Title: Percentage distribution of per acre costs of producing vegetable crops in selected areas in Florida
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Title: Percentage distribution of per acre costs of producing vegetable crops in selected areas in Florida
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Brooke, Donald Lloyd,
Publisher: University of Florida, Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
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Agricultural Economics Series No. $1-12
Preliminary





PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF P R ACRE COSTS OF PRODUCING
VEGETABLE CROPS IN SELECTED AREAS IN FLORIDA

















by

Donald L. Brooke
Associate Agricultural Economist


University of Florida
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
Gainesville, Florida
April, 1951








Percentage Distribution of Per Acre Costs of Producing
Vegetable Crops in Selected Areas in Florida


The attached tables showing, by vegetable crops and major areas, the per-
centage distribution of growing cost by items of expense were computed from data
given in "Costs and Returns From Vegetable Crops in Florida, Vol. V".1/ These per-
centages were computed from the 4-season (1946-47 to 1949-50) or S-season (19U5-46
to 1949-50) average per-acre cost of production. The average shown for each crop is a
simple average of the percentages for the areas listed. It is not necessarily a
State average figure, since all areas are not always included for a given crop.
The average growing cost per-acre in dollars for each crop and area is provided to
facilitate comparison.

In spite of the fact that the dollar cost of production per acre varies
widely between areas for a given crop, the relative distribution of the items of
cost for each vegetable crop is surprisingly uniform between areas of the State.
Variations noted are due to one or more of the following factors:

a. Type of soil and location.
b. Intensity of cultivation.
c. Degree of mechanization and type of equipment required,
d. Risks involved in production.

Land rents generally are lower for those areas located in North Central
Florida than for the areas of South Florida. Variations in land rents are also re-
lated in part to intensity of cultivation in an area, being lower in extensive than
in intensive areas.

Seed and seedbed cost variations are due to risks involved in producing
plants for resetting or the amount of field replanting required because of weather
losses. In the LaCrosse area considerable expense is involved in preparation of
seedbedframes and covers for frost protection.

Fertilizer costs, while quite uniform for most areas for the same crop,
are lower on the muckland soils of the Everglades and Sarasota.

The percentage distribution of costs for spray and dust indicate lower
costs in North Florida than in Central and South Florida areas. This may be due to
intensity of cultivation in the areas, or to lack of incidence of diseases and in-
sects because of weather or other factors.

Crops requiring large amounts of hand labor, such as trough cucumbers in
Sumter County, or those intensively cultivated, such as celery, have a higher per-
centage of cost for cultural labor. Labor on beans and Irish potatoes is less than
for other crops; they are generally more adapted to intensive mechanization methods
in production.

Power costs include airplane application of dust, other machine hire, gas,
oil and grease, repair and maintenance of equipment and mule feed. These vary with
the degree of mechanization in an area, the type of equipment required and efficien-
cy in the use of equipment. The Everglades area uses heavier type equipment for
many operations than otherareas. The Ft. Pierce area needs more heavy equipment
1/ Brooke, D. L., Costs and Returns from Vegetable Crops in Florida, Vol. V,
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. 1iimeo. AE Series No. 51-8, 1951.






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for land preparation and drainage. Here, too, the land is used only one season for
tomatoes and new land must be cleared each year.

Overhead costs include such items as depreciation on equipment, interest
on investment (other: than..land), taxes, licenses, insurance and interest on produc-
tion capital. Very little variation is noted between areas or crops for this item.

Lima Beans


Percentage Distribution of Per Acre Costs in Selected Areas
1945-46 to 1949-50 Average.


in Florida


Item Average Hawthorne : Pompano

Percent
Growing costs:
Land rent 9.9 : 5.6 : 1.1
Seed : 1.9 : 18.8 : 11.0
Fertilizer 28.4 : 26.5 : 30.3
Spray and dust 2.6 : .7 : .6
Cultural labor 16.6 : 19.1 : 1.0
Power costs : 16.7 : 17.2 : 16.2
Overhead 9.2 : 10.1 : 8.
Miscellaneous expense 1.7 : 2.0 : l.
Total : 100.0 : 100.0 : 100.0
Average growing cost per acre : $131.60 : $88.06 : $175.13


Snap Beans


Percentage Distribution of Per Acre Costs in Selected Areas
1945-46 to 1949-50 Average.


in Florida


Item :Average: Dade :Everglades:Havrthorne:LaCrosse:'cIntoshlPompano

Percent
Growing costs: : : : :
Land rent : 12.5 : 17.9 : 20.5 : 6.2 : 7.5 : 6.6 : 16.2
Seed : 13.6 : 14.5 : 14.0 : 15.1 : 15.9 : 11.6 : 10.2
Fertilizer : 23.5 : 22.2 : 11.4 : 28.3 : 29.8 : 25.5 : 24.1
Spray and dust : 3.3 : .5 : 4.8 : 1.0 : 2.7 : 1.7 : 4.9
Cultural labor : 16.5 : 13.8 : 17.0 : 19.8 : 14.1 : 19.7 : 14.5
Power costs : 19.0 : 14.5 : 19.0 : 18.6 : 18.5 : 2.0 : 19.5
Overhead : 10.6 : 11.2 : 11.6 : 10.9 :10.9 : 10.4 : 8.9
Misc. expense : 1.0 : 1. : 1.7 : .1 .6 : .5 : 1.7
Total : 100.0 100.0 : 1000 00.0 : 11000 1:00.0 : 1001 0
Average grovring cost :
per acre :$97.66 : $112.95: $91.81 : 079.65 : 89.34 : 75.39 :0136.79









Cabbage

Percentage Distribution of Per Acre Costs in Selected Areas
1945-46 to 1949-50 Average.


in Florida


Item Average :Everglades : Hastings Sanford

Percent

Growing costs: :
Land rent : 12.5 : 13.9 : 10.1 : 13.3
Seed and seedbed 6.6 : 6.2 : 7.3 : 6.3
Fertilizer : 23.2 : 9.5 : 32.1 : 28.1
Spray and dust 5.8 : 8.4 5.2 : 3.9
Cultural labor : 28.0 : 35.6 : 2.3 : 2.0
Power costs : 13.2 : 16.1 : 10.7 : 12.8
Overhead 9.2 : 8.7 : 9.5 : 9.
Miscellaneous expense: 1.5 : 1.6 : .8 : 2.1
Total : 100.0 : 100.0 100.0 100.0
Average growing cost : : : :
per acre : $182.32 : $122.70 : `168.99 : 255.27


Celery


Percentage Distribution of Per Acre Costs in Selected Areas
1945-46 to 1949-50 Average.


Item


in Florida


:Average :Everglades: Oviedo : Sanford : Sarasota : Zellwood
*


Percent


Growing costs:
Land rent
Seed and seedbed
Fertilizer
Spray and dust
Cultural labor
Power costs
Overhead
Miscellaneous expense.-


6.9
7.6
22.4
7.9
34.4
10.7
7.9
2.2


4.3
9.1
17.2
9.3
39.7
10.5
8.0
1.9


11.5
5.9
23.2
6.8
31.4
9.7
8.9
2.6


7.6
7.8
30.1
6.3
33.8
6.9
6.3
1.2
I nn\/ a


6.9
7.9
18.5
7.8
36,0
11.9
ii. 9
9.8
1.2
I ~\ "


Total J1U0.U : 100UU I; UU.U : J-UVU .VUu AvUU
Average growing cost : : : :
per acre : $584.21: $450.75 : 0632,88 : 3561.10 : $694.65 : $581.66


4.0
7.6
23.1
9.2
31.2
14.4
6.6
3.9
I rnn %








Cucumbers

Percentage Distribution of Per Acre Costs in Selected Areas in Florida
1945-46 to 1949-50 Average.

: : Fort : :I'anatee-: :, iauch
Item Average : ers :LaCrosse Ruskin :Pompano Sumter auchula

Percent

Growing costs: :
Land rent : 8.1 : 11 : 6.4 : 10.1 : 9.6 : 7.2 : 3.7
Seed 3.9 : 2.8 : 8.8 : 2.9 : 2.7 : 3.1 : 3.1
Fertilizer : 25.2 : 29.6 : 30.3 : 21.7 : 26.4 : 18.4 : 25.1
Spray and dust : 117 : 14.0 : 6.3 : 10.9 : 19.7 : 7.2 : 12.0
Cultural labor : 26.0 : 17.6 : 21.9 : 25.9 : 21.1 : 39.6 : 29.9
Power costs : 14.4 : 12.9 : 16.6 : 16.7 : 13.1: 10.8 : 16.0
Overhead : 9.8 : 10.6 : 9.6 : 10.7 : 6.0 : 12.1 : 9.9
Misc. expense : .9 : .7 : .1 : 1.1: 1.4 : 1.6 : .3
Total : b00 : 100.0 : 100.0 : 100.0 : 100.0 : 100.0 : 100.0
Average growing cost: : : :
per acre : $296.86: $271.83: $103.36: $303.48: $237.82: $565.91: $298.76


Eggplant
Percentage Distribution of Per Acre Costs in Selected Areas
1945-46 to 1949-50 Average.


in Florida


Item : Average :Fort Myers : LaCrosse Pompano

Percent
Growing costs: :
Land rent : 71 : 8.7 : 5.3 : 7.2
Seed and seedbed : 8.2 : 4.7 : 16.3 : 3.6
Fertilizer 30.9 : 29.3 : 27.9 : 35.5
Spray and dust 5.8 : 5.3 : .1 : 7.9
Cultural labor : 27.4 : 28.0 : 25.3 : 29.0
Power costs : 11.9 : 12.6 : 12.6 : 10.4
Overhead : 8.2 : 10.5 : 8.5 : 5.7
Misc. expense .5 : .9 : .7
Total 00100.0: 100.0 00.0 :1 100.0
Average growing cost :
per acre : $260.17 : $32.57 : 130.52 : $325.43









Lettuce Escarole

Percentage Distribution of Per Acre Costs in Selected Areas
1945-46 to 1949-50 Average.


in Florida


Item :Average U McIntosh Sanford

Percent

Growing costs:
Land rent : 8.8 : : 13.5
Seed and seedbed 6.0 : 7.4 : 4.7
Fertilizer 30.2 : '31.6 : 28.7
Spray and dust : .3 : .6
Cultural labor : 33.6 : 39.7 : 27.5
Power costs 11.3 : 9.5 : 13.1
Overhead 8.3 : 6.8 : 9.8
Miscellaneous expense 1.5 : 1.0 : 2.1
Total : 100.0 : 100.0 : 100.0
Average growing cost per acre : 196.73 : 140.3 : $253.11


Green Peppers


Percentage Distribution of Per Acre Costs in Selected Areas
1945-46 to 1949-50 Average.


in Florida


Item :Average : Ever- : Fort :LaCrosse'Pompano : Sumter :Wauchula
: : glades : i.yers: :
Percent

Growing costs: : : : :
Land rent : 7.0: 11.9 7.1: 4.7 : 6.: 8.5 3.6
Seed and seedbed : 8.6 : 5.7 : 8.7: 19.7 5.8 5.2 : 6.5
Fertilizer 23.5 : 11.2 28.9 : 29. : 32.9 : 17.8 : 20.9
Spray and dust : 6.8 : 13.7 : 5.0 : 2.8 : 7.3 : 6.0 : 5.9
Cultural labor : 32.6 : 39.7 : 29.5 : 24.1 : 32.9 : 32.3 : 37.2
Power costs : 11.3 : 7,5 : 10.7 : 11i. : 8.4 : 15.0 : 14.9
Overhead : 9.3 : 9.1 : 9.5 : 7.8 : 5.3 : 13.1 : 10.7
Misc. expense : .9 : 1.2 : .6 : .1 : 1.0 : 2.1 : .3
Total : 100.0 : 100.0 : 100.0 1000 : 100.0 : 100.0 : 100.0
Average growing cost : : : : :
per acre : $292.36: $223,75: $357.44: 141.95: $358.22: $387.39: 285.38





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Irish Potatoes

Percentage Distribution of Per Acre Costs in Selected Areas in Florida
1945-46 to 1949-50 Average.

Item Avverage Dade : Ever- Fort Hastings LaCrosse
: : glades t iy~ers*
Percent

Growing costs: :
Land rent 9.4 11.3 : 10.0 : 12.4 : 8.6 : .8
Seed : 28.3 : 31.2 30.1 : 25.0 : 27.0 : 23.1
Fertilizer : 20.5 17.5 : 12.1 : 20.5 : 23.9 : 28..
Spray and dust 7.8 : 8.2 : 13.7 : 9. : 5.2 : 2.6
Cultural labor : 1.7 : 1.5 : 13.1 : 1.0 : 16.2 : 15.8
Power costs 9.7 : 7.3 : 11.2 : 8.9 : 9.9 : 11.0
Overhead : 8.3: 8.3: 8.6 : 8. 7.9: 8.2
Miscellaneous expense : 1.3 : 1.7 : 1.2 : 1.h : 1.3 : 1.0
Total : 100.0 : 1000 : 100.0 : 100.0 : 100.0 : 100.0
Average growing cost per acre : )215.09: $259.20: 0187.96: $279.74: 0207.17: 0141.39


Tomatoes

percentage Distribution of Per Acre Costs in Selected Areas in Florida
1945-h6 to 1919-50 Average.

Item 'Average Dade : Fort : anatee-uskin auchula
: : : Pierce :Unstaked: Staked :
Percent

Growing costs: : : :
Land rent : 6.2 : 9.4 : 3.8 : 7.1 : 6.5 : 3.9
Seed and seedbed : 2.1 : 1.3 : 1.3 : 2.8 : 2.2 : 2.9
Fertilizer 22.3 : 25.5 : 22.9 : 19.9 : 19.5 : 23.5
Spray and dust 9.8 : 9.9 : 10.3 : 11.4 : 7.8 : 9.6
Cultural labor : 3.1 : 31.2 : 29.9 : 35.4 : 42.1 : 31.9
Power costs : 15.2 : 11.0 : 20.3 : 14.9 : 12.5 : 17.
Overhead : 9.3 : 9.6 : 9.9 : 8.3 : 8. : 10.4
Miscellaneous expense : 1.0 : 2.1 : 1.6 : .2 : 1.0 : .3
Total : 100.0 : 100.0 : 100.6 : 100.0 : 100.0 : 100.0
Average growing cost per acre : $332.16: 281.25: :341.65: 0305.16: $471.-!4: '261.31

DLB:fw L/25/51
Exp. Sta., Ag. Ec. 200




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