Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 In which I do not heed my father's...
 The storm in Yarmouth Roads
 In which I make two voyages, and...
 Escape and rescue
 My plantation in the Brazils
 A violent storm and a shipwrec...
 My fortress
 In which is given a copy of my...
 In which I make baskets, and explore...
 The second anniversary and beginning...
 Farming operations
 Hopes of escape
 The years pass
 The strange footprint
 In which I come upon the remains...
 A visit from the savages; a wrecked...
 My man Friday
 Preparations for departure
 In which we fight the savages,...
 Which relates of the sighting of...
 In which we capture the boat, and...
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Group Title: life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074476/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Defoe, Daniel,
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074476
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: lccn - SN01276
oclc - 1423467

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Front Cover 3
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
        Front Matter 5
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    In which I do not heed my father's advice
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    The storm in Yarmouth Roads
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    In which I make two voyages, and fall into terrible misfortunes
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Escape and rescue
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    My plantation in the Brazils
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    A violent storm and a shipwreck
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 64a
        Page 64b
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    My fortress
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    In which is given a copy of my journal
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
    In which I make baskets, and explore my island home
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 128a
        Page 128b
        Page 129
    The second anniversary and beginning of the third year
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
    Farming operations
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
    Hopes of escape
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
    The years pass
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 160a
        Page 160b
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
    The strange footprint
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
    In which I come upon the remains of a cannibal orgy, and am beset by new problems
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
    A visit from the savages; a wrecked ship
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
    My man Friday
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
    Preparations for departure
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
    In which we fight the savages, and rescue two prisoners
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
    Which relates of the sighting of a boat, and the singular events which followed
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
    In which we capture the boat, and I return to civilization
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
    Back Matter
        Page 288
        Page 289
    Back Cover
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
Full Text


6 : :
3 .i.

7he Life and Adventures of

Robinson Crusoe

INTRODUCTION BY May Lamberton Becker

Daniel Defoe based this tale upon the ad-
ventures of a man named Alexander Sel-
kirk, who in 1704 had actually been placed
upon a deserted island where he lived for
several years. Defoe elaborated on Selkirk's
experiences, changed his hero's name to
Crusoe, and made the book so real that even
today many people read it with the convic-
tion that every word is true.
In her Introduction, May Lamberton
Becker says, "The story was published, re-
published, condensed, edited, cut down, in
language after language, for generation
after generation. Boys always came upon it
with the same thrill. I have seen little
French boys setting off for summer holidays
with pail-and-shovel under one arm and a
battered copy of Crusoe under the other.
S. I know an American fourth-grader
whose teacher read the book aloud on Fri-
day afternoons; when the term ended before
the tale was finished, he saved up and
bought a secondhand copy to see how it
came out. He wrote me that another boy of-
fered to buy this copy from him, but he de-
cided there was nothing he could get with
the money that he would like so much."
Roger Duvoisin has made the fine illustra-
tions for this edition. As Mrs. Becker says,
"In these new drawings ... you see Robin-
son Crusoe's island as I am sure Defoe him-
self saw it."



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General Editor: May Lamberton Becker








Rainbow Classics







CHAPTER 1: In which I do not heed my father's advice 13
CHAPTER 2: The storm in Yarmouth Roads 21
CHAPTER 3: In which I make two voyages, and fall into
terrible misfortunes 28
CHAPTER 4: Escape and rescue 36
CHAPTER 5: My plantation in the Brazils 46
CHAPTER 6: A violent storm and a shipwreck 55
CHAPTER 7: My fortress 69
CHAPTER 8: In which is given a copy of my journal 86
CHAPTER 9: In which I make baskets, and explore my
island home 121
CHAPTER 10: The second anniversary and beginning of
the third year 130
CHAPTER 11: Farming operations 135
CHAPTER 12: Hopes of escape 142
CHAPTER 13: The years pass 157
CHAPTER 14: The strange footprint 170
CHAPTER 15: In which I come upon the remains of a
cannibal orgy, and am beset by new problems 178
CHAPTER 16: A visit from the savages; a wrecked ship 197
CHAPTER 17: My man Friday 209

CHAPTER 18: Preparations for departure 225
CHAPTER 19: In which we fight the savages, and rescue
two prisoners 235
CHAPTER 20: Which relates of the sighting of a boat,
and the singular events which followed 252
CHAPTER 21: In which we capture the boat, and I return
to civilization 270

How this story came to be written


IN THE YEAR 1704 Alexander Selkirk, son of John Selcraig a
shoemaker, who had run away to sea and joined a privateering
expedition, quarreled with his captain, Thomas Stradling, and
was at his own request put ashore on the uninhabited island of
Juan Fernandez off the coast of Chile. There he lived, all alone,
until 1709, when he was rescued by another set of privateers. It
was a nine-day wonder in the days of Queen Anne.
Daniel Defoe-his father's name was Foe but he had im-
proved it-must have thought what a good story it would make,
but he was then too busy to do anything about it. He had
travelled a good deal, taken part in Monmouth's Rebellion, and
written political satires so biting that he had been sent to prison
for them. For one he had been set in the pillory for people to
throw vegetables at him-only the people were so much on his
side that they threw flowers instead. He had made and lost
much money; as he put it, thirteen times he had been rich and
poor. But by the year 1719 he was certainly not rich, nearly
sixty years old, and beginning to feel discouraged. The story of
Selkirk came back to mind; Defoe had a gift for vivid reporting,
especially if he did not have to stick too closely to facts. In this
case he "embellished" them into the most famous adventure
story of all the world's literature: "The life and strange adven-
tures of Robinson Crusoe of York, mariner, who lived eight-
and-twenty years all alone on the coast of America, near the

mouth of the great river of Oroonoque; having been cast on
shore by shipwreck, where-in all the men perished but himself.
With an account of how he was at last as strangely delivered by
pyrates. Written by himself."
It was not written for boys, and it was full of moral reflections
meant for men, but every boy who could get a chance to read it
promptly did so, as well as everyone else. People took all
Robinson said as coming from the lips of a real man: Defoe
could describe something he had never seen and make you
sure you had seen it yourself. He did this in The Apparition
of Mrs. Veal (1706) and the Journal of the Plague Year
(1722). But of all he wrote-counting political pamphlets,
more than 250 works-nothing has lasted so long or gone so far
as this story of the solitary castaway, the parrot, faithful Friday,
the boat that couldn't be launched, and the footprints on the
sand. Most people, when you ask what they recall in the story,
tell you first how their hearts missed a beat when Crusoe came
upon that footprint!
The story was published, republished, condensed, edited, cut
down, in language after language, for generation after genera-
tion. Boys always come upon it with the same thrill. I have seen
little French boys setting off for summer holidays with pail-and-
shovel under one arm and a battered copy of Crusoe under the
other. I have seen a tiny flower-seller in Avignon stop business
till he had read through the French children's paper named
"Robinson." I know an American fourth-grader whose teacher
read the book aloud on Friday afternoons; when the term ended
before the tale was finished, he saved up and bought a second-
hand copy to see how it came out. He wrote me that another
boy offered to buy this copy from him, but he decided there
was nothing he could get with the money that he would like
so much.

The first copy of Robinson Crusoe marked the founding of a
great publishing house, for the first Longmans brought out the
book, April 25, 1719, as the first publication of what was to be
the firm of Longmans, Green. So many imitations of Crusoe,
conscious or unconscious, have been published that a special
name has been made for them-Robinsonades-and just their
titles would fill a book. Those that lasted longest were The
Adventures of Philip Quarll, that Thackeray loved, and The
Swiss Family Robinson that I used to act out in our big gar-
den along with the boys from next door.

In these new drawings by Roger Duvoisin you see Robinson
Crusoe's island as I am sure Defoe himself saw it. The subject
has fired this sensitive and original artist and he has drawn
what he seems to have seen with his own eyes, and shows
actions in which you would think he had taken part. The char-
acter of the book is in these pictures, as well as its contents.
When he was a little chap Roger Duvoisin loved to draw-
especially galloping horses. Their hoofs were too much for him,
though; he made them look like oversized shoes, and when his
uncle came for a visit Roger would always make him draw
horses dashing over large sheets of paper on their elegant hoofs.
His trees weren't so good, either, and his godmother, who was
a well-known painter, offered to show him how to draw them.
"After that," he says, "my trees were really bad." When he
graduated from art school-in Switzerland, where he was born
-he painted murals and stage scenery and posters, worked with
ceramics and even became manager of an old French pottery
plant. Then he began to design textiles, and an American firm
offered to bring him to America if he would promise to stay at
least four years. He is here still, an American citizen. The de-

pression was too much for the textile firm, but Duvoisin pub-
lished a book he had written and illustrated for his own little
son, and it was so unusual and so gay that he has been writing
and illustrating books for children and making pictures for
older people's books, ever since.




CHAPTER 1: In which I do not heed my father's
I WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good
family, though not of that country, my father being a foreigner,
of Bremen, who settled first at Hull: he got a good estate by
merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived afterward at York;
from whence he had married my mother, whose relations were
named Robinson, a very good family in that country, and
from whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but, by the
usual corruption of words in England, we are now called, nay,
we call ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe; and so my
companions always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-
colonel to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly
commanded by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed
at the battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What became
of my second brother I never knew, any more than my father
or mother knew what became of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade,

my head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts.
My father, who was very ancient, had given me a competent
share of learning, as far as house education and a country free
school generally goes, and designed me for the law; but I would
be satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and my inclination
to this led me so strongly against the will, nay, the commands
of my father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of
my'mother and other friends, that there seemed to be some-
thing fatal in that propension of nature tending directly to the
life of misery which was to befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man; gave me serious and ex-
cellent counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He
caed me one morning into his chamber, where he was con-
fine by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with me upon
this subject; he asked me what reasons, more than a mere
wandering inclination, I had for leaving my father's house and
my native country, where I might be well introduced, and had
a'prospect. of raising my fortune by application and industry,
with a life of ease and pleasure. He told me it was for men of
desperate fortunes on one hand, or for aspiring superior for-
tunes on the other, who went abroad upon adventures, to rise
by enterprise, and make themselves famous in undertakings of
a nature out of the common road; that these things were all
either too far above me, or too far below me; that mine was
the middle state, or what might be called the upper station
of low life, which he had found by long experience was the
best state in the world, the most suited to human happiness,
not.exposed to the miseries and hardships, the labor and suffer-
ings of the mechanic part of mankind, and not embarrassed
with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the upper part of
mankind. He told me, I might judge of the happiness of this
state, by this one thing, namely, that this was the state of life

which all other people envied; that kings have frequently
lamented the miserable consequences of being born to great
things, and wish they had been placed in the middle of the two
extremes, between the mean and the great, that the wise man
gave his testimony to this, as the just standard of true felicity,
when he prayed to have neither poverty nor riches.
He bade me observe it, and I should always find, that. the
calamities of life were shared among the upper and lower part
of mankind; but that the middle station had the fewest.dis-
asters, and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes as the higher
or lower part of mankind; nay, they were not subjected &i so
many distempers and uneasinesses either of body or mind, as
those were who, by vicious living, luxury, and extravagances
on one hand, or by hard labor, want of necessaries, and mean
or insufficient diet on the other hand, bring distempers upon
themselves by the natural consequences of their way of living;
that the middle station of life was calculated for all kind of
virtues and all kind of enjoyments; that peace and plenty were
the handmaids of a middle fortune; that temperance, modera-
tion, quietness, health, society, all agreeable diversions, and.all
desirable pleasures, were the blessings attending the middle
station of life; that this way men went silently and smoothly
through the world, and comfortably out of it, not embarrassed
with the labors of the hands or of the head, not sold to the life
of slavery for daily bread, or harassed with perplexed circum-
stances, which rob the soul of peace, and the body of rest; not
enraged with the passion of envy, or secret burning lust of am-
bition for great things; but in easy circumstances sliding gently
through the world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of liiing
without the bitter, feeling that they are happy, and learning by
every day's experience to know it more sensibly.
After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affec-


tionate manner, not to play the young man, not to precipitate
myself into miseries which nature and the station of life I was
born in, seemed to have provided against; that I was under
no necessity of seeking my bread; that he would do well for me,
and endeavor to enter me fairly into the station of life which he
had been just recommending to me; and that if I was not very
easy and happy in the world, it must be my mere fate or fault
that must hinder it, and that he should have nothing to answer
for, having thus discharged his duty in warning me against
measures which he knew would be to my hurt; in a word, that
as he would do very kind things for me if I would stay and
settle at home as he directed, so he would not have so much
hand in my misfortunes, as to give me any encouragement to
go away; and to close all, he told me I had my elder brother for
an example, to whom he had used the same earnest persuasions
to keep him from going into the Low Country wars, but could
not prevail, his young desires prompting him to run into the
army, where he was killed; and though he said he would not
cease to pray for me, yet he would venture to say to me, that if
I did take this foolish step, God would not bless me, and I
would have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected
his counsel when there might be none to assist in my recovery.
I observed in this last part of his discourse,-which was truly
prophetic, though I suppose my father did not know it to be so
himself,-I say, I observed the tears run down his face very
plentifully, and especially when he spoke of my brother who
was killed; and that when he spoke of my having leisure to re-
pent, and none to assist me, he was so moved, that he broke off
the discourse, and told me his heart was so full, he could say no
more to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed, who
could be otherwise, and I resolved not to think of going abroad

any more, but to settle at home according to my father's desire.
But, alas! a few days wore it all off; and, in short, to prevent any
of my father's further importunities, in a few weeks after I
resolved to run quite away from him. However, I did not act
so hastily neither, as my first heat of resolution prompted, but I
took my mother, at a time when I thought her a little pleasanter
than ordinary, and told her that my thoughts were so entirely
bent upon seeing the world, that I should never settle to any-
thing with resolution enough to go through with it, and my
father had.better give me his consent than force me to go with-
out it; that I was now eighteen years old, which was too late to
go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an attorney; that I was sure,
if I did, I should never serve out my time, and I should cer-
tainly run away from my master before my time was out, and
go to sea; and if she would speak to my father to let me go
but one voyage abroad, if I came home again and did not like
it, I would go no more, and I would promise by a double dili-
gence to recover that time I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion: she told me, she
knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any
such subject; that he knew too well what was my interest to
give his consent to anything so much for my hurt, and that she
wondered how I could think of any such thing after such a dis-
course as I had had from my father, and such kind and tender
expressions as she knew my father had used to me, and that, in
short, if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me; but I
might depend I should never have their consent to it; that for
her part she would not have so much hand in my destruction;
and I should never have it to say, that my mother was willing
when my father was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet, as
I heard afterwards, she reported all the discourse to him, and

that my father, after showing a great concern at it, said to her,
with a sigh, "That boy might be happy if he would stay at
home, but if he goes abroad, he will be the most miserable
wretch that was ever born; I can give no consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose,
though in the mean time I continued obstinately deaf to all
proposals of settling to business, and frequently expostulating
with my father and mother about their being so positively de-
termined against what they knew my inclinations prompted
me to. But being one day at Hull, where I went casually, and
without any purpose of making an elopement that time-but I
say, being there, and one of my companions being about to
sail to London, in his father's ship, and prompting me to go
with them, with the common allurement of seafaring men,
namely, that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I con-
sulted neither father nor mother any more, nor so much as sent
them word of it; but leaving them to hear of it as they might,
without asking God's blessing, or my father's, without any con-
sideration of circumstances or consequences, and in an ill hour
-God knows-on the first of September, 1651, I went on board
a ship bound for London. Never any young adventurer's mis-
fortunes, I believe, began sooner, or continued longer than
mine. The ship was no sooner gotten out of the Humber, but
the wind began to blow, and the waves to rise in a most fright-
ful manner; and as I had never been at sea before, I was most
inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified in mind. I began now
seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how justly I was
overtaken by the judgment of Heaven for my wicked leaving
my father's house, and abandoning my duty; all the good coun-
sel of my parents, my father's tears and my mother's entreaties,
came now fresh into my mind, and my conscience, which was
not yet come to the pitch of hardness to which it has been

since, reproached me with the contempt of advice, and the
breach of my duty to God and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea, which I had
never been upon before, went very high, though nothing like
what I have seen many times since; no, nor like what I saw a
few days after: but it was enough to affect me then, who was
but a young sailor, and had never known anything of the mat-
ter. I expected every wave would have swallowed us up, and
that every time the ship fell down, as I thought, in the trough
or hollow of the sea, we should never rise more; and in this
agony of mind I made many vows and resolutions, that if it
would please God here to spare my life this one voyage, if ever
I got once my foot upon dry land again I would go directly
home to my father, and never set it into a ship again while I
lived; that I would take his advice, and never run myself into
such miseries as these any more. Now I saw plainly the good-
ness of his observations about the middle station of life, how
easy, how comfortably he had lived all his days, and never had
been exposed to tempests at sea, or troubles on shore; and I re-
solved that I would, like a true repenting prodigal, go home to
my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the
storm continued, and indeed some time after; but the next day
the wind was abated and the sea calmer, and I began to be a
little inured to it: however, I was very grave for all that day,
being also a little sea-sick still; but towards night the weather
cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a charming fine even-
ing followed; the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the
next morning; and having little or no wind, and a smooth sea,
the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most
delightful that ever I saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick,

but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was
so rough and terrible the day before, and could be so calm and
so pleasant in so little time after. And now, lest my good resolu-
tions should continue, my companion, who had indeed enticed
me away, comes to me. "Well, Bob," says he (clapping me
upon the shoulder), "how do you do after it? I warrant you
were frighted, wan't you, last night, when it blew but a cap
full of wind?" "A cap full do you call it?" said I. "It was a ter-
rible storm." "A storm, you fool you," replies he; "do you call
that a storm? why it was nothing at all; give us but a good ship
and sea-room, and we think nothing of such a squall of wind as
that; but you're but a fresh-water sailor, Bob: come, let us make
a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that. Do you see what
charming weather it is now?" To make short this sad part of
my story, we went the old way of all sailors; the punch was
,made, and I was made drunk with it, and in that one night's
wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my reflections
upon my past conduct, and all resolutions for my future. In a
word, as the sea was returned to its smoothness of surface and
settled calmness by the abatement of that storm, so the hurry
of my thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions of being
swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and the current of my
former desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises
that I made in my distress. I found indeed some intervals of re-
flection, and the serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavor to
return again sometimes; but I shook them off, and roused my-
self from them as it were from a distemper, and applying myself
to drink and company, soon mastered the return of those fits,
for so I called them, and I had in five or six days got as com-
plete a victory over conscience as any young fellow that resolved
not to be troubled with it could desire. But I was to have an-
other trial for it still; and Providence, as in such cases generally

it does, resolved to leave me entirely without excuse. For if I
would not take this for a deliverance, the next was to be such
a one as the worst and most hardened wretch among us would
confess both the danger and the mercy.

CHAPTER 2: The storm in Yarmouth Roads
THE SIXTH day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth
Roads; the wind having been contrary, and the weather calm,
we had made but little way since the storm. Here we were
obliged to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind con-
tinuing contrary, namely, at southwest, for seven or eight days,
during which time a great many ships from Newcastle came
into the same roads, as the common harbor where the ships
might wait for a wind from the river.
We had not, however, rid here so long, but should have
tided it up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh, and after
we had lain four or five days blew very hard. However, the roads
being reckoned as good as a harbor, the anchorage good, and
our ground-tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned, and
not in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent the time in
rest and mirth, after the manner of the sea; but the eighth day
in the morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands at
work to strike our topmasts, and make everything snug and
close, that the ship might ride as easy as possible. By noon the
sea went very high indeed, and our ship rid forecastle in,
shipped several seas, and we thought once or twice our anchor
had come home; upon which our master ordered out the sheet-
anchor, so that we rode with two anchors ahead, and the cables
veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began
to see terror and amazement in the faces even of the seamen

themselves. The master, though vigilant in the business of pre-
serving the ship, yet as he went in and out of his cabin by me,
I could hear him softly to himself say several times, "Lord, be
merciful to us; we shall be all lost, we shall be all undone," and
the like. During these first hurries, I was stupid, lying still in my
cabin, which was in the steerage, and cannot describe my
temper. I could ill reassume the first penitence which I had
so apparently trampled upon, and hardened myself against: I
thought the bitterness of death had been past, and that this
would be nothing like the first. But when the master himself
came by me, as I said just now, and said we should be all lost, I
was dreadfully frighted; I got up out of my cabin, and looked
out; but such a dismal sight I never saw: the sea went moun-
tains high, and broke upon us every three or four minutes: when
I could look about, I could see nothing but distress round us:
two ships that rid near us, we found, had cut their masts by the
board, being deep loaden; and our men cried out, that a ship
which rid about a mile ahead of us was foundered. Two more
ships being driven from their anchors, were run out of the roads
to sea at all adventures, and that with not a mast standing.
The light ships fared the best, as not so much laboring in the
sea; but two or three of them drove, and came close by us,
running away with only their spritsail out before the wind.
Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master
of our ship to let them cut away the foremast, which he was
very unwilling to do; but the boatswain protesting to him, that
if he did not, the ship would founder, he consented; and when
they had cut away the foremast, the mainmast stood so loose,
and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut her away
also, and make a clear deck.
Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at all this,
who was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright

before at but a little. But if I can express at this distance the
thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in ten-fold more
horror of mind upon account of my former convictions, and
the having returned from them to the resolutions I had wick-
edly taken at first, than I was at death itself; and these, added
to the terror of the storm, put me into such a condition, that I
can by no words describe it. But the worst was not come yet:
the storm continued with such fury, that the seamen them-
selves acknowledged they had never known a worse. We had a
good ship, but she was deep loaden, and wallowed in the sea,
that the seaman every now and then cried out she would
founder. It was my advantage in one respect, that I did not
know what they meant by founder, till I inquired. However,
the storm was so violent, that I saw what is not often seen, the
master, the boatswain, and some others more sensible than the
rest, at their prayers, and expecting every moment when the
ship would go to the bottom. In the middle of the night, and
under all the rest of our distresses, one of the men that had
been down on purpose to see, cried out, we had sprung a leak;
another said there was four foot water in the hold. Then all
hands were called to the pump. At that very word my heart, as
I thought, died within me, and I fell backwards upon the side
of my bed where I sat, into the cabin. However, the men roused
me, and told me, that I who was able to do nothing before,
was as well able to pump as another; at which I stirred up, and
went to the pump and worked very heartily. While this was
doing, the master seeing some light colliers, who, not able to
ride out the storm, were obliged to slip and run away to sea,
and would not come near us, ordered to fire a gun as a signal
of distress. I, who knew nothing what that meant, was so sur-
prised, that I thought the ship had broke, or some dreadful
thing happened. In a word I was so surprised, that I fell down

in a swoon. As this was a time when everybody had his own
life to think of, nobody minded me, or what was become of me;
but another man stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me
aside with his foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead, and
it was a great while before I came to myself.
We worked on, but the water increasing in the hold, it was
apparent that the ship would founder; and though the storm
began to abate a little, yet as it was not possible she could swim
till we might run into a port, so the master continued firing
guns for help; and a light ship who had rid it out just ahead
of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the utmost
hazard the boat came near us, but it was impossible for us to
get on board, or for the boat to lie near the ship's side; till at
last, the men rowing very heartily, and venturing their lives
to save ours, our men cast them a rope over the stern with the
buoy to it, and then veered it out a great length, which they,
after great labor and hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them
close under our stern and got all into their boat. It was to no
purpose for them or us after we were in the boat to think of
reaching to their own ship, so all agreed to let her drive, and
only to pull her in towards shore as much as we could, and our
master promised them, that if the boat was staved upon shore
he would make it good to their master; so partly rowing and
partly driving, our boat went away to the northward, sloping
towards the shore almost as far as Winterton-Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of
our ship before we saw her sink, and then I understood for the
first time what was meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I
must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up when the sea-
men told me she was sinking; for from that moment they rather
put me into the boat than that I might be said to go in: my
heart was as it were dead within me, partly with fright, partly

with horror of mind, and the thoughts of what was yet be-
fore me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet laboring at the
oars to bring the boat near the shore, we could see (when, our
boat mounting the waves, we were able to see the shore) a
great many people running along the shore to assist us when
we should come near; but we made but slow way towards the
shore, nor were we able to reach the shore, till, being past the
light-house at Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward
toward Cromer, and so the land broke off a little the violence
of the wind: here we got in, and, though not without much
difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked afterwards on foot
to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were used with
great humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town, who
assigned us good quarters, as by particular merchants and
owners of ships, and had money given us sufficient to take us
either to London or back to Hull, as we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and
have gone home, I had been happy, and my father, an emblem
of our blessed Saviour's parable, had even killed the fatted calf
for me; for hearing the ship I went away in was cast away in
Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while before he had any assur-
ance that I was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that
nothing could resist; and though I had several times loud calls
from my reason and my more composed judgment to go home,
yet I had no power to do it. I know not what to call this, nor
will I urge that it is a secret overruling decree that hurries us
on to be the instruments of our own destruction, even though
it be before us, and that we rush upon it with our eyes open.
Certainly nothing but some such decreed unavoidable misery
attending, and which it was impossible for me to escape, could

have pushed me forward against the calm reasoning and per-
suasions of my most retired thoughts, and against two such
visible instructions as I had met with in my first attempt.
My comrade who had helped to harden me before, and who
was the master's son, was now less forward than I. The first
time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which was not
till two or three days, for we were separated in the town to sev-
eral quarters,-I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared his
tone was altered; and looking very melancholy, and shaking his
head, asked me how I did, and telling his father who I was, and
how I had come this voyage only for a trial, in order to go
farther abroad; his father, turning to me with a very grave and
concerned tone, "Young man," says he, "you ought never to go
to sea any more; you ought to take this for a plain and visible
token that you are not to be a sea-faring man." "Why, sir,"
said I, "will you go to sea no more?" "That is another case,"
said he; "it is my calling, and therefore my duty; but as you
made this voyage for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has
given you of what you are to expect if you persist; perhaps this
is all befallen us on your account, like Jonah, in the ship of
Tarshish. Pray," continues he, "what are you? and on what ac-
count did you go to sea?" Upon that I told him some of my
story; at the end of which he burst out with a strange kind of
passion: "What had I done," says he, "that such an unhappy
wretch should come into my ship? I would not set my foot in
the same ship with thee again for a thousand pounds." How-
ever, he afterwards talked very gravely to me, and exhorted me
to go back to my father and not tempt Providence to my ruin;
told me I might see a visible hand of Heaven against me. "And,
young man," said he, "depend upon it if you do not go back,
wherever you go, you will meet with nothing but disasters and

disappointments, till your father's words are fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I
saw him no more; which way he went, I knew not. As for me,
having some money in my pocket, I travelled to London by
land; and there, as well as on the road, had many struggles with
myself, what course of life I should take, and whether I should
go home, or go to sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that
offered to my thoughts; and it immediately occurred to me how
I should be laughed at among the neighbors, and should be
ashamed to see, not my father and mother only, but even every-
body else; from whence I have since often observed, how in-
congruous and irrational the common temper of mankind is,
especially of youth, to that reason which ought to guide them
in such cases, namely, that they are not ashamed to sin, and
yet are ashamed to repent; not ashamed of the action for which
they ought justly to be esteemed fools, but are ashamed of the
returning, which only can make them be esteemed wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncer-
tain what measure to take, and what course of life to lead. An
irresistible reluctance continued to going home; and as I stayed
a while, the remembrance of the distress I had been in wore off,
and as that abated, the little motion I had in my desires to a
return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts
of it, and looked out for a voyage.
That evil influence which carried me first away from my
father's house, that hurried me into the wild notion of raising
my fortune, and that imprest those conceits so forcibly upon
me, as to make me deaf to all good advice, and to the entreaties
and even the command of my father,-I say, the same influ-
ence, whatever it was, presented the most unfortunate of all

enterprises to my view; and I went on board a vessel bound to
the coast of Africa, or, as our sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage
to Guinea.

CHAPTER 3: In which I make two voyages, and fall
into terrible misfortunes

IT WAS my great misfortune that in all these adventures I did
not ship myself as a sailor; whereby, though I might indeed have
worked a little harder than ordinary, yet at the same time I had
learned the duty and office of a foremast man, and in time
might have qualified myself for a mate or lieutenant, if not for
a master. But as it was always my fate to choose for the worse,
so I did here; for having money in my pocket, and good clothes
upon my back, I would always go on board in the habit of a
gentleman, and so I neither had any business in the ship, nor
learned to do any.
It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in
London, which does not always happen to such loose and un-
guided young fellows as I then was; the devil generally not
omitting to lay some snare for them very early; but it was not
so with me. I first fell acquainted with the master of a ship who
had been on the coast of Guinea, and who, having had very
good success there, was resolved to go again; and who, taking
a fancy to my conversation, which was not at all disagreeable
at that time, hearing me say I had a mind to see the world, told
me if I would go the voyage with him I should be at no expense;
I should be his messmate and his companion, and if I could
carry anything with me, I should have all the advantage of it
that the trade would admit, and perhaps I might meet with
some encouragement.
I embraced the offer, and entering into a strict friendship

with this captain, who was an honest and plain-dealing man, I
went the voyage with him, and carried a small adventure with
me, which, by the disinterested honesty of my friend the cap-
tain, I increased very considerably; for I carried about 401. in
such toys and trifles as the captain directed me to buy. This
401. I had mustered together by the assistance of some of my
relations whom I corresponded with, and who, I believe, got
my father, or at least my mother, to contribute so much as
that to my first adventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in
all my adventures, and which I owe to the integrity and honesty
of my friend the captain, under whom also I got a competent
knowledge of the mathematics, and the rules of navigation,
learned how to keep an account of the ship's course, take an
observation, and, in short, to understand some things that were
needful to be understood by a sailor; for, as he took delight to
instruct me, I took delight to learn, and, in a word, this voyage
made me both a sailor and a merchant; for I brought home five
pounds nine ounces of gold dust for my adventure, which
yielded me in London at my return, almost 3001., and this filled
me with those aspiring thoughts which have since so com-
pleted my ruin.
Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too; particu-
larly, that I was continually sick, being thrown into a violent
fever by the excessive heat of the climate; our principal trading
being upon the coast, from the latitude of fifteen degrees north
even to the line itself.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my
great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go
the same voyage again, and I embarked in the same vessel with
one who was his mate in the former voyage, and had now got
the command of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage that

ever man made; for though I did not carry quite iool. of my
new gained wealth, so that I had o20o. left, and which I lodged
with my friend's widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell
into terrible misfortunes in this voyage; and the first was this,
namely: Our ship, making her course towards the Canary Is-
lands, or rather between those islands and the African shore,
was surprised in the gray of the morning by a Turkish rover of
Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the sail she could make.
We crowded also as much canvas as our yards would spread, or
our masts carry, to have got clear; but finding the pirate gained
upon us, and would certainly come up with us in a few hours,
we prepared to fight; our ship having twelve guns, and the rogue
eighteen. About three in the afternoon he came up with us, and
bringing to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter, instead of
athwart our stern, as he intended, we brought eight of our guns
to bear on that side, and poured in a broadside upon him, which
made him sheer off again, after returning our fire, and pouring
in also his small shot from near 200 men which he had on
board. However, we had not a man touched, all our men keep-
ing close. He prepared to attack us again, and we to defend
ourselves; but laying us on board the next time upon our other
quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks, who immediately
fell to cutting and hacking the decks and rigging. We plied
them with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such like,
and cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut short this
melancholy part of our story, our ship being disabled, and three
of our men killed, and eight wounded, we were obliged to yield,
and were carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to
the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I ap-
prehended, nor was I carried up the country to the emperor's
court, as the rest of our men were, but was kept by the captain

of the rover as his proper prize, and made his slave, being young
and nimble, and fit for his business. At this surprising change
of my circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable slave, I
was perfectly overwhelmed; and now I looked back upon my
father's prophetic discourse to me, that I should be miserable,
and have none to relieve me, which, I thought, was now so
effectually brought to pass, that I could not be worse; that now
the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone with-
out redemption. But, alas! this was but a taste of the misery I
was to go through, as will appear in the sequel of the story.
As my new patron or master had taken me home to his house,
so I was in hopes that he would take me with him when he went
to sea again, believing that it would some time or other be his
fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portuguese man-of-war, and
that then I should be set at liberty. But this hope of mine was
soon taken away; for when he went to sea, he left me on shore
to look after his little garden, and do the common drudgery of
slaves about his house; and when he came home again from
his cruise, he ordered me to lie in the cabin to look after the
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method
I might take to effect it, but found no way that had the least
probability in it: nothing presented to make the supposition of
it rational; for I had nobody to communicate it to, that would
embark with me; no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or
Scotchman, there but myself; so that for two years, though I
often pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had the
least encouraging prospect of putting it in practice.
After about two years an odd circumstance presented itself,
which put the old thought of making some attempt for my
liberty again in my head: my patron lying at home longer than
usual, without fitting out his ship, which, as I heard, was for

want of money, he used constantly, once or twice a week, some-
times oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship's pinnace,
and go out into the road a fishing; and as he always took me and
a young Maresco with him to row the boat, we made him very
merry, and I proved very dexterous in catching fish: insomuch,
that sometimes he would send me with a Moor, one of his
kinsmen, and the youth, the Maresco as they called him, to
catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a fishing in a stark calm
morning, a fog rose so thick, that though we were not half a
league from the shore, we lost sight of it; and rowing we knew
not whither or which way, we labored all day, and all the next
night, and when the morning came we found we had pulled
off to sea instead of pulling in for the shore, and that we were
at least two leagues from the shore; however, we got well in
again, though with a great deal of labor, and some danger; for
the wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morning, but par-
ticularly we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take
more care of himself for the future; and having lying by him
the long boat of our English ship he had taken, he resolved
he would not go a fishing any more without a compass and
some provision; so he ordered the carpenter of his ship, who
also was an English slave, to build a small state-room or cabin
in the middle of the long boat, like that of a barge, with a place
to stand behind it to steer and hale home the mainsheet, and
room before for a hand or two to stand and work the sails. She
sailed with what we call a shoulder-of-mutton sail; and the boom
gibed over the top of the cabin, which lay very snug and low,
and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table
to eat on, with some small lockers to put in some bottles of such
liquor as he thought fit to drink, particularly his bread, rice
and coffee.

We went frequently out with this boat a fishing, and as I
was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went with-
out me. It happened that he had appointed to go out in this
boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors
of some distinction in that place, and for whom he had pro-
vided extraordinarily; and had therefore sent on board the
boat over night a larger store of provisions than ordinary, and
had ordered me to get ready three fusees with powder and shot,
which were on board his ship, for that they designed some sport
of fowling as well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he directed, and waited the next
morning with the boat washed clean, her flag and pendants
out, and everything to accommodate his guests; when by and
by my patron came on board alone, and told me his guests had
put off going, upon some business that fell out, and ordered me
with the man and boy, as usual to go out with the boat and
catch them some fish, for that his friends were to sup at his
house; and commanded that as soon as I got some fish I should
bring it home to his house; all which I prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into
my thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a little ship at
my command; and my master being gone, I prepared to furnish
myself, not for a fishing business, but for a voyage; though I
knew not, neither did I so much as consider, whither I should
steer; for anywhere to get out of that place was my way.
My first contrivance was to make a pretense to speak to this
Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board; for I
told him we must not presume to eat of our patron's bread; he
said, that was true; so he brought a large basket of rusk or bis-
cuit of their kind, and three jars with fresh water, into the boat.
I knew where my patron's case of bottles stood, which it was
evident by the make were taken out of some English prize; and

I conveyed them into the boat while the Moor was on shore,
as if they had been there before for our master. I conveyed
also a great lump of bees-wax into the boat, which weighed
above half a hundredweight, with a parcel of twine or thread,
a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all which were of great use
to us afterwards; especially the wax to make candles. Another
trick I tried upon him, which he innocently came into also;
his name was Ismael, who they call Muly, or Moley; so I called
to him,-"Moley," said I, "our patron's guns are on board the
boat; can you not get a little powder and shot, it may be we may
kill some alcamies (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for
I know he keeps the gunner's stores in the ship?" "Yes," says
he, "I'll bring some;" and accordingly he brought a great leather
pouch which held about a pound and a half of powder, or rather
more; and another with shot, that had five or six pounds, with
some bullets, and put all into the boat; at the same time I had
found some powder of my master's in the great cabin, with
which I filled one of the large bottles in the case, which was
almost empty; pouring what was in it into another: and thus
furnished with everything needful, we sailed out of the port to
fish. The castle which is at the entrance of the port knew who
we were, and took no notice of us; and we were not above a
mile out of the port before we hauled in our sail, and set us
down to fish. The wind blew from the N. N. E. which was con-
trary to my desire; for had it blown southerly I had been sure to
have made the coast of Spain, and at least reached the bay of
Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow which way it would, I
would be gone from that horrid place where I was, and leave
the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and watched' nothing, for
when I had fish on my hook I would not pull them up, that he
might not see them, I said to the Moor, "This will not do; our

master will not be thus served; we must stand farther off:" he
thinking no harm agreed, and being in the head of the boat set
the sails; and as I had the helm I run the boat out near a league
farther, and then brought her to as if I would fish, when giving
the boy the helm, I stept forward to where the Moor was, and
making as if I stooped for something behind him, I took him
by surprise with my arm under his legs, and tossed him clear
overboard into the sea. He rose immediately, for he swam like
a cork, and calling to me, begged to be taken in: told me he
would go all over the world with me; he swam so strong after
the boat that he would have reached me very quickly, there
being but little wind; upon which I stepped into the cabin, and
fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and
told him I had done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I
would do him none: "but," said I, "you swim well enough to
reach the shore, and the sea is calm; make the best of your way
to shore, and I will do you no harm, but if you come near the
boat I'll shoot you through the head; for I am resolved to have
my liberty:" so he turned himself about and swam for the shore,
and I make no doubt but that he reached it with ease, for he
was an excellent swimmer.

__ ----r_

I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me,
and have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust
him. When he was gone I turned to the boy, who they called
Xury, and said to him, "Xury, if you will be faithful to me I'll
make you a great man; but if you will not stroke your face to
be true to me," that is, swear by Mahomet and his father's
beard, "I must throw you into the sea too;" the boy smiled in
my face, and spoke so innocently that I could not mistrust him;
and swore to be faithful to me, and go all over the world with
While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood
directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching to windward,
that they might think me gone towards the Straits' mouth (as
indeed any one that had been in their wits must have been sup-
posed to do), for who would have supposed we were sailed on
to the southward to the truly Barbarian coast, where whole
nations of Negroes were sure to surround us with their canoes,
and destroy us; where we could never once go on shore but
we should be devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless
savages of human kind?

CHAPTER 4: Escape and rescue
As SOON as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my course,
and steered directly south and by east, bending my course a lit-
tle toward the east, that I might keep in with the shore; and
having a fair fresh gale of wind, and a smooth quiet sea, I made
such sail that I believe by the next day at three o'clock in
the afternoon, when I first made the land, I could not be less
that 150 miles south of Sallee; quite beyond the emperor of
Morocco's dominions, or indeed of any other king thereabouts,
for we saw no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the
dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that I
would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor. The wind
continuing fair till I had sailed in that manner five days, and
the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also that if
any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would now give
over; so I ventured to make the coast, and come to an anchor
in the mouth of a little river, I knew not what, or where; neither
what latitude, what country, what nation, or what river: I
neither saw, or desired to see any people, the principal thing
I wanted was fresh water. We came into this creek in the eve-
ning, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and
discover the country; but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard
such dreadful noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of
wild creatures of we knew not what kinds, that the poor boy
was ready to die with fear, and begged of me not to go on shore
till day. "Well, Xury," said I, "then I won't, but it may be we
may see men by day, who will be as bad to us as those lions."
"Then we give them the shoot gun," says Xury, laughing;
"make them run way." Such English Xury spoke by conversing
among us slaves. However I was glad to see the boy so cheerful,
and I gave him a dram (out of our patron's case of bottles) to
cheer him up; after all Xury's advice was good, and I took it;
we dropped our little anchor and lay still all night; I say still,
for we slept none; for in two or three hours we saw vast great
creatures (we knew not what to call them) of many sorts,
come down to the sea-shore and run into the water, wallowing
and washing themselves for the pleasure of cooling themselves;
and they made such hideous howlings and yelling that I never
indeed heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but
we were both more frighted when we heard one of these mighty

creatures come swimming towards our boat: we could not see
him, but we might hear him by his blowing to be a monstrous
huge and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion, and it might be
so for aught I know; but poor Xury cried to me to weigh the
anchor and row away. "No," says I, "Xury, we can slip our
cable with a buoy to it and go off to sea; they cannot follow us
far." I had no sooner said so, but I perceived the creature (what-
ever it was) within two oars' length, which something surprised
me; however I immediately stept to the cabin-door, and taking
up my gun fired at him, upon which he immediately turned
about and swam towards the shore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrible noises, and hide-
ous cries and howlings, that were raised, as well upon the edge
of the shore, as higher within the country, upon the noise or
report of the gun; a think I have some reason to believe those
creatures had never heard before: this convinced me that there
was no going on shore for us in the night upon that coast, and
how to venture on shore in the day was another question too;
for to have fallen into the hands of any of the savages, had been
as bad as to have fallen into the hands of lions and tigers; at
least we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore some-
where or other for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat;
when or where to get it was the point. Xury said, if I would let
him go on shore with one of the jars, he would find if there was
any water, and bring some to me. I asked him why he would
go? why I should not go, and he stay in the boat? The boy an-
swered with so much affection that made me love him ever
after. Says he, "If wild maris come, they eat me, you go way."
"Well, Xury," said I, "we will both go, and if the wild mans
come, we will kill them: they shall eat neither of us;" so I gave
Xury a piece of rusk-bread to eat, and a dram out of our patron's

case of bottles which I mentioned before; and we hauled the
boat in as near the shore as we thought was proper, and waded
on shore; carrying nothing but our guns, and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the com-
ing of canoes with savages down the river: but the boy, seeing
a low place about a mile up the country, rambled to it; and by
and by I saw him come running towards me. I thought he was
pursued by some savage, or frighted with some wild beast, and
I ran forward towards him to help him; but when I came nearer
to him, I saw something hanging over his shoulders, which was
a creature that he had shot, like a hare, but different in color,
and longer legs; however we were very glad of it, and it was very
good meat; but the great joy that poor Xury came with, was to
tell me he had found good water, and seen no wild mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains
for water; for a little higher up the creek where we were, we
found the water fresh when the tide was out, which flowed
but a little way up; so we filled our jars and feasted on the hare
we had killed, and prepared to go on our way, having seen no
footsteps of any human creature in that part of the country.
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very
well that the islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verde
Islands also, lay not far off from the coast. But as I had no
instruments to take an observation to know what latitude we
were in, and did not exactly know, or at least remember, what
latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for them, or
when to stand off to sea towards them; otherwise I might now
easily have found some of these islands. But my hope was, that
if I stood along this coast till I came to that part where the
English trade, I should find some of their vessels upon their
usual design of trade, that would relieve and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was,

must be that country, which, lying between the emperor of
Morocco's dominions and the Negroes, lies waste, and unin-
habited, except by wild beasts, the Negroes having abandoned
it, and gone farther south for fear of the Moors; and the Moors
not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness;
and indeed both forsaking it because of the prodigious number
of tigers, lions, leopards, and other furious creatures which
harbor there; so that the Moors use it for their hunting only,
where they go like an army, two or three thousand men at a
time; and indeed for near an hundred miles together upon this
coast, we saw nothing but a waste uninhabited country by day;
and heard nothing but cowlings and roaring of wild beasts by
Once or twice in the day-time I thought I saw the Peak of
Teneriffe, being the high top of the mountain Teneriffe in the
Canaries; and had a great mind to venture out in hopes of
reaching thither; but having tried twice, I was forced in again
by contrary winds, the sea also going too high for my little
vessel, so I resolved to pursue my first design and keep along
the shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water after we
had left this place; and once in particular, being early in the
morning, we came to an anchor under a little point of land
which was pretty high, and the tide beginning to flow, we lay
still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about him
than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me that
we had best go farther off the shore; "for," says he, "look,
yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock fast
asleep." I looked where he pointed, and saw a dreadful monster
indeed, for it was a terrible great lion that lay on the side of
the shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill that hung
as it were a little over him. "Xury," says I, "you shall go on

shore and kill him:" Xury looked frighted, and said, "Me kill!
he eat me at one mouth;" one mouthful he meant. However, I
said no more to the boy, but bade him lie still; and took our
biggest gun, which was almost musquet-bore, and loaded it
with a good charge of powder, and with two slugs, and laid it
down; then I loaded another gun with two bullets; and the
third, for we had three pieces, I loaded with five smaller bullets.
I took the best aim I could with the first piece, to have shot him
into the head, but he lay so with his leg raised a little above his
nose, that the slugs hit his leg about the knee, and broke the
bone. He started up growling at first, but finding his leg broke,
fell down again, and then got up upon three legs, and gave
the most hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a little surprised
that I had not hit him on the head; however, I took up the sec-
ond piece immediately, and though he began to move off, fired
again, and shot him into the head, and had the pleasure to see
him drop, and make but little noise, but lay struggling for life.
Then Xury took heart, and would have me let him go on shore.
"Well, go," said I. So the boy jumped into the water, and tak-
ing a little gun in one hand, swam to the shore with the other
hand, and coming close to the creature, put the muzzle of the
piece to his ear, and shot him into the head, which dispatched
him quite.
This was game indeed to us, but this was no food: and I was
very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a crea-
ture that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury said he
would have some of him; so he comes on board, and asked me
to give him the hatchet. "For what, Xury?" said I. "Me cut
off his head," said he. However, Xury could not cut off his head,
but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him, and it was a
monstrous great one.
I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him

might one way or other be of some value to us; and I resolved
to take off his skin, if I could. So Xury and I went to work with
him; but Xury was much the better workman at it, for I knew
very ill how to do it. Indeed it took us up both the whole
day; but at last we got the hide off him, and spreading it on the
top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two days' time,
and it afterwards served me to lie upon.
After this stop, we made on to the southward continually for
ten or twelve days, living very sparing on our provisions, which
began to abate very much, and going no oftener into the shore
than we were obliged to for fresh water: my design in this was,
to make the river Gambia or Senegal, that is to say anywhere
about the Cape de Verde, where I was in hopes to meet with
some European ship; and if I did not, I knew not what course
I had to take, but to seek for the Islands, or perish there among
the Negroes. I knew that all the ships from Europe, which
sailed either to the coast of Guinea or to Brazil, or to the East
Indies, made this Cape, or those Islands; and, in a word, I put
the whole of my fortune upon this single point, either that I
must meet with some ship or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer,
as I have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited; and
in two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand
upon the shore to look at us; we could also perceive they were
quite black, and stark naked. I was once inclined to have gone
on shore to them; but Xury was my better counsellor, and said
to me, "No go, no go:" however I hauled in nearer the shore
that I might talk to them, and I found they ran along the shore
by me a good way. I observed they had no weapons in their
hands except one, who had a long slender stick, which Xury
said was a lance, and that they would throw,them a great way
with good aim. So I kept at a distance, but talked with them by

signs as well as I could; and particularly made signs for some-
thing to eat: they beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they
would fetch me some meat; upon this I lowered the top of my
sail, and lay by, and two of them ran up into the country, and
in less than half an hour came back, and brought with them
two pieces of dry flesh and some corn, as is the produce of their
country; but we neither knew what the one nor the other was:
however, we were willing to accept it, but how to come at it
was our next dispute, for I was not for venturing on shore to
them, and they were as much afraid of us; but they took a safe
way for us all, for they brought it to the shore and laid it down,
and went and stood a great way off till we fetched it on board,
and then came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to
make them amends; but an opportunity offered that very in-
stant to oblige them wonderfully; for while we were lying
by the shore, came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the
other (as we took it) with great fury, from the mountains to-
wards the sea: whether it was the male pursuing the female,
or whether they were in sport or in rage, we could not tell,
any more than we could tell whether it was usual or strange,
but I believe it was the latter; because, in the first place, those
ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night; and in the
second place, we found the people terribly frighted, especially
the women. The man that had the lance or dart did not fly
from them, but the rest did; however, as the two creatures ran
directly into the water, they did not seem to offer to fall upon
any of the Negroes, but plunged themselves into the sea, and
swam about as if they had come for their diversion. At last one
of them began to come nearer our boat than at first I expected,
but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with all pos-
sible expedition, and bade Xury load both the others. As soon

as he came fairly within my reach, I fired, and shot him directly
into the head. Immediately he sunk down into the water, but
rose instantly, and plunged up and down as if he was struggling
for life; and so indeed he was: he immediately made to the
shore, but between the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and
the strangling of the water, he died just before he reached the
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor
creatures at the noise and the fire of my gun; some of them
were even ready to die for fear, and fell down as dead with the
very terror. But when they saw the creature dead, and sunk in
the water, and that I made signs to them to come to the shore,
they took heart and came to the shore, and began to search for
the creature. I found him by his blood staining the water; and
by the help of a rope, which I slung round him, and gave the
Negroes to haul, they dragged him on shore, and found that it
was a most curious leopard, spotted and fine to an admirable
degree, and the Negroes held up their hands with admiration
to think what it was I had killed him with.
The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the
noise of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to the
mountains from whence they came, nor could I at that dis-
tance know what it was. I found quickly the Negroes were for
eating the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have them
take it as a favor from me, which when I made signs to them
that they might take him, they were very thankful for. Imme-
diately they fell to work with him, and though they had no
knife, yet with a sharpened piece of wood they took off his skin
as readily, and much more readily, then we could have done
with a knife: they offered me some of the flesh, which I de-
clined, making as if I would give it them, but made signs for
the skin, which they gave me very freely, and brought me a

great deal more of their provision, which, though I did not
understand, yet I accepted; then I made signs to them for some
water, and held out one of my jars to them, turning it bottom
upward, to show that it was empty, and that I wanted to have
it filled. They called immediately to some of their friends, and
there came two women, and brought a great vessel made of
earth, and burnt, as I suppose, in the sun; this they set down
for me, as before, and I sent Xury on shore with my jars, and
filled them all three.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and
water; and, leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward for
about eleven days more, without offering to go near the shore,
till I saw the land run out a great length into the sea, at about
the distance of four or five leagues before me; and, the sea being
very calm, I kept a large offing to make this point: at length,
doubling the point at about two leagues from the land, I saw
plainly land on the other side to seaward; then I concluded, as
it was most certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verde,
and those the islands, called from thence Cape de Verde Is-
lands. However, they were at a great distance, and I could not
tell what I had best do, for if I should be taken with a fresh of
wind I might neither reach one nor the other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stept into the cabin
and set me down, Xury having the helm, when on a sudden the
boy cried out, "Master, master, a ship with a sail;" and the fool-
ish boy was frighted out of his wits, thinking it must needs be
some of his master's ships sent to pursue us, when I knew we
were gotten far enough out of their reach. I jumped out of the
cabin, and immediately saw not only the ship, but that it was
a Portuguese ship, and, as I thought, was bound to the coast
of Guinea for Negroes. But when I observed the course she
steered, I was soon convinced they were bound some other way,

and did not design to come any nearer to the shore; upon which
I stretched out to sea as much as I could, resolving to speak
with them if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able
to come in their way, but they would be gone by before I
could make any signal to them. But after I had crowded to
the utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems, saw me by the
help of their perspective-glasses, and that it was some European
boat, which, as they supposed, must belong to some ship that
was lost; so they shortened sail to let me come up. I was en-
couraged with this, and as I had my patron's flag on board, I
made a waft of it to them for a signal of distress, and fired a gun,
both which they saw; for they told me they saw the smoke,
though they did not hear the gun. Upon these signals they very
kindly brought-to, and lay-by for me, and in about three hours'
time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish,
and in French; but I understood none of them; but at last a
Scottish sailor, who was on board, called to me, and I answered
him, and told him I was an Englishman, that I had made my
escape out of slavery from the Moors at Sallee. Then they bade
me come on board, and very kindly took me in, and all my

CHAPTER 5: My plantation in the Brazils
IT WAS inexpressible joy to me, that any one would believe,
that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miser-
able and almost hopeless condition as I was in, and immedi-
ately offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a return for
my deliverance; but he generously told me he would take noth-
ing from me, but that all I had should be delivered safe to me

when I came to the Brazils; "for," says he, "I have saved your
life on no other terms than I would be glad to be saved myself;
and it may one time or other be my lot to be taken up in the
same condition: besides," says he, "when I carry you to the
Brazils, so great a way from your own country, if I should take
away from you what you have, you will be starved there, and
then I only take away that life I have given. No, no, Seignor,
Mr. Englishman, I will carry you thither in charity, and those
things will help you to buy your subsistence there, and your
passage home again."
As he was charitable in his proposal, so he was just in the
performance to a tittle, for he ordered the seamen that none
should offer to touch anything I had; then he took everything
into his own possession, and gave me back an exact inventory
of them, that I might have them; even so much as my earthen
As to my boat, it was a very good one, and that he saw, and
told me he would buy it of me for the ship's use, and asked me
what I would have for it? I told him he had been so generous
to me in everything that I could not offer to make any price
of the boat, but left it entirely to him; upon which he told
me he would give me a note of his hand to pay me 80 pieces
of eight for it at Brazil; and when it came there, if any one
offered to give more, he would make it up; he offered me also
60 pieces of eight more for my boy Xury, which I was loth to
take; not that I was not willing to let the captain have him,
but I was very loth to sell the poor boy's liberty, who had as-
sisted me so faithfully in procuring my own. However, when I
let him know my reason, he owned it to be just, and offered
me this medium, that he would give the boy an obligation to
set him free in ten years, if he turned Christian. Upon this,

and Xury saying he was willing to go to him, I let the captain
have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and arrived in
All-Saints-Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And now I was
once more delivered from the most miserable of all conditions
of life, and what to do next with myself I was now to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never
enough remember; he would take nothing of me for my pas-
sage, gave me twenty ducats for the leopard's skin, and forty for
the lion's skin, which I had in my boat, and caused everything
I had in the ship to be punctually delivered me; and what I
was willing to sell he bought, such as the case of bottles, two
of my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees-wax, for I had made
candles of the rest; in a word, I made about 220 pieces of eight
of all my cargo, and with this stock I went on shore in the
I had not been long here, but being recommended to the
house of a good honest man like himself, who had an Ingenio,
as they call it, that is, a plantation and a sugar house; I lived
with him some time, and acquainted myself by that means with
the manner of their planting and making of sugar; and seeing
how well the planters lived, and how they grew rich suddenly,
I resolved, if I could get license to settle there, I would turn
planter among them, resolving in the mean time to find out
some way to get my money, which I had left in London, re-
mitted to me. To this purpose, getting a kind of a letter of
naturalization, I purchased as much land that was uncured as
my money would reach, and formed a plan for my plantation
and settlement, and such a one as might be suitable to the stock
which I proposed to myself to receive from England.
I had a neighbor, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of Eng-
lish parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such circum-

stances as I was. I call him neighbor, because his plantation lay
next to mine, and we went on very sociably together. My stock
was but low, as well as his; and we rather planted for food, than
anything else, for about two years. However, we began to in-
crease, and our land began to come into order; so that the
third year we planted some tobacco, and made each of us a large
piece of ground ready for planting canes in the year to come;
but we both wanted help; and now I found more than before,
I had done wrong in parting with my boy Xury.
But alas! for me to do wrong that never did right, was no
great wonder: I had no remedy but to go on; I was gotten into
an employment quite remote to my genius, and directly con-
trary to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my
father's house, and broke through all his good advice; nay, I was
coming into the very middle station, or upper degree of low life,
which my father advised me to before; and which if I resolved
to go on with, I might as well have staid at home, and never
have fatigued myself in the world as I had done, and I used
often to say to myself, I could have done this as well in England
among my friends, as have gone five thousand miles off to do it
among strangers and savages in a wilderness, and at such dis-
tance as never to hear from any part of the world that had the
least knowledge of me.
In this manner I used to look up my condition with the ut-
most regret. I had nobody to converse with, but now and then
this neighbor: no work to be done, but by the labor of mv
hands; and I used to say, I lived just like a man cast away upon
some desolate island, that had nobody there but himself. But
how just has it been, and how should all men reflect, that, when
they compare their present conditions with others that are
worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the exchange, and be
convinced of their former felicity, by their experience; I say how

just has it been, that the truly solitary life I reflected on in an
island of mere desolation should be my lot, who had so often
unjustly compared it with the life which I then led, in which,
had I continued, I had in all probability been exceeding pros-
perous and rich.
I was in some degree settled in my measures for carrying on
the plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the ship
that took me up at sea, went back; for the ship remained there,
providing his loading and preparing for his voyage, near three
months; when, telling him what little stock I had left behind
me in London, he gave me this friendly and sincere advice:
"Seignor Inglese," says he (for so he always called me), "if you
will give me letters, and a procuration here in form to me, with
orders to the person who has your money in London, to send
your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct, and in
such goods as are proper for this country, I will bring you the
produce of them, God willing, at my return; but since human
affairs are all subject to changes and disasters, I would have you
give orders but for one hundred pounds sterling, which you say
is half your stock, and let the hazard be run for the first; so that
if it come safe, you may order the rest the same way; and if it
miscarry, you may have the other half to have recourse to it for
your supply."
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that
I could not but be convinced it was the best course I could take;
so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentle-woman with
whom I had left my money, and a procuration to the Portu-
guese captain, as he desired.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all my
adventures, my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the Por-
tugal captain at sea, the humanity of his behavior, and what
condition I was now in, with all other necessary directions for

my supply; and when this honest captain came to Lisbon, he
found means, by some of the English merchants there, to send
over, not the order only, but a full account of my story, to a
merchant at London, who represented it effectually to her;
whereupon, she not only delivered the money, but out of her
own pocket sent the Portugal captain a very handsome present
for his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London vesting this hundred pounds in
English goods, such as the captain had written for, sent them
directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me
to the Brazils; among which, without my directions (for I was
too young in my business to think of them), he had taken care
to have all sorts of tools, iron-work, and utensils necessary for
my plantation, and which were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived I thought my fortune made, for I
was surprised with joy of it; and my good steward the captain
had laid out the five pounds which my friend had sent him for a
present for himself, to purchase, and bring me over a servant
under bond for six years' service, and would not accept of any
consideration, except a little tobacco, which I would have him
accept, being of my own produce.
Neither was this all; but my goods being all England manu-
factures, such as cloth, stuffs, baize, and things particularly val-
uable and desirable in the country, I found means to sell them
to a very great advantage, so that I may say I had more than
four times the value of my first cargo, and was now infinitely be-
yond my poor neighbor, I mean in the advancement of my plan-
tation: for the first thing I did, I bought me a Negro slave, and
an European servant also; I mean another besides that which
the captain brought me from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means
of our greatest adversity, so it was with me. I went on the next


year with great success in my plantation; I raised fifty great rolls
of tobacco on my own ground, more than I had disposed of for
necessaries among my neighbors; and these fifty rolls, being
each of above an hundred-weight, were well cured and laid by
against the return of the fleet from Lisbon. And now, increas-
ing in business and in wealth, my head began to be full of proj-
ects and undertakings beyond my reach; such as are indeed
often the ruin of the best heads in business.
Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had room for
all the happy things to have yet befallen me, for which ms
father so earnestly recommended a quiet retired life, and of
which he had so sensibly described the middle station of life to
be full; but other things attended me, and I was still to be the
willful agent of all my own miseries; and particularly to increase
my fault, and double the reflections upon myself, which in mr
future sorrows I should have leisure to make. All these miscar-
riages were procured by my apparent obstinate adhering to my
foolish inclination of wandering abroad, and pursuing that in
clination in contradiction to the clearest views of doing myself
good in a fair and plain pursuit of those prospects and those
measures of life, which nature and Providence concurred to
present me with, and to make my duty.
As I had done thus in breaking away from my parents, so I
could not be content now, but I must go and leave the happy
view I had of being a rich and thriving man in my new planta-
tion, only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of rising
faster than the nature of the thing admitted; and thus I cast
myself down again into the deepest gulf of human misery that
ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent with life and
a state of health in the world.
To come then by the just degrees to the particulars of this
part of my story; you may suppose, that having now lived almost

four years in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and prosper
very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned the lan-
guage, but had contracted acquaintance and friendship among
my fellow planters, as well as among the merchants at St. Sal-
vadore, which was our port; and that in my discourses among
them I had frequently given them an account of my two voy-
ages to the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with the
Negroes there, and how easy it was to purchase upon the coast,
for trifles, such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of
glass, and the like, not only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants'
teeth, &c., but Negroes for the service of the Brazils, in great
They listened always very attentively to my discourses on
these heads, but especially to that part which related to the buy-
ing Negroes, which was a trade at that time not only not far
entered into, but as far as it was, had been carried on by the As-
sientos, or permission of the kings of Spain and Portugal, and
engrossed in the public, so that few Negroes were bought, and
those excessively dear.
It happened, being in company with some merchants and
planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very
earnestly, three of them came to me the next morning, and told
me they had been musing very much upon what I had discoursed
with them of the last night, and they came to make a secret
proposal to me; and after enjoining me in secrecy, they told
me that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that
they had all plantations as well as I, and were straitened for
nothing so much as servants; that as this was a trade that could
not be carried on, because they could not publicly sell the Ne-
groes when they came home: so they desired to make but one
voyage, to bring the Negroes on shore privately, and divide
them among their own plantations; and in a word, the question

was, whether I would go as their supercargo in the ship, to man-
age the trading part upon the coast of Guinea; and they offered
me that I should have my equal share of the Negroes, without
providing any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been
made to any one that had not had a settlement and plantation
of his own to look after, which was in a fair way of becoming
very considerable, and with a good stock upon it. But for me,
that was thus entered and established, and had nothing to do
but go on as I had begun, for three or four years more, and to
have sent for the other hundred pounds from England, and
who in that time, and with that little addition, could scarce have
failed of being worth three or four thousand pounds sterling,
and that increasing too; for me to think of such a voyage was
the most preposterous thing that ever man in such circum-
stances could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more
resist the offer, than I could restrain my first rambling designs,
when my father's good counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I
told them I would go with all my heart, if they would under-
take to look after my plantation in my absence, and would dis-
pose of it to such as I should direct if I miscarried. This they
all engaged to do, and entered into writings or covenants to do
so; and I made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and
effects, in case of my death, making the captain of the ship that
saved my life, as before, my universal heir, but obliging him to
dispose of my effects as I had directed in my will, one half of
the produce being to himself, and the other to be shipped to
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects,
and keep up my plantation. Had I used half as much prudence

to have looked into my own interest, and have made a judg-
ment of what I ought to have done and not to have done, I had
certainly never gone away from so prosperous an undertaking,
leaving all the probable views of a thriving circumstance, and
gone upon a voyage to sea, attended with all its common haz-
ards; to say nothing of the reasons I had to expect particular
misfortunes to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my
fancy rather than my reason; and, accordingly, the ship being
fitted out, and the cargo furnished, and all things done as by
agreement by my partners in the voyage, I went on board in an
evil hour, the ist of September, 1659-being the same day eight
years that I went from my father and mother at Hull, in order
to act the rebel to their authority, and the fool to my own

CHAPTER 6: A violent storm and a shipwreck
OUR SHIP was about 120 tons burden, carried 6 guns, and 14
men, besides the master, his boy, and myself. We had on board
no large cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit for our
trade with the Negroes, such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and
odd trifles, especially little looking-glasses, knives, scissors,
hatchets, and the like.
The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to
the northward upon our own coast, with design to stretch over
for the African coast when they came about ten or twelve de-
grees of northern latitude, which it seems was the manner of
their course in those days. We had very good weather, only
excessive hot, all the way upon our own coast till we came to
the height of Cape St. Augustino; from whence, keeping farther


off at sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if we were bound
for the isle Fernand de Noronha, holding our course N. E. by
N. and leaving those isles on the east. In this course we passed
the line in about twelve days' time, and were by our last obser-
vation in seven degrees twenty-two minutes northern latitude,
when a violent tornado or hurricane took us quite out of our
knowledge. It began from the south-east, came about to the
north-west, and then settled into the north-east, from whence
it blew in such a terrible manner, that for twelve days together
we could do nothing but drive, and scudding away before it, let
it carry us whither ever fate and the fury of the winds directed;
and during these twelve days I need not say that I expected
every day to be swallowed up, nor indeed did any in the ship
expect to save their lives.
In this distress, we had, besides the terror of the storm, one
of our men died of fever, and one man and the boy washed
overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather abating a little,
the master made an observation as well as he could, and found
he was in about eleven degrees north latitude, but that he was
twenty-two degrees of longitude difference west from Cape St.
Augustino: so that he found he was gotten upon the coast of
Guinea, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river Amazones,
toward that of the river Oronoque, commonly called the Great
River, and began to consult with me what course he should
take, for the ship was leaky and very much disabled, and he was
going directly back to the coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that; and looking over the charts of
the sea-coast of America with him, we concluded there was no
inhabited country for us to have recourse to, till we came within
the circle of the Caribbee Islands, and therefore resolved to
stand away for Barbadoes, which, by keeping off at sea, to avoid
the indraught of the bay or gulf of Mexico, we might easily per-

form, as we hoped, in about fifteen days' sail; whereas, we could
not possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa without
some assistance, both to our ship and to ourselves.
With this design we changed our course, and steered away
N. W. by W. in order to reach some of our English islands,
where I hoped for relief; but our voyage was otherwise deter-
mined; for being in the latitude of twelve degrees eighteen min-
utes, a second storm came upon us, which carried us away with
the same impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of the
very way of all human commerce, that had all our lives been
saved, as to the sea, we were rather in danger of being devoured
by savages than ever returning to our own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our
men early in the morning cried out, "Land!" and we had no
sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing
whereabouts in the world we were, but the ship struck upon a
sand, and in a moment, her motion being so stopped, the sea
broke over her in such a manner, that we expected we should
all have perished immediately; and we were immediately driven
into our close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam and
spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one, who has not been in the like con-
dition, to describe or conceive the consternation of men in such
circumstances. We knew nothing where we were, or upon what
land it was we were driven, whether an island or the main,
whether inhabited or not inhabited; and as the rage of the wind
was still great, though rather less than at first, we could not so
much as hope to have the ship hold many minutes without
breaking in pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of miracle, should
turn immediately about. In a word, we sat looking one upon
another, and expecting death every moment, and every man
acting accordingly as preparing for another world, for there was

little or nothing more for us to do in this. That which was our
present comfort, and all the comfort we had, was, that contrary
to our expectation the ship did not break yet, and that the mas-
ter said the wind began to abate.
Now, though we found that the wind did a little abate, yet
the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast
for us to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful condition
indeed, and had nothing to do but to think of saving our lives
as well as we could. We had a boat at our stern just before the
storm, but she was first staved by dashing against the ship's
rudder, and in the next place she broke away, and either sunk
or was driven off to sea, so there was no hope from her. We had
another boat on board but how to get her off into the sea was a
doubtful thing; however there was no room to debate, for we
fancied the ship would break in pieces every minute, and
some told us she was actually broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of the boat,
and with the help of the rest of the men, they got her slung
over the ship's side, and getting all into her, let go, and com-
mitted ourselves, being eleven in number, to God's mercy and
the wild sea; for though the storm was abated considerably, yet
the sea went dreadful high upon the shore, and might well be
called den wild zee, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all saw
plainly that the sea went so high, that the boat could not live,
and that we should be inevitably drowned. As to making sail,
we had none, nor, if we had, could we have done anything with
it, so we worked at the oar towards the land, though with heavy
hearts, like men going to execution; for we all knew that when
the boat came nearer the shore she would be dashed in a thou-
sand pieces by the breach of the sea. However, we committed
our souls to God in the most earnest manner, and the wind


driving us toward the shore, we hastened our destruction with
our own hands, pulling as well as we could towards land.
What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep or
shoal, we knew not; the only hope that could rationally give
us the least shadow of expectation was, if we might happen
into some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where by
great chance we might have run our boat in, or got under the
lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth water. But there was
nothing of this appeared; but as we made nearer and nearer the
shore, the land looked more frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and a
half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came roll-
ing a-stern of us, and plainly bade us expect the coup-de-grace.
In a word, it took us with such a fury that it overset the boat at
once; and separating us, as well from the boat as from one an-
other, gave us not time hardly to say, 0 God! for we were all
swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt
when I sunk into the water; for though I swam very well, yet I
could not deliver myself from the waves so as to draw breath,
till that wave having driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way
on towards the shore, and having spent itself went back, and
left me upon the land almost dry, but half dead with the water
I took in. I had so much presence of mind, as well as breath
left, that seeing myself nearer the main land than I expected, I
got upon my feet, and endeavored to make on towards the land
as fast as I could, before another wave should return and take
me up again. But I soon found it was impossible to avoid it; for
I saw the sea come after me as high as a great hill, and as furious
as an enemy which I had no means or strength to contend with.
My business was to hold my breath, and raise myself upon the
water, if I could; and so by swimming to preserve my breathing,

and pilot myself towards the shore, if possible. My greatest con-
cern now being that the sea, as it would carry me a great way
towards the shore when it came on, might not carry me back
again with it when it gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again buried me at once 20 or
30 feet deep in its own body, and I could feel myself carried
with a mighty force and swiftness towards the shore a very great
way; but I held my breath, and assisted myself to swim still for-
ward with all my might. I was ready to burst with holding my
breath, when, as I felt myself rising up, so, to my immediate re-
lief, I found my head and hands shoot out above the surface of
the water; and thought it was not two seconds of time that I
could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave me breath
and new courage. I was covered again with water a good while,
but not so long but I held it out; and finding the water had
spent itself, and began to return, I struck forward against the
return of the waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I stood
still a few moments to recover breath, and till the water went
from me, and then took to my heels and ran with what strength
I had farther towards the shore. But neither would this deliver
me from the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me
again, and twice more I was lifted up by the waves and carried
forwards as before, the shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well near been fatal to me; for
the sea having hurried me along as before, landed me, or rather
dashed me, against a piece of a rock, and that with such force,
as it left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own deliv-
erance; for the blow taking my side and breast, beat the breath
as it were quite out of my body; and had it not returned again
immediately, I must have been strangled in the water; but I
recovered a little before the return of the waves, and seeing I
should be covered again with the water, I resolved to hold fast

by a piece of the rock, and so hold my breath, if possible, till the
wave went back. Now as the waves were not so high as at first,
being near land, I held my hold till the wave abated, and then
fetched another run, which brought me so near the shore that
the next wave, though it vent over me, yet did not swallow me
up as to carry me away; and the next run I took I got to the
main-land, where, to my great comfort, I clambered up the
clefts of the shore, and sat me down upon the grass, free from
danger, and quite out of the reach of the water.
I was now landed and safe on shore, and began to look up
and thank God that my life was saved in a case wherein there
was some minutes before scarce any room to hope. I believe it
is impossible to express to the life what the ecstasies and trans-
ports of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I may say, out of the
very grave. I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands,
and my whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in the contempla-
tion of my deliverance, making a thousand gestures and mo-
tions which I cannot describe, reflecting upon all my comrades
that were drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved
but myself; for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any
sign of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes
that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when the breach and
froth of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far
off, and considered, Lord! how was it possible I could get on
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of
my condition, I began to look around me, to see what kind of
place I was in, and what was next to be done; and I soon found
my comforts abate, and that, in a word, I had a dreadful de-
liverance. For I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor any-
thing either to eat or drink to comfort me; neither did I see any

prospect before me, but that of perishing with hunger, or being
devoured by wild beasts; and that which was particularly afflict-
ing to me, was, that I had no weapon either to hunt and kill any
creature for my sustenance, or to defend myself against any
other creature that might desire to kill me for theirs. In a word,
I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little
tobacco in a box; this was all my provision, and this threw me
into terrible agonies of mind, that for a while I ran about like a
madman. Night coming upon me, I began with a heavy heart
to consider what would be my lot if there were any ravenous
beasts in that country, seeing at night they always come aboard
for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time was,
to get up into a thick bushy tree like a fir, but thorny, which
grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all night, and con-
sider the next day what death I should die, for as yet I saw no
prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from the shore, to see
if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I did, to my great
joy; and having drank, and put a little tobacco in my mouth to
prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it en-
deavored to place myself so as that if I should sleep I might not
fall; and having cut me a short stick, like a truncheon, for my
defence, I took up my lodging, and having been excessively
fatigued I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe,
few could have done in my condition, and found myself the
most refreshed with it that I think I ever was on such an occa-
When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the
storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as before;
but that which surprised me most was, that the ship was lifted
off in the night from the sand where she lay by the swelling of
the tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock which I

first mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the dashing me
against it. This being within about a mile from the shore where
I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished my-
self on board, that, at least, I might save some necessary things
for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked
about me again, and the first thing I fouAd was the boat, which
lay as the wind and the sea had tossed her, up upon the land,
about two miles on my right hand. I walked as far as I could
upon the shore to have got to her, but found a neck or inlet of
water between me and the boat, which was about half a mile
broad; so I came back for the present, being more intent upon
getting at the ship, where I hoped to find something for my
present subsistence.
A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the tide
ebbed so far out that I could come within a quarter of a mile of
the ship, and here I found a fresh renewing of my grief; for I
saw evidently, that if we had kept on board, we had been all
safe, that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had not
been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort
and company, as I now was. This forced tears from my eyes
again, but as there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible,
to get to the ship, so I pulled off my clothes, for the weather
was hot to extremity, and took the water; but when I came to
the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how to get on
board, for as she lay aground, and high out of the water, there
was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her
twice, and the second time I spied a small piece of rope, which
I wondered I did not see at first, hang down by the fore-chains
so low as that with great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the
help of that rope got up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I
found that the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water

-, ~

I thought myself pretty well freighted




in her hold, but that she lay so on the side of a bank of hard
sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay lifted up upon the bank,
and her head low almost to the water. By this means all her
quarter was free, and all that was in that part was dry; for you
may be sure my first work was to search and to see what was
spoiled and what was free; and first I found that all the ship's.
provisions were dry and untouched by the water; and being very
well disposed to eat, I went to the bread-room and filled my
pockets with biscuit, and eat it as I went about other things, for
I had no time to lose. I also found some rum in the great cabin,
of which I took a large dram, and which I had indeed need
enough of to spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted
nothing but a boat to furnish myself with many things which I
foresaw would be very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had,
and this extremity roused my application. We had several spare
yards, and two or three large spars of wood, and a spare topmast
or two in the ship. I resolved to fall to work with these, and flung
as many of them overboard as I could manage for their weight,
tying every one with a rope that they might not drive away;
when this was done I went down the ship's side, and pulling
them to me, I tied four of them fast together at both ends, as
well as I could, in the form of a raft, and laying two or three
short pieces of plank upon them cross-ways, I found I could
walk upon it very well, but that it was not able to bear any great
weight, the pieces being too light; so I went to work, and with
the carpenter's saw I cut a spare topmast into three lengths, and
added them to my raft, with a great deal of labor and pains: but
hope of furnishing myself with necessaries encouraged me to go
beyond what I should have been able to have done upon an-
other occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable

weight; my next care was what to load it with, and how to pre-
serve what I laid upon it from the surf of the sea; but I was not
long considering this. I first laid all the planks or boards upon it
that I could get, and having considered well what I most
wanted, I first got three of the seamen's chests, which I had
broken open and emptied, and lowered them down upon my
raft. The first of these I filled with provisions, namely, bread,
rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goat's flesh, which
we lived much upon, and a little remainder of European corn
which had been laid by for some fowls which we brought to sea
with us, but the fowls were killed. There had been some barley
and wheat together; but, to my great disappointment, I found
afterwards that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for liquors,
I found several cases of bottles belonging to our skipper, in
which were some cordial waters, and in all about five or six gal-
lons of rack; these I stowed by themselves, there being no need
to put them into the chest, nor no room for them. While I was
doing this, I found the tide began to flow, though very calm; and
I had the mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waist-coat
which I had left on shore, upon the sand, swim away; as for my
breeches, which were only linen and open-kneed, I swam on
board in them and my stockings. However, this put me upon
rummaging for clothes, of which I found enough, but took no
more than I wanted for present use; for I had other things
which my eye was more upon-as, first, tools to work with on
shore; and it was after long searching that I found out the car-
penter's chest, which was indeed a very useful prize to me, and
much more valuable than a ship-loading of gold would have
been at that time. I got it down to my raft, even whole as it was,
without losing time to look into it, for I knew in general what
it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There



were two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two
pistols; these I secured first, with some powder-horns, and a
small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there were
three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where our
gunner had stowed them; but with much search I found them,
two of them dry and good, the third had taken water. Those two
I got to my raft, with the arms; and now I thought myself pretty
well freighted, and began to think how I should get to shore
with them, having neither sail, oar, nor rudder, and the least
capful of wind would have overset all my navigation.
I had three encouragements: a smooth, calm sea, the tide

rising and setting into the shore, and what little wind there was
blew me towards the land; and thus, having found two or three
broken oars belonging to the boat, and besides the tools which
were in the chest, I found two saws, an axe and a hammer, and
with this cargo I put to sea. For a mile, or thereabouts, my raft
went very well, only that I found it drive a little distant from
the place where I had landed before, by which I perceived that
there was some indraft of the water, and consequently I earn-
estly hoped to find some creek or river there, which I might
make use of as a port to get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a little
opening of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide set
into it, so I guided my raft as well as I could to keep in the mid-
dle of the stream; but here I had like to have suffered a second
shipwreck, which, if I had, I think verily would have broke my
heart; for knowing nothing of the coast, my raft run aground
at one end of it upon a shoal, and not being aground at the other
end, it wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped off
towards that end that was afloat, and so fallen into the water. I
did my utmost, by setting my back against the chests, to keep
them in their places, but could not thrust off the raft with all
my strength, neither durst I stir from the posture I was in; but
holding up the chests with all my might, stood in that manner
near half an hour, in which time the rising of the water brought
me a little more upon a level; and a little after, the water still
rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off with the oar I
had into the channel; and then driving up higher, I at length
found myself in the mouth of a little river, with land on both
sides, and a strong current or tide running up. I looked on both
sides for a proper place to get to shore, for I was not willing to
be driven too high up the river, hoping in time to see some ship
at sea, and therefore resolved to place myself as near the coast
as I could.

At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek,
to which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and
at last got so near, as that, reaching ground with my oar, I could
thrust her directly in. But here I had liked to have dipped all
my cargo into the sea again: for that shore lying pretty steep,
that is to say sloping, there was no place to land, but where one
end of the float, if it run on shore, would lie so high, and the
other sink lower as before, that it would endanger my cargo
again. All that I could do, was to wait till the tide was at the
highest, keeping the raft with my oar like an anchor to hold the
side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground, which I
expected the water would flow over; and so it did. As soon as I
found water enough (for my raft drew about a foot of water),
I thrust her on upon that flat piece of ground, and there fast-
ened or moored her by sticking my two broken oars into the
ground; one on one side near one end, and one on the other
side near the other end; and thus I lay till the water ebbed
away, and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.

CHAPTER 7: My fortress
My NEXT work was to view the country, and seek a proper place
for my habitation, and where to stow my goods to secure them
from whatever might happen. Where I was I yet knew not;
whether on the continent or on an island, whether inhabited or
not inhabited, whether in danger of wild beasts or not. There
was a hill not above a mile from me, which r6se up very steep
and high, and which seemed to overtop some other hills which
lay as in a ridge from it northward. I took out one of the fowl-
ing-pieces, and one of the pistols, and an horn of powder, and
thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to the top of that hill;
where, after I had with great labor and difficulty got to the top,

I saw my fate to my great affliction, namely, that I was in an
island environed every way with the sea, no land to be seen, ex-
cept some rocks which lay a great way off, and two small islands
less than this, which lay about three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was.barren, and, as I saw
good reason to believe, uninhabited, except by wild beasts, of
whom however I saw none; yet I saw abundance of fowls, but
knew not their kinds, neither when I killed them could I tell
what was fit for food, and what not. At my coming back, I shot
at a great bird, which I saw sitting upon a tree on the side of a
great wood-I believe it was the first gun that had been fired
there since the creation of the world. I had no sooner fired, but
from all parts of the wood there arose an innumerable number
of fowls of many sorts, making a confused screaming, and cry-
ing every one according to his usual note; but not one of them
of any kind that I knew. As for the creature I killed, I took it to
be a kind of hawk, its color and beak resembling it, but had no
talons or claws more than common; its flesh was carrion and fit
for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and
fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the
rest of that day; and what to do with myself at night, I knew
not, nor indeed where to rest; for I was afraid to lie down on
the ground, not knowing but some wild beast might devour me,
though, as I afterwards found, there was really no need for those
However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round with
the chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and made a
kind of a hut for that night's lodging. As for food, I yet saw not
which way to supply myself, except that I had seen two or three
creatures, like hares, run out of the wood where I shot the bird.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many

things out of the ship which would be useful to me, and par-
ticularly some of the rigging and sails, and such other things as
might come to land, and I resolved to make another voyage on
board the vessel, if possible; and I knew that the first storm
that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I resolved to
set all other things apart till I got everything out of the ship that
I could get. Then I called a council, that is to say, in my
thoughts, whether I should take back the raft; but this appeared
impracticable, so I resolved to go as before, when the tide was
down, and I did so, only that I stripped before I went from my
hut, having nothing on but a checkered shirt, and a pair of linen
trousers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship, as before, and prepared a second raft,
and having had experience of the first, I neither made this so
unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard; but yet I brought away several
things very useful to me; as first, in the carpenter's stores, I
found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great screw
jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and above all, that most useful
thing called a grindstone. All these I secured, together with sev-
eral things belonging to the gunner, particularly two or three
iron crows, and two barrels of musket-bullets, seven muskets,
and another fowling-piece, with some small quantity of powder,
a large bag full of small shot, and a great roll of sheet lead; but
this last was so heavy, I could not hoist it up to get it over the
ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes that I could
find, and a spare foretop-sail, hammock, and some bedding; and
with this I loaded my second raft, and brought them all safe on
shore, to my very great comfort.
I was under some apprehensions during my absence from the
land, that at least my provisions might be devoured on shore;
but when I came back, I found no sign of any visitor, only there

sat a creature like a wild cat upon one of the chests, which,
when I came towards it, ran away a little distance, and then
stood still. She sat very composed and unconcerned, and looked
full in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with me.
I presented my gun at her, but as she did not understand it, she
was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer to stir away;
upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit, though by the way I was
not very free of it, for my store was not great. However, I spared
her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled it, ate it, and looked
as pleased, for more; but I thanked her, and could spare no
more, so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore, though I was fain to
open the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels (for they
were too heavy, being large casks), I went to work to make me
a little tent with the sail and some poles which I cut for that
purpose; and into this tent I brought everything that I knew
would spoil, either with rain or sun, and I piled all the empty
chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from
any sudden attempt, either from man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with
some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end without;
and spreading one of the beds on the ground, laying my two
pistols just at my head, and my gun at length by me, I went to
bed for the first time, and slept very quietly all night, for I was
very weary and heavy; for the night before I had slept little, and
had labored very hard all day, as well to fetch all those things
from the ship as to get them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever were
laid up, I believe, for one man, but I was not satisfied still; for
while the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought I ought to
get everything out of her that I could: so.every day at low water
I went on board, and brought away something or other; but par-

ticularly the third time I went, I brought away as much of the
rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes and rope twine I
could get, with a piece of spare canvas, which was to mend the
sails upon occasion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder. In a
word, I brought away all the sails first and last, only that I was
fain to cut them in pieces, and bring as much at a time as I
could; for they were no more useful to be sails, but as mere
canvas only.
But that which comforted me more still; was that, last of all,
after I had made five or six such voyages as these, and thought
I had nothing more to expect from the ship that was worth my
meddling with; I say, after all this, I found a great hogshead of
bread, and three large runlets of rum or spirits, and a box of
sugar, and a barrel of fine flour. This was surprising to me, be-
cause I had given over expecting any more provisions, except
what was spoiled by the water. I soon emptied the hogshead of
that bread, and wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the
sails, which I cut out; and, in a word, I got all this safe on shore
The next day I made another voyage; and now, having plun-
dered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I began
with the cables; and cutting the great cable into pieces, such as
I could move, I got two cables and a hawser on shore, with all
the iron-work I could get; and having cut down the spritsail-
yard, and the mizzen-yard, and everything I could to make a
large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods and came away.
But my good luck began now to leave me; for this raft was so
unwieldy and so overladen, that after I had entered the little
cove, where I had landed the rest of my goods, not being able to
guide it so handily as I did the other, it overset, and threw me
and all my cargo into the water. As for myself it was no great
harm, for I was near the shore; but as to my cargo, it was a great

part of it lost, especially the iron, which I expected would have
been of great use to me. However, when the tide was out, I got
most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron, though
with infinite labor; for I was fain to dip for it into the water-
a work which fatigued me verymuch. After this, I went every
day on board and brought away what I could get.
I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven
times on board the ship, in which time I had brought away all
that one pair of hands could be well supposed capable to bring;
though I believe verily, had the calm weather held, I should
* have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece. But prepar-
ing the twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind begin to
rise; however, at low water I went on board, and though I
thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectually, as that noth-
ing more could be found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers
in it, in one of which I found two or three razors, and one pair
of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good knives and
forks; in another I found about thirty-six pounds value in
money, some European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight,
some gold, some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. "0 Drug!" said
I, aloud, "what art thou good for? thou art not worth to me, no,
not the taking off the ground. One of these knives is worth all
this heap. I have no manner of use for thee, even remain where
thou art and go to the bottom, as a creature whose life is not
worth saving." However, upon second thoughts, I took it away,
and wrapping all this in a piece of canvas, I began to think of
making another raft; but while I was preparing this, I found
the sky overcast, and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter of
an hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore. It presently occurred
to me, that it was in vain to pretend to make a raft with the
wind off shore, and that it was my business to be gone before

the tide of flood began, otherwise I might not be able to reach
the shore at all: accordingly I let myself down into the water,
and swam across the channel, which lay between the ship and
the sands, and even that with difficulty enough, partly with the
weight of things I had about me, and partly the roughness of
the water; for the wind rose very hastily, and before it was quite
high water it blew a storm.
But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I lay with all
my wealth about me very secure. It blew very hard all that
night; and in the morning when I looked out, behold no more
ship was to be seen. I was a little surprised, but recovered my-
self with this satisfactory reflection; namely, that I had lost no
time, nor abated any diligence, to get everything out of her that
could be useful to me; and that indeed there was little left in
her that I was able to bring away, if I had had more time.
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything
out of her, except what might drive on shore from her wreck, as
indeed divers pieces of her afterwards did; but those things were
of small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing my-
self against either savages (if any should appear) or wild beasts,
if any were in the island; and I had many thoughts of the
method how to do this, and what kind of dwelling to make;
whether I should make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon
the earth; and, in short, I resolved upon both, of the manner,
and description of which it may not be improper to give an
I soon found the place I was in was not for my settlement,
particularly because it was upon a low moorish ground near the
sea, and I believed would not be wholesome, and more particu-
larly because there was no fresh water near it, so I resolved to
find a more healthy and more convenient spot of ground.

I consulted several things in my situation which I found
would be proper for me. Health, and fresh water, I just now
mentioned; shelter from the heat of the sun; security from rav-
enous creatures, whether man or beast; a view to the sea, that if
God sent any ship in sight, I might not lose any advantage for
my deliverance, of which I was not willing to banish all my
expectation yet.
In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on
the side of a raising hill, whose front towards this little plain
was steep as a house-side, so that nothing could come down
upon.me from the top; on the side of this rock there was a hol-
low place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or door of a
cave; but there was not really any cave or way into the rock at all.
SOn the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I re-
solved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above an hundred
yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a green before
my door, and at the end it descended irregularly every way down
into the low grounds by the sea-side. It was on the N. N. W.
side of the hill, so that I was sheltered from the heat every day,
till it came to a W. and by S. sun, or thereabouts, which in those
countries is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half circle before the hollow
place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter, from
the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter, from its beginning
and ending.
In this half circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving
them into the ground till they stood very firm, like piles, the
biggest end being out of the ground about five foot and a half,
and sharpened on the top; the two rows did not stand above six
inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship,
and laid them in rows one upon another, within the circle be-

tween these two rows of stakes, up to the top, placing other
stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two foot and
a half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong,
that neither man nor beast could get into it or over it. This cost
me a great deal of time and labor, especially to cut the piles in
the woods, bring them to the place, and drive them into the
The entrance into this place I made to be not by a door, but
by a short ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when I was
in, I lifted over after me: and so I was completely fenced in and
fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and consequently
slept secure in the night, which otherwise I could not have
done; though, as it appeared afterward, there was no need of all
this caution from the enemies that I apprehended danger from.
Into this fence or fortress, with infinite labor, I carried all my
riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you
have the account above; and I made me a large tent, which, to
preserve me from the rains, that in one part of the year are very
violent there, I made double, namely, one smaller tent within,
and one larger tent above it, and covered the uppermost with a
a large tarpaulin which I had saved among the sails.

And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had
brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very
good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that
would spoil by the wet; and having thus inclosed all my goods
I made up the entrance, which till now I had left open, and so
passed and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock;
and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down out
through my tent, I laid them up within my fence in the nature
of a terrace, that so it raised the ground within about a foot and
a half; and thus I made me a cave just behind my tent, which
served me like a cellar to my house.
It cost me much labor, and many days, before all these things
were brought to perfection, and therefore I must go back to
some other things which took up some of my thoughts. At the
same time it happened, after I had laid my scheme for the set-
ting up my tent and making the cave, that a storm of rain falling
from a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened,
and after that a great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect'
of it. I was not so much surprised with the lightning, as I was
with a thought which darted into my mind as swift as the light-
ning itself. 0 my powder! my very heart sunk within me, when
I thought that at one blast all my powder might be destroyed;
on which, not my defense only, but the providing me food, as I
thought, entirely depended. I was nothing near so anxious
about my own danger, though, had the powder took fire, I had
never known who had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm
was over I laid aside all my works, my building, and fortifying,
and applied myself to make bags and boxes to separate the
powder, and to keep it only a little in a parcel, in hope, that

whatever might come, it might not all take fire at once; and to
keep it so apart, that it should not be possible to make one part
fire another. I finished this work in about a fortnight; and I
think my powder, which in all was about 240 pounds weight,
was divided in not less than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel
that had been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from that,
so I placed it in my new cave, which in my fancy I called my
kitchen; and the rest I hid up and down in holes among the
rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking very carefully
where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this I was doing, I went out
once at least every day with my gun, as well to divert myself
as to see if I could kill anything fit for food, and, as near as I
could, to acquaint myself with what the island produced. The
first time I went out I presently discovered that there were goats
in the island, which was a great satisfaction to me; but then it
was attended with this misfortune to me, namely, that they
were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the most
difficult thing in the world to come at them. But I was not dis-
couraged at this, not doubting but I might now and then shoot
one, as it soon happened; for after I had found their haunts a
little, I laid wait in this manner for them: I observed, if they
saw me in the valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they
would run away as in a terrible fright; but if they were feeding
in the valleys, and I was upon the rocks, they took no notice of
me: from whence I concluded, that by the position of their
optics, their sight was so directed downward, that they did not
readily see objects that were above them; so afterwards I took
this method: I always climbed the rocks first, to get above them,
and then I had frequently a fair mark. The first shot I made
among these creatures I killed a she-goat, which had a little kid
by her, which she gave suck to, which grieved me heartily; but

when the old one fell, the kid stood stock still by her till I
came and took her up; and not only so, but when I carried the
old'one with me upon my shoulders, the kid followed me quite
to.my inclosure, upon which I laid down the dam, and took
the kid in my arms and carried it over my pale, in hopes to have
bred it up tame, but it would not eat, so I was forced to kill it
and eat it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great
while, for I ate sparingly, and saved my provisions (my bread
especially) as much as possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely neces-
sary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and
what I did for that, as also how I enlarged my cave, and what
conveniences I made, I shall give a full account of in its place;
but I must first give some little account of myself, and of my
thoughts about living, which it may well be supposed were not
a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as I was not cast
away upon that island without being driven, as is said, by a
violent storm quite out of the course of our intended voyage,
and a great way, some hundreds of leagues, out of the ordinary
course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason to consider
it as a determination of Heaven that in this desolate place and
in this desolate manner, I should end my life. The tears would
run plentifully down my face when I made these reflections,
and sometimes I would expostulate with myself, why Provi-
dence should thus completely ruin his creatures, and render
them so absolutely miserable, so without help abandoned, so
entirely depressed, that it could hardly be rational to be thank-
ful for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to check these
thoughts and reprove me; and particularly one day, walking
with my gun in my hand by the sea-side, I was very pensive

upon the subject of my present condition, when reason as it
were expostulated with me the other way, thus: Well, you are
in a desolate condition, it is true; but pray remember, where
are the rest of you? Did not you come eleven of you into the
boat? Where are the ten? Why were they not saved and you
lost? Why were you singled out? Is it better to be here or there?
and then I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be considered
with the good that is in them, and with what worse attends
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished for
my subsistence, and what would have been my case if it had
not happened, which was a hundred thousand to one, that the
ship floated from the place where she first struck, and was
driven so near the shore that I had time to get all these things
out of her? What would have been my case if I had been left
t6 have lived in the condition in which I at first came on shore,
without necessaries of life or necessaries to supply and procure
them? Particularly, said I aloud (though to myself), what
should I have done without a gun, without ammunition, with-
out any tools to make anything, or to work with; without
clothes, bedding, a tent, or any manner of covering? And that
now I had all these to a sufficient quantity, and was in a fair
way to provide myself in such a manner, as to live without my
gun when my ammunition was spent, so that I had a tolerable
view of subsisting, without any want, as long as I lived; for I
considered from the beginning how I should provide for the
accidents that might happen and for the time that was to come,
even not only after my ammunition should be spent, but even
after my health or strength should decay.
I confess I had not entertained any notion of my ammuni-
tion being destroyed at one blast, I mean, my powder being
blown up by lightning; and this made the thoughts of it so

surprising to me when it lightened and thundered, as I ob-
served just now.
And now being about to enter into a melancholy relation of
a scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the
world before, I shall take it from its beginning, and continue
it in its order. It was, by my account, the 3oth of September,
when, in the manner as above said, I first set foot upon this
horrid island, when the sun being, to us, in its autumnal equi-
nox, was almost just over my head; for I reckoned myself, by
observation, to be in the latitude of 9 degrees and 22 minutes
north of the line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into
my thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time for want
of books, and pen and ink, and should even forget the Sabbath
days from the working days; but to prevent this, I cut it with
my knife upon a large post in capital letters, and making it
into a great cross, I set it up on the shore where I first landed,
Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a notch with
my knife, and every seventh notch was as long again as the rest,
and every first day of the month as long again as that long one;
and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly
reckoning of time.
In the next place we are to observe, that among the many
things which I brought out of the ship in the several voyages,
which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got several things of
less value, but not all less useful to me, which I omitted setting
down before; as in particular, pens, ink, and paper; several
parcels in the captain's, mate's, gunner's, and carpenter's keep-
ing; three or four coripasses, some mathematical instruments,
dials, perspective glasses, charts, and books of navigation; all
which I huddled together, whether I might want them or no;



also, I found three very good Bibles which came to me in my
cargo from England, and which I had packed up among my
things; some Portuguese books also, and among them two or
three Popish prayer-books, and several other books, all which I
carefully secured. And I must not forget, that we had in the
ship a dog and two cats, of whose eminent history I may have
occasion to say something in its place; for I carried both the
cats with me; and as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship
of himself, and swam on shore to me the day after I went on
shore with my first cargo, and was a trusty servant to me many
years. I wanted nothing that he could fetch me, or any com-
pany that he could make up to me; I only wanted to have him
talk to me, but that he could not do. As I observed before, I
found pen, ink, and paper, and I husbanded them to the ut-
most; and I shall show, that while my ink lasted, I kept things
very exact; but after that was gone I could not, for I could not
make any ink, by any means that I could devise.


And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, not-
withstanding all that I had amassed together; and of these this
of ink was one, as also spade, pickaxe, and shovel, to dig or re-
move the earth; needles, pins, and thread; as for linen, I soon
learned to want that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily, and
it was near a whole year before I had entirely finished my little
pale or surrounded habitation. The piles or stakes, which were
as heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in cutting and
preparing in the woods, and more by far in bringing home; so
that I spent sometimes two days in cutting and bringing home
one of those posts, and a third day in driving it into the ground;
for which purpose I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last
bethought myself of one of the iron crows, which, however,
though I found it, yet it made driving those posts or piles very
laborious and tedious work.
But what need I have been concerned at the tediousness of
anything I had to do, seeing I had time enough to do it in, nor
had I any other employment if that had been over, at least, that
I could foresee, except the ranging the island to seek for food,
which I did more or less every day.
I have already described my habitation, which was a tent
under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts
and cables, but I might now rather call it a wall, for I raised
a kind of wall up against it of turfs, about two feet thick on the
outside, and after some time, I think it was a year and a half,
I raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched or
covered it with boughs of trees, and such things as I could get
to keep out the rain, which I found at some times of the year
very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this
pale, and into the cave which I had made behind me; but I

must observe too, that at first this was a confused heap of goods,
which, as they lay in no order, so they took up all my place,
I had no room to turn myself; so I set to work to enlarge my
cave and work farther into the earth; for it was a loose, sandy
rock, which yielded easily to the labor I bestowed on it. And
so when I found I was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked
sideways to the right hand into the rock; and then turning to
the right again, worked quite out, and made me a door to come
out, on the outside of my pale or fortification.
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were a back
way to my tent and to my store-house, but gave me room to
stow my goods. And now I began to apply myself to such neces-
sary things as I found I most wanted, as particularly a chair and
a table; for without these I was not able to enjoy the few com-
forts I had in the world. I could not write or eat, or do several
things with so much pleasure without a table.
So I went to work; and here I must needs observe, that as
reason is the substance and original of the mathematics, so by
stating and squaring everything by reason, and by making the
most rational judgment of things, every man may be in time
master of every mechanic art. I had never handled a tool in my
life, and yet in time by labor, application, and contrivance, I
found at last that I wanted nothing but I could have made it,
especially if I had had tools; however, I made abundance of
things, even without tools, and some with no more tools than
an adze and a hatchet, which, perhaps, were never made that
way before, and that with infinite labor; for example, if I wanted
a board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree, set it on a
hedge before me, and hew it flat on either side with my axe,
till I had brought it to be as thin as a plank, and then dub it
smooth with my adze. It is true, by this method I could make
but one board out of a whole tree, but this I had no remedy for


but patience, any more than I had for the prodigious deal of
time and labor which it took me up to make a plank or board;
but my time or labor was little worth, and so it was as well em-
ployed one way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above,
in the first place, and this I did out of the short pieces of boards
which I brought on my raft from the ship; but when I had
wrought out some boards, as above, I made large shelves, of
the breadth of a foot and a half, one over another, all along
one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work,
and in a word, to separate everything at large in their places,
that I might come easily at them. I knocked pieces into the wall
of the rock to hang my guns and all things that would hang up.
So that had my cave been to be seen, it looked like a general
magazine of all necessary things; and I had everything so ready
at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me to see all my
goods in such order, and especially to find my stock of all
necessaries so great.

CHAPTER 8: In which is given a copy of my journal
AND NOW it was that I began to keep a journal of every day's
employment; for indeed at first I was in too much hurry, and
not only hurry as to labor, but in too much discomposure of
mind, and my journal would have been full of many dull things.
I shall here give you the copy (though in it will be told many
particulars over again) as long as it lasted; for having no more
ink, I was forced to leave it off.

September 30, 1659. I, poor, miserable Robinson Crusoe,
being shipwrecked, during a dreadful storm, in the offing, came

on shore on this dismal, unfortunate island, which I called the
Island of Despair, all the rest of the ship's company being
drowned, and myself almost dead.
All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting myself, at the dis-
mal circumstances I was brought to, namely, I had neither food,
house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to, and in despair of
any relief, saw nothing but death before me, either that I should
be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or starved to
death for-want of food. At the approach of night I slept in a
tree, for fear of wild creatures, but slept soundly though it
rained all night.
October i. In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the
ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven on shore
again much nearer the island, which as it was some comfort on
one hand, for seeing her sit upright, and not broken to pieces,
I hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board, and get some
food or necessaries out of her for my relief; so, on the other
hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades, who I
imagined if we had all stayed on board might have saved the
ship, or at least that they would not have been all drowned, as
they were; and that, had the men been saved, we might perhaps
have built us a boat out of the ruins of the ship, to have carried
us to some other part of the world. I spent great part of this
day in perplexing myself on these things; but at length, seeing
the ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I could,
and then swam on board: this day also it continued raining,
though with no wind at all.
From the ist of October to the 24th. All these days entirely
spent in making several voyages to get all I could out of the
ship, which I brought on shore, every tide of flood, upon rafts.
Much rain also in these days, though with some intervals of
fair weather; but, it seems, this was the rainy season.

Oct. 20. I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got upon
it; but being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly heavy,
I recovered many of them when the tide was out.
Oct. 25. It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of
wind, during which time the ship broke in pieces, the wind
blowing a little harder than before, and was no more to be
seen, except the wreck of her, and that only at low water. I
spent this day in covering and securing the goods which I had
saved, that the rain might not spoil them.
Oct. 26. I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out
a place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself
from any attack in the night, either from wild beasts or men.
Toward night I fixed upon a proper place under a rock, and
marked out a semicircle for my encampment, which I resolved
to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification made of double
piles, lined within with cables, and without with turf.
From the 26th to the 3oth, I worked very hard in carrying
all my goods to my new habitation, though some part of the
time it rained exceeding hard.
The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with
my gun, to seek for some food, and discover the country, when
I killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me home; which I
afterwards killed also, because it would not feed.
November i. I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there
for the first night, making it as large as I could with stakes
driven in to swing my hammock upon.
Nov. 2. I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces of
timber which made my rafts, and with them formed a fence
round me, a little within the place I had marked out for my
Nov. 3. I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like

ducks, which were very good food. In the afternoon went to
work to make me a table.
Nov. 4. This morning I began to order my times of work, of
going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion.
Every morning I walked out with my gun for two or three
hours, if it did not rain, then employed myself to work till
about eleven o'clock, then eat what I had to live on, and from
twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the weather being excessive
hot, and then in the evening to work again. The working part
of this day, and of the next, were wholly employed in making
my table, for I was yet but a very sorry workman, though time
and necessity made me a complete natural mechanic soon after,
as I believe it would do any one else.
Nov. 5. This day went I abroad with my gun and my dog,
and killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good
for nothing; every creature I killed I took off the skins and pre-
served them. Coming back to the seashore I saw many sorts of
sea-fowls, which I did not understand; but was surprised and
almost frighted with two or three seals, which, while I was
gazing, not well knowing what they were, got into the sea,
and escaped me for that time.
Nov. 6. After my morning walk I went to work with my table
again, and finished it, though not to my liking; nor was it long
before I learned to mend it.
Nov. 7. Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th,
8th, 9th, loth, and a part of the 12th (for the 11th was Sun-
day), I took wholly up to make me a chair, and with much ado
brought it to a tolerable shape, but never to please me; and
even in the making I pulled it in pieces several times. Note.-I
soon neglected my keeping Sundays, for omitting my mark for
them on my post, I forgot which was which.


Nov. 13. This-day it rained, which refreshed me exceedingly,
and cooled the earth; but it was accompanied with terrible
thunder and lightning, which frighted me dreadfully for fear
of my powder. As soon as it was over I resolved to separate my
stock of powder into as many little parcels as possible, that it
might not be in danger.
Nov. 14, 15, 16. These three days I spent in making little
square chests or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or
two pounds at most, of powder; and so putting the powder in,
I stowed it in places as secure and remote from one another
as possible. On one of these three days I killed a large bird that
was good to eat, but I know not what to call it.
Nov. 17. This day I began to dig behind my tent into the
rock, to make room for my farther conveniency. Note.-Three
things I wanted exceeding for this work, namely, a pickaxe, a
shovel, and a wheelbarrow or basket, so I desisted from my
work, and began to consider how to supply that want, and make
me some tools. As for a pickaxe, I made use of the iron crows,
which were proper enough, though heavy; but the next thing
was a shovel or spade. This was so absolutely necessary, that in-
deed I could do nothing effectually without it; but what kind
of one to make I knew not.
Nov. 18. The next day, in searching the woods, I found a
tree of that wood, or like it, which in the Brazils they call the
Iron Tree, for its exceeding hardness; of this, with great labor
and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece and brought it home
too with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy.
The excessive hardness of the wood, and having'no other
way, made me a long while upon this machine; for I worked it
effectually by little and little into the form of a shovel or spade,
the handle exactly shaped like ours in England, only that the
broad part having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it would

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