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 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Foreword
 Advertising
 List of Illustrations
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 Main
 Advertising
 Back Cover














Title: Robinson Crusoe.
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Title: Robinson Crusoe.
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
    Frontispiece
        Frontispiece
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Foreword
        Foreword 1
        Foreword 2
        Foreword 3
    Advertising
        Advertising
    List of Illustrations
        List of Illustrations 1
        List of Illustrations 2
    Half Title
        Half Title 1
        Half Title 2
    Main
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        Page 2
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GREAT ILLUSTRATED CLASSICS








DISCARDED












































the will, nay, the commands of my father and against all the

entreaties and persuasions of my mother."





ROBINSON

CRUSOE

BY DANIEL DEFOE


WiAth illustrations of the story by Thomas
Stothard, R.A., together with a foreword
by Arthur D. Howden Smith


NEW YORK DODD, ML
GAINESVIL- UBR
LIBRARY






















ROBINSON CRUSOE

PUBLISHED IN THE UNITED
STATES OF AMERICA, 1946

BY DODD, MEAD & COMPANY, INC.





























PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
BY THE CORNWALL PRESS, CORNWALL, N. Y.














FOREWORD


OF COURSE, "The Adventures and Farther Adventures of Robinson
Crusoe," to most people, consist of the middle episodes which deal
with his life on the mythical island upon which he was supposedly
cast away. But President Theodore Roosevelt, who was a great book-
man, used to say that he thought the meat of the book really lay in
the opening pages of the first part and the concluding pages of the
second part. The opening details are sheer action fiction, written
with a feeling of drive and pace. In the last section, as he would
say, you have Daniel Defoe, the philosopher, the apostle of the printed
word, the man who served two sentences in jail, and stood in the pillory
for the right of freedom of speech.
Defoe was much more than a novelist. He was one of the most
potent political pamphleteers of the period in which he lived, and
which saw the development of the spirit of democracy which ever
since has influenced the English-speaking world. He was born, ap-
parently, about 1661, a year after Charles II returned to the throne
and the first English Civil War was terminated by a return to the
principle of sovereignty. As a young man, he served in Monmouth's
Rebellion, in 1685, against James II, an abortive attempt which was
the prelude to the Revolution in 1689 which brought William and
Mary to the throne and definitely terminated the threat of absolutism
in the British Isles. In his maturity, he was an active participant
in the mighty series of events which created the idea of political parties
as instruments of government, and in so doing killed the old theory of
the division of power between "King's men" and men who were not
for the King. He was one of the fathers of the theory of democracy
which rules us today, the theory which gave us in America such men
as Washington, Jefferson, the Adamses, Jackson and Lincoln.
So, in reading "Robinson Crusoe," as in reading his other great
pseudo-biographical novels of the times in which he lived-"Moll
Flanders," "A Journal of the Plague Year," "The Memoirs of a
Cavalier"-you should always remember that he is writing docu-






Foreword


ments which are intended very intelligently to affect the thought of
his contemporaries. In "Crusoe" sjwaAtryingom uake-people-nder-
stand that in the face of adversity man could triumph if he puthis
iiaTirihTig~enuityfto work. Noticethe detail he goes into in describ-
ing ow is hero mastered the difficulties of living in a strange, and,
in a sense, a hostile environment. Notice, too, the subtle propaganda
he preaches for the doctrine of the English conception of life, a con-
ception which was actually one of the cornerstones of what has be-
come the British Empire.
Another feature of this novel which appealed to President Roosevelt
and has interested other thoughtful people is the degree of religious
tolerance revealed by Defoe. And in this connection we must remem-
ber that he grew up and worked in an era when religious tolerance was
almost unknown in England. Take his description of the Catholic
priest he rescued from a burning French vessel, his citation of the
priest's philosophy of life, and the debates they had together. You
would have a difficult time to find anything in the literature of the
time as broad-minded and tolerant. Consider, also, his description
of how he and this friendly priest legitimized the relations of the little
colony Crusoe had established on his island. It is, if you have
occasion to study the opening years of the Eighteenth Century, a
remarkable tribute to Daniel Defoe's modern-mindedness. Indeed,
he was to an extraordinary degree a man who was thinking at least
a century beyond his time.
Always, too, you will notice, Defoe tries to make his hero think
straight through in an humanitarian sense. He even comes to under-
stand the strange rite of cannibalism as something not unutterably
horrible, but rather as a primitive instinct for which savage peoples
should not be too much to blame. Our anthropologists today are only
just beginning to comprehend something which Defoe had reasoned
out for himself in 1719.
"Robinson Crusoe" is a great novel of adventure and personal
experience, but it is much more than that. It is an attempt by an
unusually sophisticated mind to reason out the problems of existence
which are eternal. And we should read with particular care the latter
section of the second part in which he gives a detailed description of
how what we call "Big Business" worked in his times, and of what
the remote portions of the earth were like, and how men traveled
and wrought together. Defoe performed a remarkable piece of re-






Foreword

search. While it is true, probably, that his original idea for a story
of a lone castaway on a deserted island sprang from his reading of
the brief description of Alexander Selkirk's experience on Juan Fer-
nandez, in Rogers' Narra-'e-, mat have studied widely to have
mastered such a detailed knowledge of husbandry, handicrafts, navi-
*gation, financial methods, geography, and politics. And it is note-
worthy that, detailed as are his descriptions, they are never confused.
ARTHUR D. HOWDEN SMITH












A SELECTED LIST OF THE WORKS OF DANIEL DEFOE
AND THEIR DATES

The True-Born Englishman-1701
Shortest Way with the Dissenters-1702
Jure Divino-1706
History of the Union-1709
The Family Instructor-1715
Robinson Crusoe-1719
Serious Reflections-1720
The Life and Adventures of Mr. Duncan Campbell-1720
Memoirs of a Cavalier-1720
Captain Singleton-1720
The Fortunes and Misfortunes of Moll Flanders-1722
The Journal of the Plague Year-1722
The History of Colonel Jack-1722
The Fortunate Mistress-1724
A Tour through the Whole Island of Great Britain-1724
A New Voyage round the World-1725
The Complete English Tradesman-1726
The Political History of the Devil-1726
A System of Magic-1726
An Essay on the History of Apparitions-1728












ILLUSTRATIONS


"I would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea" Frontispiece
FACING
PAGE
"It happened one day, about noon . I was exceedingly sur-
prised with the print of a man's naked foot to be seen on the
shore" ................. ... 18
"I saw ... a terrible great lion that lay on the side of the shore" 29
"I crossed toward the sea ... and placed myself in the way be-
tween the pursuers and the pursued" . . . .. 44
"Had my cave been seen, it looked like a general magazine of
all necessary things" ... . . . . . .. 53
"I made ... a great cap for my head with the hair on the outside,
to shoot off the rain" . . .. . . . 84
"I resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock" . ... .117
"In about a month's hard labour we finished it" . . .. 148
"To lead them, with their two wives, and whatever they could
carry away with them, to their retired place in the woods" 181
"In a quarter of an hour they set the town on fire in four or five
places" .. ... ..... ... ....... 212
"They went to work immediately with the boats" .... . 245
"I cannot express what pleasure, what satisfaction, sat upon the
countenances of all these poor men, when they saw the care
I had taken of them" . . . . . . .. 276
"The two men had innumerable young trees planted about their
huts" . . . . . . . .. 309
"We got leave to travel in the retinue of one of their mandarins" 340
"He turned to me ... and said: 'There, sir, are some of the gentle-
men who owe their lives to you'" . . . . .. 373
"They told me this was a kind of border, that might be called
... a part of Grand Tartary" . . . . .. 404
















ROBINSON CRUSOE












ROBINSON CRUSOE

I WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good family,
though not of that country, my father being a foreigner of Bremen,
named Kreutznaer, who settled first at Hull. He got a good estate by
merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York; from
whence he had married my mother, whose relations were named Robinson,
a very good family in that country, and after whom I was so called, that
is to say, Robinson Kreutznaer; but by the usual corruption of words in
England, we are now called, nay, we call ourselves, and write our name,
Crusoe; and so my companions always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel, to an Eng-
lish regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by the famous
Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near Dunkirk against the
Spaniards. What became of my second brother, I never knew, any more
than my father and mother did know what was become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade, my head
began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts. My father, who was
very aged, had given me a competent share of learning, as far as house
education and a country free school generally go, and designed me for the
law; but I would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and my inclina-
tion to this led me so strongly against the will, nay, the commands of my
father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of my mother and other
friends, that there seemed to be something fatal in that propension of na-
ture, tending directly to the life of misery which was to befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent counsel
against what he foresaw was my design. He called me one morning into his
chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly
with me upon this subject: he asked me what reasons, more than a mere
wandering inclination, I had for leaving his house, and my native country,
where I might be well introduced, and had a prospect of raising my fortune,
by application and industry, with a life of ease and pleasure. He told me
it was men of desperate fortunes, on one hand, or of superior fortunes,
on the other, who went abroad upon adventures, aspiring to rise by enter-
prise, and make themselves famous in undertakings of a nature out of the
common road; that these things were all either too far above me, or too
1







Robinson Crusoe


far below me; that mine was the middle state, or what might be called the
upper station of low life, which he had found, by long experience, was the
best state in the world, the most suited to human happiness; not exposed
to the miseries and hardships, the labour and sufferings, of the mechanic
part of mankind, and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and
envy of the upper part of mankind: he told me, I might judge of the hap-
piness of this state by one thing, viz., that this was the state of life which
all other people envied; that kings have frequently lamented the miserable
consequences of being born to great things, and wished they had been placed
in the middle of two extremes, between the mean and the great; that the
wise man gave his testimony to this as the just standard of true felicity,
when he prayed to have "neither poverty nor riches."
He bade me observe it, and I should always find, that the calamities of
life were shared among the upper and lower part of mankind; but that the
middle station had the fewest disasters, and was not exposed to so many
vicissitudes as the higher or lower part of mankind: nay, they were not sub-
jected to so many distempers and uneasinesses, either of body or mind, as
those were, who, by vicious living, luxury, and extravagancies, on one hand,
or by hard labour, want of necessaries, and mean and insufficient diet, on
the other hand, bring distempers upon themselves by the natural conse-
quences of their way of living; that the middle station of life was calculated
for all kind of virtues, and all kind of enjoyments; that peace and plenty
were the handmaids of a middle fortune; that temperance, moderation, quiet-
ness, health, society, all agreeable diversions, and all desirable pleasures
were the blessings attending the middle station of life; that this way men
went silently and smoothly through the world, and comfortably out of it,
not embarrassed with the labours of the hands or of the head, not sold to the
life of slavery for daily bread, or harassed with perplexed circumstances,
which rob the soul of peace, and the body of rest; not enraged with the pas-
sion of envy, or secret burning lust of ambition for great things; but, in easy
circumstances, sliding gently through the world, and sensibly tasting the
sweets of living, without the bitter; feeling that they are happy, and learn-
ing by every day's experience, to know it more sensibly.
After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate manner,
not to play the young man, nor to precipitate myself into miseries which
nature and the station of life I was born in, seemed to have provided against;
that I was under no necessity of seeking my bread; that he would do well
for me, and endeavour to enter me fairly into the station of life which he
had been just recommending to me; and that if I was not very easy and
happy in the world, it must be my mere fate, or fault, that must hinder it;
2






Robinson Crusoe


and that he should have nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his
duty in warning me against measures which he knew would be to my hurt:
in a word, that as he would do very kind things for me if I would stay and
settle at home, as he directed; so he would not have so much hand in my
misfortunes as to give me any encouragement to go away: and, to close all,
he told me I had my elder brother for an example, to whom he had used the
same earnest persuasions to keep him from going into the Low Country
wars; but could not prevail, his young desires prompting him to run into
the army, where he was killed; and though, he said, he would not cease to
pray for me, yet he would venture to say to me, that if I did take this foolish
step, God would not bless me; and I would have leisure, hereafter, to reflect
upon having neglected his counsel, when there might be none to assist in my
recovery.
I observed, in the last part of his discourse, which was truly prophetic,
though, I suppose, my father did not know it to be so himself; I say, I ob-
served the tears run down his face very plentifully, especially when he spoke
of my brother who was killed; and that, when he spoke of my having leisure
to repent, and none to assist me, he was so moved that he broke off the dis-
course, and told me his heart was so full, he could say no more to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed who could be other-
wise? and I resolved not to think of going abroad any more, but to settle at
home, according to my father's desire. But, alas! a few days wore it all off;
and, in short, to prevent any of my father's farther importunities, in a few
weeks after, I resolved to run quite away from him. However, I did not act
so hastily neither, as my first heat of resolution prompted, but I took my
mother at a time when I thought her a little pleasanter than ordinary, and
told her, that my thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the world, that
I should never settle to anything with resolution enough to go through with
it, and my father had better give me his consent, than force me to go without
it; that I was now eighteen years old, which was too late to go apprentice to
a trade, or clerk to an attorney; that I was sure, if I did I should never serve
out my time, and I should certainly run away from my master before my
time was out, and go to sea; and if she would speak to my father to let me
make but one voyage abroad, if I came home again, and did not like it, I
would go no more, and I would promise, by a double diligence, to recover
the time I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion: she told me, she knew it would
be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any such a subject; that he
knew too well what was my interest, to give his consent to anything so much
for my hurt; and that she wondered how I could think of any such thing,







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after the discourse I had had with my father, and such kind and tender ex-
pressions, as she knew my father had used to me; and that, in short, if I
would ruin myself, there was no help for me; but I might depend I should
never have their consent to it: that, for her part, she would not have so
much hand in my destruction; and I should never have it to say, that my
mother was willing when my father was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet I heard after-
wards, that she reported all the discourse to him; and that my father, after
showing a great concern at it, said to her, with a sigh, "That boy might be
happy, if he would stay at home; but if he goes abroad, he will be the most
miserable wretch that ever was born: I can give no consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose, though in the
mean time I continued obstinately deaf to all proposals of settling to busi-
ness, and frequently expostulating with my father and mother about their
being so positively determined against what they knew my inclination
prompted me to. But being one day at Hull, whither I went casually, and
without any purpose of making an elopement at that time, and one of my
companions then going to London by sea in his father's ship, and prompting
me to go with them by the common allurement of seafaring men, viz., that
it should cost me nothing for my passage, I consulted neither father nor
mother any more, nor so much as sent them word of it; but left them to hear
of it as they might, without asking God's blessing, or my father's, without
any consideration of circumstances or consequences, and in an ill hour,
God knows.





ON THE 1st of September, 1651, I went on board a ship bound for
London. Never any young adventurer's misfortunes, I believe, be-
gan younger, or continued longer than mine. The ship had no
sooner got out of the Humber, than the wind began to blow, and the waves
to rise, in a most frightful manner; and as I had never been at sea before, I
was most inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified in mind: I began now
seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how justly I was overtaken
by the judgment of Heaven, for wickedly leaving my father's house. All
the good counsels of my parents, my father's tears, and my mother's en-
treaties, came now fresh into my mind; and my conscience, which was not
yet come to the pitch of hardness to which it has been since, reproached me







Robinson Crusoe


with the contempt of advice, and the abandonment of my duty.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea, which I had never been
upon before, went very high, though nothing like what I have seen many
times since; no, nor what I saw a few days after; but, such as it was, enough
to affect me then, who was but a young sailor, and had never known anything
of the matter. I expected every wave would have swallowed us up, and that
every time the ship fell down, as I thought, into the trough or hollow of the
sea, we should never rise more; and in this agony of mind I made many
vows and resolutions, that if it would please God to spare my life this voy-
age, if ever I got my foot once on dry land, I would go directly home to my
father, and never set it into a ship again, while I lived; that I would take his
advice, and never run myself into such miseries as these any more. Now
I saw plainly the goodness of his observations about the middle station of
life; how easy, how comfortable, he had lived all his days, and never had
been exposed to tempests at sea or troubles on shore; and I resolved that I
would, like a true repenting prodigal, go home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued during the storm, and indeed
some time after; but the next day, as the wind was abated, and the sea
calmer, I began to be a little inured to it. However, I was very grave that
day, being also a little sea-sick: but towards night the weather cleared
up, the wind was quite over, and a charming fine evening followed; the sun
went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning; and having little or
no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I
thought, the most delightful that I ever saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick, but very
cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough and terrible
the day before, and could be so calm and pleasant in a little time after.
And now, lest my good resolution should continue, my companion, who
had indeed enticed me away, came to me and said, Well, Bob, clapping me
on the shoulder, how do you do after it? I warrant you you were frightened,
wa'n't you, last night, when it blew but a cap-full of wind?-A cap-full, do
you call it? said I; 't was a terrible storm.-A storm, you fooll replies he,
do you call that a storm? Why, it was nothing at all; give us but a good
ship, and sea-room, and we think nothing of such a squall of wind as that:
you are but a fresh-water sailor, Bob; come, let us make a bowl of punch,
and we'll forget all that. D' ye see what charming weather 't is now? To
make short this sad part of my story, we went the way of all sailors; the
punch was made, and I was made drunk with it; and in that one night's
wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon my past
---conduct, and all my resolutions for the future. In a word, as the sea was






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returned to its smoothness of surface and settled calmness by the abate-
ment of the storm, so the hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears and ap-
prehensions of being swallowed up by the sea forgotten, and the current of
my former desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises I had
made in my distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of reflection; and
serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavour to return again sometimes; but
I shook them off and roused myself from them, as it were from a distemper,
and, applying myself to drink and company, soon mastered the return of
those fits-for so I called them; and had in five or six days got as complete
a victory over conscience as any young sinner, that resolved not to be trou-
bled with it, could desire. But I was to have another trial for it still; and
Providence, as in such cases generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely
without excuse: for if I would not take this for a deliverance, the next was
to be such a one as the worst and most hardened wretch among us would
confess both the danger and the mercy of. The sixth day of our being at
sea we came into Yarmouth Roads; the wind having been contrary and the
weather calm, we had made but little way since the storm. Here we were
obliged to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing contrary,
viz., at south-west, for seven or eight days, during which time a great many
ships from Newcastle came into the same roads, as the common harbour
where the ships might wait for a wind for the River Thames. We had not,
however, rid here so long, but we should have tided up the river, but that
the wind blew too fresh; and, after we had lain four or five days, blew very
hard. However, the roads being reckoned as good as a harbour, the anchor-
age good, and our ground tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned,
and not in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent the time in rest and
mirth, after the manner of the sea. But the eighth day, in the morning,
the wind increased, and we had all hands at work to strike our topmasts, and
make everything snug and close, that the ship might ride as easy as pos-
sible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship rode forecastle
in, shipped several seas, and we thought, once or twice, our anchor had
come home; upon which our master ordered out the sheet anchor; so that
we rode with two anchors ahead, and the cables veered out to the better
end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began to see terror
and amazement in the faces of even the seamen themselves. The master
was vigilant in the business of preserving the ship; but, as he went in and
out of his cabin by me, I could hear him softly say to himself several times,
Lord, be merciful to us! we shall be all lost; we shall be all undone and the
like. During these first hurries I was stupid, lying still in my cabin, which







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was in the steerage, and cannot describe my temper. I could ill reassume
the first penitence, which I had so apparently trampled upon, and hardened
myself against; I thought that the bitterness of death had been past, and
that this would be nothing, too, like the first: but when the master himself
came by me, as I said just now, and said we should be all lost, I was dread-
fully frightened. I got up out of my cabin, and looked out, but such a dis-
mal sight I never saw; the sea went mountains high, and broke upon us
every three or four minutes. When I could look about, I could see nothing
but distress around us; two ships, that rid near us, we found had cut their
masts by the board, being deeply laden; and our men cried out that a ship,
which rid about a mile ahead of us, was foundered. Two more ships being
driven from their anchors, were run out of the roads to sea, at all adventures,
and that with not a mast standing. The light ships fared the best, as not
so much labouring in the sea; but two or three of them drove, and came close
to us, running away, with only their spritsails out, before the wind. Toward
evening, the mate and boatswain begged the master of our ship to let them
cut away the foremast, which he was very loath to do; but the boatswain
protesting to him, that if he did not, the ship would founder, he consented;
and when they had cut away the foremast, the mainmast stood so loose, and
shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut it away also, and make a
clear deck.
Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at all this, who was but
a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright before at but a little. But
if I can express, at this distance, the thoughts I had about me at that time,
I was in tenfold more horror of mind upon account of my former convictions,
and the having returned from them to the resolutions I had wickedly taken
at first, than I was at death itself; and these, added to the terror of the
storm, put me into such a condition, that I can by no words describe it; but
the worst was not come yet; the storm continued with such fury, that the
seamen themselves acknowledged they had never known a worse. We had
a good ship, but she was deep laden, and so swallowed in the sea, that the
seamen every now and then cried out she would founder. It was my ad-
vantage, in one respect, that I did not know what they meant by founder, till
I inquired. However, the storm was so violent, that I saw what is not often
seen, the master, the boatswain, and some others, more sensible than the
rest, at their prayers, and expecting every moment the ship would go to the
bottom. In the middle of the night, and under all the rest of our distresses,
one of the men, that had been down on purpose to see, cried out, we had
sprung a leak; another said there was four feet water in the hold. Then all
hands were called to the pump. At that very word my heart, as I thought,
7







Robinson Crusoe


died within me, and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed, where I sat
in the cabin. However, the men roused me, and told me that I, who was
able to do nothing before, was as well able to pump as another: at which I
stirred up and went to the pump, and worked very heartily. While this
was doing, the master, seeing some light colliers, who, not able to ride out
the storm, were obliged to slip and run away to sea, and would not come
near us, ordered us to fire a gun, as a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing
what that meant, was so surprised, that I thought the ship had broke, or
some dreadful thing had happened. In a word, I was so surprised, that I
fell down in a swoon. As this was a time when everybody had his own life
to think of, no one minded me, or what was become of me; but another man
stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot, let me lie,
thinking I had been dead; and it was a great while before I came to myself.
We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it was apparent that
the ship would founder; and though the storm began to abate a little, yet as
it was not possible she could swim till we might run into a port, so the master
continued firing guns for help; and a light ship, who had rid it out just ahead
of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the utmost hazard that
the boat came near us, but it was impossible for us to get on board, or for
the boat to lie near the ship's side; till at last the men rowing very heartily,
and venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope over the
stern with a buoy to it, and then veered it out a great length, which they,
after great labour and hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them close under
our stern, and got all into their boat. It was to no purpose for them or us,
after we were in the boat, to think of reaching their own ship; so all agreed
to let her drive, and only to pull her towards shore as much as we could:
and our master promised them, that if the boat was staved upon shore, he
would make it good to their master; so partly rowing, and partly driving,
our boat went away to the northward, sloping towards the shore almost as
far as Winterton-Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our ship when
we saw her sink; and then I understood, for the first time, what was meant
by a ship foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge, I had hardly eyes to
look up when the seamen told me she was sinking; for, from that moment,
they rather put me into the boat, than that I might be said to go in. My
heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly with fright, partly with horror
of mind, and the thoughts of what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet labouring at the oar to bring
the boat near the shore, we could see (when, our boat mounting the waves,
we were able to see the shore) a great many people running along the strand,
8







Robinson Crusoe


to assist us when we should come near; but we made slow way towards the
shore; nor were we able to reach it, till, being past the lighthouse at Winter-
ton, the shore falls off to the westward, towards Cromer, and so the land
broke off a little the violence of the wind. Here we got in, and, though not
without much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked afterwards on
foot to Yarmouth; where, as unfortunate men, we were used with great hu-
manity, as well by the magistrates of the town, who assigned us good quar-
ters, as by the particular merchants and owners of ships: and had money
given us sufficient to carry us either to London or back to Hull, as we thought
fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and have gone home,
I had been happy: and my father, an emblem of our blessed Saviour's para-
ble, had even killed the fatted calf for me: for, hearing the ship I went in
was cast away in Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while before he had any
assurance that I was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on with an obstinacy that nothing could resist;
and though I had several times loud calls from my reason, and my more
composed judgment, to go home, yet I had no power to do it.-I know not
what to call this, nor will I urge that it is a secret, overruling decree, that
hurries us on to be the instruments of our own destruction, even though it
be before us, and that we rush upon it with our eyes open. Certainly, noth-
ing but some such decreed unavoidable misery attending, and which it was
impossible for me to escape, could have pushed me forward against the calm
reasoning and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and against two
such visible instructions as I had met with in my first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who was the mas-
ter's son, was now less forward than I: the first time he spoke to me after
we were at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days, for we were sepa-
rated in the town to several quarters; I say, the first time he saw me, it ap-
peared his tone was altered, and, looking very melancholy, and shaking his
head, he asked me how I did; telling his father who I was, and how I had
come this voyage only for a trial, in order to go farther abroad. His father,
turning to me, with a grave and concerned tone, Young man, says he, you
ought never to go to sea any more; you ought to take this for a plain and
visible token, that you are not to be a seafaring man.-Why, sir? said I; will
you go to sea no more?-That is another case, said he; it is my calling, and
therefore my duty; but as you made this voyage for a trial, you see what a
taste Heaven has given you of what you are to expect if you persist. Per-
haps this has all befallen us on your account, like Jonah in the ship of the
Tarshish.-Pray, continues he, what are you, and on what account did you
9







Robinson Crusoe


go to sea? Upon that I told him some of my story; at the end of which he
burst out with a strange kind of passion. What had I done, said he, that
such an unhappy wretch should have come into my ship? I would not set
my foot in the same ship with thee again for a thousand pounds. This in-
deed was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits, which were yet agitated by
the sense of his loss, and was farther than he could have authority to go.-
However, he afterwards talked very gravely to me; exhorted me to go back
to my father, and not tempt Providence to my ruin; told me, I might see a
visible hand of Heaven against me; and, young man, said he, depend upon
it, if you do not go back, wherever you go, you will meet with nothing but
disasters and disappointments, till your father's words are fulfilled upon you.
We parted soon after, for I made him little answer, and I saw him no
more: which way he went, I know not: as for me, having some money in
my pocket, I travelled to London by land; and there, as well as on the road,
had many struggles with myself what course of life I should take, and
whether I should go home or go to sea. As to going home, shame opposed
the best motions that offered to my thoughts; and it immediately occurred
to me how I should be laughed at among the neighbours, and should be
ashamed to see, not my father and mother only, but even everybody else.
From whence I have often since observed, how incongruous and irrational
the common temper of mankind is, especially of youth, to that reason which
ought to guide them in such cases, viz., that they are not ashamed to sin, and
yet are ashamed to repent; not ashamed of the action, for which they ought
justly to be esteemed fools; but are ashamed of the returning, which only
can make them be esteemed wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain what meas-
ures to take, and what course of life to lead. An irresistible reluctance con-
tinued to going home; and as I stayed awhile, the remembrance of the dis-
tress I had been in wore off; and as that abated, the little motion I had in
my desires to a return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside the
thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage. That evil influence which
carried me first away from my father's house, that hurried me into the wild
and indigested notion of raising my fortune, and that impressed those con-
ceits so forcibly upon me, as to make me deaf to all good advice, and to the
entreaties, and even the commands of my father; I say, the same influence,
whatever it was, presented the most unfortunate of all enterprises to my
view; and I went on board a vessel bound to the coast of Africa; or, as our
sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune, that in all these adventures I did not ship
10







Robinson Crusoe


myself as a sailor; whereby, though I might indeed have worked a little
harder than ordinary, yet, at the same time, I had learned the duty and
office of a foremastman, and in time might have qualified myself for a mate
or lieutenant, if not a master: but as it was always my fate to choose for
the worse, so I did here; for having money in my pocket, and good clothes
upon my back, I would always go on board in the habit of a gentleman; and
so I neither had any business in the ship, nor learned to do any. It was my
lot, first of all, to fall into pretty good company in London; which does not
always happen to such loose and misguided young fellows as I then was;
the devil, generally, not omitting to lay some snare for them very early.
But it was not so with me: I first fell acquainted with the master of a ship,
who had been on the coast of Guinea, and who, having had very good success
there, was resolved to go again. He, taking a fancy to my conversation,
which was not at all disagreeable at that time, and hearing me say I had a
mind to see the world, told me, that if I would go the voyage with him, I
should be at no expense; I should be his messmate and his companion; and
if I could carry anything with me, I should have all the advantage of it that
the trade would admit; and perhaps I might meet with some encourage-
ment. I embraced the offer, and entering into a strict friendship with this
captain, who was an honest and plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with
him, and carried a small adventure with me; which, by the disinterested
honesty of my friend the captain, I increased very considerably; for I car-
ried about forty pounds in such toys and trifles as the captain directed me
to buy. This forty pounds I had mustered together by the assistance of
some of my relations whom I corresponded with: and who, I believe, got
my father, or, at least, my mother, to contribute so much as that to my first
adventure. This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in
all my adventures, and which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my
friend the captain; under whom I also got a competent knowledge of mathe-
matics and the rules of navigation, learned how to keep an account of the
ship's course, take an observation, and, in short, to understand some things
that were needful to be understood by a sailor; for, as he took delight to
instruct me, I took delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage made me
both a sailor and a merchant: for I brought home five pounds nine ounces
of gold dust for my adventure, which yielded me in London, at my return,
almost three hundred pounds, and this filled me with those aspiring thoughts
which have since so completed my ruin. Yet even in this voyage I had my
misfortunes too; particularly that I was continually sick, being thrown into
a violent calenture by the excessive heat of the climate; our principal trad-
11







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ing being upon the coast, from the latitude of fifteen degrees north, even to
the Line itself.





I WAS now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my great mis-
fortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage
again; and I embarked in the same vessel with one who was his mate in
the former voyage, and had now got the command of the ship. This was
the unhappiest voyage that ever man made; for though I did not carry
quite a hundred pounds of my new-gained wealth, so that I had two hundred
pounds left, and which I lodged with my friend's widow, who was very just
to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes in this voyage: and the first was
this, viz.-our ship, making her course towards the Canary Islands, or
rather between those islands and the African shore, was surprised, in the
gray of the morning, by a Turkish rover, of Sallee, who gave chase to us
with all the sail she could make. We crowded also as much canvas as our
yards would spread, or our masts carry, to get clear; but finding the pirate
gained upon us, and would certainly come up with us in a few hours, we pre-
pared to fight, our ship having twelve guns and the rover eighteen. About
three in the afternoon he came up with us; and bringing to, by mistake, just
athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as he intended, we brought
eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured in a broadside upon him,
which made him sheer off again, after returning our fire and pouring in also
his small shot from near two hundred men which he had on board. How-
ever, we had not a man touched, all our men keeping close. He prepared
to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves; but laying us on board the
next time upon our other quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks, who
immediately fell to cutting and hacking the sails and rigging. We plied
them with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such like, and cleared
our deck of them twice. However, to cut short this melancholy part of our
story, our ship being disabled, and three of our men killed and eight
wounded, we were obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee,
a port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I apprehended: nor
was I carried up the country to the emperor's court, as the rest of our men
were, but was kept by the captain of the rover as his proper prize, and made
his slave, being young and nimble, and fit for his business. At this surpris-
12






Robinson Crusoe


ing change of my circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable slave, I
was perfectly overwhelmed; and now looked back upon my father's pro-
phetic discourse to me, that I should be miserable, and have none to relieve
me; which I thought was now so effectually brought to pass, that it could not
be worse; that now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone,
without redemption. But, alasl this was but a taste of the misery I was to
go through, as will appear in the sequel of this story.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house, so I was in
hopes he would take me with him when he went to sea again, believing that
it would, some time or other, be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portu-
guese man of war, and that then I should be set at liberty. But this hope
of mine was soon taken away, for when he went to sea, he left me on shore
to look after his little garden, and do the common drudgery of slaves about
his house; and when he came home again from his cruise, he ordered me to
lie in the cabin, to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I might take
to effect it, but found no way that had the least probability in it. Nothing
presented to make the supposition of it rational; for I had nobody to com-
municate it to that would embark with me; no fellow-slave, no Englishman,
Irishman, or Scotchman there but myself; so that for two years, though I
often pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had the least en-
couraging prospect of putting it in practice.
After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself, which put
the old thought of making some attempt for my liberty again in my head.
My patron lying at home longer than usual, without fitting out his ship,
which, as I heard, was for want of money, he used constantly, once or twice
a week, sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship's pin-
nacle, and go out into the road a fishing; and as he always took me and a
young Moresco with him to row the boat, we made him very merry, and I
proved very dexterous in catching fish, insomuch that sometimes he would
send me with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth, the Moresco, as
they called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a fishing in a stark calm morning, a fog
rose so thick, that though we were not half a league from the shore, we lost
sight of it; and rowing, we knew not whither, or which way, we laboured all
day, and all the next night, and when the morning came, we found we had
pulled off to sea, instead of pulling in for the shore, and that we were at least
two leagues from the shore: however, we got well in again, though with a
great deal of labour, and some danger, for the wind began to blow pretty
fresh in the morning; but particularly we were all very hungry.






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But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more care of
himself for the future; and having lying by him the longboat of our English
ship he had taken, he resolved he would not go a fishing any more without
a compass and some provision; so he ordered the carpenter of the ship, who
was an English slave, to build a little state-room or cabin in the middle of
the longboat, like that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it, to steer
and haul home the main sheet, and room before for a hand or two to stand
and work the sails. She sailed with what we call a shoulder-of-mutton sail,
and the boom jibbed over the top of the cabin, which lay very snug and low,
and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table to eat on,
with some small lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor as he thought
fit to drink, and particularly his bread, rice, and coffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a fishing, and as I was most dexter-
ous to catch fish for him, he never went without me. It happened that he
had appointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two
or three Moors of some distinction in that place, and for whom he had pro-
vided extraordinarily, and had therefore sent on board the boat, overnight,
a larger store of provisions than ordinary, and had ordered me to get ready
three fusees, with powder and shot, which were on board his ship, for that
they designed some sport of fowling as well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he directed, and waited the next morning with
the boat washed clean, her ensign and pendants out, and everything to ac-
commodate his guests: when, by and by, my patron came on board alone,
and told me his guests had put off going, upon some business that fell out,
and ordered me with a man and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat, and
catch them some fish, for that his friends were to sup at his house; and
commanded, that as soon as I had got some fish, I should bring it home to
his house; all which I prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into my thoughts,
for now I found I was like to have a little ship at my command; and my
master being gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not for a fishing business,
but for a voyage; though I knew not, neither did I so much as consider,
whither I should steer; for any where, to get out of that place, was my way.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this Moor, to
get something for our subsistence on board; for I told him we must not
presume to eat of our patron's bread: he said that was true; so he brought
a large basket of rusk or biscuit, of their kind, and three jars with fresh
water, into the boat. I knew where my patron's case of bottles stood, which
it was evident, by the make, were taken out of some English prize, and I
conveyed them into the boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had







Robinson Crusoe


been there before for our master. I conveyed also a great lump of bees-
wax into the boat, which weighed above half a hundred weight, with a parcel
of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all which were of great
use to us afterwards, especially the wax, to make candles. Another trick
I tried upon him, which he innocently came into also: his name was Ismael,
whom they call Muley, or Moley: so I called to him; Moley, said I, our
patron's guns are on board the boat, can you not get a little powder and
shot? it may be we may kill some alcamies (fowls like our curlews) for our-
selves, for I know he keeps the gunner's stores in the ship. Yes, says he, I
will bring some; and accordingly he brought a great leather pouch, which
held about a pound and a half of powder, or rather more, and another of
shot, that had five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put all into the
boat: at the same time I found some powder of my master's in the great
cabin, with which I filled one of the large bottles in the case, which was
almost empty, pouring what was in it into another; and thus furnished with
everything needful, we sailed out of the port to fish. The castle, which is
at the entrance of the port, knew who we were, and took no notice of us;
and we were not above a mile of the port, before we hauled in our sail, and
set us down to fish. The wind blew from N.N.E., which was contrary to
my desire; for, had it blown southerly, I had been sure to have made the
coast of Spain, and at last reached the bay of Cadiz: but my resolutions
were, blow which way it would, I would be gone from the horrid place where
I was, and leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and catched nothing, for when I had fish
on my hook I would not pull them up, that he might not see them, I said to
the Moor, This will not do; our master will not be thus served; we must
stand farther off. He, thinking no harm, agreed; and being at the head of
the boat, set the sails; and as I had the helm, I run the boat near a league
farther, and then brought to, as if I would fish. Then giving the boy the
helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was, and I took him by surprise,
with my arm under his waist, and tossed him clear overboard into the sea.
He rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and called to me, begged to
be taken in, and told me he would go all the world over with me. He swam
so strong after the boat, that he would have reached me very quickly, there
being but little wind; upon which I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one
of the fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and told him I had done him no
hurt, and if he would be quiet, I would do him none: But, said I, you swim
well enough to reach the shore, and the sea is calm; make the best of your
way to shore, and I will do you no harm; but if you come near the boat, I
will shoot you through the head; for I am resolved to have my liberty. So
15







Robinson Crusoe


he turned himself about, and swam for the shore; and I make no doubt but
he reached it with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me, and have
drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust him. When he was
gone I turned to the boy, whom they called Xury, and said to him, Xury, if
you will be faithful to me I will make you a great man; but if you will not
stroke your face to be true to me (that is, swear by Mahomet and his father's
beard), I must throw you into the sea too. The boy smiled in my face, and
spoke so innocently, that I could not mistrust him; and swore to be faithful
to me, and go all over the world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood out directly
to sea with the boat, rather stretching to windward, that they might think
me gone towards the Strait's mouth (as indeed any one that had been in
their wits must have been supposed to do); for who would have supposed
we were sailing on to the southward, to the truly Barbarian coast, where
whole nations of Negroes were sure to surround us with their canoes, and
destroy us; where we could never once go on shore but we should be de-
voured by savage beasts, or more merciless savages of human kind?
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my course, and
steered directly south and by east, bending my course a little towards the
east, that I might keep in with the shore; and having a fair fresh gale of
wind, and a smooth quiet sea, I made such sail, that I believe by the next
day, at three o'clock in the afternoon, when I made the land, I could not be
less than one hundred and fifty miles south of Sallee, quite beyond the
Emperor of Morocco's dominions, or indeed of any other king thereabout;
for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the dreadful ap-
prehensions I had of falling into their hands, that I would not stop, or go on
shore, or come to an anchor, the wind continuing fair, till I had sailed in that
manner five days; and then the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded
also that if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would now
give over: so I ventured to make to the coast, and came to an anchor in the
mouth of a little river; I knew not what or where, neither what latitude,
what country, what nation, or what river. I neither saw, nor desired to see,
any people; the principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came into this
creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and
discover the country: but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dread-
ful noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures, of we knew
not what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and begged of
me not to go on shore till day. Well, Xury, said I, then I will not; but it
16







Robinson Crusoe


may be, we may see men by day, who will be as bad to us as those lions.
Then we may give them the shoot-gun, says Xury, laughing; make them
run away. Such English Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves.
However I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram out of
our patron's case of bottles to cheer him up. After all, Xury's advice was
good, and I took it. We dropped our little anchor, and lay still all night. I
say still, for we slept none; for in two or three hours we saw vast creatures,
(we knew not what to call them,) of many sorts, come down to the sea-
shore, and run into the water, wallowing and washing themselves, for the
pleasure of cooling themselves; and they made such hideous howlings and
yelling, that I never indeed heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frightened, and indeed so was I too; but we were
both more frightened when we heard one of these mighty creatures swim-
ming towards our boat: we could not see him, but we might hear him by his
blowing, to be a monstrous, huge, and furious beast. Xury said it was a
lion, and it might be so, for aught I know; but poor Xury cried to me to
weigh the anchor and row away. No, says I, Xury; we can slip our cable
with a buoy to it, and go off to sea: they cannot follow us far. I had no
sooner said so, but I perceived the creature (whatever it was) within two
oars' length, which something surprised me; however, I immediately
stepped to the cabin door, and taking up my gun, fired at him; upon which
he immediately turned about, and swam to the shore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrible noises, and hideous cries and
howlings that were raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as higher
within the country, upon the noise or report of the gun; a thing, I believe,
those creatures had never heard before. This convinced me there was no
going on shore for us in the night upon that coast; and how to venture on
shore in the day, was another question too; for to have fallen into the hands
of any of the savages, had been as bad as to have fallen into the paws of lions
and tigers; at least, we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere or other
for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat; when and where to get it was
the point. Xury said, if I would let him go on shore with one of the jars,
he would find if there was any water, and bring some to me. I asked him
why he would go; why I should not go, and he stay in the boat. The boy
answered with so much affection, that he made me love him ever after.
Says he, if wild mans come, they eat me, you go away.-Well, Xury, said I,
we will both go; and if the wild mans come, we will kill them; they shall
eat neither of us. So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a dram
out of our patron's case of bottles, which I mentioned before; and we hauled
17







Robinson Crusoe


in the boat as near the shore as we thought was proper, and so waded to
shore, carrying nothing but our arms, and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming of canoes
with savages down the river; but the boy, seeing a low place about a mile
up the country, rambled to it; and, by and by, I saw him come running
towards me. I thought he was pursued by some savage, or frightened by
some wild beast, and I therefore ran forwards to help him; but when I came
nearer to him, I saw something hanging over his shoulders, which was a
creature that he had shot, like a hare, but different in colour, and longer
legs: however, we were very glad of it, and it was very good meat: but the
great joy that poor Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good
water, and seen no wild mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for water; for
a little higher up the creek where we were, we found the water fresh when
the tide was out, which flowed but a little way up; so we filled our jars, and
having a fire, feasted on the hare we had killed; and prepared to go on our
way, having seen no footsteps of any human creature in that part of the
country.
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very well that the
islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd Islands also, lay not far from
the coast. But as I had no instruments to take an observation, to find what
latitude we were in; and did not exactly know, or at least remember, what
latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for them, or when to stand
off to sea towards them, otherwise I might now have easily found some of
these islands. But my hope was, that if I stood along this coast till I came
to the part where the English traded, I should find some of their vessels upon
their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, the place where I now was, must be that
country which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco's dominions and the
Negroes, lies waste, and uninhabited, except by wild beasts; the Negroes
having abandoned it, and gone farther south, for fear of the Moors, and the
Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness; and,
indeed both forsaking it because of the prodigious numbers of tigers, lions,
leopards, and other furious creatures which harbour there: so that the
Moors use it for their hunting only, where they go like an army, two or three
thousand men at a time: and, indeed, for near a hundred miles together upon
this coast, we saw nothing but a waste, uninhabited country by day, and
heard nothing but howlings and roaring of wild beasts by night.
Once or twice, in the day-time, I thought I saw the Pico of Teneriffe, be-
ing the top of the mountain Teneriffe, in the Canaries, and had a great
18














































"It happened one day, about noon, . I was exceedingly sur-
prised with the print of a man's naked foot to be seen on the shore."


7W..







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mind to venture out, in hopes of reaching thither; but having tried twice, I
was forced in again by contrary winds; the sea also going too high for my
little vessel; so I resolved to pursue my first design, and keep along the
shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we had left this
place; and once, in particular, being early in the morning, we came to an
anchor under a little point of land which was pretty high; and the tide be-
ginning to flow, we lay still, to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more
about him than, it seems, mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me, that we
had best go further off the shore; for, says he, Look, yonder lies a dreadful
monster on the side of that hillock, fast asleep. I looked where he pointed,
and saw a dreadful monster indeed, for it was a terrible great lion, that lay
on the side of the shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill, that hung, as
it were, over him. Xury, says I, you shall go on shore and kill him. Xury
looked frightened, and said, Me kill! he eat me at one mouth: one mouthful
he meant. However, I said no more to the boy but bade him be still; and I
took our biggest gun, which was almost musket bore, and loaded it with a
good charge of powder, and with two slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded
another gun with two bullets: and a third, for we had three pieces, I loaded
with five smaller bullets. I took the best aim I could with the first piece, to
have shot him in the head; but he lay so, with his leg raised a little above
his nose, that the slugs hit his leg about the knee, and broke the bone: he
started up, growling at first, but finding his leg broke, fell down again and
then got up upon three legs, and gave the most hideous roar that ever I
heard. I was a little surprised that I had not hit him on the head; however,
I took up the second piece immediately, and though he began to move off,
fired again, and shot him in the head, and had the pleasure to see him drop,
and make but little noise, but lie struggling for life. Then Xury took
heart, and would have me let him go on shore. Well, go, said I; so the boy
jumped into the water, and taking a little gun in one hand, swam to shore
with the other hand, and coming close to the creature, put the muzzle of the
piece to his ear, and shot him in the head again, which despatched him quite.
This was game, indeed, to us, but it was no food; and I was very sorry to
loose three charges of powder and shot upon a creature that was good for
nothing to us. However, Xury said he would have some of him; so he
comes on board, and asked me to give him the hatchet: for what, Xury? said
I. Me cut off his head, said he. However, Xury could not cut off his
head; but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him, and it was a monstrous
great one. I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him
might, one way or other, be of some value to us; and I resolved to take off
19







Robinson Crusoe


his skin, if I could. So Xury and I went to work with him: but Xury was
much the better workman at it, for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it
took us both up the whole day; but at last we got off the hide of him, and
spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two days'
time, and it afterwards served me to lie upon.
After this stop we made on to the southward continually, for ten or twelve
days, living very sparingly on our provisions, which began to abate very
much, and going no oftener into the shore than we were obliged to for fresh
water. My design in this, was to make the river Gambia, or Senegal; that
is to say, anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to meet
with some European ship; and if I did not, I knew not what course I had to
take, but to seek for the islands or perish among the Negroes. I knew that
all the ships from Europe, which sailed either to the coast of Guinea, or to
Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this Cape, or those islands; and in a word
I put the whole of my fortune upon this single point, either that I must
meet with some ship, or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I have said,
I began to see that the land was inhabited; and in two or three places, as we
sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore to look at us: we could also
perceive they were quite black and stark naked. I was once inclined to
have gone on shore to them; but Xury was my better counsellor, and said
to me, No go, no go. However, I hauled in nearer the shore, that I might
talk to them; and I found they ran along the shore by me a good way. I
observed they had no weapons in their hands, except one, who had a long
slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they would throw them
a great way with good aim; so I kept at a distance, but talked to them by
signs, as well as I could, and particularly made signs for something to eat.
They beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they would fetch me some meat:
upon this I lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and two of them ran up
into the country; and in less than half an hour came back, and brought
with them two pieces of dry flesh and some corn, such as the produce of
their country; but we neither knew what the one or the other was; however,
we were willing to accept it. But how to come at it was our next dispute, for
I was not for venturing on shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us:
but they took a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore, and laid
it down, and went and stood a great way off till we fetched it on board, and
then came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make them
amends; but an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige them
wonderfully; for while we were lying by the shore, came two mighty
20







Robinson Crusoe


creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took it) with great fury, from the
mountains towards the sea; whether it was the male pursuing the female, or
whether they were in sport or in rage, we could not tell, any more than we
could tell whether it was usual or strange; but I believe it was the latter,
because, in the first place, those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in
the night; and, in the second place, we found the people terribly frightened,
especially the women. The man that had the lance, or dart, did not fly
from them, but the rest did; however, as the two creatures ran directly into
the water, they did not seem to offer to fall upon any of the Negroes, but
plunged themselves into the sea, and swam about, as if they had come for
their diversion; at last, one of them began to come nearer our boat than I at
first expected; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with all pos-
sible expedition, and bade Xury load both the others. As soon as he came
fairly within my reach, I fired, and shot him directly in the head: imme-
diately he sunk down into the water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and
down, as if he was struggling for life, and so indeed he was: he immediately
made to the shore; but between the wound which was his mortal hurt, and
the strangling of the water, he died just before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor creatures, at the
noise and fire of my gun; some of them were even ready to die for fear, and
fell down as dead with the very terror; but when they saw the creature dead,
and sunk in the water, and that I made signs to them to come to the shore,
they took heart and came to the shore, and began to search for the creature.
I found him by his blood staining the water; and by the help of a rope, which
I slung round him, and gave the Negroes to haul, they dragged him on shore,
and found that it was a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an admi-
rable degree; and the Negroes held up their hands with admiration, to think
what it was I had killed him with.
The other creature, frightened with the flash of fire, and the noise of the
gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to the mountains from whence they
came; nor could I, at that distance, know what it was. I found quickly the
Negroes were for eating the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have
them take it as a favour from me; which, when I make signs to them that
they might take him, they were very thankful for. Immediately they fell to
work with him; and though they had no knife, yet with a sharpened piece
of wood, they took off his skin as readily, and much more readily, than we
could have done with a knife. They offered me some of the flesh, which I
declined, making as if I would give it them, but made signs for the skin,
which they gave me very freely, and brought me a great deal more of their
provisions, which, though I did not understand, yet I accepted. I then







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made signs to them for some water, and held out one of my jars to them,
turning it bottom upwards, to show that it was empty, and that I wanted to
have it filled. They called immediately to some of their friends, and there
came two women, and brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I
suppose, in the sun; this they set down to me, as before, and I sent Xury on
shore with my jars, and filled them all three. The women were as stark
naked as the men.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and water; and
leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward for about eleven days more,
without offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run out a great
length into the sea, at about the distance of four or five leagues before me;
and the sea being very calm, I kept a large offing, to make this point. At
length, doubling the point, at about two leagues from the land, I saw plainly
land on the other side, to seaward: then I concluded, as it was most certain
indeed, that this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands, called, from
thence, Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a great distance, and
I could not well tell what I had best to do; for if I should be taken with a
gale of wind, I might neither reach one nor the other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the cabin, and sat
me down, Xury having the helm; when, on a sudden, the boy cried out,
Master, master, a ship with a saill and the foolish boy was frightened out of
his wits, thinking it must needs be some of his master's ships sent to pursue
us, when I knew we were gotten far enough out of their reach. I jumped out
of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only the ship, but what she was. viz.,
that it was a Portuguese ship, and, as I thought, was bound to the coast of
Guinea, for Negroes. But, when I observed the course she steered, I was
soon convinced they were bound some other way, and did not design to
come any nearer to the shore; upon which, I stretched out to sea as much
as I could, resolving to speak with them, if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to come in their
way, but that they would be gone by before I could make any signal to them;
but after I had crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems,
saw me, by the help of their perspective glasses, and that it was some Euro-
pean boat, which, they supposed, must belong to some ship that was lost: so
they shortened sail, to let me come up. I was encouraged with this, and
as I had my patron's ensign on board, I made a waft of it to them, for a
signal of distress, and fired a gun, both which they saw; for they told me
they saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon these signals,
they very kindly brought to, and lay by for me; and in about three hours'
time I came up with them.







Robinson Crusoe


They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and in
French, but I understood none of them; but, at last, a Scotch sailor who
was on board, called to me, and I answered him, and told him I was an
Englishman, that I had made my escape out of slavery from the Moors, at
Sallee: they then bade me come on board, and very kindly took me in, and
all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will believe, that I was
thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable, and almost hope-
less, condition as I was in; and I immediately offered all I had to the cap-
tain of the ship, as a return for my deliverance; but he generously told me,
he would take nothing from me, but that all I had should be delivered safe
to me, when I came to the Brazils. For, says he, I have saved your life on
no other terms than I would be glad to be saved myself; and it may, one
time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same condition. Besides, said
he, when I carry you to the Brazils, so great a way from your own coun-
try, if I should take from you what you have, you will be starved there,
and then I only take away that life I had given. No, no, Senhor Ingles
(Mr. Englishman), says he, I will carry you thither in charity, and these
things will help to buy your subsistence there, and your passage home
again.





A S HE was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the per-
formance, to a tittle: for he ordered the seamen, that none should
offer to touch anything I had: then he took everything into his
own possession, and gave me back an exact inventory of them, that I might
have them, even so much as my three earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw, and told me he
would buy it of me for the ship's use; and asked me what I would have for
it? I told him, he had been so generous to me in everything, that I could
not offer to make any price of the boat, but left it entirely to him: upon
which, he told me he would give me a note of hand to pay me eighty pieces
of eight for it at Brazil; and when it came there, if any one offered to give
more, he would'make it up. He offered me also sixty pieces of eight more for
my boy Xury, which I was loath to take; not that I was not willing to let the
captain have him, but I was very loath to sell the poor boy's liberty, who had
assisted me so faithfully in procuring my own. However, when I let him
23







Robinson Crusoe


know my reason, he owned it to be just, and offered me this medium, that
he would give the boy an obligation to set him free in ten years, if he
turned Christian; upon this, and Xury saying he was willing to go with
him, I let the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and arrived in the Bay de
Todos los Santos, or All Saints' Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And
now I was once more delivered from the most miserable of all conditions
of life; and what to do next with myself, I was now to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never enough re-
member: he would take nothing of me for my passage, gave me twenty
ducats for the leopard's skin, and forty for the lion's skin, which I had in
my boat, and caused everything I had in the ship to be punctually delivered
to me; and what I was willing to sell, he bought of me; such as the case of
bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of beeswax,-for I had
made candles of the rest: in a word, I made about two hundred and twenty
pieces of eight of all my cargo; and with this stock, I went on shore in the
Brazils.
I had not been long here, before I was recommended to the house of a
good honest man, like myself, who had an ingenio as they call it (that is,
a plantation and a sugar-house). I lived with him some time, and ac-
quainted myself, by that means, with the manner of planting and of making
sugar; and seeing how well the planters lived, and how they got rich sud-
denly, I resolved, if I could get a license to settle there, I would turn planter
among them: endeavouring, in the mean time, to find out some way to get
my money, which I had left in London, remitted to me. To this purpose,
getting a kind of letter of naturalisation, I purchased as much land that
was uncured as my money would reach, and formed a plan for my planta-
tion and settlement; such a one as might be suitable to the stock which I
proposed to myself to receive from England.
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of English parents,
whose name was Wells, and in much such circumstances as I was. I call
him my neighbour, because his plantation lay next to mine, and we went
on very sociably together. My stock was but low, as well as his; and we
rather planted for food than anything else, for about two years. How-
ever, we began to increase, and our land began to come in order; so that
the third year we planted some tobacco, and made each of us a large piece
of ground ready for planting canes in the year to come; but we both wanted
help; and now I found more than before, I had done wrong in parting with
my boy Xury.
But, alas! for me to do wrong, that never did right, was no great wonder.
24







Robinson Crusoe


I had no remedy, but to go on: I had got into an employment quite remote
to my genius, and directly contrary to the life I delighted in, and for which
I forsook my father's house, and broke through all his good advice: nay,
I was coming into the very middle station, or upper degree of low life, which
my father advised me to before; and which, if I resolved to go on with, I
might as well have stayed at home, and never have fatigued myself in the
world, as I had done: and I used often to say to myself, I could have done
this as well in England, among my friends, as to have gone five thousand
miles off to do it among strangers and savages, in a wilderness, and at such
a distance as never to hear from any part of the world that had the least
knowledge of me.
In this manner, I used to look upon my condition with the utmost regret.
I had nobody to converse with, but now and then this neighbour; no work
to be done, but by the labour of my hands: and I used to say, I lived just
like a man cast away upon some desolate island, that had nobody there but
himself. But how just has it been! and how should all men reflect, that
when they compare their present conditions with others that are worse,
Heaven may oblige them to make the exchange, and be convinced of their
former felicity by their experience: I say, how just has it been, that the
truly solitary life I reflected on, in an island of mere desolation, should be
my lot, who had so often unjustly compared it with the life which I then
led, in which, had I continued, I had, in all probability, been exceeding
prosperous and rich!
I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying on the planta-
tion, before my kind friend, the captain of the ship that took me up at sea,
went back; for the ship remained there, in providing his lading, and pre-
paring for his voyage, near three months; when telling him what little stock
I had left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly and sincere advice:
Senhor Ingles, says he (for so he always called me), if you will give me
letters, and a procuration here in form to me, with orders to the person
who has your money in London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to such
persons as I shall direct, and in such goods as are proper for this country,
I will bring you the produce of them, God willing, at my return: but since
human affairs are all subject to changes and disasters, I would have you
give orders for but one hundred pound sterling, which, you say, is half your
stock, and let the hazard be run for the first, so that if it come safe, you may
order the rest the same way; and, if it miscarry, you may have the other
half to have recourse to for your supply. This was so wholesome advice,
and looked so friendly, that I could not but be convinced it was the best
course I could take; so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman
25







Robinson Crusoe


with whom I left my money, and a procuration to the Portuguese captain,
as he desired me.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all my adventures;
my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the Portuguese captain at
sea, the humanity of his behaviour, and what condition I was now in, with
all other necessary directions for my supply; and when this honest captain
came to Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English merchants there,
to send over, not the order only, but a full account of my story to a
merchant at London, who represented it effectually to her: whereupon she
not only delivered the money, but, out of her own pocket, sent the Portu-
guese captain a very handsome present for his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in English goods,
such as the captain had wrote for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon, and
he brought them all safe to me at the Brazils: among which, without my
direction (for I was too young in my business to think of them), he had
taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron work, and utensils, necessary for
my plantation, and which were of great use to me. When this cargo arrived,
I thought my fortune made, for I was surprised with joy of it; and my good
steward, the captain, had laid out the five pounds, which my friend had sent
him as a present for himself, to purchase and bring me over a servant, under
bond for six years' service, and would not accept of any consideration, ex-
cept a little tobacco, which I would have him accept, being of my own
produce. Neither was this all: but my goods being all English manu-
factures, such as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable and
desirable in the country, I found means to sell them to a very great advan-
tage; so that I might say, I had more than four times the value of my first
cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my poor neighbour, I mean in the
advancement of my plantation: for the first thing I did, I bought me a Negro
slave, and a European servant also: I mean another besides that which
the captain brought me from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means of our
adversity, so was it with me. I went on the next year with great success
in my plantation; I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on my own ground,
more than I had disposed of for necessaries among my neighbours: and
these fifty rolls, being each of above one hundred pounds' weight, were well
cured, and laid by against the return of the fleet from Lisbon: and now,
increasing in business and in wealth, my head began to be full of projects
and undertakings beyond my reach; such as are, indeed, often the ruin of
the best heads in business. Had I continued in the station I was now in,
I had room for all the happy things to have yet befallen me, for which my
26







Robinson Crusoe


father so earnestly recommended a quiet, retired life, and which he had so
sensibly described the middle station of life to be full of: but other things
attended me, and I was still to be the wilful agent of all my own miseries;
and, particularly, to increase my fault, and double the reflections upon
myself, which in my future sorrows I should have leisure to make, all these
miscarriages were procured by my apparent obstinate adhering to my fool-
ish inclination, of wandering about, and pursuing that inclination, in con-
tradiction to the clearest views of doing myself good in a fair and plain
pursuit of those prospects, and those measures of life, which nature and
Providence concurred to present me with, and to make my duty.
As I had once done thus in breaking away from my parents, so I could
not be content now, but I must go and leave the happy view I had of be-
ing a rich and thriving man in my new plantation, only to pursue a rash
and immoderate desire of rising faster than the nature of the thing ad-
mitted; and thus I cast myself down again into the deepest gulf of human
misery that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent with life, and
a state of health in the world.
To come then, by just degrees, to the particulars of this part of my story.
-You may suppose, that having now lived almost four years in the Brazils,
and beginning to thrive and prosper very well upon my plantation, I had not
only learned the language, but had contracted an acquaintance and friend-
ship among my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants of St. Salva-
dor, which was our port: and that, in my discourses among them, I had
frequently given them an account of my two voyages to the coast of Guinea,
the manner of trading with the Negroes there, and how easy it was to pur-
chase on the coast for trifles-such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets,
bits of glass, and the like-not only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants'
teeth, &c., but Negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these heads,
but especially to that part which related to the buying Negroes; which was
a trade, at that time, not only not far entered into, but, as far as it was,
had been carried on by the assientos, or permission of the kings of Spain
and Portugal, and engrossed from the public; so that few Negroes were
bought, and those excessively dear.
It happened, being in company with some merchants and planters of
my acquaintance, and talking of those things very earnestly, three of them
came to me the next morning, and told me they had been musing very much
upon what I had discoursed with them of the last night, and they came to
make a secret proposal to me: and, after enjoining me to secrecy, they told
me that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that they had all
27







Robinson Crusoe


plantations as well as I, and were straitened for nothing so much as serv-
ants; that it was a trade that could not be carried on, because they could
not publicly sell the Negroes when they came home, so they desired to make
but one voyage, to bring the Negroes on shore privately, and divide them
among their own plantations; and, in a word, the question was, whether I
would go their supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading part upon the
coast of Guinea; and they offered me that I should have an equal share of
the Negroes, without providing any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made to any
one that had not a settlement and plantation of his own to look after, which
was in a fair way of coming to be very considerable, and with a good stock
upon it. But for me, that was thus entered and established, and had noth-
ing to do but go on as I had begun, for three or four years more, and
to have sent for the other hundred pounds from England; and who, in that
time and with that little addition, could scarce have failed of being worth
three or four thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing too; for me to
think of such a voyage, was the most preposterous thing that ever man, in
such circumstances, could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more resist the
offer, than I could restrain my first rambling designs, when my father's
good counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I told them I would go with
all my heart, if they would undertake to look after my plantation in my
absence, and would dispose of it to such as I should direct, if I miscarried.
This they all engaged to do, and entered into writings or covenants to do
so: and I made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and effects, in
case of my death; making the captain of the ship that had saved my life,
as before, my universal heir; but obliging him to dispose of my effects as
I had directed in my will; one-half of the produce being to himself, and
the other to be shipped to England. In short, I took all possible caution
to preserve my effects, and to keep up my plantation: had I used half as
much prudence to have looked into my own interest, and have made a
judgment of what I ought to have done, and not to have done, I had cer-
tainly never gone away from so prosperous an undertaking, leaving all the
probable views of a thriving circumstance, and gone a voyage to sea, at-
tended with all its common hazards, to say nothing of the reasons I had
to expect particular misfortunes to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my fancy, rather
than my reason: and accordingly, the ship, being fitted out, and the cargo
furnished, and all things done as by agreement, by my partners in the voy-
age, I went on board in an evil hour again, the first of September, 1659,
28

















---
4N
r







































"I saw . a terrible great lion that lay on the side of the shore,
under the shade of a piece of the hill."






Robinson Crusoe


being the same day eight years that I went from my parents at Hull, in
order to act the rebel to their authority, and the fool to my own interest.
Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons' burden, carried six
guns and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy, and myself; we had on
board no large cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit for our trade
with the Negroes, such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles, espe-
cially little looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.
The very same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to the
northward upon our own coast, with design to stretch over for the African
coast. When they came about ten or twelve degrees of northern latitude,
which, it seems, was the manner of their course in those days, we had very
good weather, only excessively hot all the way upon our own coast, till we
came to the height of Cape St. Augustino; from whence, keeping farther
off at sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if we were bound for the isle
Fernando de Noronha, holding our course N.E. by N. and leaving those
isles on the east. In this course we passed the Line in about twelve days'
time, and were, by our last observation, in seven degrees twenty-two min-
utes northern latitude, when a violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite
out of our knowledge: it began from the south-east, came about to the
north-west, and then settled in the north-east; from whence it blew in
such a terrible manner, that for twelve days together we could do nothing
but drive, and, scudding away before it, let it carry us whithersoever fate
and the fury of the winds directed; and, during these twelve days, I need
not say that I expected every day to be swallowed up, nor, indeed, did any
in the ship expect to save their lives.
In this distress, we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of our men
died of the calenture, and one man and a boy washed overboard. About
the twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the master made an observa-
tion as well as he could, and found that he was in about eleven degrees
north latitude, but that he was twenty-two degrees of longitude difference,
west from Cape St. Augustino; so that he found he was got upon the coast
of Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river Amazons, towards
that of the river Orinoco, commonly called the Great River; and began to
consult with me what course he should take, for the ship was leaky and very
much disabled, and he was for going directly back to the coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that; and looking over the charts of the sea-
coast of America with him, we concluded there was no inhabited country
for us to have recourse to, till we came within the circle of the Carribee
islands, and therefore resolved to stand away for Barbadoes; which by
keeping off to sea, to avoid the indraft of the bay or gulf of Mexico, we






Robinson Crusoe


might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days' sail; whereas we
could not possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa without some
assistance, both to our ship and ourselves.
With this design, we changed our course, and steered away N.W. by W.
in order to reach some of our English islands, where I hoped for relief: but
our voyage was otherwise determined; for being in the latitude of twelve
degrees eighteen minutes a second storm came upon us, which carried us
away with the same impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of the very
way of all human commerce, that had all our lives been saved, as to the sea,
we were rather in danger of being devoured by savages than ever returning
to our own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men early in
the morning, cried out, Landl and we had no sooner run out of the cabin
to look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we were, than the
ship struck upon a sand, and in a moment, her motion being so stopped,
the sea broke over her in such a manner, that we expected we should all
have perished immediately; and we were immediately driven into our close
quarters, to shelter us from the very foam and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like condition to de-
scribe or conceive the consternation of men in such circumstances: we knew
nothing where we were, or upon what land it was we were driven, whether
an island or the main, whether inhabited or not inhabited; and as the rage
of the wind was still great, though rather less than at first, we could not so
much as hope to have the ship hold many minutes without breaking in
pieces, unless the wind, by a kind of miracle, should immediately turn
about. In a word we sat looking upon one another, and expecting death
every moment, and every man acting accordingly, as preparing for another
world; for there was little or nothing more for us to do in this: that which
was our present comfort, and all the comfort we had, was, that, contrary
to our expectation, the ship did not break yet, and that the master said
the wind began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet the ship
having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us to expect her
getting off, we were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing to do,
but to think of saving our lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our
stern just before the storm, but she was first staved by dashing against the
ship's rudder, and, in the next place, she broke away, and either sunk, or
was driven off to sea; so there was no hope from her: we had another
boat on board, but how to get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing;
however, there was no room to debate, for we fancied the ship would break







Robinson Crusoe


in pieces every minute, and some told us she was actually broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel laid hold of the boat, and with
the help of the rest of the men, they got her flung over the ship's side; and
getting all into her, we let her go, and committed ourselves, being eleven
in number, to God's mercy, and the wild sea: for though the storm was
abated considerably, yet the sea went dreadfully high upon the shore, and
might be well called den wild zee, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all saw plainly, that the
sea went so high, that the boat could not live, and that we should be in-
evitably drowned. As to making sail, we had none; nor, if we had, could
we have done anything with it; so we worked at the oar towards the land,
though with heavy hearts, like men going to execution; for we all knew that
when the boat came nearer to the shore, she would be dashed in a thousand
pieces by the breach of the sea. However, we committed our souls to God
in the most earnest manner; and the wind driving us towards the shore, we
hastened our destruction with our own hands, pulling as well as we could
towards land.
What the shore was-whether rock or sand, whether steep or shoal-
we knew not; the only hope that could rationally give us the least shadow
of expectation, was, if we might happen into some bay or gulf, or the mouth
of some river, where by great chance we might have run our boat in, or got
under the lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth water. But nothing
of this appeared; and as we made nearer and nearer the shore, the land
looked more frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and a half, as we
reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling astern of us, and
plainly bade us expect the coup de grdce. In a word, it took us with such
fury, that it overset the boat at once; and separating us, as well from the
boat as from one another, gave us not time hardly to say, "0 God!" for
we were all swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt, when I sunk
into the water; for though I swam very well, yet I could not deliver myself
from the waves so as to draw my breath, till that wave having driven me, or
rather carried me, a vast way on towards the shore, and having spent it-
self, went back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but half dead with
the water I took in. I had so much presence of mind, as well as breath
left, that seeing myself nearer the main land than I expected, I got upon
my feet, and endeavoured to make on towards the land as fast as I could,
before another wave should return and take me up again; but I soon found
it was impossible to avoid It; for I saw the sea come after me as high as
31







Robinson Crusoe


a great hill, and as furious as an enemy which I had no means or strength
to contend with: my business was to hold my breath, and raise myself
upon the water, if I could; and so, by swimming, to preserve my breathing,
and pilot myself towards the shore, if possible; my greatest concern now
being, that the wave, as it would carry me a great way towards the shore
when it came on, might not carry me back again with it when it gave back
towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again buried me at once twenty or thirty
feet deep in its own body; and I could feel myself carried with mighty force
and swiftness towards the shore, a very great way; but I held my breath,
and assisted myself to swim still forward with all my might. I was ready
to burst with holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising up, so, to my
immediate relief, I found my head and hands shoot out above the surface of
the water; and though it was not two seconds of time that I could keep my-
self so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave me breath and new courage. I was
covered again with water a good while, but not so long but I held it out; and
finding the water had spent itself, and began to return, I struck forward
against the return of the waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I
stood still a few moments, to recover breath, and till the water went from
me, and then took to my heels, and ran with what strength I had farther
towards the shore. But neither would this deliver me from the fury of
the sea, which came pouring in after me again; and twice more I was lifted
up by the waves and carried forwards as before, the shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well nigh been fatal to me; for the sea, hav-
ing hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather dashed me, against a
piece of a rock, and that with such force, that it left me senseless, and in-
deed helpless, as to my own deliverance; for the blow, taking my side and
breast, beat the breath, as it were, quite out of my body; and had it re-
turned again immediately, I must have been strangled in the water: but I
recovered a little before the return of the waves, and, seeing I should again
be covered with the water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock,
and so to hold my breath, if possible, till the wave went back. Now as
the waves were not so high as the first, being nearer land, I held my hold
till the wave abated, and then fetched another run, which brought me so
near the shore, that the next wave, though it went over me, yet did not so
swallow me up as to carry me away; and the next run I took, I got to the
main land; where to my great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the
shore, and sat me down upon the grass, free from danger, and quite out of
the reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore; and began to look up and thank
32







Robinson Crusoe


God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there were, some minutes
before, scarcely any room to hope. I believe it is impossible to express,
to the life, what the ecstasies and transports of the soul are, when it is so
saved, as I may say, out of the grave: and I did not wonder now at the
custom, viz., that when a malefactor, who has the halter about his neck, is
tied up, and just going to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought to him;
I say, I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon with it, to let him blood
that very moment they tell him of it, that the surprise may not drive the
animal spirits from the heart, and overwhelm him,-
For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my whole being,
as I may say, wrapped up in the contemplation of my deliverance; making a
thousand gestures and motions, which I cannot describe; reflecting upon
my comrades that were drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved
but myself; for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign of
them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not
fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel-when the breach and froth of the
sea being so big I could hardly see it, it lay so far off-and considered, Lord
how was it possible I could get on shore?
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my condition,
I began to look around me, to see what kind of a place I was in, and what
was next to be done; and I soon found my comforts abate, and that, in a
word, I had a dreadful deliverance: for I was wet, had no clothes to shift
me, nor anything either to eat or drink, to comfort me; neither did I see
any prospect before me, but that of perishing with hunger, or being de-
voured by wild beasts: and that which was particularly afflicting to me
was, that I had no weapon either to hunt and kill any creature for my
sustenance, or to defend myself against any other creature that might de-
sire to kill me for theirs. In a word, I had nothing about me but a knife,
a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a box. This was all my provision;
and this threw me into such terrible agonies of mind, that, for a while, I
ran about like a madman. Night coming upon me I began, with a heavy
heart, to consider what would be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts
in that country, seeing at night they always come abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time, was, to get up
into a thick bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny-which grew near me, and
where I resolved to sit all night-and consider the next day what death I
should die, for as yet I saw no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong
33







Robinson Crusoe


from the shore, to see if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I did,
to my great joy; and having drank, and put a little tobacco into my mouth
to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured to
place myself so as that, if I should fall asleep, I might not fall; and having
cut me a short stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I took up my lodg-
ing; and having been excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as
comfortably as, I believe, few could have done in my condition; and found
myself the most refreshed with it that I think I ever was on such an occasion.





WHEN I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the
storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as before;
but that which surprised me most was, that the ship was lifted
off in the night from the sand where she lay, by the swelling of the tide,
and was driven up almost as far as the rock which I at first mentioned,
where I had been so bruised by the wave dashing me against it. This
being within about a mile from the shore where I was, and the ship seem-
ing to stand upright still, I wished myself on board, that at least I might
save some necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked about me
again, and the first thing I found was the boat; which lay, as the wind
and the sea had tossed her up, upon the land, about two miles on my right
hand. I walked as far as I could upon the shore to have got to her; but
found a neck, or inlet of water, between me and the boat, which was about
half a mile broad; so I came back for the present, being more intent upon
getting at the ship, where I hoped to find something for my present sub-
sistence.
A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed so far
out, that I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship: and here I
found a fresh renewing of my grief; for I saw evidently, that if we had
kept on board, we had been all safe; that is to say, we had all got safe on
shore, and I had not been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of
all comfort and company, as I now was. This forced tears from my eyes
again; but as there was little relief in this, I resolved, if possible, to get to
the ship: so I pulled off my clothes, for the weather was hot to extremity,
and took the water: but when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still
greater to know how to get on board; for as she lay aground, and high out
34







Robinson Crusoe


of the water, there was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam
round her twice, and the second time I spied a small piece of rope, which I
wondered I did not see at first, hang down by the fore-chains so low, as
that with great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope
got into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that the ship was bulged,
and had a great deal of water in her hold; but that she lay so on the side
of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay lifted up upon
the bank, and her head low, almost to the water. By this means all her
quarter was free, and all that was in that part was dry; for you may be sure
my first work was to search and to see what was spoiled and what was free;
and, first, I found that all the ship's provisions were dry and untouched by
the water: and, being very well disposed to eat, I went to the bread-room,
and filled my pockets with biscuit, and ate it as I went about other things,
for I had no time to lose. I also found some rum in the great cabin, of
which I took a large dram, and which I had indeed need enough of, to
spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat,
to furnish myself with many things which I foresaw would be very necessary
to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had, and this
extremity roused my application: we had several spare yards, and two or
three large spars of wood, and a spare topmast or two in the ship; I resolved
to fall to work with these, and flung as many overboard as I could manage
for their weight, tying every one with a rope, that they might not drive
away. When this was done, I went down to the ship's side, and pulling
them to me, I tied four of them fast together at both ends, as well as I
could, in the form of a raft, and laying two or three short pieces of plank
upon them, crossways, I found I could walk upon it very well, but that it
was not able to bear any great weight, the pieces being too light; so I went
to work, and with the carpenter's saw I cut a spare topmast into three
lengths, and added them to my raft, with a great deal of labour and pains.
But the hope of furnishing myself with necessaries, encouraged me to go
beyond what I should have been able to have done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight. My
next care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what I laid upon
it from the surf of the sea; but I was not long considering this. I first laid
all the planks or boards upon it that I could get, and having considered
well what I most wanted, I got three of the seamen's chests, which I had
broken open and emptied, and lowered them down upon my raft; these I
filled with provisions, viz., bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of
dried goat's flesh (which we lived much upon), and a little remainder of
35







Robinson Crusoe


European corn, which had been laid by for some fowls which we had brought
to sea with us, but the fowls were killed. There had been some barley and
wheat together, but, to my great disappointment, I found afterwards that
the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found several cases
of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which were some cordial waters;
and, in all, about five or six gallons of rack. These I stowed by themselves,
there being no need to put them into the chests, nor any room for them.
While I was doing this, I found the tide began to flow, though very calm;
and I had the mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I
had left on shore, upon the sand, swim away; as for my breeches, which
were only linen, and open-kneed, I swam on board in them, and my stock-
ings. However, this put me upon rummaging for clothes, of which I found
enough, but took no more than I wanted for present use, for I had other
things which my eye was more upon: as, first, tools to work with on shore:
and it was after long searching that I found the carpenter's chest, which
was indeed a very useful prize to me, and much more valuable than a ship-
lading of gold would have been at that time. I got it down to my raft, even
whole as it was, without losing time to look into it, for I knew in general
what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were two very
good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols; these I secured
first, with some powder-horns and a small bag of shot, and two old rusty
swords. I knew there were three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew
not where our gunner had stowed them; but with much search I found
them, two of them dry and good, the third had taken water. Those two
I got to my raft, with the arms. And now I thought myself pretty well
freighted, and began to think how I should get to shore with them, having
neither sail, oar, nor rudder; and the least capful of wind would have over-
set all my navigation.
I had three encouragements: 1st, A smooth, calm sea; 2dly, The tide ris-
ing, and setting in to the shore; 3dly, What little wind there was blew me
towards the land. And thus, having found two or three broken oars be-
longing to the boat, and besides the tools which were in the chest
I found two saws, an axe, and a hammer; and with this cargo I put to sea.
For a mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that I found it
drive a little distant from the place where I had landed before; by which
I perceived that there was some indraft of the water, and consequently I
hoped to find some creek or river there, which I might make use of as a
port to get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was: there appeared before me a little opening of
36







Robinson Crusoe


the land, and I found a strong current of the tide set into it; so I guided
my raft, as well as I could, to get into the middle of the stream. But here
I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if I had, I think it
verily would have broken my heart; for, knowing nothing of the coast, my
raft ran aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and, not being aground at
the other end, it wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped off
towards that end that was afloat, and so fallen into the water. I did my
utmost, by setting my back against the chests, to keep them in their
places, but could not thrust off the raft with all my strength; neither durst
I stir from the posture I was in, but holding up the chests with all my might,
I stood in that manner near half an hour, in which time the rising of the
water brought me a little more upon a level; and a little after, the water
still rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off with the oar I had
into the channel, and then driving up higher, I at length found myself in
the mouth of a little river, with land on both sides, and a strong current
or tide running up. I looked on both sides for a proper place to get to
shore, for I was not willing to be driven too high up the river; hoping, in
time, to see some ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place myself as
near the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek, to which,
with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last got so near, as
that, reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust her directly in; but
here I had like to have dipped all my cargo into the sea again; for that shore
lying pretty steep, that is to say, sloping, there was no place to land, but
where one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie so high, and the
other sink lower, as before, that it would endanger my cargo again. All
that I could do was to wait till the tide was at the highest, keeping the raft
with my oar like an anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a
flat piece of ground, which I expected the water would flow over; and so
it did. As soon as I found water enough, for my raft drew about a foot
of water, I thrust her upon that flat piece of ground, and there fastened or
moored her, by sticking my two broken oars into the ground, one on one
side, near one end, and one on the other side, near the other end: and thus I
lay till the water ebbed away, and left my raft and all my cargo safe on
shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper place for my
habitation, and where to stow my goods, to secure them from whatever
might happen. Where I was I yet knew not; whether on the continent,
or on an island; whether inhabited, or not inhabited; whether in danger of
wild beasts, or not. There was a hill, not above a mile from me, which
37







Robinson Crusoe


rose up very steep and high, and which seemed to overtop some other hills,
which lay as in a ridge from it, northward. I took out one of the fowling-
pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn of powder; and thus armed, I
travelled for discovery up to the top of that hill; where after I had, with
great labour and difficulty, got up to the top, I saw my fate, to my great
affliction, viz., that I was in an island, environed every way with the sea,
no land to be seen, except some rocks, which lay a great way off, and two
small islands, less than this, which lay about three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw good
reason to believe, uninhabited, except by wild beasts, of whom, however, I
saw none; yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not their kinds; neither,
when I killed them, could I tell what was fit for food, and what not.
At my coming back, I shot at a great bird, which I saw sitting upon a tree,
on the side of a great wood. I believe it was the first gun that had been
fired there since the creation of the world: I had no sooner fired, but from
all the parts of the wood there arose an innumerable number of fowls, of
many sorts, making a confused screaming, and crying, every one according
to his usual note; but not one of them of any kind that I knew. As for the
creature I killed, I took it to be a kind of a hawk, its colour and beak re-
sembling it, but it had no talons or claws more than common. Its flesh
was carrion and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell to work
to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest of the day: what to
do with myself at night I knew not, nor indeed where to rest: for I was
afraid to lie down on the ground, not knowing but some wild beast might
devour me; though, as I afterwards found, there was really no need for
those fears. However, as well as I could, I barricadoed myself round with
chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and made a kind of hut for
that night's lodging. As for food, I yet saw not which way to supply my-
self, except that I had seen two or three creatures, like hares, run out of
the wood where I shot the fowl.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many things out of
the ship, which would be useful to me, and particularly some of the rigging
and sails, and such other things as might come to land; and I resolved to
make another voyage on board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that
the first storm that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I resolved
to set all other things apart, till I got everything out of the ship that I
could get. Then I called a council, that is to say, in my thoughts, whether
I should take back the raft; but this appeared impracticable: so I resolved
to go as before, when the tide was down; and I did so, only that I stripped
38







Robinson Crusoe


before I went from my hut; having nothing on but a chequered shirt, a pair
of linen drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft; and having
had experience of the first, I neither made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it
so hard, but yet I brought away several things very useful to me: as, first, in
the carpenter's stores, I found two or three bags of nails and spikes, a great
screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets; and, above all, that most useful
thing called a grindstone. All these I secured together, with several things
belonging to the gunner; particularly, two or three iron crows, and two bar-
rels of musket bullets, seven muskets, and another fowling-piece, with some
small quantity of powder more; a large bag full of small shot, and a great
roll of sheet lead; but this last was so heavy, I could not hoist it up to get
it over the ship's side. Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes
that I could find, and a spare fore-topsail, a hammock, and some bedding;
and with this I loaded my second raft, and brought them all safe on shore,
to my very great comfort.
I was under some apprehensions lest, during my absence from the land,
my provisions might be devoured on shore: but when I came back, I found
no sign of any visitor; only there sat a creature like a wild cat, upon one of
the chests, which, when I came towards it, ran away a little distance and
then stood still. She sat very composed and unconcerned, and looked full
in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with me. I presented
my gun to her, but, as she did not understand it, she was perfectly un-
concerned at it, nor did she offer to stir away; upon which I tossed her a
bit of biscuit, though, by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store
was not great; however, I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it,
smelled of it, and ate it, and looked (as pleased) for more; but I thanked
her, and could spare no more: so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore-though I was fain to open the
barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for they were too heavy,
being large casks-I went to work to make me a little tent, with the sail,
and some poles, which I cut for that purpose; and into this tent I brought
everything that I knew would spoil either with rain or sun; and I piled all
the empty chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from
any sudden attempt either from man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with some boards
within, and an empty chest set up on end without; and spreading one of
the beds upon the ground, laying my two pistols just at my head, and my
gun at length by me, I went to bed for the first time, and slept very quietly
all night, for I was very weary and heavy; for the night before I had slept
39







Robinson Crusoe


little, and had laboured very hard all day, as well to fetch all those things
from the ship as to get them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid up, I be-
lieve, for one man: but I was not satisfied still; for while the ship sat up-
right in that posture, I thought I ought to get everything out of her that I
could; so every day, at low water, I went on board, and brought away some-
thing or other; but particularly the third time I went I brought away as
much of the rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes and rope-twine I
could get, with a piece of spare canvas, which was to mend the sails upon
occasion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder. In a word, I brought away
all the sails first and last; only that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and
bring as much at a time as I could; for they were no more useful to be
sails, but as mere canvas only.
But that which comforted me still more was, that, last of all, after I had
made five or six such voyages as these, and thought I had nothing more to
expect from the ship that was worth my meddling with; I say, after all this,
I found a great hogshead of bread, and three large runlets of rum or spirits,
and a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine flour; this was surprising to me, be-
cause I had given over expecting any more provisions, except what was
spoiled by the water. I soon emptied the hogshead of that bread, and
wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut out;
and, in a word, I got all this safe on shore also.
The next day I made another voyage, and now having plundered the ship
of what was portable and fit to hand out, I began with the cables, and cutting
the great cable into pieces such as I could move, I got two cables and a
hawser on shore, with all the iron work I could get; and having cut down
the spritsail-yard, and the mizen-yard, and everything I could, to make a
large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods, and came away; but my
good luck began now to leave me; for this raft was so unwieldy, and so
overladen, that after I was entered the little cove, where I had landed the
rest of my goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I did the other,
it overset, and threw me and all my cargo into the water; as for myself,
it was no great harm, for I was near the shore; but as to my cargo, it was a
great part of it lost, especially the iron, which I expect would have been
of great use to me: however, when the tide was out, I got most of the pieces
of cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with infinite labour; for I was
fain to dip for it into the water, a work which fatigued me very much.
After this I went every day on board, and brought away what I could get.
I had been now thirteen days ashore, and had been eleven times on board
the ship; in which time I had brought away a1' ',at one pair of hands could
40







Robinson Crusoe


well be supposed capable to bring; though I believe verily, had the calm
weather held, I should have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece,
but preparing, the twelfth time, to go on board, I found the wind began to
rise: however, at low water, I went on board; and though I thought I had
rummaged the cabin so effectually, as that nothing could be found, yet I
discovered a locker with drawers in it, in one of which I found two or three
razors, and one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good
knives and forks; in another I found about thirty-six pounds in money,
some European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold, and
some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money; 0 drug! I exclaimed, what
art thou good for? Thou art not worth to me, no, not the taking off the
ground; one of those knives is worth all this heap: I have no manner of use
for thee; e'en remain where thou art, and go to the bottom, as a creature
whose life is not worth saving. However, upon second thoughts, I took
it away; and wrapping all this in a piece of canvas, I began to think of
making another raft; but while I was preparing this, I found the sky over-
cast, and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh
gale from the shore. It presently occurred to me, that it was in vain to
pretend to make a raft with the wind off shore; and that it was my business
to be gone before the tide or flood began, or otherwise I might not be able
to reach the shore at all. Accordingly I let myself down into the water,
and swam across the channel which lay between the ship and the sands, and
even that with difficulty enough, partly with the weight of the things I
had about me, and partly the roughness of the water; for the wind rose
very hastily, and before it was quite high water it blew a storm.
But I was got home to my little tent, where I lay, with all my wealth
about me very secure. It blew very hard all that night, and in the morn-
ing, when I looked out, behold, no more ship was to be seen! I was a little
surprised, but recovered myself with this satisfactory reflection, viz., that
I had lost no time, nor abated no diligence, to get everything out of her,
that could be useful to me, and that, indeed, there was little left in her that
I was able to bring away, if I had more time.
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything out of her.
except what might drive on shore, from her wreck; as indeed, divers pieces
of her afterwards did; but those things were of small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself against
either savages, if any should appear, or wild beasts, if any were in the
island: and I had many thoughts of the method how to do this, and what
kind of dwelling to make, whether I should make me a cave in the earth,
41







Robinson Crusoe


or a tent upon the earth; and, in short, I resolved upon both; the manner
and description of which, it may not be improper to give an account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my settlement, particularly
because it was upon a low, moorish ground, near the sea, and I believed it
would not be wholesome; and more particularly because there was no fresh
water near it: so I resolved to find a more healthy and more convenient
spot of ground.
I consulted several things in my situation, which I found would be
proper for me; first, air and fresh water, I just now mentioned: secondly,
shelter from the heat of the sun: thirdly, security from ravenous creatures,
whether men or beasts: fourthly, a view to the sea, that if God sent any
ship in sight, I might not lose any advantage for my deliverance, of which
I was not willing to banish all my expectation yet.
In search for a place proper for this, I found a little plain on the side of a
rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was steep as a house-side,
so that nothing could come down upon me from the top. On the side of
this rock, there was a hollow place, worn a little way in, like the entrance
or door of a cave; but there was not really any cave, or way into the rock,
at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I resolved to pitch
my tent. This plain was not above a hundred yards broad, and about twice
as long, and lay like a green before my door; and, at the end of it, descended
irregularly every way down into the low ground by the seaside. It was on
the N.N.W. side of the hill; so that it was sheltered from the heat every
day, till it came to a W. and by S. sun, or thereabouts, which, in those coun-
tries, is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the hollow place, which
took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter from the rock, and twenty yards
in its diameter, from its beginning and ending.
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving them into
the ground till they stood very firm like piles, the biggest end being out of
the ground, about five feet and a half, and sharpened on the top. The two
rows did not stand above six inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I cut in the ship, and laid them in
rows, one upon another, within the circle, between these two rows of stakes,
up to the top, placing other stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about
two feet and a half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong,
that neither man nor beast could get into it or over it. This cost me a
great deal of time and labour, especially to cut the piles in the woods, bring
them to the place, and drive them into the earth.
42







Robinson Crusoe


The entrance into this place I made to be not by a door, but by a short
ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when I was in, I lifted over
after me; and so I was completely fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from
all the world, and consequently slept secure in the night, which otherwise
I could not have done; though, as it appeared afterwards, there was no need
of all this caution against the enemies that I apprehended danger from.





NTO this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all my
riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you have
the account above; and I made a large tent, which, to preserve me from
the rains, that in one part of the year are very violent there, I made double,
viz., one smaller tent within, and one larger tent above it, and covered the
uppermost with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among the sails.
And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had brought on
shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very good one, and belonged
to the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that would
spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all my goods, I made up the
entrance, which till now I had left open, and so passed and repassed, as I
said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock, and bring-
ing all the earth and stones that I dug down out through my tent, I laid
them up within my fence in the nature of a terrace, so that it raised the
ground within about a foot and a half; and thus I made me a cave, just be-
hind my tent, which served me like a cellar to my house. It cost me much
labour and many days, before all these things were brought to perfection;
and therefore I must go back to some other things which took up some of
my thoughts. At the same time it happened, after I had laid my scheme
for the setting up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain fall-
ing from a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened, and
after that, a great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I was
not so much surprised with the lightning, as I was with a thought, which
darted into my mind as swift as the lightning itself: 0 my powder! My
very heart sank within me when I thought, that at one blast, all my powder
might be destroyed; on which, not my defence only, but the providing me
food, as I thought, entirely depended. I was nothing near so anxious about







Robinson Crusoe


my own danger, though, had the powder taken fire, I should never have
known who had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm was over,
I laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying, and applied myself
to make bags and boxes, to separate the powder, and to keep it a little and a
little in a parcel, in hope that whatever might come, it might not all take
fire at once; and to keep it so apart, that it should not be possible to make
one part fire another. I finished this work in about a fortnight; and I
think my powder, which in all was about two hundred and forty pounds'
weight, was divided into not less than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel
that had been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from that; so I placed
it in my new cave, which, in my fancy, I called my kitchen, and the rest I
hid up and down in holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to
it, marking very carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out at least once every
day with my gun, as well to divert myself, as to see if I could kill anything
fit for food; and, as near as I could, to acquaint myself with what the island
produced. The first time I went out, I presently discovered that there
were goats upon the island, which was a great satisfaction to me; but then
it was attended with this misfortune to me, viz., that they were so shy, so
subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the most difficult thing in the world
to come at them: but I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I
might now and then shoot one, as it soon happened; for after I had found
their haunts a little, I laid wait in this manner for them; I observed, if they
saw me in the valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would run
away as in a terrible fright; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and I
was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence I concluded,
that by the position of their optics, their sight was so directed downward,
that they did not readily see objects that were above them: so afterwards,
I took this method-I always climbed the rocks first, to get above them,
and then had frequently a fair mark. The first shot I made among these
creatures, I killed a she-goat, which had a little kid by her, which she gave
suck to, which grieved me heartily; but when the old one fell, the kid stood
stock still by her, till I came and took her up; and not only so, but when
I carried the old one with me, upon my shoulders, the kid followed me
quite to my enclosure; upon which I laid down the dam, and took the kid
in my arms, and carried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame;
but it would not eat; so I was forced to kill it and eat it myself. These
two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I eat sparingly, and pre-
served my provisions (my bread especially) as much as possibly I could.
44














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'4.

ni s




























77




'I
















"I crossed toward the sea, . and placed myself in the way
between the pursuers and the pursued."







Robinson Crusoe


Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary to pro-
vide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and what I did for that, as
also how I enlarged my cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a
full account of in its proper place: but I must first give some little account
of myself, and of my thoughts about living, which, it may well be supposed,
were not a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as I was not cast away upon
that island without being driven, as is said, by a violent storm quite out of
the course of our intended voyage; and a great way, viz., some hundreds
of leagues, out of the ordinary course of the trade of mankind, I had great
reason to consider it as a determination of Heaven, that in this desolate
place, and in this desolate manner, I should end my life. The tears would
run plentifully down my face when I made these reflections; and some-
times I would expostulate with myself why Providence should thus com-
pletely ruin its creatures, and render them so absolutely miserable; so
abandoned without help, so entirely depressed, that it could hardly be
rational to be thankful for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to check these thoughts,
and to reprove me; and particularly, one day walking with my gun in my
hand, by the seaside, I was very pensive upon the subject of my present
condition, when reason, as it were, expostulated with me the other way,
thus: Well, you are in a desolate condition it is true; but, pray remember,
where are the rest of you? Did not you come eleven of you into the boat?
Where are the ten? Why were not they saved, and you lost? Why were
you singled out? Is it better to be here or there? And then I pointed to
the sea. All evils are to be considered with the good that is in them, and
with what worse attends them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished for my sub-
sistence, and what would have been my case if it had not happened (which
was a hundred thousand to one) that the ship floated from the place where
she first struck, and was driven so near to the shore, that I had time to get
all these things out of her; what would have been my case, if I had been
to have lived in the condition in which I at first came on shore, without
necessaries of life, or necessaries to supply and procure them? Particu-
larly, said I aloud (though to myself), what should I have done without a
gun, without ammunition, without any tools to make anything, or to work
with, without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any manner of covering? and that
now I had all these to a sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to pro-
vide myself in such a manner as to live without my gun, when my ammuni-
tion was spent: so that I had a tolerable view of subsisting, without any
45







Robinson Crusoe


want, as long as I lived; for I considered, from the beginning, how I would
provide for the accidents that might happen, and for the time that was to
come, not only after my ammunition should be spent, but even after my
health or strength should decay.
I confess, I had not entertained any notion of my ammunition being de-
stroyed at one blast, I mean my powder being blown up by lightning; and
this made the thoughts of it so surprising to me, when it lightened and
thundered, as I observed just now.
And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene of silent
life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world before, I shall take it
from its beginning, and continue it in its order. It was, by my account, the
30th of September, when, in the manner as above said, I first set foot upon
this horrid island; when the sun being to us in its autumnal equinox, was
almost just over my head: for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in
the latitude of nine degrees twenty-two minutes north of the Line.






A FTER I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into my
thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time for want of
books, and pen and ink, and should even forget the sabbath days
from the working days: but, to prevent this, I cut it with my knife upon a
large post, in capital letters; and making it into a great cross, I set it up on
the shore where I first landed, viz., "I came on shore here on the 30th of
September, 1659." Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a
notch with my knife, and every seventh notch was as long again as the
rest, and every first day of the month as long again as that long one: and
thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of
time.
But it happened, that among the many things which I brought out of
the ship, in the several voyages which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I
got several things of less value, but not at all less useful to me, which I
found, some time after, in rummaging the chests: as, in particular, pens,
ink, and paper; several parcels in the captain's, mate's, gunner's, and car-
penter's keeping; three or four compasses, some mathematical instruments,
dials, perspectives, charts, and books of navigation; all of which I hud-







Robinson Crusoe


died together whether I might want them or no: also I found three very good
Bibles, which came to me in my cargo from England, and which I had
packed up among my things; some Portuguese books also, and, among
them, two or three popish prayer-books, and several other books, all which
I carefully secured. And I must not forget, that we had in the ship a dog,
and two cats, of whose eminent history I may have occasion to say some-
thing, in its place: for I carried both the cats with me; and as for the dog,
he jumped out of the ship himself, and swam on shore to me the day after
I went on shore with my first cargo, and was a trusty servant to me for
many years: I wanted nothing that he could fetch me, nor any company
that he could make up to me, I only wanted to have him talk to me, but that
would not do. As I observed before, I found pens, ink, and paper, and I
husbanded them to the utmost; and I shall show that while my ink lasted,
I kept things very exact, but after that was gone, I could not; for I could
not make any ink, by any means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwithstanding
all that I had amassed together; and of these, this of ink was one; as also
a spade, pickaxe, and shovel, to dig or remove the earth; needles, pins, and
thread; as for linen, I soon learned to want that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily: and it was near
a whole year before I had entirely finished my little pale, or surrounded
my habitation. The piles or stakes, which were as heavy as I could well
lift, were a long time in cutting and preparing in the woods, and more by
far, in bringing home; so that I spent sometimes two days in cutting and
bringing home one of those posts, and a third day in driving it into the
ground; for which purpose, I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last
bethought myself of one of the iron crows; which, however, though I found
it answer, made driving these posts or piles very laborious and tedious work.
But what need I have been concerned at the tediousness of anything I had
to do; seeing I had time enough to do it in? nor had I any other employ-
ment, if that had been over, at least that I could foresee, except the ranging
the island to seek for food; which I did, more or less, every day.
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the circumstance
I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of my affairs in writing, not so
much to leave them to any that were to come after me (for I was like to
have but few heirs), as to deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon them,
and afflicting my mind: and as my reason began now to master my de-
spondency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could, and to set the good
against the evil, that I might have something to distinguish my case from







Robinson Crusoe


worse; and I stated very impartially, like debtor and creditor, the comforts
I enjoyed against the miseries I suffered, thus:


EVIL.


GOOD.


I am cast upon a horrible, desolate But I am alive; and not drowned,
island, void of all hope of recovery, as all my ship's company were.


I am singled out and separated, as
it were, from all the world, to be mis-
erable.



I am divided from mankind, a soli-
taire; one banished from human so-
ciety.

I have no clothes to cover me.



I am without any defence, or means
to resist any violence of man or beast.



I have no soul to speak to, or re-
lieve me.


But I am singled out too from all
the ship's crew, to be spared from
death; and He that miraculously saved
me from death, can deliver me from
this condition.

But I am not starved, and perishing
in a barren place, affording no sus-
tenance.

But I am in a hot climate, where, if
I had clothes, I could hardly wear
them.

But I am cast on an island where
I see no wild beasts to hurt me, as I
saw on the coast of Africa: and what
if I had been shipwrecked there?

But God wonderfully sent the ship
in near enough to the shore, that I
have got out so many necessary things,
as will either supply my wants, or en-
able me to supply myself, even as long
as I live.


Upon the whole, here was an unbounded testimony, that there was scarce
any condition in the world so miserable, but there was something nega-
tive, or something positive, to be thankful for in it; and let this stand as a
direction, from the experience of the most miserable of all conditions in this
world, that we may always find in it something to comfort ourselves from,
and to set, in the description of good and evil on the credit side of the
account.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition, and given
over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship; I say, given over these
things, I began to apply myself to accommodate my way of living, and to
make things as easy to me as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was a tent under the side
48







Robinson Crusoe


of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts and cables; but I might
now rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind of wall against it of turfs,
about two feet thick on the outside: and after some time (I think it was a
year and a half) I raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched
or covered it with boughs of trees, and such things as I could get, to keep out
the rain; which I found at some times of the year, very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this pale, and
into the cave which I had made behind me. But I must observe, too,
that at first this was a confused heap of goods, which, as they lay in no
order, so they took up all my place: I had no room to turn myself: so I set
myself to enlarge my cave, and work farther into the earth: for it was a
loose sandy rock which yielded easily to the labour I bestowed on it: and
when I found I was pretty safe as to the beasts of prey, I worked side-
ways, to the right hand, into the rock, and then turning to the right again,
worked quite out, and made me a door to come out in the outside of my
pale or fortification.
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were, a back way to my
tent, and to my storehouse, but gave me room to stow my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary things as I
found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a table; for without these I
was not able to enjoy the few comforts I had in the world; I could not write,
or eat, or do several things with so much pleasure, without a table: so I went
to work. And here I must needs observe, that as reason is the substance
and original of the mathematics, so by stating and squaring everything
by reason, and by making the most rational judgment of things, every
man may be, in time, master of every mechanic art. I had never handled
a tool in my life; and yet, in time, by labour, application, and contrivance
I found at last, that I wanted nothing but I could have made, especially if
I had had tools. However, I made abundance of things, even without
tools; and some with no more tools than an adze and a hatchet, which per-
haps were never made that way before, and that with infinite labour. For
example, if I wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree, set
it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either side with my axe, till I
had brought it to be as thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth with my
adze. It is true, by this method, I could make but one board of a whole
tree; but this I had no remedy for but patience, any more than I had for a
prodigious deal of time and labour which it took me up to make a plank or
board: but my time or labour was little worth, and so it was as well employed
one way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above, in the
49







Robinson Crusoe


first place; and this I did out of the short pieces of boards that I brought
on my raft from the ship. But when I wrought out some boards, as above,
I made large shelves, of the breadth of a foot and a half, one over another,
all along one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron work on;
and in a word, to separate everything at large in their places, that I might
easily come at them. I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock, to hang
my guns, and all things that would hang up: so that had my cave been
seen, it looked like a general magazine of all necessary things; and I had
everything so ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me to see
all my goods in such order, and especially to find my stock of all neces-
saries so great.
And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every day's employ-
ment; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much hurry, and not only as to la-
bour, but in much discomposure of mind; and my journal would, too, have
been full of many dull things: for example, I must have said thus-"Sept.
30th. After I had got to shore, and had escaped drowning, instead of being
thankful to God for my deliverance, having first vomited, with the great
quantity of salt water which was gotten into my stomach, and recovering
myself a little, I ran about the shore, wringing my hands, and beating my
head and face, exclaiming at my misery, and crying out I was undone, un-
done! till, tired and faint, I was forced to lie down on the ground to repose;
but durst not sleep, for fear of being devoured."
Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship, and got all
that I could out of her, I could not forbear getting up to the top of a little
mountain, and looking out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship: then fancy
that, at a vast distance, I spied a sail, please myself with the hopes of it,
and, after looking steadily, till I was almost blind, lose it quite, and sit down
and weep like a child, and thus increase my misery by my folly.
But, having gotten over these things in some measure, and having settled
my household stuff and habitation, made me a table and a chair, and all as
handsome stuff about me as I could, I began to keep my journal: of which
I shall here give you the copy (though in it will be told all these particulars
over again) as long as it lasted; for, having no more ink, I was forced to
leave it off.







Robinson Crusoe


THE JOURNAL

SEPTEMBER 30th, 1659. I, poor miserable Robinson Crusoe, being

shipwrecked, during a dreadful storm, in the offing, came on shore on
this dismal unfortunate island, which I called the ISLAND OF DESPAIR;
all the rest of the ship's company being drowned and myself almost dead.
All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting myself at the dismal circum-
stances I was brought to, viz., I had neither food, house, clothes, weapon,
nor place to fly to: and in despair of any relief, saw nothing but death be-
fore me: that I should either be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by sav-
ages, or starved to death for want of food. At the approach of night I
slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures; but slept soundly, though it
rained all night.
OCTOBER 1. In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the ship had
floated with the high tide, and was driven on shore again much nearer the
island; which, as it was some comfort on one hand (for seeing her sit up-
right, and not broken in pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on
board, and get some food and necessaries out of her for my relief), so,
on the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades, who, I
imagined, if we had all stayed on board, might have saved the ship, or, at
least, that they would not have been all drowned, as they were: and that,
had the men been saved, we might perhaps have built us a boat, out of the
ruins of the ship, to have carried us to some other part of the world. I
spent great part of this day in perplexing myself on these things; but, at
length, seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I could,
and then swam on board. This day also it continued raining, though with
no wind at all.
From the 1st of October to the 24th. All these days entirely spent in
many several voyages to get all I could out of the ship; which I brought on
shore, every tide of flood, upon rafts. Much rain also in these days,
though with some intervals of fair weather; but, it seems, this was the
rainy season.
OCT. 20. I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got upon it; but being
in shoal water, and the things being chiefly heavy I recovered many of them
when the tide was out.
OCT. 25. It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of wind; dur-
ing which time the ship broke in pieces (the wind blowing a little harder
than before) and was no more to be seen, except the wreck of her, and that







Robinson Crusoe


only at low water. I spent this day in covering and securing the goods
which I had saved, that the rain might not spoil them.
OCT. 26. I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out a place
to fix my habitation; greatly concerned to secure myself from any attack
in the night, either from wild beasts or men. Towards night I fixed upon
a proper place, under a rock, and marked out a semicircle for my encamp.
ment; which I resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification
made of double piles lined within with cables, and without with turf.
From the 26th to the 30th, I worked very hard in carrying all my good,
to my new habitation, though some part of the time it rained exceedingly\
hard.
The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with my gun, tf
seek for some food, and discover the country; when I killed a she-goat
and her kid followed me home, which I afterwards killed also, because it
would not feed.
NOVEMBER 1. I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there for the firs:
night; making it as large as I could, with stakes driven in to swing m!
hammock upon.
Nov. 2. I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces of timbe;
which made my rafts; and with them formed a fence round me, a little
within the place I had marked out for my fortification.
Nov. 3. I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like ducks, which'
were very good food. In the afternoon I went to work to make me a table.
Nov. 4. This morning I began to order my times of work, of going onu
with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion; viz., every morning I
walked out with my gun for two or three hours, if it did not rain; then em
played myself to work till about eleven o'clock; then ate what I had t'
live on; and from twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the weather bein:
excessive hot; and then, in the evening, to work again. The working par:
of this day and the next was wholly employed in making my table, for I wa:
yet but a very sorry workman: though time and necessity made me a
complete natural mechanic soon after, as I believe they would any on;
else.
Nov. 5. This day went abroad with my gun and dog, and killed a wilt
cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for nothing: of every creature
that I killed I took off the skins, and preserved them. Coming back b:
the seashore, I saw many sort of sea-fowl which I did not understand: bu:
was surprised, and almost frightened, with two or three seals; which while
I was gazing at them (not well knowing what they were) got into the sea
and escaped me for that time.



































































"Had my cave been seen, it looked like a general magazine of all
necessary things."


;il
:p .~:~


'' h_!
.!1. -~.....
F; ~-i
-L

~t~ 'FdI
1L ?7r-,r.
~krr~




:: ~~
~' iei
.-c-








Robinson Crusoe


Nov. 6. After my morning walk, I went to work with my table again,
and finished it, though not to my liking: nor was it long before I learned to
mend it.
Nov. 7. Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th, 8th, 9th,
10th, and part of the 12th (for the llth was Sunday, according to my
reckoning), I took wholly up to make me a chair, and with much ado
brought it to a tolerable shape, but never to please me; and, even in the
making, I pulled it to pieces several times.
NOTE. I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for, omitting my mark
for them on my post, I forgot which was which.
Nov. 13. This day it rained; which refreshed me exceedingly, and
cooled the earth: but it was accompanied with terrible thunder and light-
ning, which frightened me dreadfully, for fear of my powder. As soon as
it was over I resolved to separate my stock of powder into as many little
parcels as possible, that it might not be in danger.
Nov. 14, 15, 16. These three days I spent in making little square chests
or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or two pounds at most, of pow-
der; and so, putting the powder in, I stowed it in places as secure and as
remote from one another as possible. On one of these three days I killed a
large bird that was good to eat; but I knew not what to call it.
Nov. 17. This day I began to dig behind my tent, into the rock, to
make room for my farther convenience.
NOTE. Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work, viz., a pick-
axe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow, or basket; so I desisted from my work,
and began to consider how to supply these wants, and make me some tools.
As for a pickaxe, I made use of the iron crows, which were proper enough,
though heavy: but the next thing was a shovel or spade; this was so abso-
lutely necessary, that, indeed, I could do nothing effectually without it;
but what kind of one to make I knew not.
Nov. 18. The next day, in searching the woods, I found a tree of that
wood, or like it, which, in the Brazils, they call the iron tree, from its ex-
ceeding hardness: of this, with great labour, and almost spoiling my axe,
I cut a piece; and brought it home, too, with difficulty enough, for it was
exceeding heavy. The excessive hardness of the wood, and my having no
other way, made me a long while upon this machine: for I worked it effec-
tually, by little and little, into the form of a shovel or spade; the handle
exactly shaped like ours in England, only that the broad part having no
iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not last me so long: however, it
served well enough for the uses which I had occasion to put it to; but never
was a shovel, I believe, made after that fashion, or so long in making.
53







Robinson Crusoe


I was still deficient; for I wanted a basket or a wheelbarrow. A bask,
I could not make by any means, having no such things as twigs that wo0
bend to make wicker ware; at least, none yet found out: and as to t!
wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make all but the wheel, but that I had
notion of; neither did I know how to get about it: besides, I had no po
sible way to make iron gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the wheel
run in; so I gave it over; and, for carrying away the earth which I dj
out of the cave, I made me a thing like a hod, which the labourers carr
mortar in for the bricklayers. This was not so difficult for me as the mia
ing the shovel: and yet this and the shovel, and the attempt which I mar
in vain to make a wheelbarrow, took me up no less than four days: I mex
always excepting my morning walk with my gun, which I seldom omitte:
and very seldom failed also bringing home something fit to eat.
Nov. 23. My other work having now stood still, because of my makit
these tools, when they were finished I went on: and working every day, C
my strength and time allowed, I spent eighteen days entirely in widenir
and deepening my cave, that it might hold my goods commodiously.
NOTE. During all this time, I worked to make this room or cave, sp:
cious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse, or magazine, a kitchen:
a dining-room, and a cellar. As for a lodging, I kept the tent: except th:
sometimes, in the wet season of the year, it rained so hard that I could nw
keep myself dry; which caused me afterwards to cover all my place with:
my pale with long poles, and in the form of rafters, leaning against the roc!
and load them with flags and large leaves of trees, like a thatch.
DECEMBER 10. I began now to think my cave or vault finished; whe
on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great quantity of earth
fell down from the top and one side; so much, that, in short, it frightened
me, and not without reason too; for if I had been under it, I should new
have wanted a grave-digger. Upon this disaster, I had a great deal of world
to do over again, for I had the loose earth to carry out; and, which wase
more importance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be surer
more would come down.
DEC. 11. This day I went to work with it accordingly; and got tw
shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with two pieces of board acro;
over each post: this I finished the next day; and setting more posts up wit
boards, in about a week more I had the roof secured; and the posts, standiri
in rows, served me for partitions to part off my house.
DEC. 17. From this day to the 30th, I placed shelves, and knocked ul
nails on the posts, to hang everything up that could be hung up: and now:
began to be in some order within doors.
54







Robinson Crusoe


DEC. 20. I carried everything into the cave, and began to furnish my
house, and set up some pieces of boards, like a dresser, to order my vic-
tuals upon; but boards began to be very scarce with me; also I made me
another table.
DEC. 24. Much rain all night and all day: no stirring out.
DEc. 25. Rain all day.
DEC. 26. No rain; and the earth much cooler than before, and pleas-
anter.
DEc. 27. Killed a young goat; and lamed another, so that I catched it,
and led it home in a string: when I had it home, I bound and splintered
up its leg, which was broke.
N. B. I took such care of it that it lived; and the leg grew well, and as
strong as ever: but, by nursing it so long, it grew tame, and fed upon the
little green at my door, and would not go away. This was the first time
that I entertained a thought of breeding up some tame creatures, that I
might have food when my powder and shot was all spent.
DEC. 28, 29, 30, 31. Great heats, and no breeze: so that there was no
stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food; this time I spent in put-
ting all my things in order within doors.
JANUARY 1. Very hot still; but I went abroad early and late with my
gun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This evening, going farther
into the valleys which lay towards the centre of the island, I found there
was plenty of goats, though exceeding shy, and hard to come at; however, I
resolved to try if I could not bring my dog to hunt them down. Accord-
ingly, the next day, I went out with my dog, and set him upon the goats;
but I was mistaken, for they all faced about upon the dog: and he knew
his danger too well, for he would not come near them.
JAN. 3. I began my fence or wall; which, being still jealous of my being
attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very thick and strong.
N. B. This wall being described before, I purposely omit what was said
in the journal; it is sufficient to observe that I was no less time than from
the 3d of January to the 14th of April, working, finishing, and perfecting
this wall; though it was no more than about twenty-five yards in length,
being a half circle, from one place in the rock to another place, about twelve
yards from it, the door of the cave being in the centre, behind it.
All this time I worked very hard; the rains hindering me many days, nay.
sometimes weeks together: but I thought I should never be perfectly secure
till this wall was finished; and it is scarce credible what inexpressible labour
everything was done with, especially the bringing of piles out of the woods,
and driving them into the ground; for I made them much bigger than I
55







Robinson Crusoe


needed to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double fenced, with a turf.
wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that if any people were to
come on shore there they would not perceive anything like a habitation: and
it was very well I did so, as may be observed hereafter, upon a very re-
markable occasion.
During this time, I made my rounds in the woods for game every day,
when the rain permitted me, and made frequent discoveries, in these walks,
of something or other to my advantage; particularly, I found a kind of
wild pigeons, who build, not as wood-pigeons, in a tree, but rather as house.
pigeons, in the holes of the rocks: and, taking some young ones, I en-
deavoured to breed them up tame, and did so; but when they grew older,
they flew all away; which, perhaps, was, at first, for want of feeding them,
for I had nothing to give them; however, I frequently found their nests,
and got their young ones, which were very good meat. And now, in the
managing my household affairs, I found myself wanting in many things,
which I thought at first it was impossible for me to make; as indeed, as to
some of them, it was: for instance, I could never make a cask to be hooped,
I had a small runlet or two, as I observed before; but I could never ar-
rive at the capacity of making one by them, though I spent many weeks
about it; I could neither put in the heads, nor join the staves so true to
one another as to make them hold water; so I gave that also over. In the
next place, I was at a great loss for candle; so that as soon as it was dark,
which was generally by seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I re-
member the lump of beeswax with which I made candles in my African
adventure; but I had none of that now; the only remedy I had was, that
when I had killed the goat, I saved the tallow; and with a little dish made of
clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum, I
made me a lamp; and this gave me light, though not a clear steady light
like a candle. In the middle of all my labours it happened, that in rum-
maging my things, I found a little bag; which, as I hinted before, had been
filled with corn, for the feeding of poultry, not for this voyage, but before,
as I suppose, when the ship came from Lisbon. What little remainder of
corn had been in the bag was all devoured by the rats, and I saw nothing
in the bag but husks and dust: and being willing to have the bag for some
other use (I think it was to put powder in, when I divided it for fear of
the lightning, or some such use), I shook the husks of corn out of it, on
one side of my fortification, under the rock.
It was a little before the great rain just now mentioned, that I threw
this stuff away; taking no notice of anything, and not so much as remem-
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being that I had thrown anything there: when, about a month after, I saw
some few stalks of something green, shooting out of the ground, which
I fancied might be some plant I had not seen; but I was surprised, and per-
fectly astonished, when, after a little longer time, I saw about ten or twelve
ears come out, which were perfect green barley, of the same kind as our
European, nay, as our English barley.
It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of my thoughts
on this occasion. I had hitherto acted upon no religious foundation at all:
indeed, I had very few notions of religion in my head, nor had entertained
any sense of any things that had befallen me, otherwise than as chance, or,
as we lightly say, what pleases God: without so much as inquiring into the
end of Providence in these things, or his order in governing events in the
world. But after I saw barley grow there, in a climate which I knew was
not proper for corn, and especially as I knew not how it came there, it
startled me strangely; and I began to suggest, that God had miraculously
caused this grain to grow without any help of seed sown, and that it was so
directed purely for my sustenance, on that wild miserable place.
This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my eyes; and I
began to bless myself that such a prodigy of nature should happen upon
my account: and this was the more strange to me, because I saw near it
still, all along by the side of the rock, some other straggling stalks, which
proved to be stalks of rice, and which I knew, because I had seen it grow
in Africa, when I was ashore there.
I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence for my sup-
port, but, not doubting that there was more in the place, I went over all
that part of the island where I had been before, searching in every corner,
and under every rock, for more of it; but I could not find any. At last
it occurred to my thoughts, that I had shook out a bag of chicken's-meat
in that place, and then the wonder began to cease; and I must confess, my
religious thankfulness to God's providence began to abate too, upon the
discovering that all this was nothing but what was common; though I ought
to have been as thankful for so strange and unforeseen a providence, as if it
had been miraculous; for it was really the work of Providence, as to me,
that should order or appoint that ten or twelve grains of corn should re-
main unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed all the rest, as if it had been
dropped from heaven; as also, that I should throw it out in that particular
place, where, it being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang up immediately;
whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere else, at that time, it would have been
burned up and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in their season,
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which was about the end of June; and, laying up every corn, I resolved to
sow them all again; hoping, in time, to have some quantity sufficient to
supply me with bread. But it was not till the fourth year that I could
allow myself the least grain of corn to eat, and even then but sparingly, as
I shall show afterwards in its order; for I lost all that I sowed the first
season, by not observing the proper time; as I sowed just before the dry
season, so that it never came up at all, at least not as it would have done:
of which in its place.
Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks of rice,
which I preserved with the same care; and whose use was of the same kind,
or to the same purpose, viz., to make me bread, or rather food; for I found
ways to cook it up without baking, though I did that also after some time.
-But to return to my Journal.
I worked excessively hard these three or four months, to get my wall
done; and the 14th of April I closed it up; contriving to get into it, not by
a door, but over the wall, by a ladder, that there might be no sign of my
habitation.
APRIL 16. I finished the ladder; so I went up with the ladder to the
top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it down in the inside: this was a
complete enclosure to me; for within I had room enough, and nothing could
come at me from without, unless it could first mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost all my
labour overthrown at once, and myself killed; the case was thus:-As I
was busy in the inside of it behind my tent, just at the entrance into nm
cave, I was terribly frightened with a most dreadful surprising thing in-
deed; for, all on a sudden, I found the earth come crumbling down from
the roof of my cave, and from the edge of the hill over my head, and two
of the posts I had set up in the cave cracked in a frightful manner. I was
heartily scared; but thought nothing of what really was the cause, only
thinking that the top of my cave was falling in, as some of it had done
before; and for fear I should be buried in it, I ran forward to my ladder,
and not thinking myself safe there neither, I got over my wall for fear of
the pieces of the hill which I expected might roll down upon me. I had
no sooner stepped down upon the firm ground, than I plainly saw it was a
terrible earthquake: for the ground I stood on shook three times at about
eight minutes' distance, with three such shocks as would have overturned
the strongest building that could be supposed to have stood on the earth;
and a great piece of the top of a rock, which stood about a half a mile from
me, next the sea, fell down with such a terrible noise as I never heard in all
my life. I perceived also that the very sea was put into a violent motion
58







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by it: and I believe the shocks were stronger under the water than on the
island.
I was so much amazed with the thing itself (having never felt the like,
nor disciursed with any one that had) that I was like one dead or stupefied;
and the motion of the earth made my stomach sick, like one that was tossed
at sea: hibt the noise of the falling of the rock awaked me, as it were; and
rousing rre from the stupefied condition I was in, filled me with horror,
and I thought of nothing but the hill falling upon my tent and my house-
hold goods, and burying all at once; this sunk my very soul within me
a second time.
Aftcr !te third shock was over, and I felt no more for some time, I began
to take cr'rage; vet I had not heart enough to go over my wall again, for
fc:tr of berng buried alive; but sat still upon the ground greatly cast down,
and c disc-clate, not knowing what to do. All this while I had not the
least scrio.Ks religious thought; nothing but the common Lord, have mcrcy
lu!io i,( : nd when it was over that went away too.
\Whik- s;: thus, I found the air overcast, and grow cloudy, as if it would
rain: :i; soon after the wind rose by a little and little, so that in less than
half an ha.r. it blew a most dreadful hurricane: the sea was, all on a sudden,
covered vw-i' foam and froth: the shore was covered with a breach of the
water: the trees were torn up by the roots: and a terrible storm it was.
This hI!d about three hours, and then began to abate; and in two hours
more it was. quite calm, and began to rain very hard. All this while I sat
upon the ground, very much terrified and dejected: when, on a sudden, it
came i'.to 'n: thoughts that these winds and rain being the consequence of
the earthqai;ke, the earthquake itself was spent and over, and I might
venture into my cave again. With this thought my spirits began to revive;
and the rain also helping to persuade me, I went in, and sat down in my
tent: but the rain was so violent, that my tent was ready to be beaten down
with it; and I was forced to get into my cave, though very much afraid and
uneasy, for fear it should fall on my head. This violent rain forced me to
a new work. viz.. to cut a hole through my new fortification, like a sink, to
let the water go out, which would else have drowned my cave. After I had
been in my cave for some time, and found no more shocks of the earthquake
follow, I began to be more composed. And now, to support my spirits,
which indeed wanted it very much, I went to my little store, and took a
small cup of rum; which, however, I did then, and always, very sparingly,
knowing I could have no more when that was gone. It continued raining
all that night and great part of the next day, so that I could not stir abroad:
but my mind being more composed, I began to think of what I had best do;







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concluding, that if the island was subject to these earthquakes, there would
be no living for me in a cave, but I must consider of building me some little
hut in an open place, which I might surround with a wall, as I had done
here, and so make myself secure from wild beasts or men: for if I stayed
where I was, I should certainly, one time or other, be buried alive.
With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent from the place where
it now stood, being just under the hanging precipice of the hill, and which,
if it should be shaken again, would certainly fall upon my tent. I spent
the two next days, being the 19th and 20th of April, in contriving where and
how to remove my habitation. The fear of being swallowed alive affected
me so, that I never slept in quiet; and yet the apprehension of lying abroad,
without any fence, was almost equal to it: but still, when I looked about,
and saw how everything was put in order, how pleasantly I was concealed,
and how safe from danger, it made me very loath to remove. In the mean
time, it occurred to me that it would require a vast deal of time for me to
do this; and that I must be contented to run the risk where I was, till I had
formed a convenient camp, and secured it so as to remove to it. With this
conclusion I composed myself for a time; and resolved that I would go to
work with all speed to build me a wall with piles and cables, etc., in a circle
as before, and set up my tent in it when it was finished; but that I would
venture to stay where I was till it was ready, and fit to remove to. This was
the 21st.
APRIL 22. The next morning I began to consider of means to put this
measure into execution; but I was at a great loss about the tools. I had
three large axes, and abundance of hatchets (for we carried the hatchets
for traffic with the Indians); but with much chopping and cutting knotty
hard wood, they were all full of notches, and dull: and though I had a grind-
stone, I could not turn it and grind my tools too. This caused me as much
thought as a statesman would have bestowed upon a grand point of poli-
tics, or a judge upon the life and death of a man. At length I contrived a
wheel with a string, to turn it with my foot, that I might have both my
hands at liberty.
NOTE. I had never seen any such thing in England, or at least not to
take notice how it was done, though since I have observed it is very com-
mon there: besides that, my grindstone was very large and heavy. This
machine cost me a full week's work to bring it to perfection.
APRIL 28, 29. These two whole days I took up in grinding my tools,
my machine for turning my grindstone performing very well.
APRIL 30. Having perceived that my bread had been low a great while,
60








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I now took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one biscuit-cake a day,
which made my heart very heavy.





MAY 1. In the morning, looking towards the seaside, the tide be-
ing low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary, and
it looked like a cask: when I came to it, I found a small barrel,
and two or three pieces of the wreck of the ship, which were driven on shore
by the late hurricane; and looking towards the wreck itself, I thought it
seemed to lie higher out of the water than it used to do. I examined the
barrel that was driven on shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gun-
powder; but it had taken water, and the powder was caked as hard as a
stone: however, I rolled it farther on the shore for the present, and went
on upon the sands, as near as I could to the wreck of the ship, to look for
more.
When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely removed. The fore-
castle, which lay before buried in the sand, was heaved up at least six feet;
and the stern (which was broke to pieces, and parted from the rest, by the
force of the sea, soon after I had left rummaging of her) was tossed, as
it were, up, and cast on one side: and the sand was thrown so high on that
side next her stern, that I could now walk quite up to her when the tide was
out; whereas there was a great piece of water before, so that I could not
come within a quarter of a mile of the wreck without swimming. I was
surprised with this at first, but soon concluded it must be done by the earth-
quake; and as by this violence the ship was more broken open than
formerly, so many things came daily on shore, which the sea had loosened,
and which the winds and water rolled by degrees to the land.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing my
habitation; and I busied myself mightily, that day especially, in searching
whether I could make any way into the ship: but I found nothing was to
be expected of that kind, for all the inside of the ship was choked up with
sand. However, as I had learned not to despair of anything, I resolved
to pull everything to pieces that I could out of the ship, concluding that
everything I could get from her would be of some use or other to me.
MAY 3. I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam through,
which I thought held some of the upper part or quarter-deck together;







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and when I had cut it through, I cleared away the sand as well as I could
from the side which lay highest; but the tide coming in, I was obliged to
give over for that time.
MAY 4. I went a fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst eat of,
till I was weary of my sport; when, just going to leave off, I caught a young
dolphin. I had made me a long line of some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks;
yet I frequently caught fish enough, as much as I cared to eat; all which
I dried in the sun, and ate them dry.
MAY 5. Worked on the wreck: cut another beam asunder, and brought
three great fir planks off from the decks, which I tied together, and made
swim on shore when the tide of flood came on.
MAY 6. Worked on the wreck: got several iron bolts out of her, and
other pieces of iron work: worked very hard, and came home very much
tired, and had thoughts of giving it over.
MAY 7. Went to the wreck again, but not with an intent of work; but
found the weight of the wreck had broke itself down, the beams being cut;
that several pieces of the ship seemed to lie loose; and the inside of the
hold lay so open that I could see into it; but almost full of water and sand.
MAY 8. Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow, to wrench up the
deck, which lay now quite clear of the water and sand. I wrenched up two
planks, and brought them on shore also with the tide. I left the iron
crow in the wreck for next day.
MAY 9. Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way into the body
of the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened them with the crow, but
could not break them up. I felt also a roll of English lead, and could stir it;
but it was too heavy to remove.
MAY 10 to 14. Went every day to the wreck, and got a great many
pieces of timber, and boards, or plank, and two or three hundred weight of
iron.
MAY 15. I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a piece off
the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet, and driving it with the
other; but as it lay about a foot and a half in the water, I could not make
any blow to drive the hatchet.
MAY 16. It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck appeared more
broken by the force of the water; but I stayed so long in the woods, to get
pigeons for food, that the tide prevented me going to the wreck that day.
MAY 17. I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore, at a great
distance, two miles off me, but resolved to see what they were, and found it
was a piece of the head, but too heavy for me to bring away.
MAY 24. Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck; and with hard
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labour I loosened some things so much, with the crow, that the first blow-
ing tide several casks floated out, and two of the seamen's chests: but the
wind blowing from the shore, nothing came to land that day but pieces of
timber, and a hogshead, which had some Brazil pork in it; but the salt wa-
ter and the sand had spoiled it. I continued this work every day to the
15th of June, except the time necessary to get food; which I always ap-
pointed, during this part of my employment, to be when the tide was up,
that I might be ready when it was ebbed out; and by this time I had gotten
timber, and plank, and iron work, enough to have built a good boat, if I
had known how: and I also got, at several times, and in several places, near
one hundred weight of the sheet-lead.
JUNE 16. Going down to the seaside, I found a large tortoise, or turtle.
This was the first I had seen; which, it seems, was only my misfortune,
not any defect of the place, or scarcity; for had I happened to be on the
other side of the island, I might have had hundreds of them every day, as
I found afterwards; but perhaps had paid dear enough for them.
JUNE 17. I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her three-score eggs:
and her flesh was to me, at that time, the most savoury and pleasant that
I ever tasted in my life: having had no flesh, but of goats and fowls, since
I landed in this horrid place.
JUNE 18. Rained all that day, and I stayed within. I thought, at this
time, the rain felt cold, and I was somewhat chilly; which I knew was not
unusual in that latitude.
JUNE 19. Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been cold.
JUNE 20. No rest all night; violent pains in my head, and feverish.
JUNE 21. Very ill; frightened almost to death with the apprehensions
of my sad condition, to be sick, and no help: prayed to God, for the first
time since the storm off Hull; but scarce knew what I said, or why, my
thoughts being all confused.
JUNE 22. A little better: but under dreadful apprehensions of sickness.
JUNE 23. Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a violent head-
ache.
JUNE 24. Much better.
JUNE 25. An ague very violent: the fit held me seven hours; cold fit,
and hot, with faint sweats after it.
JUNE 26. Better; and having no victuals to eat, took my gun, but found
myself very weak: however, I killed a she-goat, and with much difficulty
got it home, and broiled some of it, and ate. I would fain have stewed it,
and made some broth, but had no pot.
JUNE 27. The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all day, and neither
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ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for thirst; but so weak, I had not
strength to stand up, or to get myself any water to drink. Prayed to God
again, but was light-headed; and when I was not, I was so ignorant that
I knew not what to say: only lay and cried, Lord, look upon me! Lord, pity
mel Lord, have mercy upon mel I suppose I did nothing else for two or
three hours; till the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and did not wake till far in
the night. When I awoke, I found myself much refreshed, but weak, and
exceeding thirsty: however, as I had no water in my whole habitation, J
was forced to lie till morning, and went to sleep again. In this second sleep
I had this terrible dream: I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on the
outside of my wall, where I sat when the storm blew after the earthquake,
and that I saw a man descend from a great black cloud, in a bright flame of
fire, and light upon the ground: he was all over as bright as a flame, so that
I could but just bear to look towards him: his countenance was inexpres-
sibly dreadful, impossible for words to describe: when he stepped upon the
ground with his feet, I thought the earth trembled, just as it had done be-
fore in the earthquake; and all the air looked, to my apprehension, as if it
had been filled with flashes of fire. He had no sooner landed upon the
earth, but he moved forward towards me, with a long spear or weapon in his
hand, to kill me; and when he came to a rising ground, at some distance,
he spoke to me, or I heard a voice so terrible that it is impossible to express
the terror of it; all that I can say I understood, was this! Seeing all these
things have not brought thee to repentance, now thou shalt die; at which
words, he lifted up the spear that was in his hand, to kill me.
No one that shall ever read this account, will expect that I should be able
to describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible vision; I mean, that even
while it was a dream, I even dreamed of those horrors; nor is it any more
possible to describe tle impression that remained upon my mind when I
awaked, and found it was but a dream.
I had, alas! no divine knowledge: what I had received by the good in-
struction of my father was then worn out, by an uninterrupted series, for
eight years, of seafaring wickedness, and a constant conversation with none
but such as were, like myself, wicked and profane to the last degree. I do
not remember that I had, in all that time, one thought that so much as
tended either to looking upward towards God, or inward towards a reflec-
tion upon my own ways; but a certain stupidity of soul, without desire
of good, or consciousness of evil, had entirely overwhelmed me; and I was
all that the most hardened, unthinking, wicked creature, among our com-
mon sailors, can be supposed to be; not having the least sense, either of the
fear of God, in danger, or of thankfulness to him, in deliverances.
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In the relating what is already part of my story, this will be the more
easily believed, when I shall add, that through all the variety of miseries that
had to this day befallen me, I never had so much as one thought of its be-
ing the hand of God, or that it was a just punishment for my sin; either my
rebellious behaviour against my father, or my present sins, which were
great; or even as punishment for the general course of my wicked life.
When I was on the desperate expedition on the desert shores of Africa, I
never had so much as one thought of what would become of me; or one wish
to God to direct me, whither I should go, or to keep me from the danger
which apparently surrounded me, as well from voracious creatures as cruel
savages: but I was quite thoughtless of a God or a Providence; acted like a
mere brute, from the principles of nature, and by the dictates of common
sense only; and indeed hardly that. When I was delivered and taken up
at sea by the Portuguese captain, well used, and dealt with justly, and hon-
ourably, as well as charitably, I had not the least thankfulness in my
thoughts. When, again, I was shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of
drowning, on this island, I was as far from remorse, or looking on it as a
judgment; I only said to myself often, that I was an unfortunate dog, and
born to be always miserable.
It is true, when I first got on shore here, and found all my ship's crew
drowned, and myself spared, I was surprised with a kind of ecstasy, and
some transports of soul, which, had the grace of God assisted, might have
come up to true thankfulness: but it ended where it began, in a mere com-
mon flight of joy: or, as I may say, being glad I was alive, without the least
reflection upon the distinguished goodness of the hand which had preserved
me, and had singled me out to be preserved when all the rest were de-
stroyed, or any inquiry why Providence had been thus merciful to me: just
the same common sort of joy which seamen generally have, after they are
got safe ashore from a shipwreck; which they drown all in the next bowl
of punch, and forget almost as soon as it is over: and all the rest of my
life was like it. Even when I was, afterwards, on due consideration, made
sensible of my condition,-how I was cast on this dreadful place, out of the
reach of human kind, out of all hope of relief, or prospect of redemption,-
as soon as I saw but a prospect of living, and that I should not starve and
perish for hunger, all the sense of my affliction wore off, and I began to be
very easy, applied myself to the works proper for my preservation and sup-
ply, and was far enough from being afflicted at my condition, as a judgment
from Heaven or as the hand of God against me; these were thoughts which
very seldom entered into my head.
The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my Journal, had, at first, some
65







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little influence upon me, and began to affect me with seriousness, as long
as I thought it had something miraculous in it; but as soon as that part of
the thought was removed, all the impression which was raised from it wore
off also, as I have noted already. Even the earthquake, though nothing
could be more terrible in its nature, or more immediately directing to the
invisible Power which alone directs such things, yet no sooner was the
fright over, but the impression it had made went off also. I had no more
sense of God, or his judgments, much less of the present affliction of my
circumstances being from his hand, than if I had been in the most prosperous
condition of life. But now, when I began to be sick, and a leisure view of
the miseries of death came to place itself before me; when my spirits began
to sink under the burden of a strong distemper, and nature was exhausted
with the violence of the fever; conscience, that had slept so long, began to
awake; and I reproached myself with my past life, in which I had so evi-
dently, by uncommon wickedness, provoked the justice of God to lay me
under uncommon strokes, and to deal with me in so vindictive a manner.
These reflections oppressed me for the second or third day of my distemper;
and, in the violence as well of the fever as of the dreadful reproaches of my
conscience, extorted from me some words like praying to God: though I
cannot say it was a prayer attended either with desires or with hopes; it
was rather the voice of mere fright and distress. My thoughts were con-
fused; the convictions great upon my mind; and the horror of dying in
such a miserable condition, raised vapours in my head with the mere ap-
prehension: and, in these hurries of my soul, I knew not what my tongue
might express; but it was rather exclamation, such as, Lord, what a mis-
erable creature am II If I should be sick, I shall certainly die for want
of help; and what will become of me? Then the tears burst out of my
eyes, and I could say no more for a good while. In this interval, the good
advice of my father came to my mind, and presently his prediction, which
I mentioned at the beginning of this story, viz., that if I did take this foolish
step, God would not bless me; and I should have leisure hereafter to reflect
upon having neglected his counsel, when there might be none to assist in
my recovery. Now, said I, aloud, my dear father's words are come to pass:
God's justice has overtaken me, and I have none to help or hear me. I re-
jected the voice of Providence, which had mercifully put me in a station of
life wherein I might have been happy and easy; but I would neither see it
myself, nor learn from my parents to know the blessing of it. I left them
to mourn over my folly; and now I am left to mourn under the consequences
of it: I refused their help and assistance, who would have pushed me in the
world, and would have made everything easy to me; and now I have dif-






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ficulties to struggle with, too great for even nature itself to support; and no
assistance, no comfort, no advice. Then I cried out, Lord, be my help, for
I am in great distress. This was the first prayer, if I may call it so, that I
had made for many years. But I return to my Journal.





JUNE 28. Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I had had,
and the fit being entirely off, I got up; and though the fright and terror
of my dream was very great, yet I considered that the fit of the ague
would return again the next day, and now was my time to get something
to refresh and support myself when I should be ill. The first thing I did
was to fill a large square case-bottle with water, and set it upon my table,
in reach of my bed: and to take off the chill or aguish disposition of the
water, I put about a quarter of a pint of rum into it, and mixed them to-
gether. Then I got me a piece of the goat's flesh, and broiled it on the coals,
but could eat very little. I walked about; but was very weak, and withal
very sad and heavy-hearted in the sense of my miserable condition, dread-
ing the return of my distemper the next day. At night, I made my supper
of three of the turtle's eggs, which I roasted in the ashes, and ate, as we
call it, in the shell: and this was the first bit of meat I had ever asked
God's blessing to, as I could remember, in my whole life. After I had
eaten, I tried to walk; but found myself so weak, that I could hardly carry
the gun (for I never went out without that); so I went but a little way,
and sat down upon the ground, looking out upon the sea, which was just
before me, and very calm and smooth. As I sat here, some such thoughts
as these occurred to me: What is this earth and sea, of which I have seen
so much? Whence is it produced? And what am I, and all the other
creatures, wild and tame, human and brutal? Whence are we? Surely,
we are all made by some secret power, who formed the earth and sea, the
air and sky. And who is that? Then it followed most naturally, It is
God that has made all. Well, but then, it came on, if God has made all
these things, he guides and governs them all, and all things that concern
them; for the power that could make all things, must certainly have power
to guide and direct them: if so, nothing can happen in the great circuit of
his works, either without his knowledge or appointment.
And if nothing happens without his knowledge, he knows that I am here,
and am in this dreadful condition: and if nothing happens without his ap-







Robinson Crusoe


pointment, he has appointed all this to befall me. Nothing occurred to my
thought, to contradict any of these conclusions; and therefore it rested upon
me with the greatest force, that it must needs be that God had appointed all
this to befall me; that I was brought to this miserable circumstance by his
direction, he having the sole power, not of me only, but of everything that
happens in the world. Immediately it followed, Why has God done this
to me? What have I done to be thus used? My conscience presently
checked me in that inquiry, as if I had blasphemed: and methought it spoke
to me like a voice Wretch, dost thou ask what thou hast done? Look
back upon a dreadful misspent life, and ask thyself what thou hast not
done? Ask, why is it that thou wert not long ago destroyed? Why wert
thou not drowned in Yarmouth Roads; killed in the fight when the ship
was taken by the Sallee man-of-war; devoured by the wild beasts on the
coast of Africa; or drowned here, when all the crew perished but thyself?
Dost thou ask what thou hast done? I was struck dumb with these re-
flections, as one astonished, and had not a word to say; no, not to answer
to myself; and, rising up pensive and sad, walked back to my retreat, and
went over my wall, as if I had been going to bed: but my thoughts were
sadly disturbed, and I had no inclination to sleep; so I sat down in the
chair, and lighted my lamp, for it began to be dark. Now, as the appre-
hension of the return of my distemper terrified me very much, it occurred
to my thought, that the Brazilians take no physic but their tobacco for al-
most all distempers; and I had a piece of a roll of tobacco in one of the
chests, which was quite cured; and some also that was green, and not quite
cured.
I went, directed by Heaven, no doubt; for in this chest I found a cure
both for soul and body. I opened the chest, and found what I looked for,
viz., the tobacco; and as the few books I had saved lay there too, I took out
one of the Bibles which I mentioned before, and which, to this time, I had
not found leisure or so much as inclination, to look into. I say, I took it
out, and brought both that and the tobacco with me to the table. What
use to make of the tobacco I knew not, as to my distemper, nor whether it
was good for it or not; but I tried several experiments with it, as if I was
resolved it should hit one way or other. I first took a piece of the leaf, and
chewed it in my mouth; which, indeed, at first, almost stupefied my brain;
the tobacco being green and strong, and such as I had not been much used
to. Then I took some and steeped it an hour or two in some rum, and re-
solved to take a dose of it when I lay down: and lastly, I burnt some upon a
pan of coals, and held my nose close over the smoke of it as long as I could
bear it; as well for the heat, as almost for suffocation. In the interval of
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this operation, I took up the Bible, and began to read; but my head was
too much disturbed by the tobacco to bear reading, at least at that time;
only, having opened the book casually, the first words that occurred to me
were these: "Call on me in the day of trouble, and I will deliver thee, and
thou shalt glorify me." These words were very apt to my case: and made
some impression upon my thoughts at the time of reading them, though
not so much as they did afterwards; for, as for being delivered, the word
had no sound, as I may say, to me; the thing was so remote, so impossible
in my apprehension of things, that, as the children of Israel said when they
were promised flesh to eat, "Can God spread a table in the wilderness?"
so I began to say, Can even God himself deliver me from this place? And
as it was not for many years that any hopes appeared, this prevailed very
often upon my thoughts: but, however, the words made a great impression
upon me, and I mused upon them very often. It now grew late: and the
tobacco had, as I said, dozed my head so much, that I inclined to sleep: so
I left my lamp burning in the cave, lest I should want anything in the night,
and went to bed. But before I lay down, I did what I never had done in all
my life; I kneeled down, and prayed to God to fulfil the promise to me,
that if I called upon him in the day of trouble, he would deliver me. After
my broken and imperfect prayer was over, I drank the rum in which I had
steeped the tobacco; which was so strong and rank of the tobacco, that in-
deed I could scarce get it down; immediately upon this I went to bed. I
found presently the rum flew up into my head violently; but I fell into a
sound sleep, and waked no more till, by the sun, it must necessarily be near
three o'clock in the afternoon the next day; nay, to this hour, I am partly
of opinion, that I slept all the next day and night, and till almost three the
day after; for otherwise, I know not how I should lose a day out of my
reckoning in the days of the week, as it appeared some years after I had
done; for if I had lost it by crossing and recrossing the Line, I should have
lost more than one day; but certainly I lost a day in my account, and never
knew which way. Be that, however, one way or the other, when I awaked
I found myself exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively and cheerful:
when I got up I was stronger than I was the day before, and my stomach
better, for I was hungry: and, in short, I had no fit the next day, but con-
tinued much altered for the better. This was the 29th.
The 30th was my well day, of course; and I went abroad with my gun,
but did not care to travel too far. I killed a sea-fowl or two, something
like a brand goose, and brought them home; but was not very forward to
eat them; so I ate some more of the turtle's eggs, which were very good.
This evening I renewed the medicine, which I had supposed did me good
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the day before, viz., the tobacco steeped in rum; only I did not take so much
as before, nor did I chew any of the leaf, or hold my head over the smoke;
however, I was not so well the next day, which was the 1st of July, as I
hoped I should have been; for I had a little of the cold fit, but it was not
much.
JULY 2. I renewed the medicine all the three ways; and dosed myself
with it as at first, and doubled the quantity which I drank.
JULY 3. I missed the fit for good and all, though I did not recover my
full strength for some weeks after. While I was thus gathering strength,
my thoughts ran exceedingly upon this scripture, "I will deliver thee;" and
the impossibility of my deliverance lay much upon my mind, in bar of my
ever expecting it: but as I was discouraging myself with such thoughts, it
occurred to my mind that I pored so much upon my deliverance from the
main affliction, that I disregarded the deliverance I had received; and I
was, as it were, made to ask myself such questions as these, viz., Have I not
been delivered, and wonderfully, too, from sickness; from the most dis-
tressed condition that could be and that was so frightful to me? and what
notice have I taken of it? Have I done my part? God has delivered me,
but I have not glorified him; that is to say, I have not owned and been
thankful for that as a deliverance: and how can I expect a greater deliv-
erance? This touched my heart very much; and immediately I knelt down
and gave God thanks aloud for my recovery from my sickness.
JULY 4. In the morning I took the Bible: and beginning at the New
Testament, I began seriously to read it; and imposed upon myself to read
a while every morning and every night; not binding myself to the number of
chapters, but as long as my thoughts should engage me. It was not long
after I set seriously to this work, that I found my heart more deeply and
sincerely affected with the wickedness of my past life. The impression of
my dream revived; and the words, All these things have not brought thee
to repentance, ran seriously in my thoughts. I was earnestly begging of
God to give me repentance, when it happened providentially, the very same
day, that, reading the scripture, I came to these words, "He is exalted a
Prince and a Saviour; to give repentance and to give remission." I threw
down the book; and with my heart as well as my hands lifted up to Heaven,
in a kind of ecstasy of joy, I cried out aloud, Jesus, thou son of David!
Jesus, thou exalted Prince and Saviour! give me repentance This was
the first time in all my life I could say, in the true sense of the words,
that I prayed; for now I prayed with a sense of my condition, and with a
true scripture view of hope, founded on the encouragement of the word of
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God: and from this time, I may say, I began to have hope that God would
hear me.
Now I began to construe the words mentioned above, "Call on me, and
I will deliver thee," in a different sense from what I had ever done before;
for then I had no notion of anything being called deliverance, but my being
delivered from the captivity I was in; for though I was indeed at large
in the place, yet the island was certainly a prison to me, and that in the
worst sense in the world. But now I learned to take it in another sense;
now I looked back upon my past life with such horror, and my sins ap-
peared so dreadful, that my soul sought nothing of God but deliverance
from the load of guilt that bore down all my comfort. As for my solitary
life, it was nothing; I did not so much as pray to be delivered from it, or
think of it; it was all of no consideration, in comparison with this. And I
add this part here, to hint to whoever shall read it, that whenever they
come to a true sense of things, they will find deliverance from sin a much
greater blessing than deliverance from affliction.
My 'condition began now to be, though not less miserable as to my way
of living, yet much easier to my mind: and my thoughts being directed, by
constantly reading the scripture and praying to God, to things of a higher
nature, I had a great deal of comfort within, which, till now, I knew
nothing of; also, as my health and strength returned, I bestirred me to
furnish myself with everything that I wanted, and make my way of liv-
ing as regular as I could.
From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employed in walking
about with my gun in my hand, a little and a little at a time, as a man that
was gathering up his strength after a fit of sickness; for it is hardly to be
imagined how low I was, and to what weakness I was reduced. The ap-
plication which I made use of was perfectly new, and perhaps what had
never cured an ague before: neither can I recommend it to any one to
practise, by this experiment; and though it did carry off the fit, yet it rather
contributed to weakening me; for I had frequent convulsions in my nerves
and limbs for some time: I learned from it also this, in particular: that
being abroad in the rainy season was the most pernicious thing to my health
that could be, especially in those rains which came attended with storms
and hurricanes of wind; for as the rain which came in the dry season was
almost always accompanied with such storms, so I found that this rain was
much more dangerous than the rain which fell in September and October.
I had now been in this unhappy island above ten months: all possibility
of deliverance from this condition seemed to be entirely taken from me;







Robinson Crusoe


and I firmly believed that no human shape had ever set foot upon that
place. Having secured my habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind, I
had a great desire to make a more perfect discovery of the island, and to
see what other productions I might find, which I yet knew nothing of.
It was on the 15th of July that I began to take a more particular survey
of the island itself. I went up the creek first, where, as I hinted, I brought
my rafts on shore. I found, after I came about two miles up, that the
tide did not flow any higher; and that it was no more than a little brook
of running water, very fresh and good: but this being the dry season, there
was hardly any water in some parts of it; at least, not any stream. On the
banks of this brook I found many pleasant savannahs or meadows, plain,
smooth, and covered with grass; and on the rising parts of them, next to
the higher grounds (where the water, as it might be supposed, never over-
flowed), I found a great deal of tobacco, green, and growing to a very great
and strong stalk: and there were divers other plants, which I had no knowl-
edge of, or understanding about, and that might, perhaps, have virtues of
their own, which I could not find out. I searched for the cassava root,
which the Indians, in all that climate, make their bread of; but I could
find none. I saw large plants of aloes, but did not understand them. I
saw several sugar-canes, but wild; and, for want of cultivation, imperfect.
I contented myself with these discoveries for this time; and came back,
musing with myself what course I might take to know the virtue and good-
ness of any of the fruits or plants which I should discover; but could bring
it to no conclusion; for, in short, I had made so little observation while I
was in the Brazils, that I knew little of the plants in the field; at least, very
little that might serve me to any purpose now in my distress.
The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again; and after going
something farther than I had gone the day before, I found the brook and
the savannahs begin to cease and the country became more woody than
before. In this part I found different fruits; and particularly I found
melons upon the ground in great abundance, and grapes upon the trees;
the vines, indeed, had spread over the trees, and the clusters of grapes
were now just in their prime, very ripe and rich. This was a surprising
discovery, and I was exceedingly glad of them, but I was warned by my
experience to eat sparingly of them; remembering that when I was ashore
in Barbary, the eating of grapes killed several of our Englishmen, who
were slaves there, by throwing them into fluxes and fevers. I found, how-
ever, an excellent use for these grapes; and that was to cure or dry them
in the sun, and keep them as dried grapes or raisins are kept; which I
thought would be (as indeed they were) as wholesome and as agreeable to
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eat, when no grapes were to be had.
I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habitation;
which, by the way, was the first night, as I might say, I had lain from home.
At night, I took my first contrivance, and got up into a tree, where I slept
well; and the next morning proceeded on my discovery, travelling near
four miles, as I might judge by the length of the valley; keeping still due
north, with a ridge of hills on the south and north sides of me. At the
end of this march I came to an opening, where the country seemed to de-
scend to the west; and a little spring of fresh water, which issued out at
the side of the hill by me, ran the other way, that is, due east; and the
country appeared so fresh, so green, so flourishing, everything being in a
constant verdure, or flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted garden.
I descended a little on the side of that delicious vale, surveying it with a
secret kind of pleasure (though mixed with other afflicting thoughts), to
think that this was all my own; that I was king and lord of all this country
indefeasibly, and had a right of possession; and, if I could convey it, I
might have it in inheritance as completely as any lord of a manor in Eng-
land. I saw here abundance of cocoa-trees, and orange, lemon, and citron
trees, but all wild, and very few bearing any fruit; at least not then. How-
ever, the green limes that I gathered were not only pleasant to eat, but
very wholesome; and I mixed their juice afterwards with water, which
made it very wholesome, and very cool and refreshing. I found now I had
business enough, to gather and carry home; and I resolved to lay up a
store, as well of grapes as limes and lemons, to furnish myself for the wet
season, which I knew was approaching. In order to this, I gathered a
great heap of grapes in one place, a lesser heap in another place; and a great
parcel of limes and lemons in another place; and taking a few of each with
me, I travelled homeward; and resolved to come again, and bring a bag
or sack, or what I could make, to carry the rest home. Accordingly, hav-
ing spent three days in this journey, I came home (so I must now call my
tent and my cave): but before I got thither, the grapes were spoiled; the
richness of the fruits, and the weight of the juice, having broken and bruised
them, they were good for little or nothing: as to the limes, they were good,
but I could bring only a few.
The next day being the 19th, I went back, having made me two small
bags to bring home my harvest; but I was surprised, when coming to my
heap of grapes, which were so rich and fine when I gathered them, I found
them all spread about, trod to pieces, and dragged about, some here, some
there, and abundance eaten and devoured. By this I concluded there
were some wild creatures thereabouts which had done this, but what they
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were I knew not. However, as I found there was no laying them up in
heaps, and no carrying them away in a sack; but that one way they would
be destroyed, and the other way they would be crushed with their own
weight; I took another course. I then gathered a large quantity of the
grapes, and hung them upon the out-branches of the trees, that they might
cure and dry in the sun; and as for the limes and lemons, I carried as many
back as I could well stand under.
When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with great pleasure
the fruitfulness of that valley, and the pleasantness of the situation; the
security from storms on that side; the water and the wood; and concluded
that I had pitched upon a place to fix my abode in, which was by far the
worst part of the country. Upon the whole, I began to consider of remov-
ing my habitation, and to look out for a place equally safe as where I was
now situate; if possible, in that pleasant fruitful part of the island.
This thought ran long in my head; and I was exceeding fond of it for
some time, the pleasantness of the place tempting me; but when I came
to a nearer view of it, I considered that I was now by the seaside, where
it was at least possible that something might happen to my advantage, and,
by the same ill-fate that brought me hither, might bring some other un-
happy wretches to the same place; and though it was scarce probable that
any such thing should ever happen, yet to enclose myself among the hills
and woods in the centre of the island, was to anticipate my bondage, and
to render such an affair not only improbable, but impossible; and that
therefore I ought not by any means to remove. However, I was so enam-
oured of this place, that I spent much of my time there for the whole re-
maining part of the month of July; and though, upon second thoughts, I
resolved, as above stated, not to remove, yet I built me a little kind of a
bower, and surrounded it at a distance with a strong fence, being a double
hedge, as high as I could reach, well staked, and filled between with brush-
wood. Here I lay very secure sometimes two or three nights together:
always going over it with a ladder, as before; so that I fancied now I had
my country and my seacoast house. This work took me up till the be-
ginning of August.
I had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy my labour, when
the rains came on, and made me stick close to my first habitation: for
though I had made a tent like the other, with a piece of sail, and spread it
very well, yet I had not the shelter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a
cave behind me to retreat into when the rains were extraordinary.
About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my bower, and
began to enjoy myself. The 3d of August, I found the grapes I had hung
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up were perfectly dried, and indeed were excellent good raisins of the sun;
so I began to take them down from the trees; and it was very happy that I
did so, as the rains which followed would have spoiled them, and I should
have lost the best part of my winter food; for I had above two hundred
large bunches of them. No sooner had I taken them all down, and car-
ried most of them home to my cave, but it began to rain: and from hence,
which was the 14th of August, it rained, more or less, every day till the
middle of October: and sometimes so violently, that I could not stir out of
my cave for several days.
In this season, I was much surprised with the increase of my family. I
had been concerned for the loss of one of my cats, who ran away from me,
or, as I thought, had been dead; and I heard no more of her, till, to my
astonishment, she came home with three kittens. This was the more
strange to me, because, about the end of August, though I had killed a
wild cat, as I called it, with my gun, yet I thought it was quite a different
kind from our European cats: yet the young cats were the same kind of
house-breed as the old one; and both of my cats being females, I thought
it very strange. But from these three, I afterwards came to be so pestered
with cats that I was forced to kill them like vermin, or wild beasts, and to
drive them from my house as much as possible.
From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain; so that I could not
stir, and was now very careful not to be much wet. In this confinement,
I began to be straitened for food; but venturing out twice, I one day killed
a goat, and the last day, which was the 24th, found a very large tortoise,
which was a treat to me. My food was now regulated thus; I ate a bunch
of raisins for my breakfast; a piece of the goat's flesh, or of the turtle,
broiled, for my dinner (for, to my great misfortune, I had no vessel to boil
or stew anything); and two or three of the turtle's eggs for my supper.
During this confinement in my cover from the rain, I worked daily two
or three hours at enlarging my cave; and by degrees worked it on towards
one side, till I came to the outside of the hill; and made a door, or way
out, which came beyond my fence or wall; and so I came in and out this way.
But I was not perfectly easy at lying so open: for as I had managed
myself before, I was in a perfect enclosure; whereas now, I thought I lay
exposed; and yet I could not perceive that there was any living thing to
fear, the biggest creature that I had as yet seen upon the island being a goat.
SEPTEMBER 30. I was now come to the unhappy anniversary of my land-
ing; I cast up the notches on my post, and found I had been on shore three
hundred and sixty-five days. I kept this day as a solemn fast! setting
it apart for religious exercise, prostrating myself on the ground with the
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most serious humiliation, confessing my sins to God, acknowledging his
righteous judgments upon me, and praying to him to have mercy on me
through Jesus Christ; and having not tasted the least refreshment for
twelve hours, even till the going down of the sun, I then ate a biscuit and a
bunch of grapes, and went to bed, finishing the day as I began it. I had
all this time observed no sabbath-day; for as at first I had no sense of
religion upon my mind, I had, after some time, omitted to distinguish the
weeks, by making a longer notch than ordinary for the sabbath-day, and so
did not really know what any of the days were: but now having cast up the
days, as above, I found I had been there a year; so I divided it into weeks,
and set apart every seventh day for a sabbath; though I found, at the end
of my account, I had lost a day or two in my reckoning. A little after this,
my ink beginning to fail me, I contented myself to use it more sparingly;
and to write down only the most remarkable events of my life, without
continuing a daily memorandum of other things.
The rainy season and the dry season began now to appear regular to
me, and I learned to divide them so as to provide for them accordingly; but
I bought all my experience before I had it; and what I am going to relate,
was one of the most discouraging experiments that I had made at all.
I have mentioned that I had saved a few ears of barley, and rice, which I
had so surprisingly found sprung up, as I thought, of themselves. I be-
lieve there were about thirty stalks of rice, and about twenty of barley; and
now I thought it a proper time to sow it after the rains; the sun being in its
southern position, going from me. Accordingly I dug a piece of ground,
as well as I could, with my wooden spade; and dividing it into two parts, I
sowed my grain; but as I was sowing, it casually occurred to my thoughts
that I would not sow it all at first, because I did not know when was the
proper time for it; so I sowed about two-thirds of the seed, leaving about
a handful of each; and it was a great comfort for me afterwards that I did
so, for not one grain of what I sowed this time came to anything; for the
dry month following, and the earth having thus had no rain after the seed
was sown, it had no moisture to assist its growth, and never came up at all
till the wet season had come again, and then it grew as if it had been but
newly sown. Finding my first seed did not grow, which I easily imagined
was from the drought, I sought for a moister piece of ground to make an-
other trial in; and I dug up a piece of ground near my new bower, and
sowed the rest of my seed in February, a little before the vernal equinox.
This having the rainy months of March and April to water it, sprung up
very pleasantly, and yielded a very good crop; but having only part of
the seed left, and not daring to sow all that I had, I got but a small quantity
76




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