| Material Information
||Production and input records of cow-calf program on native, improved plus native and improved grass clover pastures
||3 p. : ; 28 cm.
||Peacock, F. M ( Fentress McCoughan ), 1922-
Range Cattle Station, Ona
||Agricultural Research Center
||Place of Publication:
||Beef cattle -- Cow-calf system -- Florida ( lcsh )
Pastures -- Florida ( lcsh )
||government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
||Statement of Responsibility:
||F.M. Peacock ... et al..
||"March 2, 1971."
| Record Information
||University of Florida
||All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
||oclc - 86086895
Range Cattle Station -
3r, RCS 71-6 March 2, 1971
S 7/f- PRODUCTION AND INPUT RECORDS OF COW-CALF PROGRAM ON
NATIVE, IMPROVED PLUS NATIVE AND IiPROVE.) UME LIBRARY
GRASS CLOVER PASTURES
F.M. Peacock, E.M. Hodges, JUL 1 yi
W.G. Kirk and M. Kogerl/
I.F.A.S. Univ. of Florida
The purpose of this study was to determine the response of
various breeds of cattle to three levels of pasture quality:
native pasture, a combination of native and improved pasture, and
improved pasture which included some irrigated clover.
The native area consisted of 772 acres. The native plus
improved system was comprised of 315 acres of native pasture plus
73 acres of improved grasses. The improved forage was 40 acres of
Pensacola bahiagrass and 33 acres of Pangolagrass. About 20 acres
of the Pensaeola bahiagrass was in combination with Hairy indigo
and the other 20 acres was seeded to Hubam clover during the winter
The all-improved area consisted of 107 acres of improved grasses,
with 10 acres of Pensacola bahiagrass and 97 acres of Pangolagrass.
STwenty-seven acres of the Pangolagrass were(irrigatedfand contained
white dutch clover.
The principal objective of this study was to determine breed
response to different levels of pasture quality and not primarily
to determine the amount of beef that could be produced on a given
acreage. Approximately one-third of the cows in each pasture
1/ Associate Animal Husbandman, Agronomist, and Animal Scientist
Emeritus, respectively, Range Cattle Station, Ona, Florida.
Animal Geneticist, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
system were straightbred Shorthorn and Brahman cows with the other
two-thirds being crossbred Shorthorn-Brahman. Cows within each
system were divided.into two herds each year according to breeding.
Shorthorn bulls were bred.to the Brahman, 3/4 Brahman-1/4 Shorthorn
and one-half the 1/2 Shorthorn-1/2, Brahman cows. Brahman bulls
were bred to the Shorthorn cows, 3/4 Shorthorn-1/4 Brahman and one-
half the 1/2 Shorthorn-1/2 Brahman cows.
There were approximately 60 cows annually per system. The
native pasture was stocked at the rate of approximately 13 acres
per cow, the combination.program had 1.2 acres of improved and
5.25 acres of native pasture per cow and the all-improved pasture
was stocked at one cow per 1.78 acres.
The fertilization program was of a conventional nature.
Pangolagrass, without legumes, received about 400 pounds of a
complete fertilizer and 150 pounds of ammonium nitrate each year
with some variations according to animal needs. The Pensacola
bahiagrass received the same complete fertilizer plus 100 pounds
of ammonium nitrate each year. Areas in legumes received 250
pounds of 0-8-24 per year and additional potash was applied on
whiteclover as needed.
Supplemental feeding was in accordance with the needs of the
cows within each system. Cows on unimproved area received hay and/
or supplemental feed an average of 109 days annually for the 5
years beginning in early December and ending in March with variations
between years. The average amount of feed given is presented in
The cows in the combination of native and improved system wexe
fed 3 out of the 5 years. When the season was favorable for clove
growth, the Hubam came in during late February and furnished feed
until the bahiagrass started producing. During the three years of
supplemental feeding, animals were fed an average of 72 days from
late January to April. Cows in the all-improved area maintained
a relatively healthy condition year-round. During the late winter
or early spring in 3 out of the 5 years it was necessary to hay
the cows for an average of 55 days. This was accomplished mainly
through grouping these cows together in a small area to allow the
clover and grasses in other fields to accumulate some growth.
The breeding season was 105 days in length beginning March
15 and ending before July 1, for cows on all systems. Calves
were weaned in early September.
Replacement heifers were run together and put into the herds
just prior to the breeding season when they were two years of age.
Replacements were made at random with animals going into each
system being similar.
Cows were culled on the basis of reproduction or for failing
to wean a calf.
Reproductive performance for the straightbred cows was 4o
lower than the crossbreds on the native area, 18% on the combination
and 19% lower on the grass-clover pasture. If the purebred cows
had calved at the same rate as the crossbreds, production on the
improved forage systems would have been significantly increased.
Data on production of cows and input per cow under the three
pasture systems are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Average Production, Supplemental Feed, Pasture Treatment
Per Cow Season Over .A Five-Year Period Grazing Native,
Native Plus Improved and All Improved .Grasses and
Pasture system Native Native & Improved Improved
No. cow seasons 303 295 300
Av wt cows (lb) 889 942 1017
Calf weaning % 63 75 81
Calf weaning wt. (lb) 380 457 504
Slaughter grade/ 9 10 11
Calf production/cow(lb) 241 340 406
Calf production/acre (lb) 19 52 228
Supplemental feed cow (lb)
Hay 555 43 280
Cottonseed meal 52 65 ---
Citrus meal 52 31
Common salt 35 34 -
Mineral 39 37 17
Complete fertilizer -- 237 500
Ammonium nitrate --- 102 133
0-8-24 169 133
Muriate -- --- 25
CLime) --- 339 500
Renovation (acres) --- 0.34. 0.32
Hubam seed (lb) --- 5 ---
Electricity KWH --- --- 217
1/ Grades: 9-7w Good; O0-Good; 11-High Good.