Title: Distribution of consumers' dollar between citrus and three competitive products from March to June, 1949 and 1950 in ten stores in Jacksonville, Flori
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Title: Distribution of consumers' dollar between citrus and three competitive products from March to June, 1949 and 1950 in ten stores in Jacksonville, Flori
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Bergen, Tallmadge.
Publisher: University of Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station
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Bibliographic ID: UF00074514
Volume ID: VID00001
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 123416327

Full Text







Special Report
Agricultural Economics
Series No. 50-11




University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station,
Gainesville, Florida and Texas Agricultural Experiment Station,
College Station, Texas, cooperating.





DISTRIBUTION OF CONSUMERS' DOLLAR BETWEEN CITRUS'
AND THREE COMPETITIVE PRODUCTS FROM MARCH TO JUNE,
1949 and 1950 in TEN STORES IN JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA

by

Tallmadge Bergen


This is a preliminary report on one phase of the Research and
Marketing Administration Southern Regional Project, SM-4,
"Marketing Citrus Fruits". Under Project SM-4, the Texas
Agricultural Experiment Station is conducting a similar study
on the i'aba, Texas market.






University of Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station
Gainesville, Florida
December 15, 1950











DISTRIBUTION OF CONSUvMER DOLLAR BETWEEN CITRUS AND THEET COMAPET'ITIVE PRODUCTS
from
MARCH TO JUNE, 1949 AND 1950
in
TEN STORES IN JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA




Due to the large increase in orange concentrate and orangeade production,
the citrus industry is concerned with the nature of the competition which these
products are offering to fresh orrnbes and single strength orange juice. Distri-
bution of the. consumer dollar between citrus products, fresh apples, pineapple
and tomato juice has been determined in 10 Jacksonville, Florida stores for a
fifteen week period from LMarch to June in 1949 and for the corresponding fifteen
week period in 1950. Three stores were located in the high income district of
the city, three in the medium and four in the low. Size of stores varied from
super-market to small.


DISTRIBUTION OF CONSUMER DOLLAR l T. _E-T ORAI;GES,
ORANGE JUICE, ORANGE CCO'CLUT:LE AND ORANGE.DE


The breakdown into cents by products of each dollar expended for fresh
oranges, canned orange juice, frozen orange concentrate and canned orangeade by
income areas for the two periods in 1949 and 1950 is given in Figure 1. In the
high income area the super-market, owing to its greater volume of business, is
shown separately. All other stores in each income area have been combined.

The percent increase or decrease for the various orange products by income
areas is given in Table 1 which summarizes the changes shown in Fig. 1.


Table 1. -- INCREASES (+) AND DECREASES (-) OF CEi:TS ON THE DOLLAR SPe:T
FOR ORANGES, OiRAGE JUICE, ORrIGE CONCENTRATE AIND ORA CGEADE
FROM 1949 TO 1950


HIGH INCOi HIGH L;O MEDIUM IN- LOW INCOME ALL NINE
PRODUCT ONE SUPER TWO STOrIS COi.d FOUR STORES STORES
STORE THREE STORES Super exc.

ORANGES -11.66 -20.3# -3.9# +1.6# -5.20
ORANGE JUICE -13.5 -2.9 -15.4 -14.2 -13.2
CONCENTRATE +22.1 +22.8 +12.9 +0.5 +11.2
ORANGEADE +3.0 +0.4 +6.4 +12.1 +7.2


The shift which took place from 1949 to 1950, it will be observed, was a
large percentage increase in orange concentrate and a small increase in orangeade








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Distribution of consumer dollar


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Distribution of consumer dollar


for the high income area, with as ma-rked decrease in both fresh oranges and canned
orange juice. For the medium income area a considerable increase occurred in
orange concentrate, with a lesser increase for orangeade but more so than in the
high. In the medium income area there was a marked decrease in orange juice and
a small decrease in fresh oranges. For the low income area there was a slight
increase in the portion of the doll:.r spent for fresh oranges but a considerable
decrease in that spent for canned orange juice, with a corresponding increase in
the amount spent for orangeade. The increase in orr.nge concentrate was practically
nil. For nine stores in the three areas the greatest increase in the portion of
the dollar spent wa;s for orange concentr--te and a considerable increase for or-
angeade. The large decrease occurred in canned orange juice and with a consid-
era:ble decrease in fresh oranges.

It appears from these data that orange concentrate was substituted for
orange juice and perhaps oranges also, in the high income area. In the low in-
come area orangeade was substituted for canned orange juice, with practically
no change in fresh oranges and orange concentrate. In the medium income area
concentrate, and to a lesser extent orangeade, was substituted for canned orange
juice and perhaps fresh oranges to a slight extent. It should be borne in mind
that this analysis is based only on consumers' expenditures and does not attempt
to analyse the situation from the standpoint of quantity srles and prices.


PORTIONS OF CC.GSU,.iRS' TOTAL CITRUS DOLLAR SPLT FOR EACH PRODUCT.

The breakdown into cents by products of each dollar expended for all citrus
products for the two periods, in the srme stores and income areas as shown in
Pig. 1, is given in Table 2.

Table 2. -- PORTIONS OF CONSUivMERS' CITRUS DOLLAR SPZNT FOR EACH PRODUCT IN
STORES OF THE 3 IICOMIE AREAS, FOR COPRESPONiDING PERIODS IN 1949 AND 1950
HIGH IliCOIE HIGH IlCO0 iv MD. INCOiE LOW INCOi;S ALL oTOi:E
PRODUCT GJE SUPZR TWO STOHRS 3 STO6hS 4 STORES (SUP. EXC.)


RF'Rd[UIT
ORADGE JUICE

ORARGiADE
GPFT. JUICE
BLENDED JUICL
SECTIONS*
MISC.**


1949 1950 1349 1950 1949 1950 1949 1950 1949 1950
Cents Cents Cents Gents Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents
42.9 35.5 44.9 30.3 37.1 32.7 39.9 41.8 40.1 35.8
12.5 10.7 20.8 23.6 12.9 12.8 12.0 15.5 13.9 16.4
18.7 8.9 9.9 7.6 28.6 16.7 28.7 19.1 25.1 15.5
12.8 30.4 11.5 25.6 6.1 14.6 0 0.4 3.9 11.5
0 2.3 0 0.2 0.1 4.4 1.3 9.9 0.7 5.6
7.5 5.1 7.4 8.0 11.4 11.2 15.6 11.6 12,8 10.6
4.1 2.5 2.5 1.6 1.8 3.5 1.8 1.4 2.0 2.2
1.1 2.8 2.5 1.4 1.8 2.8 0.4 0.3 1.2 1.5
0.4 1.8 0.5 1.7 0.2 1.3 0.3 0 0.3 0.9


TOTAL $1.00 $1.00 $1.00 $1.00 $1.00 $1.00 $1.00 $1.00 $1.00 $1.00

* Sections include grapefruit, orL.nge -.nd s, lad sections.
** Miscellaneous includes tangerine juice, blended and grapefruit juice con-
centrates which were combined due to their very small values in relation to
the other products.


Page 3









TABLE 3 is a summ;-ry of TABLE 2 showing increases (+) and decreases (-) in
cents of the total citrus dollar spent for each product from 1949 to 1950.


Table 3. -- INCiASE~ (+) A i DCP~EASES (-) I_. CIJTS OF THE CONSU,.ERS' CITRUS
DOLLAR SPENiT FOR XcCH CITRUS PRODUCT FROH 1949 TO 1950
HIGH IiCOiE HIGH INCOOf. ivDIUM INCOE LOW INCOME ALL
PRODUCT ONE SUPER TWO oTORjS THiiR~ STORES FOUR STOKES STORES
STORE Super exc.

ORANGES -7.4 -14.6 -4.4 +1.9 -4.3
GRAPEFRUIT -1.8 +2.8 -0.1 +3.5 +2.5
/

ORANGE JUICE -9.8 -2.3 -11.9 -9.6 -9.6
CONCENTRATE +17.6 +14.1 +8.5 +0.4 +7.6
ORANGEADE +2.3 +0.2 +4.3 +8.6 +4.9

GPFT. JUICE -2.4 +0.6 -0.2 -4.0 -2.2
BLENDED JUICE -1.6 -0.9 +1.7 -0.4 +0.2

SECTIONS +1.7 -1.1 +1,0 -0.1 +0.3
MISC. +1.4 +1.2 +1.1 -0.3 +0.6
MiscellaAeous includes tangerine juice, blended and grapefruit juice concen-
trate.

It will be observed that the changes in citrus products other than oranges,
orange juice, concentrate and orangeade are too small to warrant definite con-
clusions as to trends. There is indication, however, that fresh grapefruit has
been taking preference over canned grapefruit juice in 1950 as compared to 1949,
as shown by a 2.5 cents increase in fresh grapefruit for nine stores, and a 2.2
cents decrease in grapefruit juice. This condition was especially indicated in
the low income area stores which showed a 3.5 cents increase in grapefruit and a
4.0 cents decrease in grapefruit juice. It is to be remembered, however, that
the price of grapefruit juice was unusually high in the winter and spring of 1950.
Hence the change may be the result of price. The changes in blended juice and
sections were too smrll and varied between the stores of the different income
areas to indicate any trends. Blended and grapefruit concentrates, however, (in-
cluded in "Miiscellaneous") accounted for the increases of 1.4 cents in the high
income super-market, 1.2 cents in the two smaller stores of the high income area
and 1.1 cents in tne medium income area stores.


PORTIONS OF CONSUi.ElRS' DOLLAR SPENT i'OR .CH P-RODUCT ,JHEl TOTAL DOLLAR
INCLUDES ALL CITRUS PRODUCTS, APPLES, PINEAPPLE JUICE AND TOMATO JUICE

The breakdown into cents by products of each dollar expended for all citrus
products, apples, pineapple juice and tomato juice for the two periods in the
same stores and income areas, is given in Table 4.

TABLE 5 is a summary of TABLE 4 showing increases (+) and decreases (-) in
cents of the total dollar spent for each product, including citrus, apples, pine-
apple juice and tomato juice,


Pare 4


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Distribution of consumer dollar


Table 4. -- PORTIONS OF CO;SUMviERS' CITRUS, APPLE, PI AAP?LE AND TOxiATO JUICE
DOLLAR SPENT FOR EACH PRODUCT IN THi THREE INCOivM AREAS DURING CORRESPONDING
PERIODS IN 1949 AND 1950
HIGH INCOME HIGH INCO iMED. INCO'iE LOW INCOME ALL STORES
PRODUCT ONE SUPER TWO STORES 3 STO&.S 4 STORES (Super excl.)
1949 1950 1949 1950 1949 1950 1949 1950 1949 1950
Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents
ORANGES 25.0 23.0 27.5 18.8 19.3 18.8 26.3 23.8 24.3 20.9
GRAPEFRUIT 7.3 7.0 12.7 14.7 6.7 7.4 7.9 8.8 8.4 9.6
APPLES 30.3 24.4 28.1 28.7 38.6 31.6 21.8 34.4 28.4 32.1
ORANGE JUICE 10.9 5.8 6.0 4.7 14.9 9.6 18.9 10.9 15.1 9.0
CONCENTRATE 7.5 19.7 7.0 15.9 3.2 8.5 0 .2 2.4 6.7
'ORANGEADE 0 1.5 0 .1 2.6 .8 5.6 .4 3.3
GPFT. JUICE 4.4 3.3 4.6 5.0 5.9 6.5 10.3 6.6 7.8 6.2
BLENDED JUICE 2.4 1.6 1,5 1.0 1.0 2.0 1.2 .8 1.2 1.3
SECTIONS .7 1.8 1.5 .9 .9 1.6 .3 .2 .7 .9
MISC. CITRUS** .2 1.1 .3 1.0 .1 .7 .2 0 .2 .5
PINEAPPLE JUICE 3.6 3.4 3.7 2.6 3.7 3,9 4.0 4.9 3.9 4.0
TOMATO JUICE 7.7 7.4 7.1 6.6 5.7 6.8 8.3 3.8 7.2 5.5
TOTAL $1.00 $1.00 $1.00 $1.00 $1.00 1,00 $1.00 $1.00 $1.00 $1.00
* Less than 0.05
** Miscellaneous includes tangerine juice, blended and grapefruit concentrates.


Table 5. -- INCREASES (+) AND DECREASES (-) IE CENTS OF THE CONSUMERS' CITRUS,
APPLE, PINEAPPLE JUICE AND TOMATO JUICE DOLLAR SPENT FOR EACH PRODUCT FROM
1loAQ rT 1 Q A n


HIGH INCOME HIGH INCOME MED. INCOMiE LOW INCOiE ALL STORES
PRODUCT ONE SUPER Td0 STORES 3 STORES 4 STORES (SUPER EXCL.)
ORANGES -2.0 -8.7 -0.5 -2.5 -3.4
GRAPEFRUIT -0.3 +2.0 +0.7 +0.9 +1.2
APPLES -5.9 +0.6 -7.0 +12.6 +3.7
ORANGE JUICE -5.1 -1.3 -5.3 -8.0 -6.1
CONCENTRATE +12.2 +8.9 +5.3 +0.2 +4.3
ORANGEADE +1.5 +0.1 +2.6 +4.8 +2.9
GPFT. JUICE -1.1 +0.4 +0,6 -3.7 -1.6
BLENDED JUICE -0.8 -0.5 +1.0 -0.4 +0.1
SECTIONS +1.1 -0.6 +0.7 -0.1 +0.2
MISC. CITRUS* +0.9 +0.7 +0.6 -0.2 +0.3
PINEAPPLE JUICE -0.2 -1.1 +0.2 +0.9 +0.1
TOMATO JUICE -0.3 -0.5 +1.1 -4.5 -1.7
* Miscellaneous includes tangerine juice, blended nd grapefruit concentrates.


The large increase in apples of 12.6 cents in the low income area stores,
being the greatest change of any product in that area, reflects the ready re-
sponse of low income people to greatly reduced apple prices during the spring
of 1950, over those of 1949. In the two other areas, excepting for the two
smaller stores in the high, there were substantial reductions in portions of
the dollar spent for apples in 1950 as compared to 1949. For pineapple juice
there was an increase of 9 mils in thelow income area, of but 2 mils in the
medium and a slight reduction in the high. For tomato juice, it will be observed
that there was a decrease of 4.5 cents of the total dollar in the low income area


Page 5


ni af.rihutinn of nonsumar dollnr








in the 1950 period, with insignificant changes for tomato juice in the medium and
high income areas.

DOLLARS SPENT FOR ALL PRODUCTS INCLUDED IN SURVEY IN STORES OF
EACH INCOME AREA FOR CORRESPONDING PERIODS OF 1949 AND 1950

The actual dollars spent for each product during the corresponding periods
of 1949 and 1950 in the stores of each income area, are given in Table 6. It was
from these data that all calculations were made to determine portions of the con-
sumers' dollar as shown in Fig. 1 and Tables 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5.
It will be observed there was a very large increase in orange concentrate
dollar sales for the high income area stores in 1950 over 1949, with but a very
small proportionate increase in orangeade, there having been none sold in 1949.
There was a sizable decrease in orange juice which was more pronounced in the
super-market. The dollar sales of oranges in the super-market increased consider-
ably but there was a sizable decrease in the dollar sales of fresh oranges in the
two smaller stores of the high income area. In the medium income area there was
a marked increase in orange concentrate dollar sales and a fair increase in orange-
ade. Dollar sales of oranges were also somewhat higher. The only decrease took
place in orange juice. In the low income area there was a large decrease in both
orange and orange juice sales, influenced mostly by the great decline in sales of
the largest store within this group. However, it will be noted that there was a
sizable proportionate increase in orangeade within this area and just a slight
increase in orange concentrate. In nine stores combined there were sizable in-
creases in orange concentrate dollar sales, and to a lesser but still sizable
extent, orangeade. The most pronounced decrease was in orange juice, and to a
lesser extent, fresh oranges.
The amounts spent for fresh grapefruit increased in 1950 in all income
areas except the low. However, the low income area decreased in all product
sales except for orangeade, apples, and to a .very slight extent pineapple juice.
The changes in the amounts spent for grapefruit juice were quite varied, the super-
market of the high income area showing a slight decrease, but the two smaller
stores of this area showing quite a proportionate increase. The medium income area
stores showed a fair increase in 1950 grapefruit juice dollar sales, but the low a
large decrease. Blended juice decreased in all stores but those of the medium in-
come area, and the increase in these stores of from $25.14 to $60.28 was enough to
cause a small increase in the combined stores. The amounts spent for citrus sec-
tions generally increased in 1950 but especially in the high income super-market.
The dollars spent for miscellaneous citrus products (tangerine juice, blended and
grapefruit concentrates) considerably increased in all stores but those of the low
income area. This increase was mostly influenced by blended and grapefruit con-
centrates coming into the market in 1950 which were not sold in these stores in
1949. Sale of tangerine juice in all stores for both periods was practically nil.
It is interesting to note that the dollar sales of apples in all stores for
both periods, except in the low income area stores in 1949, were greater than the
dollar sales of any of the other products covered, and, except for the stores of
the medium income area,, dollar sales of apples were greater in the 1950 period
than in 1949. In the low income area stores there was a larger proportionate in-
crease in the 1950 period apple sales over 1949 than for all other stores in spite
of there having been a large decrease in dollar sales of most all other products.
This further reflected the ready response of low income people to greatly reduced
apple prices in 1950 over 1949. Dollar sales of pineapple and tomato juice in-
creased in all areas in the 1950 period except in the stores of the low income
area which showed a substantial decrease in tomato juice dollar sales.


Distribution of consumer dollar


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