Title: Distribution of consumers' dollar between citrus and certain selected products by income areas in a number of stores in Jacksonville, Florida from Nov
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Title: Distribution of consumers' dollar between citrus and certain selected products by income areas in a number of stores in Jacksonville, Florida from Nov
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Creator: Bergen, Tallmadge.
Publisher: University of Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station
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Special Report
Agricultural Economics
Series No. 51-3




University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station,
Gainesville, Florida and Texas Agricultural Experiment Station,
College Station, Texas, cooperating.






DISTRIBUTION OF CONSUMERS' DOLLAR BETWEEN CITRUS
AND CERTAIN SELECTED PRODUCTS BY INCOME AREAS IN
A NUMBER OF STORES IN JACESONVILLE, FLORIDA FROM
NOVEMBER 7 TO DECEMBER 10, 1949
AND FROM JANUARY 9 TO JUNE 19, 1950

by

Tallmadge Bergen


This is a preliminary report on one phase of the Research and
Marketing Adninistration Southern Regional Project, SM-4,
"Marketing Citrus Fruits". Under Project SM-4, the Texas
Agricultural Experiment Station is conducting a similar study
on the Houston, Texas market.






University of Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station
Gain~-.sville, Florida
January 20, 1951







DISTRIBUTION OF CONSUMERS' DOLLAR BETWEEN CITRUS
AND CERTAIN SELECTED PRODUCTS BY INCOME AREAS IN
A NUMBER OF STORES IN JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA FROM
NOVEMBER 7 TO DECEMBER 10, 1949
AND FROM JANUARY 9 TO JUNE 19, 1950

The citrus industry is concerned with any variation that may occur
between income groups for the consumers' fruit dollar or for his processed
fruit dollar. Do consumers with low incomes spend their fresh fruit dollar
in the same way as high income consumers and if not in what respect does
it differ? The industry is also concerned with the seasonal pattern (i.e.,
the month to month expenditures) by income groups. Do consumers spend
their fruit dollar differently in April than in January and if so to what
extent?
In order to throw light on these and related problems, weekly sales
of citrus fruits and citrus products and certain related products were ob-
tained from a group of Jacksonville, Florida stores ranging in size from
small stores to super-markets. Data were obtained from nineteen stores
from November 7 through December 10, 1949, a period of five weeks, seven
stores being located in the low income districts of the city, six in the
medium and six in the high. From January 9 through June 19, 1950, twenty-
three weeks, data were obtained from the same stores but with one high in-
come area store omitted. Of the 'nineteen stores included, ten were of the
four major chains operating in Jacksonville, two of a local chain and seven
independents. They represented a large variety of merchandising methods,
store sizes and were well distributed over the city.
The products included in this study were:
FRESH FRUIT PROCESSED CANNED FRUIT AND JUICE
Oranges Orange juice Tomato juice
Tangerines Orange concentrate (frozen) Pineapple juice
Grapefruit Orangeade Prune juice
Apples Grapefruit juice Apple juice
Grapes Blended juice Miscellaneous citrus
FRESH FRUIT
Amounts of the dollar spent during each period for each fresh fruit
product, by income areas and all areas are shown in Figs. 1, 2, 3 and 4.
It will be noted that in the low and medium income areas a much
greater portion of the dollar was spent for apples than in the high, whereas
that spent for oranges was quite similar in the three income areas. For
grapefruit, however, a greater portion of the dollar was spent in the high
income area than in the medium and with the least occurring in the low. The
amount spent for tangerines was slightly greater in the low income area than
in the medium and least in the high. The amounts spent for grapes were quite
similar in the three income areas.
As for seasonal changes from November to June, there was little change
in the portion of the dollar spent for apples in the three income areas,
whereas that spent for oranges increased as the season went on and especially
in the high income area, where, in June it slightly exceeded apples. The
seasonal increase in oranges appears to have been caused largely by the fall-
ing off in tangerines and grapes.
* Tangerine juice, citrus sections, blended, grapefruit and orangeade con-
centrates.









$1.00I
j#


GRaPERUIT


Beg. Beg. Beg. Beg. Beg. Beg.
Jan. 9 Feb. 6 Mar. 6 Apr. 3 May 1 May 29
PERIOD


FIG. 1 SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF CONSUMER DOLLAR EXPENDITURES : Fresh Fruit,
Low Income Area.

1949-1950


Beginning
Nov. 7


1


~~E~s















































Beginning
Nov. 7


c Weeks 4 Weeks 4 Weeks 4 Weeks 4 Weeks 3 Weeks
Beg. Beg. Beg. Beg. Beg. Beg.
Jan. 9 Feb. 6 Mar. 6 Apr. 3 May 1 May 29
PERIOD


FIG. 2 -- SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF
Medium Income Area.
1949-1950


CONSUMER DOLLAR EXPENDITURE : Fresh Fruit,


$1.00


I ,I







4

$1.00 I
?


.50







.40







.30







,20







.10


Beg.


Jan. 9


GRAPEFRUIT
^^sAW','\^*/^,


Beg. Beg.
May 1 May 29


PERIOD


FIG. 3 -- SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF CONSUMER DOLLAR EXPENDITURES : Fresh Fruit,
High Income Area.
1949-1950








$1.00 I
I^^V'( *^*


.50-.
.-. ---- /




.40, j





.30-





.20 -


GRAPEFRUIT

.10 :- .

____c^^---^


I I ..-

5 Weeks 4 Weeks 4 Weeks 4 Weeks 4 Weeks 4 Weeks 3 Weeks
Beginning Beg. Beg. Beg. Beg. Beg. Beg.
Nov. 7 Jan. 9 Feb. 6 Mar. 6 Apr. 3 May 1 May 29
PERIOD

FIG. 4 -- SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF CONSUMER DOLLAR EXPENDITURES : Fresh Fruit,
All Area.
1949-1950








CANNED JUICES AND MISCELLANEOUS CITRUS

Amounts of the dollar spent during each period for each canned juice
and miscellaneous citrus products, by income areas and all areas, are shown
in Figs. 5, 6, 7 and 8.

It will be noted in the high income area (Fig.7) that by far the
greatest portion of the dollar was spent for frozen orange concentrate, and
with more in the medium (Fig.6) than in the low (Fig.5). For orangeade by
far the largest amount was spent in the low income area and with consider-
ably more in the medium than in the high. For both orange juice and grape-
fruit juice the greatest portion of the dollar was spent in the low income
area with more in the medium than in the high. The amount spent for blended
juice was about the same in the low and medium income areas and somewhat
less in the high. For miscellaneous citrus products, mainly sections and
grapefruit and blended concentrates, more was spent in the high and medium
income areas than in the low. Sales of tangerine juice and orangeade con-
centrate were practically nil. For tomato juice the greatest portion of
the dollar was spent in the high income area (being more than single strength
orange juice) and with more in the medium than in the low. For pineapple
juice more of the dollar was spent in the low income area than in either the
medium or the high. Portions of the dollar spent for prune juice were about
the same in the three income areas but a considerably less portion for apple
juice was spent in the low than in the medium or the high.

As for seasonal changes between November and June, the most striking
advance in portions of the dollar spent occurred for orangeade in the low
income area. In all three areas there was a considerable advance in con-
centrate from the March period to June with somewhat of a falling off in
orange juice. There was little seasonal change in the other juices but
in the high and medium income areas there was a small advance in amounts
of the dollar spent for miscellaneous citrus products.










$1.00Q
f^Vsol_ ( '


.w


ORANGE JUICE

N~c


GRAPEFRUIT JUICE


CONCENTRATE


5 Weeks 4 Weeks 4 Weeks 4 Weeks 4 Weeks 4 Weeks 3 weeks
Beginning Beg. Beg. Beg. Beg. Beg. Beg.
Nov. 7 Jan. 9 Feb. 6 Mar. 6 Apr. 3 May 1 May 29
PERIOD
FIG. 5 -- SEASONAL.DISTRIBUTION OF.CONSUMER DOI.AR EXPENDITURES : Canned Juices
and Miscellaneous Citrus, Low Income Area.
1949-1950


I


-4, c


--


--









$1.00


5 Weeks 4 Weeks 4 Weeks 4 Weeks 4 Weeks
Beginning Beg. Beg. Beg. Beg.
Nov. 7 Jan. 9 Feb. 6 Mar. 6 Apr. 3
PERIOD
FIG. 6 -- SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF CONSUMER DOLLAR EXPENDITURES
and Miscellaneous Citrus, Medium Income Area.
1949-1950


4 Weeks
Beg.
May 1


3 Weeks
Beg.
May 29


: Canned Juices







































JUICE


4 Weeks
Beg.
Jan. 9


4 Weeks 4 Weeks 4 Weeks
Beg. Beg. Beg.
Feb. 6 Mar. 6 Apr. 3


4 Weeks
Beg.
May 1


3 Weeks
Beg.
May 29


PERIOD
FIG, 7 -- SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF CONSUMER DOLLAR EXPENDITURE : Canned Juices
and Miscellaneous Citrus, High Income Area.
1949-1950


5 Weeks
Beginning
Nov. 7


81.^Oi~i;, i .,_.-----,.. -... .,. r

















1 I

Ki

4;











I



'4 k


ORANGE JUICE


POMA~QQQ~Q~~


PRUNE JUICE





SMISC.
s sc.





5 Weeks 4 Weeks 4 Weeks 4 Weeks 4 Weeks 4 Weeks 3 Woek
Beginning Beg. Beg. Beg. Beg. Beg. Beg.
Nov. 7 Jan. 9 Feb. 6 Mar. 6 Apr. 3 May 1 May 29


s


PERIOD
FIG. 8. -- SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF CONSUMER DOLLAR EXPENDITURE : Canned Juices
and Miscellaneous Citrus, All Area.
1949-1950


10


r


$1.00 L_


AA1


l0


,









FRESH FRUIT AND CANNED FRUIT AND JUICES

Seasonal changes which took place in fresh fruit on the one hand,
and processed juices and fruit on the other hand, is given by income areas
in Figs. 9, land 11 and for all areas in Fig. 12. The lines labeled
"orange juices" represents the combined expenditures for single strength
orange juice, orangeade, orange concentrate and one half the blended
juice. "Grapefruit juices" include single strength grapefruit juice and
one half the blended juice. "Other juices" are tomato, pineapple, prune
and apple combined.

In the low and medium income areas, by far the greatest portion of
the dollar was spent for apples, having been nearly twice as much as that
spent for oranges, the second most important product from the standpoint
of consumer expenditure. In the high income area a much less relative
amount was spent for apples than for oranges as compared with the two
other areas. For orange juice a much greater portion of the dollar was
spent in the high income area than in the medium and low, this condition
having been caused mostly by the large concentrate sales in the high in-
come area. The amounts spent for other juices compared favorably in the
three income areas. For grapefruit juices, however, the most was spent
in the low with more in the medium than in the high,

As for seasonal changes between November and June, the most strik-
ing advance occurred for orange juices, especially in the high income area
where frozen orange concentrate juice was so important. In the low income
area orange juices advanced to a greater extent than in the medium, due to
the increase in the amount spent for orangeade. The most striking seasonal
decrease in portions of the dollar spent was for apples. The seasonal fall-
ing off in parts of the dollar spent for oranges and grapefruit was not too
marked in any of the income areas. There was just a slight seasonal ad-
vance in grapefruit juices with more of a pronounced rise in the other
juices. Miscellaneous citrus products advanced considerably more in the
high and medium income areas than in the low.









(
II


5 Weeks 4 Weeks
Beginning Beg.
Nov. 7 Jan. 9


4 Weeks
Beg.
Feb. 6
PERIOD


4 Weeks
Beg.
Mar. 6


4 Weeks
Beg.
Apr. 3


4 Weeks
Beg.
May 1


3 Weeks
Beg.
May 29


FIG. 9. -- SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF CONSUMER DOLLAR EXPENDITURE : Fresh Fruit and
Canned Juices, Low Income Area.
1949-1950


$1.001

Lw./s


UI


1___


--










J


$1.00 ,


.45 VAA


.42 _


.39 -

.36 -


.33 -


.30-


.27 -


.24 -


.21


.18


.15 -


.12


.09 -.


.06


< \ l--i I ( ~~--.* .....--...-..
5 Weeks 4 Weeks 4 Weeks 4 Weeks 4 Weeks 4 Weeks 3 Weeks
Beginning Beg. Beg. Beg. Beg. Beg. Beg.
Nov. 7 Jan. 9 Feb. 6 Mar. 6 Apr. 3 May 1 May 29
PERIOD
FIG. 10.-- SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF CONSUMER DOLLAR EXPENDITURE : Fresh Fruit and
Canned Juices, Medium Income Area.
1949-1950


I











js


5 Weeks 4 Weeks 4 Weeks 4 Weeks 4 Weeks 4 Weeks 3 Weeks
Beginning Beg. Beg. Beg. Beg. Beg. Beg.
Nov. 7 Jan. 9 Feb. 6 Mar. 6 Apr. 3 May 1 May 29
PERIOD
FIG. 11. -- SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF CONSUMER DOLLAR EXPENDITURE : Fresh Fruit
and Canned Juices, High Income Area.
1949-1950





r


$1.00


f






15


$1.00


.45

.42 7

.39

.36 -

.33

.30

.2

.24 i

-21 ,
S ORANGES
.18

15 : j __

.12 i

.09
S6 GRAPEFEM
.06 TANGERINE

.03 ---,-- ----


5 Weeks 4 Weeks 4 Weeks
Beginning Beg. Beg.
Nov. 7 Jan. 9 Feb. 6
PERIOD
FIG. 12. -- SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF CONSUMER
and Canned Juices, All Area.
1949-1950


Beg. Beg. Beg. Beg.
Mar. 6 Apr. 3 May 1 May 29

DOLLAR EXPENDITURE : Fresh Fruit


1
nMn~l









EXPENDITURES BY INCOME AREAS AND ALL AREAS FOR ALL PRODUCTS

Total expenditures of consumers by income areas and all areas for
the different products over the period of the study are shown in Table 1,
It was from these amounts, broken down by periods, that all calculations
were made for Figs. 1 to 12. In comparing expenditures in the three in-
come areas, the outstanding greater amounts in the high, on a comparative
basis, were for orange concentrate, fresh grapefruit and tomato juice.
In the low income area the outstanding greater expenditure was for orange-
ade.

There is no significance to the value relationship between areas as
the number of stores in each area bore no relationship to the population
of these areas. The significance lies in the variation of the proportion
that the individual items are to the total for the different areas.


Table 1. -- DOLIAPB
FROM NOV. 7 THROUGH


SPENT FOR CITRUS AND OTHER PRODUCTS BY INCOME AREAS,
DEC. 10, 1949 AND FROM JAN. 9 THROUGH JUNE 19, 1950


INCOME AREAS
PRODUCT I LOW MEDIUM i HIGH i ALL AREAS
AMOUNT I AMOUNT % AMOUNT % AMOUNT
ORANGES $7,925 21 $6,664 1 9 $10,011 20 $24,600 20
TANGERINES 1,056 3 839 2 982 i 2 2,877 2
GRAPEFRUIT 2,312 6 2,292 7 4,481 9 9,085 7
APPLES 13,582 36 12,506 35 13,404 26 39,492 32
GRAPES 1,137 3 872 2 1,153 2 3,162 2

ORANGE JUICE 2,878 8 2,680 8 2,745 5 8,303 7
ORANGE CONCENTRATE 764 2 1,707 5 7,477 15 9,948 8
ORANGEADE 1,416 4 723 2 i 551 1 2,690 2

GRAPEFRUIT JUICE 1,652 4 1,230 3 i 1,537 3 4,419 4
BLENDED JUICE 604 2 758 2 ; 691 1 2,053 2
MISC. CITRUS* 121 ** 615 2 851 2 1,587 1

PINEAPPLE JUICE 1,406 4 964 3 1,473 3 3,843 3
TOMATO JUICE 1,367 4 1,796 5 3,216 6 6,379 5
PRUNE JUICE 876 2 1,005 3 1,318 3 3,199 3
APPLE JUICE 287 1 600 2 1,071 2 1,958 2
TOTAL '$37,383 i00 1$35,251 100 { $50,961 .100 i$123,595 100


* Tangerine juice,
centrate.


citrus sections, blended, grapefruit and orangeade con-


** Less than I of 1 percent.

TB:fnw 1/20/51
Dept. Agri. Economics 300




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