


12 2.8
13 2.8
12 1.8
37 2.4


10 5.9
10 4.8
12 4.0
32 4.9


46,553
63,932
53,888


650 5,590
691 5,943
740 6,364


16,928
22,858
30,691


55,038 693 5,961 22,519


Medium Farms


119,818
128,826
137,716


754
722
738


6,484
6,209
6,347


20,318
26,518
34,501


129,344 738 6,346 26,626


Large Farms


10.4
8.9
7.8


271,527
287,601
319,240


800 6,880
784 6,742
791 6,803


26,194
32,276
40,997


67.04
62.13
60.67
63.02


59.77
59.58
57.79
58.92


59.77
57.99
55.55


$-15
17
41


$- 1,084
1,577
2,985


16 1,170


$ 12
31
24


$ 1,963
5,574
4,528


23 4,053


$ 7
23
46


$ 2,315
8,366
18,450


293,365 791 6,806 32,617 57.38


Total or average 46 9.0


26 9,900




-36-


of milk per cow on small farms increased as the amount of milk sold per
man increased but there was a slight decline in milk sold per cow on medium
and large farms as milk sold per man increased. This is a different
relationship from that on dairy farms in many other areas of the United
States.


Capital Efficiency

Capital invested per cow.--Investment per cow on all farms varied
from a lot of $260 to a high of $1,653. On small farms investment per
cow was less than $700 on 30 percent of the farms and $1,000 or more on
40 percent. Operators of 31 percent of the medium farms had less than
$600 invested per cow and an equal percent had $850 or more. Thirty-five
percent of the farms in the large size groups had less than $700 invested
per cow and 28 percent had an investment of $1,000 or more.

For each group of farms, as the amount of capital invested per cow
increased, the number of cows per farm decreased and there also were fewer
cows per man (Table 24). Gallons of milk sold per man decreased slightly
on medium and large farms as the capital invested per cow increased but
on small farms the amount of milk sold per man increased with an increase
in investment per cow. There was no consistent relation between invest-
ment per cow or net cost per gallon of milk sold or labor income per cow
and per farm.

Percent of capital turnover.--The percent of capital turnover was
calculated by dividing total farm receipts by the amount of capital in-
vested per farm.6 It was assumed that the shorter the period of time
required for receipts to equal the amount of the capital investment, the
more efficiently capital was being used. The lowest percent capital turn-
over for all farms in the three groups was 11 and the highest 137 percent.
The low third of the small farms had a capital turnover of less than 37
percent. The highest third had a capital turnover of 50 percent or more.
Thirty-one percent of the farms in the medium group had less than a 50
percent capital turnover and an equal percent a turnover of 65 percent or
more. Large farms had the widest range in capital turnover, from 11 to131
percent. One farm had a very low capital turnover and two exceeded 100
percent. The average for the lowest third of the large farms was 42 per-
cent capital turnover. The highest third averaged 54 percent capital turn-
over.

There was no relationship between percent of capital turnover and cows
per farm or gallons of milk sold per cow (Table 25). The amount of capital
invested per cow and per man was higher on farms with the lowest percent
capital turnover. The net cost per gallon of milk sold decreased as the


6This calculation was based only on the capital of the operator
since the value of rented capital was not obtained. On a few farms where
much of the capital was rented, this resulted in a high percent capital
turnover.








TABLE 24,--Relation of Capital Invested per Cow to Net Cost per Gallon of Milk Sold, Labor Income
and Other Factors, Small, Medium and Large Wholesale Dairy Farms in Three Areas of Florida

: : : Gallons of : Net cost :
Capital invested :Number: Capital : Number of cows : milk sold : per gallon : Labor income
per cow : of : invested : Per : Per : Per : Per : of milk : Per : Per
:farms : per cow : man : farm : cow : man : sold : cow : farm


Dollars


Under 700
700 to 999
1,000 or more
Total or average


Under 650
650 to 849
850 or more
Total or average


Under 700 16
700 to 999 17
1,000 or more 13
Total or average 46


$ 502
857
1,232


33.0
33.6
31.2


881 32.5


$ 509
743
1,036


40.2
37.5
31.3


759 36.1


$ 582
850
1,263


46.7
41.6
34.7


853 41.2


89.3
76.2
74.4
79.4


176.0
178.3
171.0
175.3


394.0
384.3
324.3
370.7


Small Farms
651 21,517
658 22,116
758 23,632
693 22,519

Medium Farms
687 27,586
694 26,010
845 26,500
738 26,626

Large Farms
723 33,740
806 33,522
871 30,198


Cents


61.06
64.95
63.22
63.02


58.69
60.00
58.01
58.92



56.51
56.28
60.05


791 32,617 57.38


$19
10
42


$30
32
14


$ 1,526
94
1,699
1,170



$ 3,430
1,880
7,284
4,053


$11,678
12,242
4,649


26 9,900


- ~DI








TABLE 25.--Relation of Percent Capital Turnover to Net Cost per Gallon, Labor Income and Other Factors,
Small, Medium and Large Wholesale Dairy Farms in Three Areas of Florida


: : Percent:Number of:Gallons : Capital invested Net cost : Labor income
Percent of : Number: of : cows :of milk : : per gallon:
capital : of : capital: per : sold : Per : Per : of milk : Per : Per
turnover : farms:turnover: farm :per cow : co : man : sold : cow : farm
Cents
Small Farms


Under 37.5
37.5 to 49.9
50,0 or more
Total or average


Under 50.0
50.0 to 64.9
65.0 or more
Total or average


Under 49.0
49.0 to 60.9
61.0 or more


12 30.6
11 43.0
14 74.2
37 44.9


12 44.0
10 57.3
10 80.4
32 56.0


42.3
55.0
72.8


72.2
94.4
73.6


666
679
731


79.4 693


187.2
160.0
175.6
175.3


367.3
335.2
409.9
370.7


696
799
738


$1,234
902
562
881


$44,589
28,114
17,492
28,592


Medium Farms
$ 904 $34,045
812 25,490
527 20,666


759


27,384


Large Farms


801
808
768


$1,111
841
616


$42,548
33,956
27,886


64.98
64.53
60.09
63.02


61.33
56.99
57.91
58.92


59.60
56.49
55.95


$10
-1
34


$ 699
-61
2,542


16 1,170


$8
46
21


$ 1,598
7,408
3,644


23 4,053


$11
34
36


$ 3,930
11,402
14,767


Total~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~ oraeae4 407185 513 5.82 ,0


791 853 35,153 57.38


26 9,900


Total or average 46 54.0




-39-


percent of capital turnover increased except for one group of medium
farms. On medium and small farms, there was no consistent relationship
between percent capital turnover and labor income per cow and per farm,
but there was a definite high correlation on large farms.


Feeding Efficiency

Cropland and open pasture per cow.--One farm in each group had
no cropland or open pasture. Operators of these farms purchased all of
the feed consumed by their dairy herds. Only the land required for
housing, feeding and milking the cows was available. Acres of cropland
and open pasture per cow varied from 0 to 4.5 for the small farms. This
was the greatest variation of any of the three size groups. The lowest
35 percent of the small farms had less than 1.0 acre per cow and the
highest 30 percent had 2.0 acres or more. Variation on medium farms was
from 0 to 2.4 acres per cow. The lowest 28 percent had less than .7 acres
of cropland and open pasture per cow and the highest 30 percent averaged
1.2 acres or more. Thirty-seven percent of the large farms had less than
1.0 acre of open pasture and cropland per cow. The highest thirty per-
cent had between 1.4 and 3.0 acres per cow with an average of 1.8 acres.

Relation of cropland and open pasture per cow to selected factors.--
Purchased feed cost per cow or per gallon of milk sold did not show much
relation to the acres of cropland and open pasture per cow except on
medium and large farms. Those with the smallest acreage had the highest
purchased feed costs (Table 26). The number of cows per man tended to de-
crease as the acres of land per cow increased. On large farms the percent
of replacements purchased decreased as the acres of cropland and open pas-
ture per cow increased, however, the small and medium group showed little
or no relationship. Years in the milking herd and percent of cows that
died appeared not to have been influenced by the acres of cropland and
open pasture per cow.

Relation of acres of cropland and open pasture per cow to net cost
per gallon of milk sold and labor income.--There was no consistent relation-
ship between acres of cropland and open pasture per cow and labor income
or net cost per gallon except those farms that had the largest number of
acres tended to have the lowest income and the highest costs (Table 27).
This may partly have reflected a poor utilization of these resources.
Gallons of milk sold per cow did not seem to be affected by amount of land
per cow. On medium and large farms, the amount of milk sold per man tended
to decrease as the acres of cropland and open pasture per cow increased.

Purchased feed cost.--Purchased feed costs per gallon of milk sold
ranged from a low of 16.46 cents to a high of 37.48 cents. The greatest
variation was on small farms. Purchased feed costs were less than 25.50
cents per gallon of milk soldon30 percent of the small farms and 29.50 cents
or more on 27 percent. Twenty-eight percent of the farms in the medium
group had purchased feed costs of less than 25.50 cents per gallon of milk










TABLE 26.--Relation of


Acres of Cropland and Open Pasture per Cow to Selected Factors,
Large Wholesale Dairy Farms in Three Areas of Florida


Small, Medium and


Cropland and : Cropland :Purchased feed cost:Number of cows : Percent of : Years : Percent
ropan an Number and open :_ : replace- in : of cows
open pasture : of : pasture : Per : Per : Per Per : ments milking : that
per cow farms per cow : cow : gallon : farm : man : purchased : herd : died


Acres


Cents

Small Farms


Number


Under 1.0
1.0 to 1.9
2.0 or more


Total or average 37


Under 0.7
0.7 to 1.1
1.2 or more


Total or average 32


.5
1.5
2.8

1.5



.4
..9
1.6

1.0


Under 1.0
1.0 to 1.3
1*4 or more


$188
193
183


27.52
29.16
24.31

27.16


85.4
80.6
70.7


32.5
33.8
30.8


79.4 32.5


Medium Farms


$226
194
196


203


$224
209
220


29.86
26.54
26.80


162.4
194.4
167.4


37.9
38.2
33.0


27.52 175.3 36.1
Large Farms


29.35
26.08
27.10


377.6
327.8
403.0


46.0
40.3
37.7


Toa ravrg 6 1 27.6 37. 4.2 80 3.


Acres


4.4
4.1
3.6


3.3
4.3
3.9

3.9


4.3
3.4
3.6


4.8
2.7
2.6

3.2


2.7
2.1
2.9


Total or average 46 1.2


219 27.64 370.7 41.2 80


3.8 2.6











TABLE 27.--Relation


of Acres of Cropland and Open Pasture per Cow to Net Cost per Gallon of
Labor Income and Other Factors, Small, Medium and Large
Wholesale Dairy Farms in Three Areas of Florida


Milk Sold,


Cropland and
open pasture
per cow


Number
of
farms


Cropland
and open
pasture
per cow


Number
of men
per farm


: Gallons of milk
S sold annually


: Per :
: cow :


Per :
man :


Per
farm


:Net cost :
: per gallon :
: of milk :
: sold


Labor income
Per : Per
cow : farm


Acres


Acres


.5
1.5
2.8


Under 1.0
1.0 to 1.9
2.0 or more


Total or average


Under 0.7
0.7 to 1.1
1.2 or more
Total or average


Under 1.0
1.0 to 1.3
1.4 or more
Total or average


.6
1.1
1.8
1.2


Small Farms
2.6 61
2.4 6'
2.3 7;

2.4 6
Medium Farms
4.3 7.
5.1 7:
5.1 7:


4.7


Large Farms
8.2 7(
8.1 8C
10.7 81
9.0 7S


82 22,176
60 22,348
54 23,193


58,254
53,273
53,322


93 22,519 55,038


58 28,733
29 27,869
32 24,15.1


123,012
141,830
122,649


738 26,626 129,344


54 35,169
)3 32,353
.2 30,586
1 32,617


288,362
263,239
327,151
293,365


Cents


59.07
67.54
62.76

63.02


55.12
57.45
63.34-
58.92


57.20
55.53
58.96
57.39


$34
a
8


$ 2,906
-38
547


1 6 1,170


$44
34
-4


$ 7,150
6,580
-590


23 4,053


$29
44
11
26


$10,885
14,480
4,510
9,900


aLess than $-0.50.


____ __
__







-42-


sold and an equal percent a cost of 29.50 cents or more. On large farms
the low cost group had feed costs below 25.50 cents per gallon with an
average cost of 23.90 cents per gallon of milk sold. The high cost sub-
group had a much wider range which was from 29.61 cents to 36.21 cents.
The average cost for this subgroup was 32.67 cents per gallon of milk
sold.

Relation of purchased feed cost per gallon of milk sold to selected
factors.--Purchased feed cost per cow increased in a similar manner to
purchased feed cost per gallon of milk sold (Table 28). The number of
acres of cropland and open pasture per cow decreased as the cost of pur-
chased feed increased. This relationship can probably be attributed to
a substitution of additional purchased feeds for cropland and pasture
which allowed the dairy operators to enlarge their herds without obtaining
additional land. Another factor supporting the above conclusion is that
on medium and large farms the number of cows per man increased as the cost
of purchased feeds increased. This could indicate that less effort was
used to produce feed on these farms. There was no apparent relationship
between purchased feed cost per gallon fo milk sold and capital invested
per cow or years cows were in the milking herds,

Relation of purchased feed cost per gallon of milk sold to net cost
per gallon and labor income.--With the exception of the middle group of
medium farms, there was an inverse correlation between purchased feed
cost per gallon of milk sold and net cost per gallon and also labor in-
come per cow and per farm (Table 29). Such a relationship would be
expected since purchased feed costs made up on the average 45 percent of
the gross cost per gallon of milk sold on the three groups of farms. Small
farms with the lowest purchased feed costs had a net cost per gallon of
57.18 cents as compared to 68.54 on the group of farms with the highest
costs. On large farms, those with the lowest purchased feed costs had a
net cost per gallon of 55.47 cents and those with the highest a cost of
61,13 cents.

The increase in purchased feed cost per gallon of milk sold tended
partly to have reflected a less efficient production unit. On large farms
there was little or no relationship between purchased feed cost per gallon
of milk sold and amount of milk sold per cow. On small and medium farms,
amount of milk sold per cow declined consistently as purchased feed cost
per gallon increased. The amount of milk sold per man on small and medium
farms was less on farms with high purchased feed costs per gallon than on
those with medium costs. On large farms, amount of milk sold pet man tended
to increase as purchased feed costs per gallon increased.


Herd Efficiency

Percent of replacements purchased.--The distribution of the percent
of herd replacements purchased included eight farms on which all replace-
ments were raised and 30 farms on which all replacements were purchased.
In terms of percentages, no replacements were purchased on 6 percent of
the farms and all on 26 percent. On the low third of the small farms, 23









TABLE 28.--Relation


of Purchased Feed Cost per Gallon of Milk Sold to Selected Factors, Small,
Large Wholesale Dairy Farms in Three Areas of Florida


Medium and


eYear
Purchased feed Number Purchased feed cost : Cropland : Number of : Years
cost er gallon : and open : : Capital in
cost per gallon of a
of milk sold farms : Per gallon : Per : pasture : Per : Per : invested : milking
: of milk sold cow : per cow : farm : man : per cow : herd


Cents


Under 25.50
25.5 to 29.49
29.50 or more

Total or average


Under 25.50
25.50to 29.49
29.50 or more

Total or average


Cents


20.65
28.20
32.56

27.16


22.14
27.86
33.02

27.52


23.90
27.52
32.67


Under 25.50
25.50to 29.49
29.50 or more


Acres


Small Farms


$149
195
218


87.7
74.9
76.7


188


32.0
34.6
31.3


79.4 32.5


Medium Farms


$188
204
214


Large Farms
$192
211
263


1.4
1.0
1.0

1.0


1.3
1.2
1.0


165.9
169.1
194.4


28.7
38.8
41.2


175.3 36.1


371.7
422.7
321.0


38.9
41.8
44.0


Total or average 46


27.64 I1 9 7 .1 3


2 -6- 2- -- --- ---- I .. aCI


Number


$936
903
812

881


4.4
4.5
3.6


$1,009
665
672


4.9
3.4
3.9

3.9


3.5
3.8
4.2


$939
777
833


8c5










TABLE 29.--Relation of Purchased Feed Cost per Gallon of Milk Sold to Net Cost per Gallon, Labor Income
and Other Factors, Small, Medium and Large Wholesale Dairy Farms in Three Areas of Florida

Purchased feed :Number: Number : Amount of milk sold annaully : Net cost :Labor Income
cost per : of : of men : Gallons : Per cow : Gallons : per gallon : Per : Per
gallon of milk sold: farms: per farm : per farm : gallons : pounds : per man : of milk sold : cow : farm


Cents


Cents


Small Farms


Under 25.50
25.50to 29.49
29.50 or more

Total or average


Under 25.50
25.50to 29.49
29.50 or more

Total or average


Under 25.50
25.50to 29.49
29.50 or more

Total or average


2.74
2.17
2.45


37 2.44


63,357
51,687
51,374

55,038


722
690
670

693


6,209
5,934
5,762


23,100
23,856
20,993


5,961 22,519


Medium Farms


5.79
4.35
4.71


32 4.86


140,886
124,151
125,881

129,344


849
734
648

738


7,301
6,312
5,573


24,333
28,531
26,708


6,346 26,626


Large Farms


9.56
10.12
7.30


46 8.99


298,054
324,667
258,834

293.365


802
768
806


6,897
6,605
6,932


31,177
32,079
35,447


6-806 32-6l7


57.18
63.16
68.54

63.02


58.82
56.00
63.52

58.92


55.47
56.32
61.13

57-38


$57 $5,002
a 6
-11 -842

16 1,170


34 5,633
41 6,908
-10 -1,968

23 4,053


14,662
13,089
1,527


S6 Qo 9n


aLess than 50 cents.


31 -_ 0 9







-45-


percent of the herd replacements were purchased. One-fourth of all small
farms purchased 100 percent of their replacements. No replacements were
purchased on three of the medium farms. An average of 26 percent of the
replacements were purchased on two-fifths of the farms and 100 percent on
one-fourth. On large farms, the percent of replacements purchased varied
from 2 to 100 percent. The lowest subgroup varied 37 percent. One hundred
percent of the replacements were purchased on 13 farms.

Relation of percent of herd replacements purchased to selected
factors.--There was very little relationship between percent of replace-
ments purchased and number of men per farm in either size group (Table 30).
On medium and large farms the number of cows per farm and per man increased
as the percent of replacements purchased increased. This could indicate
that the labor concentrated more on caring for the herd cows since less
time was required to care for young stock. On medium and large farms there
was a decreasing average number of years in the herd as the percent of pur-
chased replacements increased but this relationship was not consistent on
small farms. On farms in each of the size groups, neither the percent of
cows that died nor the acres of cropland and open pasture per cow appeared
to have been affected by the percent of herd replacements that were pur-
chased.

Relation of percent of replacements purchased to net cost per gallon
and labor income.--On farms in each of the three size groups as the percent
of replacements purchased increased the gallons of milk sold per cow de-
creased (Table 31). On small farms the gallons of milk sold per cow
dropped from 778 to 629, on the medium farms from 791 to 675 and on the
large farms from 842 to 736 as percent of replacements purchased increased.
The amount of milk sold per man showed no consistent relationship to the
percent of replacements purchased. On small and medium farms, net cost per
gallon of milk sold increased as the percent of replacements purchased in-
creased. However, on large farms, those growing the most replacements had
the highest average costs and those growing no replacements the second
highest. Only on small farms was there a consistent relationship between
labor income per cow and percent of replacements purchased. In this case
it fell from $25 to $14 per cow. On farms in each size group labor income
per farm tended to vary in relation to labor income per cow.

Years in the milking herd.--Thirty percent of the small farms had
herds in which the average cow stayed in the herd less than 3.5 years and
the high third 5.0 years or more. On medium farms the lowest subgroup of
28 percent averaged only 2.4 years in the herd. The high third of the
medium farms had cows that averaged 6.5 years in the milking herd. Cows on
35 percent of the large farms stayed in the milking herd less than 3.4 years
and averaged only 2.7 years. In the high subgroup, cows averaged 6.2 years
in the herd.

Relation of average number of years in the milking herd to selected
factors.--On small and medium farms, as the number of years in the milking
herd increased, there was some tendency for the number of cows per man to
decrease (Table 32). On large farms, the smallest number of cows per man
were in the medium group. Only on medium farms was there an indication of
a relationship between number of years in the herd and percent of replace-










TABLE 30.--Relation of Percent of Herd Replacements Purchased to Selected Factors, Small, Medium and Large
Wholesale Dairy Farms in Three Areas of Florida

:Per t : Percent of : NumNum b: : Years : Percent : Cropland
Percent of Number replace- : of men : Number of cows : in : ofcows: and open
replacements : of
purchased farms ments : per farm : Per : Per : milking : that : pasture
: purchased : : farm : man :herd : died : per cow


Number


Acres


Under 60
60 to 99
100

Total or average


23
76
100

71


26
82
100


Under 60
60 to 99
100


Total or average


Under 60
60 to 99
100


Small Farms
2.3
2.5
2.5

2.4

Medium Farms
5.1
5.0
4.2

4.9

Large Farms

8.2
9.4
9.2


AF.n v9* 370.7 42 3..61


1.4
2.5
2.0

2.1


3.2
3.5
2.7


71.6
89.4
71.9

79.4


168.9
174.3
187.1

175.3


306.4
388.8.
413.5


31.1
35.3
29.0

32.5


32.8
35.0
44.4

36.1


37.2
41.4
44.8


1.4
1.5
1.5

1.5


1.0
1.0
.9

1.0


6.0
3.1
5.5

4.1


4.8
4.1
2.8


4.1
3.9
3.4


2.1
3.0
2.4


370.7 41.2


3.8 2.6 1.2


mfal nr Irr+a+~o~ 46


9.0










TABLE 31.--Relation of Percent of Replacements Purchased to Net Cost per Gallon, Labor Income and Other
Factors, Small, Medium and Large Wholesale Dairy Farms in Three Areas of Florida

: : Percent of :Galots of amik eold annually : Net cost : i
Percent of : Number : replace- : : per gallon : or income
replacements :of : ments : Per : Per : Per :of milk : Per : Per
purchased farms : purchased : cow : man : farm : sold : cow : farm

Cents
Small Farms


Under 60
60 to 99
100


23
76
100


Total or average


Under 60
60 to 99
100


693


26
82
100

70


Total or average


Under 60
60 to 99
100


Medium Farms

791
726
675

738

Large Farms

842
802
736


24,223
23,700
18,259

22,519


25,961
25,390
29,956


55,753
60,034
45,202

55,038


133,619
126,560
126,227


26,626 129,344


31,372
33,189
32,958


258,084
311,699
304,562


60.87
62.93
66.73

63.02


57.38
58.87
61.64

58.92



60.22
55.85
57.09


$25
21
-14


$1,791
1,914
-978


16 1,170


$26 $4,907
33 5,832
1 219

23 4,053



$23 $6,944
36 14,137
17 6,892


Ttlo4680 791 32616 2 6


Total or average 46


80 791 ?3_616 39??h~


~7.9~ ~li o con









TABLE 32.--Relation


of the Average Number of years in the Milking Herd to Selected
and Large Wholesale Dairy Farms in Three Areas of Florida


Factors, Small, Medium


Percent of Percent Cropland
Number of Number Years in Number Nmber of cows replace- of cows and open
years in of milking of men Fer Per ments that pasture
milking herd farms herd __p farm farm man purchased died per cow


Number


Acres


Under 3.5
3.5 to 4.9
5.0 or more


2.1
4.4
10.2


Total or average


4.1


2.4
4.0
6.5


Under 3.5
3.5 to 4.9
5.0 or more


Total or average


Small Farms
1.9 64.7
2.6 90.7
2.7 79.6


2.4


79.4 32.5


Medium Farms


4.9
4.6
5.0

4.9


182.9
168.2
175.5


175.3 36.1


Large Farms


Under 3.4
3.4 to 4.9
5.0 or more


Toa or aveag 463890 307 128 .


34.1
34.2
29.5


1.8
2.5
1.7


37.3
36.8
34.8


1.9
1.6
.9

1.5


.9
1.3
.9

1.0


3.5
3.4
2.9


2.7
3.8
6.2


8.7
8.2
10.1


381.8
316.3
413.2


44.1
38.4
40.9


2.7
2.4
2.6


Total or average 46


3.8 9.0 370.7 41.2 80


2.6 1.2






-49-


ments purchased. In this instance, as average years in the herd increased,
the percent of replacements purchased decreased. Also, on medium farms the
percent of cows that died decreased as the years in the herd increased.
The amount of cropland and open pasture per cow on small farms decreased as
the number of years in the herd increased.

Relation of average number of years in the milking herd to net cost
per gallon and labor income.--On small and medium farms, as the number of
years in the milking herd increased, the net cost per gallon decreased and
the labor income per cow and per farm increased (Table 33). The group of
large farms with the medium number of years in the herd had the highest
cost per gallon and the lowest labor income per cow and per farm. The
gallons of milk sold per cow and per man showed no consistent relationship
to the number of years a cow was in the milking herd. On medium size
farms, milk sold per cow tended to increase as the number of years in the
milking herd increased, but on large farms the opposite was true. On
large farms, the amount of milk sold per man declined from 36,262 on the
group of farms with cows that averaged the lowest number of years in herds
to 31,432 on farms that averaged the highest number of years.


SUMMARY


Studies were made of costs and returns on wholesale dairy farms in
Northeast and Central Florida for the 1958 calendar year and the Tampa
Bay area for 1959. Each study was summarized to show average costs and
returns in each area for all farms and by size of farm. No attempt was
made to combine the records for the three areas or to analyze the data to
study factors affecting costs and returns.

In the original studies the dairies in each area was divided into three
size groups on the basis of base gallons per day earned during the 1959
base period. Small dairies were those with a base of less than 225 gallons
per day, medium dairies 225 to 449 gallons and large dairies 450 gallons
or more per day. Records were obtained for 115 wholesale dairy farms, 31
farms in Northeast Florida, 34 in Central Florida and 50 in the Tampa Bay
area.

In this study the records were summarized to show averages for all
small, medium and large farms in the three areas. Analyses were also made
for farms in each size group to study factors affecting costs and returns.
Records were available for 37 small farms, 32 medium and 46 large farms.

Acres operated averaged 169 on small farms, 340 on medium farms and
646 on large farms. Rented land accounted for 18 percent of the acres
operated on small farms, 27 percent on medium and 16 percent on large
farms. The average capital investment of the operator was $69,881 on small
farms, $133,025 on medium farms and $316,174 on large farms. This was an
investment of $881 per cow on small farms, $759 on medium farms and $853
on large farms. On small farms 56 percent of the total investment was in
land and buildings, 51 percent on medium farms and 55 percent on large farms.
The value of all livestock varied from 33 percent of the total investment on
small farms to 40 percent on medium farms.










TABLE 33.--Relation of Average Number of Years in the Milking Herd to Net
and Other Factors, Small, Medium and Large Wholesale Dairy Farms in


Cost per Gallon, Labor Income
Three Areas of Florida


Number of Number : Years in: Gallons of milk sold annually : Net cost : Labor income
years in : of : milking: Per : Per : Per : per gallon : Per : Per
milking herd : farms : herd : cow : man : farm : of milk sold : cow : farm


Number


Small Farms


Under 3.5
3.5 to 4.9
5.0 or more


Total or average


Under 3.5
3.5 to 4.9
5.0 or more


Total or average


2.1
4.4
10.2

4.1


2.4
4.0
6.5

3.9



2.7
3.8
6.2


Under 3.4
3.4 to 4.9
5.0 or more


676
722
669

693


23,049
24,661
19,720

22,519


Medium Farms


26,255
27,379
26,351

26,626


Large Farms


823
780
768


36,262
29,977
31,432


43,750
65,457
53,228

55,038


128,648
125,150
133,054

129,344



314,258
246,891
317,552


Cents


68.52
61.68
60.77

63.02


61.17
59.49
57.00

58.92



56.98
59.30
56.32


$-4
16
27


$ -249
1,457
2,138


16 1,170


$3
19
40


$ 626
3,161
7,112


23 4,053



$27 $10,167
20 6,413
32 13,103


Ttlo vae 463.8 791 32 617 293 365 57.38 26 9 900


Total or averaee 16


3.8 791 32-617 293-365


57,38 26 9_900





-51-


Herds on small farms contained an average of 79 cows, 175 on medium
and 371 on large farms. On small farms the average annual milk sales per
cow was 693 gallons, on medium farms 738 gallons and 791 gallons per cow
on large farms. There was an average of 2.4 men working on small dairy
farms, 4.9 on medium and 9.0 on large dairies. Milk sold per man averaged
22,519 gallons on small farms, 26,626 gallons on medium and 32,617 gallons
on large farms.

All receipts amounted to about 58.5 cents per gallon of 4 percent
F.C.M. milk sold on all farms. The net cost per gallon of milk sold was
63.02 cents on small farms, 58.92 on medium farms and 57.38 cents on large
farms. Purchased feed cost amounted to about 27.50 cents per gallon of
milk sold on all farms. The cost of all labor was 15.55 cents per gallon
on small farms, 13.51 cents on medium farms and 11.79 cents on large farms.
Net returns were a minus 6.03 cents per gallon of milk sold on small farms,
minus 1.35 cents on medium farms and .77 cent on large farms.

Farm income was the return to the operator for labor and management
and for all capital invested. The average farm income was $4,664 on small
farms, $10,704 on medium farms and $25,710 on large farms. Labor income
was the return to the operator for labor and management after deducting
a charge for capital. Operators of small farms had a return of $1,170 for
their labor and management, $4,053 on medium farms and $9,900 on large
farms. The percent return to capital was .2 on small farms, 3.7 on medium
farms and 5.7 on large farms.

An analysis was made of various factors expected to affect costs and
returns. Farms were kept within size groups to study relationships with-
in a size group and also to determine if relationships between size groups
were similar. A brief summary of results was as follows: 1. Net cost
per gallon of milk sold and labor income were inversely related. 2. There
was no consistent relationship between milk sold per cow and net cost per
gallon of milk sold or labor income. However, for farms in each size group,
net cost per gallon decreased at first, but increased at the higher levels
of milk sales per cow. 3. As the number of cows per man increased net
cost per gallon decreased at first but, increased as the number of cows
per man increased, except on large farms. 4. One of the strongest re-
lationships was that between the amount of milk sold per man and net cost
per gallon of milk sold and labor income. With the exception of one group
of medium farms, labor income per farm increased consistently as amount of
milk sold per man increased. 5. Capital invested per cow showed no con-
sistent relationship to net cost per gallon or labor income. 6. There
was no consistent relationship between the amount of cropland and open
pasture per cow and labor income or net cost per gallon. 7. As purchased
feed cost per gallon of milk increased, the net cost per gallon of milk
sold also tended to increase and labor income per cow and per farm decreased.
8. Small and medium farms showed an increase in net cost per gallon of milk
sold asthe percent of herd replacements purchased increased; however,
large farms had first a decreasing and then an increasing net cost per
gallon. 9. As the average number of years a cow stayed in the herd in-
creased, net cost per gallon of milk sold tended to decrease and labor in-
come to increase.





-52-


The data in this report shows a number of important relationships.
Dairy operators are concerned about increasing net returns. They have at
least two alternatives. First, receipts may be increased; second, expenses
may be reduced or there may be a combination of the two.

On the farms from which records were obtained, the major method of
reducing net cost per gallon of milk sold and thus labor income was to
increase the quantity of milk sold per man. Farms with the largest number
of gallons of milk sold per man were usually organized so that one man
looked after a large number of cows but production per cow was maintained
at an average level or better. Increasing the amount of milk sold per cow
to a very high level usually resulted in a decrease in the amount of milk
sold per man. At the same time, if the number of cows cared for by one
man became too great, production per cow was sacrificed to the point that
cost was increased and income reduced.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Much of the data in this manuscript was originally in a master's
thesis presented by Bobby Ray Bennett to the Graduate Council of the
University of Florida in partial fulfillment of the requirement for
the degree of Master of Science in Agriculture.






APPENDIX


TABLE 34.--Base Gallons of Milk Sold per Day and Selected Factors, Small, Medium and Large Wholesale Dairy
Farms in Three Areas of Florida

Dairy : Base : Gallons oS Percent :Number of :Number of: Number of : Amount of milk sold annually
farm :gallons : milk sold: : cows per : men per : cows per : Gallons : Per cow :Gallons
number :per day : per day :Butterfat: farm : farm : man : per farm : Gallons:Pounds :per man

Small Farms

3T 50 63 3.84 37.5 1.30 28.8 22,445 598.5 5,147 17,265
6T 55 76 4.10 68.0 2.00 34.0 28,276 415.8 3,576 14,138
5T 65 106 3.93 56.5 1.29 43.8 38,453 680.6 5,853 29,808
7C 82 82 4.25 72.0 1.51 47.7 30,987 430.4 3,701 20,521
3N 84 70 4.39 47.5 1.84 25.8 26,898 566.3 4,870 14,618

1C 85 92 4.22 39.0 1.42 27.5 34,545 885.8 7,618 24,327
4T 90 79 4.17 59.0 1.95 30.2 29,508 500.1 4,301 15,132
2T 92 85 3.89 34.5 2.02 17.1 30,419 881.7 7,583 15,059
4N 103 114 4.36 55.0 2.18 25.2 43,754 795.5 6,841 20,071
IN 104 85 4.00 35.5 1.08 32.9 30,882 869.9 7,481 28,594

5C 105 80 4.39 37.0 1.00 37.0 30,821 833.0 7,164 30,821
2C 107 105 4.94 40.0 2.35 17.0 43,544 1,088.6 9,362 18,529
3C 113 109 4.26 62.5 1.00 62.5 41,348 661.6 5,690 41,348
7T 117 268 4.15 137.0 5.02 27.3 100,098 730.6 6,283 19,940
2N 119 122 4.41 81.0 1.68 48.2 47,314 584.1 5,023 28,163

6C 122 94 4.79 41.0 2.26 18.1 38,332 934.9 8,040 16,961
IT 123 131 4.39 94.5 3.18 29.7 50,669 536.2 4,611 15,934
4C 124 133 4.32 63.5 2.00 31.8 50,693 798.3 6,865 25,346
13C 130 119 4.13 55.5 1.57 35.4 44,081 794.2 6,830 28,077
14T 130 209 3.97 140.0 4.00 35.0 75,961 542.6 4,666 18,990










TABLE 34.--Continued


Dairy : Base :Gallons : Percent :Number of: Number of: Number of: Amount of milk sold annually
farm :gallons :milk sold: : cows per: men per : cows per: Gallons : Per cow :Gallons
number :per day : per day : butterfat: farm : farm : man : per farm :Gallons :Pounds :per man


198
133
245
156
167

158
138
173
176
189

161
206
253
229
170

262
212


4.27
4.36
3.97
3.99
4.18

4.44
4.07
4.16
4.13
3.58

3.64
4.40
3.89
4.23
3.96

4.19
4.27


87.5
71.0
136.5
67.5
81.0

90.0
60.0
101.5
105.0
78.5

108.5
109.5
130.5
100.5
63.5

175.0
114.0


3.50
3.65
3.66
2.29
1.62

3.43
2.20
3.00
2.53
2.06

2.00
3.50
4.13
2.98
2.15

4.44
2.64


25.0
19.4
37.3
29.5
50.0

26.2
27.3
33.8
41.5
38.1

54.2
31.3
31.6
33.7
29.5

39.4
43.2


74,974
51,145
89,083
56,700
62,626

61,345
50,718
64,767
65,576
64,605

55,698
80,050
90,949
86,563
61,750

98,314
82,511


856.8
720.4
652.6
840.0
773.2

681.6
845.0
638.1
624.5
823.0

513.3
731.0
696.9
861.3
972.4


7,368
6,195
5,612
7,224
6,650

5,862
7,267
5,488
5,371
7,078

4,414
6,287
5,993
7,407
8,363


15T
8C
11T
8T
9C

8N
11C
13T
7N
10T

10C
12T
9T
5N
16T

6N
12C


21,421
14,012
24,340
24,760
38,658

17,885
23,054
21,589
25,919
31,362

27,849
22,871
22,022
29,048
28,721

22,143
31,254


Average 137 147 4.16


142
145
146
153
157

162
177
180
180
189

191
198
201
205
212

213
216


561.8 4,831
723.8 6,225


79.4 2.44 32.5


55,038 693.0 5,961 22,519










TABLE 34.--Continued


Dairy : Base :Gallons of
farm :gallons :milk sold
number :per day : per da


:Percent :Number of:Number of: Number of : Amounl
: : cows per: men per : cows per :Gallons
:butterfat: farm : farm : man :ne farm


t of milk sold annually
: Per cow : Gallons
_Gallons:Pounds : oer man


Medium Farms

4.45
4.47
4.00
4.16
3.00 4

3.95
4.05 L
3.27
4.00 4
3.23

6.25
3.18 4
5.14
3.65
4.18 4

6.03
6.54
3.46 4


32.6
28.4
32.1
38.0
W8.3

43.5
U1.2
47.8
46.0
37.8

23.0
48.6
36.9
56.7
41.3

23.1
30.6
+9.7


16C
ION
19T
15C
18T

9N
I1N
17C
20T
22T

12N
21T
14C
15N
17T

13N
17N
28T


235
244
253
264
264

265
274
279
287
302

303
304
307
317
321

322
328
332


218
260
285
275
284

278
274
266
420
278

251
305
319
416
424

261
331
321


4.15
4.52
4.41
4.65
4.04

4.37
4.38
4.12
3.81
4.10

4.61
3.96
4.05
4.48
3.77

4.24
4.25
3.86


145.0
127.0
128.5
158.0
145.0

172.0
167.0
189.0
184.0
122.0

144.0
154.5
189.5
207.0
172.5

139.5
200.5
172.0


81,451
102,270
110,412
110,040
104,274

106,985
105,740
98,949
148,990
103,022

99,761
110,553
117,405
162,565
149,465

98,846
144,374
115.250


561.7
805.3
859.2
696.4
719.1

622.0
633.2
523.5
809.7
844.4

692.8
715.6
619.6
785.3
866.5

708.6
720.1
670.1


4,831
6,926
7,389
5,989
6,184

5,349
5,446
4,502
6,963
7,262

5,958
6,154
5,329
6,754
7,452

6,094
6,193
5,763


18,304
22,879
27,603
26,452
34,758

27,085
26,109
30,260
37,248
31,895


15,962
34,765
22,841
44,538
35,757

16,392
22,075
33,309


- ---- ~~----
~ --l~---.Y--.-----------. -----.-~-~---- _~ -U---------


'" -- --'-I-"-~-










TABLE 34.--Continued


Dairy : Base :Gallons of: Percent :Number of:Number of: Number of : Amount of milk sold annually
farm :gallons :milk sold : : cows per: men per : cows per :Gallons Per cow :Gallons
number :per day : per day : butterfat: farm : farm : man :per farm :Gallons : Pounds:per man


25T
16N
24T
29T
18N

21C
18C
26T
22C
23T

19C
20C
14N
27T


338
354
356
360
360

362
373
410
428
428

431
433
444
446


424
483
175
326
490

343
297
364
433
380

386
422
397
527


3.89
4.25
4.23
3.91
4.37

4.91
5.03
4.00
4.13
3.99

4.34
4.38
4.30
4.04


219.5
170.0
110.0
163.0
323.0

153.5
120.0
197.0
267.5
162.0

193.0
210.0
195.0
209.5


5.29
8.25
3.16
4.00
6.13

7.44
5.30
4.00
5.77
4.53

5.69
7.24
6.37
5.27


41.5
20.6
34.8
40.8
52.7

20.6
22.6
49.2
46.4
35.8

33.9
29.0
30.6
39.8


152,104
182,954
66,242
117,422
188,873

142,106
124,968
132,878
161,129
142,455

148,222
162,771
151,234
195,314

129.344


693.0
1,076.2
602.2
720.4
584.7

925.8
1,041.4
674.5
602.4
879.4

768.0
775.1
775.6
932.3


5,960
9,255
5,179
6,195
5,028

7,962
8,956
5,801
5,181
7,563

6,605
6,666
6,670
8,018


28,753
22,176
20,963
29,356
30,811

19,100
23,578
33,220
27,925
31,447

26,050
22,482
23,742
37,061


Awrap 355 343 4 22 175.3 4.86 36.17 6.


175.3 4,86 36.1


738.0 6.346 26.626


A~Pt~PP ?'j5 3Lr3 6~22










TABLE 34.--Continued


:Gallons of: Percent :Number or:Numner or :Number or


farm : gallons :milk sold : : cows per: men pe
number: per day : per day : butterfat: farm : farm


25C
31T
35T
20N
23C

32T
34T
30T
24C
21N

33T
19N
22N
24N
28C

26N
40T
38T
23N
26C

25N
27C
27N


461
471
474
493
508

510
523
526
535
537

542
546
577
627
627

629
642
658
658
664

669
693
706


456
477
665
359
450

596
524
542
502
463

511
782
932
865
593

789
723
695
558
605

947
590
818


3.96
3.81
3.93
4.35
3.97

3.70
3.98
3.79
4.23
4.68

4.28
4.80
4.26
4.71
4.27

4.79
4.07
3.76
4.08
4.07

4.48
4.03
4.46


318.0
253.0
276.0
259.0
193.0

250.5
230.0
254.5
254.0
183.5

243.5
414.5
455.5
420.5
210.0

404.5
307.5
341.0
327.0
215.5

430
318.5
414


Large Farms

6.23
6.00
7.18
4.46
4.00

5.00
6.00
8.00
6.96
6.84

6.64
10.84
10.27
8.65
7.04
11.00
7.25
8.27
4.40
9.58

12.78
6.55
9.79


: cows per :
: man


51.0
42.2
38.4
58.1
48.2

50.1
38.3
31.8
36.5
26.8

36.7
38.2
44.3
48.6
29.8
36.8
42.4
41.2
74.3
22.5

33.6
48.6
42.3


Amount of milk sold annually
Gallons : Per cow :Gallons
per farm : Gallons:Pounds :per man


165,473
171,615
240,242
138,127
163,348

207,850
190,868
191,743
189,492
186,343

194,540
319,790
351,330
349,474
224,966
321,977
266,593
245,475
205,892
223,062

370,693
216,068
319,198


520.0
678.3
870.4
533.3
846.0

829.7
829.9
753.4
746.0
1,015.5

798.9
771.5
771.3
831.1
1,071.3

796.Q
867.0
719.9
629.6
1,035.1

862.1
678.4
771.0


4,472
5,833
7,485
4,586
7,276

7,135
7,137
6,479
6,416
8,733

6,871
6,635
6,633
7,147
9,213

6,846
7,456
6,191
5,415
8,902

7,414
5,834
6,631


26,561
28,602
33,460
30,970
40,837

41,570
31,811
23,968
27,226
27,243

29,298
29,501
34,209
40,402
31,955

29,271
36,771
29,683
46,794
23,284

29,006
32,987
32,604


Dairy : Base


__ I ~_ __


- I--~


*


Mr









TABLE 34.--Continued


Dairy : Base :Gallons of: Percent :Number of:Number of: Number of: Amount of milk sold annually
farm : gallons :milk sold : : cows per: men per : cows per: Gallons : Per cow : Gallons
number: per day : per day : butterfat: farm : farm : man : per farm : Gallons :Pounds: per man


766
697

694
777
651
710
692
1,005
839
877
796
1,071
917
1,414
975
957
955
1,092
1,098
1,071
1,079
1,427
1,199


4.46
3.99

4.04
4.16
4.37
4.13
4.05
4.19
3.76
3.81
4.08
4.07
3.99
4.11
4.23
4.28
3.91
3.88
3.86
4.08
4.01
4.41
4.38


345.5
299.5

275.5
362.5
279.5
286.0
407.5
531.5
389.0
297.5
327.0
573.3
776.5
464.0
509.5
374.5
339.5
491.0
463.0
498.0
566.0


9.00
6.18

6.08
10.30
11.54
8.36
7.67
10.69
9.00
9.08
6.20

16.00
12.00
9.16
11.26
8.00
9.00
9.64
9.50
27.00


36T
42T

37T
29C
31C
39T
30C
28N
41T
43T
4 T
47T
29N
31N
32C
46T
50T
48T
330
44T
34C
30N


38.4
48.5

45.3
35.2
24.2
34.2
53.1
49.7
43.2
32.8
52.7
t2.4
3.9
48.5
38.7
55.6
33.3
42.4
54.6
48.0
52.4
21.0
70.6


271,869
254,328

254,840
290,163
250,887
263,966
254,757
377,234
295,445
310,899
294,086
398,762
334,355
524,592
367,889
363,576
343,805
391,568
392,056
395,809
394,304
552,895
462,530


4.14 370.7 8.99 41.2 293,365


786.9 6,767 30,208
849.2 7,303 41,153


925.0
800.4
897.6
923.0
625.0

709.8
759.5
1,045.0
899.3
814.5
675.6
792.9
714.0
918.0
1,153.4
798.5
854.9
791.8
977.0


7,955
6,883
7,719
7,938
5,375

6,104
6,532
8,897
7,734

5,810
6,819
6,140
7,895
9,919
6,867
7,352
6,809
8,402


41,914
28,171
21,741
31,575
33,215

35,288
32,827
34,240
47,433

32,787'
30,657
39,692
30,533
48,946
43,562
41,059
41,506
20,478


722
754

757
801
808
820
822
826
858
884
313
967
995
1,027
1,043
1,045
1,079
1,093
1,269
1,290
1,743
1,777


812.5 11.50


569.3 4,896 40,220
791.0 6,803 32,617


Average 793 787




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