• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 List of Illustrations
 Robinson Crusoe






Group Title: Riverside bookshelf.
Title: The life and strange surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074474/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and strange surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Series Title: Riverside bookshelf
Alternate Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 435 p. : illus. ;
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Co.
Place of Publication: Boston
Publication Date: c1937
 Subjects
Genre: fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Illustrated by E. Boyd Smith.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074474
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001046577
oclc - 30571749
notis - AFC9545

Table of Contents
    Frontispiece
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    List of Illustrations
        List of Illustrations 1
        List of Illustrations 2
    Robinson Crusoe
        Page 1
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Full Text

































































ROBINSON CRUSOE RESCUES FRIDAY (page 292)


4 0-. J .







f R I RIVERSIDE BOOKSHELF

THE LIFE AND STRANGE
SURPRISING ADVENTURES
OF

ROBINSON

CRUSOE
BY DANIEL DEFOE
3 5- -3-7 3 x
ILLUSTRATED BY
E. BOYD SMITH


BOSTON AND NEW YORK
HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY
bte Lribemfue *3res CamidibBp





























COPYRIGHT, 1909, BY HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY
COPYRIGHT, 1937, BY E. BOYD SMITH

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED









































CAMBRIDGE MASSACHUSETTS
PRINTED IN THE U.S.A.












ILLUSTRATIONS


ROBINSON CRUSOE RESCUES FRIDAY (p. 292) Colored Frontispiece
MY FATHER GAVE ME EXCELLENT COUNSEL I
THE PUNCH WAS MADE AND 1 WAS MADE DRUNK 8
SURPRISED BY A TURKISH ROVER 23
IF YOU COME NEAR THE BOAT I 'LL SHOOT YOU (colored) 30
THE WIND DRIVING US TOWARD THE SHORE 46
STRUGGLING TO REACH THE SHORE (colored) 62
WITH THE CARGO I PUT TO SEA 67
I ENLARGED MY CAVE 84
DRIVING THESE POLES WAS TEDIOUS WORK 90
ALL MY GOODS IN SUCH ORDER (colored) 96
I BEGAN TO KEEP A JOURNAL 99
IT WAS A BARREL OF GUNPOWDER II8
I TOOK UP THE BIBLE AND BEGAN TO READ 130
So WEAK THAT I COULD HARDLY CARRY THE GUN (colored) 132
I FAIRLY DESCRIBED LAND 151
I FIRED AGAIN AND KILLED THREE OF THEM 158
I HAD SEED ENOUGH TO SOW ABOUT AN ACRE OF GROUND 170
BURNING THE EARTHEN POTS (colored) 174







ILLUSTRATIONS

FINDING IT IMPOSSIBLE TO HEAVE HER 178

ROBINSON CRUSOE, WHERE ARE YOU? 195

CARRIED BY THE CURRENT AWAY FROM THE ISLAND (colored) 200
MY DOG SAT ALWAYS AT MY RIGHT HAND 208

I CONTRIVED TO PLANT THE MUSKETS 221

THE PRINT OF A MAN'S NAKED FOOT ON THE SHORE (colored) 222

THE SHORE SPREAD WITH THE BONES OF HUMAN BODIES 234

I TOOK MY FIREBRAND AND IN I RUSHED 249

AS MY FIRE BLAZED UP I HEARD ANOTHER GUN 261

THERE WERE NO LESS THAN NINE NAKED SAVAGES (colored) 262
WHEN I CAME CLOSE TO HER A DOG APPEARED 271

ALMOST AS WELL CLOTHED AS HIS MASTER 289

I FIRED, AND BADE HIM LOOK 304

I WAS RESOLVED TO GO DOWN AND KILL THEM ALL 320

IN ABOUT A MONTH'S HARD LABOR WE FINISHED IT (colored) 328

HE TOLD ME THAT IT WAS HIS FATHER 337

LOOSING HIS HANDS AND FEET I LIFTED HIM (colored) 346

WE PERCEIVED THEM ALL COMING ON SHORE AGAIN 363

WHAT ARE YE, GENTLEMEN? (colored) 366

HE CLOTHED ME FROM HEAD TO FOOT 384

FRIDAY ACCOMPANIED ME IN ALL THESE RAMBLINGS 399

FRIDAY STEPPED UP CLOSE TO HIM AND SHOT HIM DEAD 418


















IWAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York,
of a good family, though not of that country,
my father being a foreigner of Bremen, named
Kreutznaer, who settled first at Hull. He got a
good estate by merchandise, and leaving off his
trade, lived afterwards at York, from whence he had
married my mother, whose relations were named
Robinson, a very good family in that country, and
after whom I was so called, that is to say, Robin-
son Kreutznaer; but, by the usual corruption of
words in England, we are now called, nay, we call
ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe; and so my
companions always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was
lieutenant-colonel to an English regiment of foot
in Flanders, formerly commanded by the famous
Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near
Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What became of
my second brother, I never knew, any more than
my father and mother did know what was become
of me.






THE ADVENTURES OF


Being the third son of the family, and not bred
to any trade, my head began to be filled very early
with rambling thoughts. My father, who was very
aged, had given me a competent share of learn-
ing, as far as house education and a country free
school generally go, and designed me for the law;
but I would be satisfied with nothing but going
to sea; and my inclination to this led me so strongly
against the will, nay, the commands of my father,
and against all the entreaties and persuasions of
my mother and other friends, that there seemed
to be something fatal in that propension of nature,
tending directly to the life of misery which was to
befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me se-
rious and excellent counsel against what he foresaw
was my design. He called me one morning into his
chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and
expostulated very warmly with me upon this sub-
ject: he asked me what reasons, more than a mere
wandering inclination, I had for leaving his house,
and my native country, where I might be well in-
troduced, and had a prospect of raising my fortune,
by application and industry, with a life of ease and
pleasure. He told me it was men of desperate for-
tunes, on one hand, or of superior fortunes, on the
other, who went abroad upon adventures, aspiring
to rise by enterprise, and make themselves famous
in undertakings of a nature out of the common
road; that these things were all either too far above
me, or too far below me; that mine was the mid-






ROBINSON CRUSOE


die state, or what might be called the upper sta-
tion of low life, which he had found, by long ex-
perience, was the best state in the world, the most
suited to human happiness; not exposed to the
miseries and hardships, the labour and sufferings,
of the mechanic part of mankind, and not em-
barrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and
envy of the upper part of mankind: he told me, I
might judge of the happiness of this state by one
thing, viz. that this was the state of life which all
other people envied; that kings have frequently
lamented the miserable consequences of being born
to great things, and wished they had been placed
in the middle of two extremes, between the mean
and the great; that the wise man gave his testimony
to this as the just standard of true felicity, when
he prayed to have neither poverty nor riches."
He bade me observe it, and I should always find,
that the calamities of life were shared among the
upper and lower part of mankind; but that the
middle station had the fewest disasters, and was
not exposed to so many vicissitudes as the higher
or lower part of mankind: nay, they were not sub-
jected to so many distempers anduneasinesses, either
of body or mind, as those were, who, by vicious
living, luxury, and extravagancies, on one hand, or,
by hard labour, want of necessaries, and mean and
insufficient diet, on the other hand, bring distem-
pers upon themselves by the natural consequences
of their way of living; that the middle station of
life was calculated for all kind of virtues, and all






THE ADVENTURES OF


kind ofenjoyments; that peace and plenty were the
handmaids of a middle fortune; that temperance,
moderation, quietness, health, society, all agreeable
diversions, and all desirable pleasures were the
blessings attending the middle station of life; that
this way men went silently and smoothly through
the world, and comfortably out of it, not embar-
rassed with the labours of the hands or of the head,
not sold to the life of slavery for daily bread, or
harassed with perplexed circumstances, which rob
the soul of peace, and the body of rest; not en-
raged with the passion of envy, or secret burning
lust of ambition for great things; but, in easy cir-
cumstances, sliding gently through the world, and
sensibly tasting the sweets of living, without the
bitter; feeling that they are happy, and learning by
every day's experience, to know it more sensibly.
After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the
most affectionate manner, not to play the young
man, nor to precipitate myself into miseries which
nature, and the station of life I was born in, seemed
to have provided against; that I was under no ne-
cessity of seeking my bread; that he would do well
for me, and endeavour to enter me fairly into the
station of life which he had been just recommending
to me; and that if I was not very easy and happy
in the world, it must be my mere fate, or fault, that
must hinder it; and that he should have nothing
to answer for, having thus discharged his duty in
warning me against measures which he knew would
be to my hurt: in a word, that as he would do very


4






ROBINSON CRUSOE


kind things for me if I would stay and settle at
home as he directed; so he would not have so much
hand in my misfortunes as to give me any encour-
agement to go away: and, to close all, he told me
I had my elder brother for an example, to whom
he had used the same earnest persuasions to keep
him from going into the Low Country wars; but
could not prevail, his young desires prompting him
to run into the army, where he was killed; and
though, he said, he would not cease to pray for me,
yet he would venture to say to me, that if I did
take this foolish step, God would not bless me;
and I would have leisure, hereafter, to reflect upon
having neglected his counsel, when there might be
none to assist in my recovery.
I observed, in this last part of his discourse,
which was truly prophetic, though, I suppose, my
father did not know it to be so himself; I say, I
observed the tears run down his face very plenti-
fully, especially when he spoke of my brother who
was killed; and that, when he spoke of my having
leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was so
moved, that he broke off the discourse, and told
me his heart was so full he could say no more to
me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse; as,
indeed, who could be otherwise ? and I resolved
not to think of going abroad any more, but to set-
tle at home, according to my father's desire. But
alas! a few days wore it all off: and, in short, to
prevent any of my father's further importunities,






THE ADVENTURES OF


in a few weeks after I resolved to run quite away
from him. However, I did not act so hastily, neither,
as my first heat of resolution prompted; but I took
my mother, at a time when I thought her a little
pleasanter than ordinary, and told her that my
thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the
world, that I should never settle to anything with
resolution enough to go through with it, and my
father had better give me his consent than force
me to go without it; that I was now eighteen years
old, which was too late to go apprentice to a trade,
or clerk to an attorney: that I was sure, if I did, I
should never serve out my time, and I should cer-
tainly run away from my master before my time
was out, and go to sea; and if she would speak to
my father to let me make but one voyage abroad,
if I came home again, and did not like it, I would
go no more; and I would promise by a double
diligence, to recover the time I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion: she
told me she knew it would be to no purpose to
speak to my father upon any such a subject; that
he knew too well what was my interest to give his
consent to anything so much for my hurt; and that
she wondered how I could think of any such thing,
after such a discourse as I had from my father, and
such kind and tender expressions as she knew my
father had used to me; and that, in short, if I would
ruin myself, there was no help for me; but I might
depend I should never have their consent to it:
that for her part, she would not have so much hand






ROBINSON CRUSOE


in my destruction; and I should never have it to
say, that my mother was willing when my father
was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my
father, yet, as I have heard afterwards, she reported
all the discourse to him; and that my father, after
showing a great concern at it, said to her with a
sigh, That boy might be happy if he would stay
at home; but if he goes abroad, he will be the most
miserable wretch that ever was born: I can give no
consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke
loose; though in the mean time I continued obsti-
nately deaf to all proposals of settling to business,
and frequently expostulating with my father and
mother about their being so positively determined
against what they knew my inclinations prompted
me to. But being one day at Hull, whither I went
casually, and without any purpose of making an
elopement at that time, and one of my companions
then going to London by sea in his father's ship,
and prompting me to go with them by the common
allurement of seafaring men, viz. that it should
cost me nothing for my passage, I consulted neither
father nor mother any more, nor so much as sent
them word of it; but left them to hear of it as they
might, without asking God's blessing, or my father's,
without any consideration of circumstances or con-
sequences, and in an ill hour, God knows.


















O N the Ist September, 1651, I went on board
a ship bound for London. Never any young
adventurer's misfortunes, I believe, began younger,
or continued longer, than mine. The ship had no
sooner got out of the Humber, than the wind
began to blow, and the waves to rise, in a most
frightful manner; and as I had never been at sea
before, I was most inexpressibly sick in body, and
terrified in mind. I began now seriously to reflect
upon what I had done, and how justly I was over-
taken by the judgment of Heaven, for wickedly
leaving my father's house. All the good counsels
of my parents, my father's tears, and my mother's
entreaties, came now fresh into my mind; and my
conscience, which was not yet come to the pitch
of hardness to which it has been since, reproached
me with the contempt of advice, and the abandon-
ment of my duty.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea,
which I had never been upon before, went very
high, though nothing like what I have seen many






ROBINSON CRUSOE


times since; no, nor what I saw a few days after;
but, such as it was, enough to affect me then, who
was but a young sailor, and had never known
anything of the matter. I expected every wave
would have swallowed us up, and that every time
the ship fell down, as I thought, in the trough
or hollow of the sea, we should never rise more;
and in this agony of mind I made many vows
and resolutions, that if it would please God to
spare my life this voyage, if ever I got my foot
once on dry land, I would go directly home to
my father, and never set it into a ship again while
I lived; that I would take his advice, and never
run myself into such miseries as these any more.
Now I saw plainly the goodness of his observa-
tions about the middle station of life; how easy,
how comfortable, he had lived all his days, and
never had been exposed to tempests at sea or
troubles on shore; and I resolved that I would,
like a true repenting prodigal, go home to my
father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued during
the storm, and indeed some time after; but the
ext day, as the wind was abated, and the sea
almer, I began to be a little inured to it. How-
ver, I was very grave that day, being also a lit-
le sea-sick still: but towards night the weather
learned up, the wind was quite over, and a charm-
ng fine evening followed; the sun went down
perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning; and
having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the






io THE ADVENTURES OF
sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought,
the most delightful that I ever saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no
more sea-sick, but very cheerful, looking with
wonder upon the sea that was so rough and terri-
ble the day before, and could be so calm and
pleasant in a little time after.
And now lest my good resolutions should con-
tinue, my companion, who had indeed enticed me
away, came to me, and said,"Well, Bob," clapping
me on the shoulder, "how do you do after it? I
warrant you you were frightened, wa'n't you, last
night, when it blew but a cap-full of wind ? "-"A
cap-full, do you call it ?" said I; "'t was a terrible
storm." A storm, you fool !" replies he, do
you call that a storm? Why, it was nothing at
all; give us but a good ship, and sea-room, and
we think nothing of such a squall of wind as that:
you are but a fresh-water sailor, Bob ; come, let
us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all
that. D' ye see what charming weather 't is now ? "
To make short this sad part of my story, we went
the way of all sailors ; the punch was made, and
I was made drunk with it; and in that one night's
wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my
reflections upon my past conduct, and all my reso-
lutions for the future. In a word, as the sea was
returned to its smoothness of surface and settled
calmness by the abatement of the storm, so the
hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears and
apprehensions of being swallowed up by the sea






ROBINSON CRUSOE


forgotten, and the current of my former desires
returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises
I had made in my distress. I found, indeed, some
intervals of reflection; and serious thoughts did,
as it were, endeavour to return again sometimes;
but I shook them off and roused myself from
them, as it were from a distemper, and, applying
myself to drink and company, soon mastered the
return of those fits for so I called them ; and I
had in five or six days got as complete a victory
over conscience as any young sinner, that resolved
not to be troubled with it, could desire. But I was
to have another trial for it still; and Providence,
as in such cases generally it does, resolved to
leave me entirely without excuse: for if I would
not take this for a deliverance, the next was to be
such a one as the worst and most hardened wretch
among us would confess both the danger and the
mercy of. The sixth day of our being at sea we
came into Yarmouth Roads; the wind having been
contrary and the weather calm, we had made but
little way since the storm. Here we were obliged
to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind
continuing contrary, viz. at south-west, for seven
or eight days, during which time a great many
ships from Newcastle came into the same roads, as
the common harbour where the ships might wait
for a wind for the river Thames. We had not,
however, rid here so long, but we should have tided
up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh;
and, after we had lain four or five days, blew very






i2 THE ADVENTURES OF
hard. However, the roads being reckoned as good
as a harbour, the anchorage good, and our ground
tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned and
not in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent
the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the
sea. But the eighth day, in the morning, the wind
increased, and we had all hands at work to strike
our topmasts and make everything snug and close,
that the ship might ride as easy as possible. By
noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship
rode forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we
thought, once or twice, our anchor had come home;
upon which our master ordered out the sheet
anchor; so that we rode with two anchors ahead,
and the cables veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and
now I began to see terror and amazement in the
faces of even the seamen themselves. The master
was vigilant in the business of preserving the ship;
but, as he went in and out of his cabin by me, I
could hear him softly say to himself several times,
"Lord, be merciful to us! we shall be all lost; we
shall be all undone!" and the like. During these
first hurries I was stupid, lying still in my cabin,
which was in the steerage, and cannot describe my
temper. I could ill reassume the first penitence,
which I had so apparently trampled upon, and hard-
ened myself against; I thought that the bitterness of
death had been past, and that this would be nothing
too, like the first: but when the master himself
came by me, as I said just now, and said we should





ROBINSON CRUSOE


be all lost, I was dreadfully frightened. I got up
out of my cabin, and looked out; but such a dis-
mal sight I never saw; the sea went mountains
high, and broke upon us every three or four min-
utes. When I could look about, I could see no-
thing but distress around us; two ships that rid near
us, we found had cut their masts by the board,
being deeply laden; and our men cried out that a
ship which rid about a mile ahead of us was foun-
dered. Two more ships, being driven from their
anchors, were run out of the roads to sea, at all
adventures, and that with not a mast standing.
The light ships fared the best, as not so much
labouring in the sea; but two or three of them
drove, and came close by us, running away, with
only their spritsails out, before the wind. Toward
evening, the mate and boatswain begged the master
of our ship to let them cut away the foremast, which
he was very loath to do; but the boatswain pro-
testing to him, that if he did not, the ship would
founder, he consented; and when they had cut
away the foremast, the mainmast stood so loose,
and shook the ship so much, they were obliged
to cut it away also, and make a clear deck.
Any one may judge what a condition I must be
in at all this, who was but a young sailor, and who
had been in such a fright before at but a little. But
if I can express, at this distance, the thoughts I
had about me at that time, I was in tenfold more
horror of mind upon account of my former con-
victions, and the having returned from them to the






THE ADVENTURES OF


resolutions I had wickedly taken at first, than I was
at death itself; and these, added to the terror of
the storm, put me into such a condition, that I can
by no words describe it; but the worst was not
come yet; the storm continued with such fury, that
the seamen themselves acknowledged they had
never known a worse. We had a good ship, but
she was deep laden, and so wallowed in the sea, that
the seamen every now and then cried out she would
founder. It was my advantage, in one respect, that
I did not know what they meant by founder, till I
inquired. However, the storm was so violent that
I saw what is not often seen, the master, the boat-
swain, and some others, more sensible than the rest,
at their prayers, and expecting every moment the
ship would go to the bottom. In the middle of the
night, and under all the rest of our distresses, one of
the men, that had been down on purpose to see, cried
out, we had sprung a leak; another said there was
four feet water in the hold. Then all hands were
called to the pump. At that very word my heart,
as I thought, died within me, and I fell backwards
upon the side of my bed, where I sat in the cabin.
However, the men roused me, and told me that I,
who was able to do nothing before, was as well
able to pump as another: at which I stirred up
and went to the pump, and worked very heartily.
While this was doing, the master seeing some light
colliers, who, not able to ride out the storm, were
obliged to slip and run away to sea, and would not
come near us, ordered us to fire a gun as a signal






ROBINSON CRUSOE


of distress. I, who knew nothing what that meant,
was so surprised, that I thought the ship had
broke, or some dreadful thing had happened. In
a word, I was so surprised that I fell down in a
swoon. As this was a time when everybody had his
own life to think of, no one minded me, or what
was become of me: but another man stepped up to
the pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot,
let me lie, thinking I had been dead; and it was a
great while before I came to myself.
We worked on; but the water increasing in the
hold, it was apparent that the ship would founder;
and though the storm began to abate a little, yet as
it was not possible she could swim till we might run
into a port, so the master continued firing guns for
help; and a light ship, who had rid it out just ahead
of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was with
the utmost hazard the boat came near us, but it was
impossible for us to get on board, or for the boat to
lie near the ship's side; till at last the men rowing
very heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours,
our men cast them a rope over the stern with a
buoy to it, and then veered it out a great length,
which they, after great labour and hazard, took hold
of, and we hauled them close under our stern, and
got all into their boat. It was to no purpose for
them or us, after we were in the boat, to think of
reaching their own ship; so all agreed to let her
drive, and only to pull her in towards shore as much
as we could: and our master promised them, that
if the boat was staved upon shore, he would make





Id THE ADVENTURES OF


it good to their master; so partly rowing, and partly
driving, our boat went away to the northward, slop-
ing towards the shore almost as far as Winterton-
Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an
hour out of our ship when we saw her sink; and
then I understood, for the first time, what was
meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I must ac-
knowledge, I had hardly eyes to look up when the
seamen told me she was sinking; for, from that
moment, they rather put me into the boat, than
that I might be said to go in. My heart was, as it
were, dead within me, partly with fright, partly with
horror of mind, and the thoughts of what was yet
before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet
labouring at the oar to bring the boat near the shore,
we could see (when, our boat mounting the waves,
we were able to see the shore) a great many peo-
ple running along the strand, to assist us when we
should come near; but we made slow way towards
the shore; nor were we able to reach it, till, being
past the light-house at Winterton, the shore falls
off to the westward, towards Cromer, and so the
land broke off a little the violence of the wind.
Here we got in, and, though not without much diffi-
culty, got all safe on shore, and walkedafterwards
on foot to Yarmouth; where, as unfortunate men,
we were used with great humanity, as well by the
magistrates of the town, who assigned us good quar-
ters, as by the particular merchants and owners of






ROBINSON CRUSOE


ships; and had money given us sufficient to carry
us either to London or back to Hull, as we thought
fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to
Hull, and have gone home, I had been happy:
and my father, an emblem of our blessed Saviour's
parable, had even killed the fatted calf for me; for,
hearing the ship I went in was cast away in Yar-
mouth Roads, it was a great while before he had
any assurance that I was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on with an obstinacy
that nothing could resist; and though I had several
times loud calls from my reason and my more com-
posed judgment, to go home, yet I had no power
to do it. -I know not what to call this, nor will
I urge that it is a secret, overruling decree, that
hurries us on to be the instruments of our own de-
struction, even though it be before us, and that we
rush upon it with our eyes open. Certainly, nothing
but some such decreed unavoidable misery attend-
ing, and which it was impossible for me to escape,
could have pushed me forward against the calm
reasoning and persuasions of my most retired
thoughts, and against two such visible instructions
as I had met with in my first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me be-
fore, and who was the master's son, was now less
forward than I: the first time he spoke to me after
we were at Yarmouth, which was not till two or
three days, for we were separated in the town to
several quarters; I say, the first time he saw me,





18 THE ADVENTURES OF


it appeared his tone was altered, and, looking very
melancholy, and shaking his head, he asked me
how I did; telling his father who I was, and how
I had come this voyage only for a trial, in order to
go farther abroad. His father, turning to me with
a grave and concerned tone, "Young man," says
he, "you ought never to go to sea any more; you
ought to take this for a plain and visible token,
that you are not to be a seafaring man."-" Why,
sir ?" said I; "will you go to sea no more ? "-
"That is another case," said he; it is my calling,
and therefore my duty; but as you made this voy-
age for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has
given you of what you are to expect if you persist.
Perhaps this has all befallen us on your account,
like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish." -" Pray," con-
tinues he, what are you, and on what account did
you go to sea?" Upon that I told him some of
my story; at the end of which he burst out with a
strange kind of passion. What had I done," said
he, "that such an unhappy wretch should come
into my ship ? I would not set my foot in the same
ship with thee again for a thousand pounds." This
indeed was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits,
which were yet agitated by the sense of his loss,
and was farther than he could have authority to go.
- However, he afterwards talked very gravely to
me; exhorted me to go back to my father, and not
tempt Providence to my ruin; told me, I might
see a visible hand of Heaven against me; and,
" young man," said he, depend upon it, if you do






ROBINSON CRUSOE


not go back, wherever you go, you will meet with
nothing but disasters and disappointments, till your
father's words are fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after, for I made him little an-
swer, and I saw him no more; which way he went,
I know not: as for me, having some money in my
pocket, I travelled to London by land; and there,
as well as on the road, had many struggles with my-
self what course of life I should take, and whether
I should go home or go to sea. As to going home,
shame opposed the best motions that offered to my
thoughts ; and it immediately occurred to me how
I should be laughed at among the neighbours, and
should be ashamed to see, not my father and mo-
ther only, but even everybody else. From whence
I have often since observed how incongruous and
irrational the common temper of mankind is, es-
pecially of youth, to that reason which ought to
guide them in such cases, viz. that they are not
ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent, not
ashamed of the action, for which they ought justly
to be esteemed fools; but are ashamed of the re-
turning, which only can make them be esteemed
wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some
time, uncertain what measures to take, and what
course of life to lead. An irresistible reluctance con-
tinued to going home; and as I stayed awhile, the
remembrance of the distress I had been in wore off;
and as that abated, the little motion I had in my
desires to a return wore off with it, till at last I






THE ADVENTURES OF


quite laid aside the thoughts of it, and looked out
for a voyage. That evil influence which carried me
first away from my father's house, that hurried me
into the wild and indigested notion of raising my
fortune, and that impressed those conceits so forci-
bly upon me as to make me deaf to all good advice,
and to the entreaties and even the commands of
my father; I say, the same influence, whatever it
was, presented the most unfortunate of all enter-
prises to my view; and I went on board a vessel
bound to the coast of Africa, or, as our sailors
vulgarly call it, a voyage to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune, that in all these ad-
ventures I did not ship myself as a sailor; whereby,
though I might indeed have worked a little harder
than ordinary, yet, at the same time, I had learned
the duty and office of a foremast-man, and in time
might have qualified myself for a mate or lieuten-
ant, if not a master: but as it was always my fate
to choose for the worse, so I did here; for having
money in my pocket, and good clothes upon my
back, I would always go on board in the habit of
a gentleman; and so I neither had any business in
the ship, nor learned to do any. It was my lot,
first of all, to fall into pretty good company in
London; which does not always happen to such
loose and misguided young fellows as I then was:
the devil, generally, not omitting to lay some snare
for them very early. But it was not so with me: I
first fell acquainted with the master of a ship, who
had been on the coast of Guinea, and who, having





ROBINSON CRUSOE


had very good success there, was resolved to go
again. He, taking a fancy to my conversation, which
was not at all disagreeable at that time, and hearing
me say I had a mind to see the world, told me
that, if I would go the voyage with him, I should
be at no expense; I should be his messmate and his
companion; and if I could carry anything with me,
I should have all the advantage of it that the trade
would admit; and perhaps I might meet with some
encouragement. I embraced the offer, and enter-
ing into a strict friendship with this captain, who
was an honest and plain-dealing man, I went the
voyage with him, and carried a small adventure
with me; which, by the disinterested honesty of my
friend the captain, I increased very considerably;
for I carried about forty pounds in such toys and
trifles as the captain directed me to buy. This forty
pounds I had mustered together by the assistance
of some of my relations whom I corresponded
with; and who, I believe, got my father, or, at least,
my mother, to contribute so much as that to my
first adventure. This was the only voyage which I
may say was successful in all my adventures, and
which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my
friend the captain; under whom also I got a com-
petent knowledge of mathematics and the rules of
navigation, learned how to keep an account of the
ship's course, take an observation, and, in short,
to understand some things that were needful to be
understood by a sailor; for, as he took delight to
instruct me, I took delight to learn; and, in a word,





22 ROBINSON CRUSOE
this voyage made me both a sailor and a merchant:
for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of
gold dust for my adventure, which yielded me
in London, at my return, almost three hundred
pounds, and this filled me with those aspiring
thoughts which have since so completed my ruin.
Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too;
particularly, that I was continually sick, being
thrown into a violent calenture by the excessive
heat of the climate; our principal trading being
upon the coast, from the latitude of fifteen degrees
north even to the Line itself.

















I WAS now set up for a Guinea trader; and my
friend, to my great misfortune, dying soon
after his arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage
again; and I embarked in the same vessel with
one who was his mate in the former voyage, and
had now got the command of the ship. This was
the unhappiest voyage that ever man made; for
though I did not carry quite a hundred pounds of
my new-gained wealth, so that I had two hundred
pounds left, and which I lodged with my friend's
widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell into
terrible misfortunes in this voyage; and the first
was this, viz. our ship, making her course to-
wards the Canary Islands, or rather between those
islands and the African shore, was surprised, in
the gray of the morning, by a Turkish rover, of
Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the sail she
could make. We crowded also as much canvas as
our yards would spread, or our masts carry, to get
clear; but finding the pirate gained upon us, and
would certainly come up with us in a few hours,






24 THE ADVENTURES OF
we prepared to fight, our ship having twelve guns
and the rover eighteen. About three in the after-
noon he came up with us; and bringing to, by
mistake, just athwart our quarter, instead of
athwart our stern, as he intended, we brought
eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured
in a broadside upon him, which made him sheer
off again, after returning our fire, and pouring in
also his small shot from near two hundred men
which he had on board. However, we had not
a man touched, all our men keeping close. He
prepared to attack us again, and we to defend
ourselves; but laying us on board the next time
upon our other quarter, he entered sixty men
upon our decks, who immediately fell to cutting
and hacking the sails and rigging. We plied them
with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and
such like, and cleared our deck of them twice.
However, to cut short this melancholy part of our
story, our ship being disabled, and three of our
men killed and eight wounded, we were obliged
to yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee,
a port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as
at first I apprehended: nor was I carried up the
country to the emperor's court, as the rest of our
men were, but was kept by the captain of the rover
as his proper prize, and made his slave, being
young and nimble, and fit for his business. At this
surprising change of my circumstances, from a
merchant to a miserable slave, I was perfectly





ROBINSON CRUSOE


overwhelmed; and now looked back upon my
father's prophetic discourse to me, that I should
be miserable and have none to relieve me; which
I thought was now so effectually brought to pass,
that it could not be worse; that now the hand of
Heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone,
without redemption. But, alas! this was but a
taste of the misery I was to go through, as will
appear in the sequel of this story.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me
home to his house, so I was in hopes he would
take me with him when he went to sea again, be-
lieving that it would, some time or other, be his
fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portuguese man
of war, and that then I should be set at liberty.
But this hope of mine was soon taken away, for
when he went to sea he left me on shore to look
after his little garden, and do the common drudg-
ery of slaves about his house; and when he came
home again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie
in the cabin, to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and
what method I might take to effect it, but found
no way that had the least probability in it. Nothing
presented to make the supposition of it rational;
for I had nobody to communicate it to that would
embark with me; no fellow-slave, no English-
man, Irishman, or Scotchman there but myself;
so that for two years, though I often pleased my-
self with the imagination, yet I never had the least
encouraging prospect of putting it in practice.






THE ADVENTURES OF


After about two years, an odd circumstance pre-
sented itself, which put the old thought of making
some attempt for my liberty again in my head.
My patron lying at home longer than usual, with-
out fitting out his ship, which, as I heard, was for
want of money, he used constantly, once or twice
a week, sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair,
to take the ship's pinnace and go out into the road
a fishing; and as he always took me and a young
Moresco with him to row the boat, we made him
very merry, and I proved very dexterous in catch-
ing fish, insomuch that sometimes he would send me
with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth,
the Moresco, as they called him, to catch a dish of
fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a fishing in a
stark calm morning, a fog rose so thick, that though
we were not half a league from the shore, we lost
sight of it; and rowing we knew not whither, or
which way, we laboured all day and all the next
night, and when the morning came, we found we
had pulled off to sea, instead of pulling in for the
shore, and that we were at least two leagues from
the shore: however, we got well in again, though
with a great deal of labour, and some danger, for the
wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morning; but
particularly we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved
to take more care of himself for the future; and
having lying by him the longboat of our English
ship he had taken, he resolved he would not go a





fishing any more without a compass and some pro-
vision; so he ordered the carpenter of the ship, who
was an English slave, to build a little state-room
or cabin in the middle of the longboat, like that of
a barge, with a place to stand behind it, to steer
and haul home the main sheet, and room before
for a hand or two to stand and work the sails. She
sailed with what we called a shoulder-of-mutton
sail, and the boom jibbed over the top of the cabin,
which lay very snug and low, and had in it room
for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table to eat
on, with some small lockers to put in some bottles
of such liquor as he thought fit to drink, and par-
ticularly his bread, rice, and coffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a fishing,
and as I was most dexterous to catch fish for him,
he never went without me. It happened that he had
appointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure
or for fish, with two or three Moors of some dis-
tinction in that place, and for whom he had pro-
vided extraordinarily, and had therefore sent on
board the boat, overnight, a larger store of pro-
visions than ordinary, and had ordered me to get
ready three fusees, with powder and shot, which
were on board his ship, for that they designed some
sport of fowling as well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he directed, and waited
the next morning with the boat washed clean, her
ensign and pendants out, and everything to accom-
modate his guests: when, by and by, my patron
came on board alone, and told me his guests had


ROBINSON CRUSOE





28 THE ADVENTURES OF
put off going, upon some business that fell out,
and ordered me with a man and boy, as usual, to
go out with the boat and catch them some fish, for
that his friends were to sup at his house; and com-
manded, that's soon as I had got some fish, I should
bring it home to his house: all which I prepared
to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance
darted into my thoughts, for now I found I was
like to have a little ship at my command; and my
master being gone, I prepared to furnish myself,
not for a fishing business, but for a voyage; though
I knew not, neither did I so much as consider,
whither I should steer; for any where, to get out
of that place, was my way.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to
speak to this Moor, to get something for our
subsistence on board; for I told him we must not
presume to eat of our patron's bread : he said that
was true; so he brought a large basket of rusk or
biscuit, of their kind, and three jars with fresh wa-
ter, into the boat. I knew where my patron's case
of bottles stood, which it was evident, by the make,
were taken out of some English prize, and I con-
veved them into the boat while the Moor was on
shore, as if they had been there before for our
master. I conveyed also a great lump of bees-wax
into the boat, which weighed above halfa hundred-
weight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet,
a saw, and a hammer, all which were of great use
to us afterwards, especially the wax, to make can-





ROBINSON CRUSOE


dies. Another trick I tried upon him, which he
innocently came into also: his name was Ismael,
whom they called Muley, or Moley: so I called to
him: Moley," said I, our patron's guns are on
board the boat; can you not get a little powder and
shot ? it may be we may kill some alcamies (fowls
like our curlews) "for ourselves, for I know he
keeps the gunner's stores in the ship."--"Yes,"
says he," I will bring some" ; and accordingly he
brought a great leather pouch, which held about a
pound and a half of powder, or rather more, and
another with shot, that had five or six pounds, with
some bullets, and put all into the boat: at the same
time I found some powder of my master's in the
great cabin, with which I filled one of the large
bottles in the case, which was almost empty, pour-
ing what was in it into another; and thus furnished
with every thing needful, we sailed out of the port
to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of the
port, knew who we were, and took no notice of
us; and we were not above a mile out of the port,
before we hauled in our sail and set us down to
fish. The wind blew from NN.E., which was con-
trary to my desire; for, had it blown southerly, I
had been sure to have made the coast of Spain, and
at last reached to the bay of Cadiz; but my reso-
lutions were, blow which way it would, I would be
gone from the horrid place where I was, and leave
the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and catched no-
thing, for when I had fish on my hook I would






THE ADVENTURES OF


not pull them up, that he might not see them, I
said to the Moor, "This will not do; our master
will not be thus served; we must stand farther off."
He, thinking no harm, agreed; and being at the
head of the boat, set the sails; and as I had the
helm, I run the boat near a league farther, and then
brought to, as if I would fish. Then giving the boy
the helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor
was, and I took him by surprise, with my arm un-
der his waist, and tossed him clear overboard into
the sea. He rose immediately, for he swam like a
cork, and called to me, begged to be taken in, and
told me he would go all the world over with me.
He swam so strong after the boat, that he would
have reached me very quickly, there being but
little wind; upon which I stepped into the cabin,
and fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented
it at him, and told him, I had done him no hurt,
and if he would be quiet, I would do him none;
"But," said I, "you swim well enough to reach
the shore, and the sea is calm ; make the best of
your way to shore, and I will do you no harm ; but
if you come near the boat, I will shoot you through
the head; for I am resolved to have my liberty."
So he turned himself about, and swam for the
shore; and I make no doubt but he reached it
with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this
Moor with me and have drowned the boy, but
there was no venturing to trust him. When he
was gone I turned to the boy, whom they called












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~"~ ;p--.~
I .i
.















';1~:
c--
:.
I


IF YOU COME NEAR THE BOAT I'LL SHOOT YOU






ROBINSON CRUSOE


Xury, and said to him, Xury, if you will be faith-
ful to me I will make you a great man; but if you
will not stroke your face to be true to me" (that
is, swear by Mahomet and his father's beard), I
must throw you into the sea too." The boy smiled
in my face, and spoke so innocently that I could
not mistrust him; and swore to be faithful to me,
and go all over the world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was
swimming, I stood out directly to sea with the
boat, rather stretching to windward, that they
might think me gone towards the Strait's mouth
(as indeed any one that had been in their wits
must have been supposed to do); for who would
have supposed we were sailing on to the south-
ward, to the truly Barbarian coast, where whole
nations of negroes were sure to surround us with
their canoes, and destroy us ; where we could never
once go on shore but we should be devoured by
savage beasts, or more merciless savages of human
kind ?
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I
changed my course, and steered directly south and
by east, bending my course a little towards the
east, that I might keep in with the shore; and
having a fair fresh gale of wind and a smooth
quiet sea, I made such sail, that I believe by the
next day, at three o'clock in the afternoon, when
I made the land, I could not be less than one
hundred and fifty miles south of Sallee, quite be-
yond the Emperor of Morocco's dominions, or






THE ADVENTURES OF


indeed of any other king thereabout; for we saw
no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the
Moors, and the dreadful apprehensions I had of
falling into their hands, that I would not stop, or
go on shore, or come to an anchor, the wind con-
tinuing fair, till I had sailed in that manner five
days; and then the wind shifting to the southward,
I concluded also that if any of our vessels were in
chase of me, they also would now give over: so I
ventured to make to the coast, and came to an
anchor in the mouth of a little river; I knew not
what or where, neither what latitude, what coun-
try, what nation, or what river. I neither saw, nor
desired to see, any people; the principal thing I
wanted was fresh water. We came into this creek
in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon
as it was dark, and discover the country: but as
soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful
noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of
wild creatures, of we knew not what kinds, that
the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and
begged of me not to go on shore till day. Well,
Xury," said I, "then I will not; but it may be,
we may see men by day, who will be as bad to us
as those lions." "Then we may give' them the
shoot-gun," says Xury, laughing; "make them
run away." Such English Xury spoke by con-
versing among us slaves. However, I was glad to
see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram
out of our patron's case of bottles to cheer him






ROBINSON CRUSOE


up. After all, Xury's advice was good, and I took
it. We dropped our little anchor, and lay still all
night: I say still, for we slept none; for in two or
three hours we saw vast creatures (we knew not
what to call them), of many sorts, come down to
the sea-shore, and run into the water, wallowing
and washing themselves, for the pleasure of cool-
ing themselves, and they made such hideous howl-
ings and yelling, that I never indeed heard the
like.
Xury was dreadfully frightened, and indeed so
was I too; but we were both more frightened
when we heard one of these mighty creatures
swimming towards our boat: we could not see
him, but we might hear him, by his blowing, to
be a monstrous, huge and furious beast. Xury
said it was a lion, and it might be so, for aught I
know; but poor Xury cried to me to weigh the
anchor and row away. No," says I," Xury ; we
can slip our cable with a buoy to it, and go off to
sea: they cannot follow us far." I had no sooner
said so, but I perceived the creature (whatever it
was) within two oars' length, which something sur-
prised me; however, I immediately stepped to the
cabin door, and taking up my gun, fired at him;
upon which he immediately turned about, and
swam to the shore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrible
noises and hideous cries and howlings that were
raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as higher
within the country, upon the noise or report of






34 THE ADVENTURES OF
the gun; a thing, I believe, those creatures had
never heard before. This convinced me there was
no going on shore for us in the night upon that
coast: and how to venture on shore in the day was
another question too; for to have fallen into the
hands of any of the savages had been as bad as to
have fallen into the paws of lions and tigers; at
least, we were equally apprehensive of the danger
of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on
shore somewhere or other for water, for we had
not a pint left in the boat: when and where to
get it was the point. Xury said, if I would let him
go on shore with one of the jars, he would find
if there was any water, and bring some to me. I
asked him why he would go; why I should not
go, and he stay in the boat. The boy answered
with so much affection, that he made me love him
ever after. Says he, "If wild mans come, they
eat me, you go away." -"Well, Xury," said I,
" we will both go; and if the wild mans come, we
will kill them; they shall eat neither of us." So
I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a
dram out of our patron's case of bottles, which I
mentioned before; and we hauled in the boat as
near the shore as we thought was proper, and so
waded to shore, carrying nothing but our arms,
and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat,
fearing the coming of canoes with savages down
the river; but the boy, seeing a low place about





ROBINSON CRUSOE


a mile up the country, rambled to it; and, by and
by, I saw him come running towards me. I thought
he was pursued by some savage, or frightened by
some wild beast, and I therefore ran forwards to
help him; but when I came nearer to him, I saw
something hanging over his shoulders, which was
a creature that he had shot, like a hare, but differ-
ent in colour, and longer legs; however, we were
very glad of it, and it was very good meat: but the
great joy that poor Xury came with, was to tell
me he had found good water, and seen no wild
mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not take
such pains for water; for a little higher up the creek
where we were, we found the water fresh when the
tide was out, which flowed but a little way up; so
we filled our jars, and having a fire, feasted on the
hare we had killed; and prepared to go on our
way, having seen no footsteps of any human crea-
ture in that part of the country.
As I had been one voyage to this coast before,
I knew very well that the islands of the Canaries,
and the Cape de Verd Islands also, lay not far from
the coast. But as I had no instruments to take an
observation, to find what latitude we were in, and
did not exactly know, or at least remember, what
latitude they were in, I knew not where to look
for them, or when to stand off to sea towards them,
otherwise I might now have easily found some
of these islands. But my hope was, that if I stood
along this coast till I came to the part where the






THE ADVENTURES OF


English traded, I should find some of their ves-
sels upon their usual design of trade, that would
relieve and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, the place where
I now was must be that country which, lying be-
tween the Emperor of Morocco's dominions and
the Negroes, lies waste, and uninhabited except
by wild beasts; the Negroes having abandoned it,
and gone farther south, for fear of the Moors, and
the Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting, by
reason of its barrenness; and, indeed, both forsak-
ing it because of the prodigious number of tigers,
lions, leopards, and other furious creatures which
harbour there, so that the Moors use it for their
hunting only, where they go like an army, two or
three thousand men at a time: and, indeed, for
near a hundred miles together upon this coast, we
saw nothing but a waste, uninhabited country by
day, and heard nothing but howlings and roaring
of wild beasts by night.
Once or twice, in the day-time, I thought I saw
the Pico of Teneriffe, being the top of the moun-
tain Teneriffe, in the Canaries, and had a great
mind to venture out, in hopes of reaching thither;
but having tried twice, I was forced in again by
contrary winds; the sea also going too high for my
little vessel; so I resolved to pursue my first de-
sign, and keep along the shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh
water, after we had left this place; and once, in
particular, being early in the morning, we came to





ROBINSON CRUSOE


an anchor under a little point of land which was
pretty high; and the tide beginning to flow, we lay
still, to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more
about him than, it seems, mine were, calls softly to
me, and tells me, that we had best go farther off
the shore; for, says he, "Look, yonder lies a
dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fast
asleep." I looked where he pointed, and saw a
dreadful monster indeed, for it was a terrible great
lion, that lay on the side of the shore, under the
shade of a piece of the hill, that hung, as it were,
over him. Xury," says I, "you shall go on
shore and kill him." Xury looked frightened, and
said, Me kill! he eat me at one mouth "; one
mouthful he meant. However, I said no more to
the boy, but bade him be still; and I took our
biggest gun, which was almost musket-bore, and
loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with
two slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded another
gun with two bullets: and a third, for we had
three pieces, I loaded with five smaller bullets. I
took the best aim I could with the first piece, to
have shot him in the head; but he lay so, with his
leg raised a little above his nose, that the slugs hit
his leg about the knee, and broke the bone: he
started up, growling at first, but finding his leg
broke, fell down again, and then got up upon
three legs, and gave the most hideous roar that
ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I had not
hit him on the head; however, I took up the
second piece immediately, and though he began to





THE ADVENTURES OF


move off, fired again, and shot him in the head,
and had the pleasure to see him drop, and make
but little noise, but lie struggling for life. Then
Xury took heart, and would have me let him go
on shore. Well, go," said I; so the boy jumped
into the water, and taking a little gun in one hand,
swam to shore with the other hand, and coming
close to the creature, put the muzzle of the piece
to his ear, and shot him in the head again, which
despatched him quite.
This was game, indeed, to us, but it was no food;
and I was very sorry to lose three charges of pow-
der and shot upon a creature that was good for
nothing to us. However, Xury said he would have
some of him; so he comes on board, and asked me
to give him the hatchet: For what, Xury ?" said
I.-" Me cut off his head," said he. However,
Xury could not cut off his head; but he cut off a
foot, and brought it with him, and it was a mon-
strous great one. I bethought myself, however,
that perhaps the skin of him might, one way or
other, be of some value to us; and I resolved to
take off his skin, if I could. So Xury and I went
to work with him: but Xury was much the better
workman at it, for I knew very ill how to do it. In-
deed, it took us both up the whole day; but at last
we got off the hide of him, and spreading it on the
top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two
days' time, and it afterwards served me to lie upon.
After this stop we made on to the southward con-
tinually, for ten or twelve days, living very spar-






ROBINSON CRUSOE


ingly on our provisions, which began to abate very
much, and going no oftener into the shore than
we were obliged to for fresh water. My design in
this, was to make the river Gambia, or Senegal:
that is to say, anywhere about the Cape de Verd,
where I was in hopes to meet with some European
ship; and if I did not, I knew not what course I
had to take, but to seek for the islands or perish
among the Negroes. I knew that all the ships from
Europe, which sailed either to the coast of Guinea,
or to Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this Cape,
or those islands: and in a word I put the whole of
my fortune upon this single point, either that I
must meet with some ship or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten
days longer, as I have said, I began to see that the
land was inhabited; and in two or three places, as
we sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore
to look at us: we could also perceive they were
quite black and stark naked. I was once inclined
to have gone on shore to them; but Xury was my
better counsellor, and said to me, No go, no go."
However, I hauled in nearer the shore, that 1
might talk to them; and I found they ran along
the shore by me a good way. I observed they had
no weapons in their hands, except one, who had a
long slender stick, which Xury said was a lance,
and that they would throw them a great way with
good aim; so I kept at a distance, but talked to
them by signs, as well as I could, and particularly
made signs for something to eat. They beckoned to






THE ADVENTURES OF


me to stop my boat, and they would fetch me some
meat: upon this I lowered the top of my sail, and
lay by, and two of them ran up into the country;
and in less than half an hour came back, and
brought with them two pieces of dry flesh and some
corn, such as the produce of their country; but we
neither knew what the one or the other was; how-
ever, we were willing to accept it. But how to come
at it was our next dispute, for I was not for ven-
turing on shore to them, and they were as much
afraid of us: but they took a safe way for us all, for
they brought it to the shore, and laid it down, and
went and stood a great way off till we fetched it
on board, and then came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had
nothing to make them amends; but an opportu-
nity offered that very instant to oblige them won-
derfully; for while we were lying by the shore,
came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the other
(as we took it) with great fury, from the mountains
towards the sea; whether it was the male pursu-
ing the female, or whether they were in sport or in
rage, we could not tell, any more than we could
tell whether it was usual or strange; but I believe
it was the latter, because, in the first place, those
ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night;
and, in the second place, we found the people ter-
ribly frightened, especially the women. The man
that had the lance, or dart, did not fly from them,
but the rest did; however, as the two creatures ran
directly into the water, they did not seem to offer





ROBINSON CRUSOE


to fall upon any of the Negroes, but plunged them-
selves into the sea, and swam about, as if they had
come for their diversion; at last one of them be-
gan to come nearer our boat than I at first ex-
pected; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded
my gun with all possible expedition, and bade
Xury load both the others. As soon as he came
fairly within my reach, I fired, and shot him di-
rectly in the head: immediately he sunk down
into the water, but rose instantly, and plunged up
and down, as if he was struggling for life, and so
indeed he was: he immediately made to the shore,
but between the wound which was his mortal hurt,
and the strangling of the water, he died just before
he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of
these poor creatures at the noise and fire of my
gun; some of them were even ready to die for
fear, and fell down as dead with the very terror;
but when they saw the creature dead, and sunk in
the water, and that I made signs to them to come
to the shore, they took heart and came to the
shore, and began to search for the creature. I
found him by his blood staining the water; and
by the help of a rope, which I slung round him,
and gave the Negroes to haul, they dragged him
on shore, and found that it was a most curious
leopard, spotted, and fine to an admirable degree;
and the Negroes held up their hands with admi-
ration, to think what it was I had killed him with.
The other creature, frightened with the flash





THE ADVENTURES OF


of fire and the noise of the gun, swam on shore, and
ran up directly to the mountains from whence they
came; nor could I, at that distance, know what it
was. I found quickly the Negroes were for eating
the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have
them take it as a favour from me; which, when I
made signs to them that they might take him, they
were very thankful for. Immediately they fell to
work with him; and though they had no knife,
yet with a sharpened piece of wood they took off
his skin as readily, and much more readily, than
we could have done with a knife. They offered me
some of the flesh, which I declined, making as if
I would give it them, but made signs for the skin,
which they gave me very freely, and brought me a
great deal more of their provisions, which, though
I did not understand, yet I accepted. I then made
signs to them for some water, and held out one of
my jars to them, turning it bottom upwards, to
show that it was empty, and that I wanted to have
it filled. They called immediately to some of their
friends, and there came two women, and brought
a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I sup-
pose, in the sun; this they set down to me, as be-
fore, and I sent Xury on shore with my jars, and
filled them all three. The women were as stark
naked as the men.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such
as it was, and water; and leaving my friendly Ne-
groes, I made forward for about eleven days more,
without offering to go near the shore, till I saw the





ROBINSON CRUSOE


land run out a great length into the sea, at about
the distance of four or five leagues before me; and
the sea being very calm, I kept a large offing, to
make this point. At length, doubling the point,
at about two leagues from the land, I saw plainly
land on the other side, to seaward: then I con-
cluded, as it was most certain indeed, that this was
the Cape de Verd, and those the islands, called
from thence Cape de Verd Islands. However, they
were at a great distance, and I could not well tell
what I had best to do; for if I should be taken
with a gale of wind, I might neither reach one nor
the other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped
into the cabin and sat me down, Xury having the
helm; when, on a sudden, the boy cried out,
" Master, master, a ship with a sail!" and the
foolish boy was frightened out of his wits, think-
ing it must needs be some of his master's ships
sent to pursue us, when I knew we were gotten
far enough out of their reach. I jumped out of the
cabin, and immediately saw, not only the ship, but
what she was, viz. that it was a Portuguese ship,
and, as I thought, was bound to the Coast of
Guinea, for Negroes. But, when I observed the
course she steered, I was soon convinced they were
bound some other way, and did not design to come
any nearer to the shore; upon which, I stretched
out to sea as much as I could, resolving to speak
with them if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should






THE ADVENTURES OF


not be able to come in their way, but that they
would be gone by before I could make any signal to
them; but after I had crowded to the utmost, and
began to despair, they, it seems, saw me, by the
help of their perspective glasses, and that it was
some European boat, which, they supposed, must
belong to some ship that was lost: so they short-
ened sail, to let me come up. I was encouraged
with this, and as I had my patron's ensign on
board, I made a waft of it to them for a signal of
distress, and fired a gun, both which they saw; for
they told me they saw the smoke, though they did
not hear the gun. Upon these signals, they very
kindly brought to, and lay by for me; and in
about three hours' time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and
in Spanish, and in French, but I understood none
of them ; but, at last, a Scotch sailor who was on
board, called to me, and I answered him, and told
him I was an Englishman, that I had made my
escape out of slavery from the Moors, at Sallee:
they then bade me come on board, and very kindly
took me in and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any
one will believe, that I was thus delivered, as I
esteemed it, from such a miserable, and almost
hopeless, condition as I was in; and I immediately
offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a
return for my deliverance; but he generously told
me he would take nothing from me, but that all I
had should be delivered safe to me when I came to






ROBINSON CRUSOE 45
the Brazils. For," says he, I have saved your
life on no other terms than I would be glad to be
saved myself; and it may, one time or other, be
my lot to be taken up in the same condition. Be-
sides," said he, "when I carry you to the Brazils,
so great a way from your own country, if I should
take from you what you have, you will be starved
there, and then I only take away that life I had
given. No, no, SenhorInglez" (Mr. Englishman),
says he, I will carry you thither in charity, and
these things will help to buy your subsistence there,
and your passage home again."

















As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was
just in the performance, to a tittle: for he
ordered the seamen, that none should offer to touch
anything I had: then he took everything into his
own possession, and gave me back an exact inven-
tory of them, that I might have them, even so
much as my three earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that
he saw, and told me he would buy it of me for the
ship's use; and asked me what I would have for
it? I told him, he had been so generous to me in
everything, that I could not offer to make any price
of the boat, but left it entirely to him: upon which,
he told me he would give me a note of hand to pay
me eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil; and when
it came there, if any one offered to give more, he
would make it up. He offered me also sixty pieces
of eight more for my boy Xury, which I was loath
to take; not that I was not willing to let the cap-
tain have him, but I was very loath to sell the poor
boy's liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in





ROBINSON CRUSOE


procuring my own. However, when I let him know
my reason, he owned it to be just, and offered me
this medium, that he would give the boy an obli-
gation to set him free in ten years if he turned
Christian; upon this, and Xury saying he was will-
ing to go to him, I let the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and
arrived in the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All
Saints' Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And
now I was once more delivered from the most mis-
erable of all conditions of life; and what to do next
with myself, I was now to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I
can never enough remember: he would take no-
thing of me for my passage, gave me twenty ducats
for the leopard's skin, and forty for the lion's skin,
which I had in my boat, and caused everything I
had in the ship to be punctually delivered to me;
and what I was willing to sell, he bought of me;
such as the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a
piece of the lump of bees-wax,- for I had made
candles of the rest; in a word, I made about two
hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo;
and with this stock I went on shore in the Brazils.
I had not been long here before I was recom-
mended to the house of a good honest man, like
himself, who had an ingenio as they call it (that is,
a plantation and a sugar-house). I lived with him
some time, and acquainted myself, by that means,
with the manner of planting and of making sugar;
and seeing how well the planters lived, and how





THE ADVENTURES OF


they got rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could get
a license to settle there, I would turn planter among
them: endeavouring, in the meantime, to find out
some way to get my money, which I had left in
London, remitted to me. To this purpose, getting
a kind of letter of naturalization, I purchased as
much land that was uncured as my money would
reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and
settlement; such a one as might be suitable to the
stock which I proposed to myself to receive from
England.
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but
born of English parents, whose name was Wells,
and in much such circumstances as I was. I call
him my neighbour, because his plantation lay next
to mine, and we went on very sociably together.
My stock was but low, as well as his; and we rather
planted for food than anything else, for about two
years. However, we began to increase, and our land
began to come into order; so that the third year
we planted some tobacco, and made each of us a
large piece of ground ready for planting canes in
the year to come; but we both wanted help; and
now I found more than before, I had done wrong
in parting with my boy Xury.
But, alas! for me to do wrong, that never did
right, was no great wonder. I had no remedy but
to go on: I had got into an employment quite re-
mote to my genius, and directly contrary to the
life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my
father's house and broke through all his good ad-





ROBINSON CRUSOE


vice: nay, I was coming into the very middle sta-
tion, or upper degree of low life, which my father
advised me to before; and which, if I resolved to
go on with, I might as well have staid at home,
and never have fatigued myself in the world as I
had done: and I used often to say to myself, I could
have done this as well in England, among my friends,
as have gone five thousand miles off to do it among
strangers and savages, in a wilderness, and at such
a distance as never to hear from any part of the
world that had the least knowledge of me.
In this manner, I used to look upon my con-
dition with the utmost regret. I had nobody to
converse with, but now and then this neighbour;
no work to be done, but by the labour of my
hands: and I used to say, I lived just like a man
cast away upon some desolate island, that had no-
body there but himself. But howjust has it been!
and how should all men reflect, that when they
compare their present conditions with others that
are worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the
exchange, and be convinced of their former felicity
by their experience: I say, how just has it been,
that the truly solitary life I reflected on, in an
island of mere desolation, should be my lot, who
had so often unjustly compared it with the life
which I then led, in which, had I continued, I
had, in all probability, been exceeding prosperous
and rich I
I was in some degree settled in my measures
for carrying on the plantation, before my kind






THE ADVENTURES OF


friend, the captain of the ship that took me up at
sea, went back; for the ship remained there, in
providing his lading and preparing for his voyage,
near three months. When telling him what little
stock I had left behind me in London, he gave
me this friendly and sincere advice: "Senhor In-
glez," says he (for so he always called me), "if
you will give me letters, and a procuration here
in form to me, with orders to the person who has
your money in London, to send your effects to
Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct, and in
such goods as are proper for this country, I will
bring you the produce of them, God willing, at
my return: but since human affairs are all subject
to changes and disasters, I would have you give
orders for but one hundred pounds sterling, which,
you say, is half your stock, and let the hazard be
run for the first, so that if it come safe, you may
order the rest the same way; and if it miscarry,
you may have the other half to have recourse to
for your supply." This was so wholesome advice,
and looked so friendly, that I could not but be
convinced it was the best course I could take; so
I accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman
with whom I left my money, and a procuration to
the Portuguese captain, as he desired me.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full ac-
count of all my adventures: my slavery, escape,
and how I had met with the Portuguese captain
at sea, the humanity of his behaviour, and what
condition I was now in, with all other necessary





ROBINSON CRUSOE


directions for my supply; and when this honest
captain came to Lisbon, he found means, by some
of the English merchants there, to send over, not
the order only, but a full account of my story to
a merchant at London, who represented it effectu-
ally to her: whereupon she not only delivered the
money, but, out of her own pocket, sent the
Portuguese captain a very handsome present for
his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London, vesting this hundred
pounds in English goods, such as the captain had
wrote for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon,
and he brought them all safe to me at the Brazils:
among which, without my direction (for I was too
young in my business to think of them), he had
taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron work,
and utensils, necessary for my plantation, and
which were of great use to me. When this cargo
arrived, I thought my fortune made, for I was
surprised with the joy of it; and my good stew-
ard, the captain, had laid out the five pounds,
which my friend had sent him as a present for
himself, to purchase and bring me over a servant,
under bond for six years' service, and would not
accept of any consideration except a little tobacco,
which I would have him accept, being of my own
produce. Neither was this all: but my goods
being all English manufactures, such as cloths,
stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable and
desirable in the country, I found means to sell
them to a very great advantage; so that I might





THE ADVENTURES OF


say I had more than four times the value of my
first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my
poor neighbour, I mean in the advancement of
my plantation: for the first thing I did, I bought
me a Negro slave, and a European servant also;
I mean another besides that which the captain
brought me from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made
the very means of our adversity, so was it with me.
I went on the next year with great success in my
plantation; I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on
my own ground, more than I had disposed of for
necessaries among my neighbours: and these fifty
rolls, being each of above one hundred pounds
weight, were well cured, and laid by against the
return of the fleet from Lisbon: and now, increas-
ing in business and in wealth, my head began to
be full of projects and undertakings beyond
my reach; such as are, indeed, often the ruin of
the best heads in business. Had I continued in
the station I was now in, I had room for all the
happy things to have yet befallen me, for which
my father so earnestly recommended a quiet,
retired life, and which he had so sensibly de-
scribed the middle station of life to be full of:
but other things attended me, and I was still to
be the wilful agent of all my own miseries; and,
particularly, to increase my fault, and double the
reflections upon myself, which in my future sor-
rows I should have leisure to make, all these mis-
carriages were procured by my apparent obstinate





ROBINSON CRUSOE


adhering to my foolish inclination of wandering
about, and pursuing that inclination, in contradic-
tion to the clearest views of doing myself good in
a fair and plain pursuit of those prospects, and
those measures of life, which nature and Provi-
dence concurred to present me with, and to make
my duty.
As I had once done thus in breaking away from
my parents, so I could not be content now, but I
must go and leave the happy view I had of being
a rich and thriving man in my new plantation,
only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of
rising faster than the nature of the thing admitted;
and thus I cast myself down again into the deep-
est gulf of human misery that ever man fell into,
or perhaps could be consistent with life and a
state of health in the world.
To come then, by just degrees, to the particu-
lars of this part of my story.-You may suppose,
that having now lived almost four years in the
Brazils, and beginning to thrive and prosper very
well upon my plantation, I had not only learned
the language, but had contracted an acquaintance
and friendship among my fellow-planters, as well
as among the merchants at St. Salvador, which was
our port: and that, in my discourses among them,
I had frequently given them an account of my two
voyages to the coast of Guinea, the manner of
trading with the Negroes there, and how easy it
was to purchase on the coast for trifles such as
beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glasc,






THE ADVENTURES OF


and the like not only gold dust, Guinea grains,
elephants' teeth, etc., but Negroes, for the service
of the Brazils, in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my dis-
courses on these heads, but especially to that part
which related to the buying Negroes; which was
a trade, at that time, not only not far entered into,
but, as far as it was, had been carried on by the
assientos, or permission of the kings of Spain and
Portugal, and engrossed from the public; so that
few Negroes were bought, and those excessively
dear.
It happened, being in company with some mer-
chants and planters of my acquaintance, and talk-
ing of those things very earnestly, three of them
came to me the next morning, and told me they
had been musing very much upon what I had
discoursed with them of the last night, and they
came to make a secret proposal to me: and, after
enjoining me to secrecy, they told me that they
had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that
they had all plantations as well as I, and were
straitened for nothing so much as servants; that
as it was a trade that could not be carried on,
because they could not publicly sell the Negroes
when they came home, so they desired to make
but one voyage, to bring the Negroes on shore
privately, and divide them among their own plan-
tations; and, in a word, the question was, whether
I would go their supercargo in the ship, to man-
age the trading part upon the coast of Guinea;






ROBINSON CRUSOE


and they offered me that I should have an equal
share of the Negroes, without providing any part
of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed,
had it been made to any one that had not a set-
tlement and plantation of his own to look after,
which was in a fair way of coming to be very con-
siderable, and with a good stock upon it. But for
me, that was thus entered and established, and
had nothing to do but go on as I had begun, for
three or four years more, and to have sent for the
other hundred pounds from England; and who,
in that time and with that little addition, could
scarce have failed of being worth three or four
thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing too;
for me to think of such a voyage was the most
preposterous thing that ever man, in such circum-
stances, could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer,
could no more resist the offer than I could re-
strain my first rambling designs, when my father's
good counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I told
them I would go with all my heart, if they would
undertake to look after my plantation in my ab-
sence, and would dispose of it to such as I should
direct, if I miscarried. This they all engaged to
do, and entered into writings or covenants to do
so: and I made a formal will, disposing of my plan-
tation and effects in case of my death; making
the captain of the ship that had saved my life, as
before, my universal heir; but obliging him to





THE ADVENTURES OF


dispose of my effects as I had directed in my will;
one-half of the produce being to himself, and the
other to be shipped to England. In short, I took
all possible caution to preserve my effects, and to
keep up my plantation: had I used half as much
prudence to have looked into my own interest, and
have made a judgment of what I ought to have
done and not to have done, I had certainly never
gone away from so prosperous an undertaking,
leaving all the probable views of a thriving cir-
cumstance, and gone a voyage to sea, attended with
all its common hazards, to say nothing of the
reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes to
myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the
dictates of my fancy, rather than my reason: and
accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the cargo
furnished, and all things done as by agreement by
my partners in the voyage, I went on board in an
evil hour again, the first of September, 1659, being
the same day eight years that I went from my
parents at Hull, in order to act the rebel to their
authority, and the fool to my own interest.
Our ship was about one hundred and twenty
tons burden, carried six guns and fourteen men,
besides the master, his boy, and myself; we had
on board no large cargo of goods, except of such
toys as were fit for our trade with the Negroes,
such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles,
especially little looking-glasses, knives, scissars,
hatchets, and the like.






ROBINSON CRUSOE


The very same day I went on board we set sail,
standing away to the northward upon our own
coast, with design to stretch over for the African
coast. When they came about ten or twelve de-
grees of northern latitude, which, it seems, was the
manner of their course in those days, we had very
good weather, only excessively hot all the way
upon our own coast, till we came to the height of
Cape St. Augustino; from whence, keeping farther
off at sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if
we were bound for the isle Fernando de Noronha,
holding our course N. E. by N. and leaving those
isles on the east. In this course we passed the
Line in about twelve days' time, and were, by our
last observation, in seven degrees twenty-two min-
utes northern latitude, when a violent tornado, or
hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge:
it began from the south-east, came about to the
north-west, and then settled in the north-east;
from whence it blew in such a terrible manner,
that for twelve days together we could do nothing
but drive, and, scudding away before it, let it carry
us whithersoever fate and the fury of the winds
directed; and, during these twelve days, I need
not say that I expected every day to be swallowed
up; nor, indeed, did any in the ship expect to save
their lives.
In this distress, we had, besides the terror of the
storm, one of our men died of the calenture, and
one man and a boy washed overboard. About the
twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the master






THE ADVENTURES OF


made an observation as well as he could, and found
that he was in about eleven degrees north latitude,
but that he was twenty-two degrees of longitude
difference west from Cape St. Augustino; so that
he found he was got uponi the coast of Guiana, or
the north part of Brazil, beyond the river Ama-
zons, toward that of the river Oronoco, commonly
called the Great River; and began to consult with
me what course he should take, for the ship was
leaky and very much disabled, and he was for
going directly back to the coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that; and looking over
the charts of the sea-coast of America with him,
we concluded there was no inhabited country for
us to have recourse to, till we came within the cir-
cle of the Carribee islands, and therefore resolved
to stand away for Barbadoes; which by keeping
off to sea, to avoid the indraft of the bay or gulf
of Mexico, we might easily perform, as we hoped,
in about fifteen days' sail; whereas we could not
possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa
without some assistance, both to our ship and our-
selves.
With this design, we changed our course, and
steered away N. W. by W. in order to reach some
of our English islands, where I hoped for relief:
but our voyage was otherwise determined; for being
in the latitude of twelve degrees eighteen minutes,
a second storm came upon us, which carried us
away with the same impetuosity westward, and
drove us so out of the very way of all human com-





ROBINSON CRUSOE


merce, that had all our lives been saved, as to the
sea, we were rather in danger of being devoured
by savages than ever returning to our own coun-
try.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard,
one of our men, early in the morning, cried out,
Land! and we had no sooner run out of the cabin
to look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the
world we were, than the ship struck upon a sand,
and in a moment, her motion being so stopped,
the sea broke over her in such a manner that we
expected we should all have perished immedi-
ately; and we were immediately driven into our
close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam
and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one who has not been in
the like condition to describe or conceive the
consternation of men in such circumstances: we
knew nothing where we were, or upon what land
it was we were driven, whether an island or the
main, whether inhabited or not inhabited; and as
the rage of the wind was still great, though rather
less than at first, we could not so much as hope to
have the ship hold many minutes without breaking
in pieces, unless the wind, by a kind of miracle,
should immediately turn about. In a word, we sat
looking upon one another, and expecting death
every moment, and every man acting accordingly,
as preparing for another world; for there was little
or nothing more for us to do in this; that which
was our present comfort, and all the comfort we





60 THE ADVENTURES OF
had, was, that, contrary to our expectation, the ship
did not break yet, and that the master said the wind
began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a
little abate, yet the ship having thus struck upon the
sand, and sticking too fast for us to expect her get-
ting off, we were in a dreadful condition indeed,
and had nothing to do but to think of saving our
lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our
stern just before the storm, but she was first staved
by dashing against the ship's rudder, and, in the
next place, she broke away, and either sunk, or was
driven off to sea; so there was no hope from her:
we had another boat on board, but how to get her
off into the sea was a doubtful thing; however,
there was no room to debate, for we fancied the
ship would break in pieces every minute, and some
told us she was actually broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel laid hold
of the boat, and with the help of the rest of the
men, they got her flung over the ship's side; and
getting all into her, we let her go, and committed
ourselves, being eleven in number, to God's mercy
and the wild sea: for though the storm was abated
considerably, yet the sea went dreadfully high upon
the shore, and might be well called den wild zee,
as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for
we all saw plainly, that the sea went so high that
the boat could not live, and that we should be
inevitably drowned. As to making sail, we had






ROBINSON CRUSOE


none; nor, if we had, could we have done anything
with it; so we worked at the oar towards the land,
though with heavy hearts, like men going to exe-
cution; for we all knew that, when the boat came
nearer to the shore, she would be dashed in a thou-
sand pieces by the breach of the sea. However, we
committed our souls to God in the most earnest
manner, and the wind driving us towards the shore,
we hastened our destruction with our own hands,
pulling as well as we could towards land.
What the shore was -whether rock or sand,
whether steep or shoal -we knew not; the only
hope that could rationally give us the least shadow
of expectation was, if we might happen into some
bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where by
great chance we might have run our boat in, or got
under the lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth
water. But nothing of this appeared; and as we
made nearer and nearer the shore, the land looked
more frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a
league and a half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave,
mountain-like, came rolling astern ofus, and plainly
bade us expect the coup degrace. In a word, it took
us with such fury, that it overset the boat at once;
and separating us, as well from the boat as from one
another, gave us not time hardly to say," 0 God!"
for we were all swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought
which I felt when I sunk into the water; for though
I swam very well, yet I could not deliver myself






62 THE ADVENTURES OF
from the waves so as to draw my breath, till that
wave having driven me, or rather carried me, a vast
way on towards the shore, and having spent itself,
went back, and left me upon the land almost dry,
but half dead with the water I took in. I had so
much presence of mind, as well as breath left, that
seeing myself nearer the main land than I expected,
I got upon my feet, and endeavoured to make on
towards the land as fast as I could, before another
wave should return and take me up again; but I
soon found it was impossible to avoid it; for I saw
the sea come after me as high as a great hill, and
as furious as an enemy which I had no means or
strength to contend with : my business was to hold
my breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I
could ; and so, by swimming, to preserve my breath-
ing, and pilot myself towards the shore, if possible;
my greatest concern now being that the wave, as it
would carry me a great way towards the shore when
it came on, might not carry me back again with it
when it gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again buried me
at once twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body;
and I could feel myself carried with a mighty force
and swiftness towards the shore, a very great way;
but I held my breath, and assisted myself to swim
still forward with all my might. I was ready to burst
with holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising
up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my head
and hands shoot out above the surface of the water;
and though it was not two seconds of time that I






















































































ROBINSON CRUSOE STRUGGLING TO REACH THE SHORE


Y
r
.r

~?a, c4~


P'

r






ROBINSON CRUSOE


could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly,
gave me breath and new courage. I was covered
again with water a good while, but not so long but
I held it out; and finding the water had spent itself,
and began to return, I struck forward against the
return of the waves, and felt ground again with my
feet. I stood still a few moments, to recover breath
and till the water went from me, and then took to
my heels, and ran with what strength I had farther
towards the shore. But neither would this deliver
me from the fury of the sea, which came pouring
in after me again; and twice more I was lifted up
by the waves and carried forwards as before, the
shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well nigh been
fatal to me; for the sea, having hurried me along
as before, landed me, or rather dashed me, against
a piece of a rock, and that with such force, that it
left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my
own deliverance; for the blow, taking my side and
breast, beat the breath, as it were, quite out of my
body; and had it returned again immediately, I
must have been strangled in the water: but I re-
covered a little before the return of the waves, and,
seeing I should again be covered with the water, I
resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so
to hold my breath, if possible, till the wave went
back. Now, as the waves were not so high as the
first, being nearer land, I held my hold till the
wave abated, and then fetched another run, which
brought me so near the shore, that the next wave,






THE ADVENTURES OF


though it went over me, yet did not so swallow me
up as to carry me away; and the next run I took,
I got to the main land; where, to my great com-
fort, I clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and
sat me down upon the grass, free from danger, and
quite out of the reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began
to look up and thank God that my life was saved,
in a case wherein there was, some minutes before,
scarcely any room to hope. I believe it is impos-
sible to express, to the life, what the ecstasies and
transports of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I
may say, out of the grave: and I did not wonder
now at the custom, viz., that when a malefactor,
who has the halter about his neck, is tied up, and
just going to be turned off, and has a reprieve
brought to him; I say, I do not wonder that they
bring a surgeon with it, to let him blood that very
moment they tell him of it, that the surprise may
not drive the animal spirits from the heart, and
overwhelm him.
For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands,
and my whole being, as I may say, wrapped up
in the contemplation of my deliverance; making
a thousand gestures and motions which I cannot
describe; reflecting upon my comrades that were
drowned, and that there should not be one soul
saved but myself; for, as for them, I never saw
them afterwards, or any sign of them, except three





ROBINSON CRUSOE


of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not
fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel when the
breach and froth of the sea being so big I could
hardly see it, it lay so far off- and considered,
"Lord how was it possible I could get on shore ? "
After I had solaced my mind with the comfort-
able part of my condition, I began to look around
me, to see what kind of a place I was in, and what
was next to be done; and I soon found my com-
forts abate, and that, in a word, I had a dreadful
deliverance: for I was wet, had no clothes to shift
me, nor anything either to eat or drink, to comfort
me; neither did I see any prospect before me, but
that of perishing with hunger, or being devoured
by wild beasts: and that which was particularly
afflicting to me was, that I had no weapon either to
hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or
to defend myself against any other creature that
might desire to kill me for theirs. In a word, I
had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe,
and a little tobacco in a box. This was all my pro-
vision; and this threw me into such terrible agonies
of mind that, for a while, I ran about like a mad-
man. Night coming upon me, I began, with a heavy
heart, to consider what would be my lot if there
were any ravenous beasts in that country, seeing
at night they always come abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at
that time, was, to get up into a thick bushy tree,
like a fir. but thorny which grew near me, and





ROBINSON CRUSOE


where I resolved to sit all night-and consider
the next day what death I should die, for as yet I
saw no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong
from the shore, to see if I could find any fresh
water to drink, which I did, to my great joy; and
having drank, and put a little tobacco into my
mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and
getting up into it, endeavoured to place myself so
as that, if I should fall asleep, I might not fall;
and having cut me a short stick, like a truncheon,
for my defence, I took up my lodging; and hav-
ing been excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and
slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could have
done in my condition; and found myself the most
refreshed with it that I think I ever was on such
an occasion.

















WHEN I waked it was broad day, the weather
clear, and the storm abated, so that the sea
did not rage and swell as before; but that which
surprised me most was, that the ship was lifted off
in the night from the sand where she lay, by the
swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost as
far as the rock which I at first mentioned, where
I had been so bruised by the wave dashing me
against it. This being within about a mile from
the shore where I was, and the ship seeming to
stand upright still, I wished myself on board, that
at least I might save some necessary things for
my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the
tree, I looked about me again, and the first thing
I found was the boat, which lay, as the wind and
the sea had tossed her up, upon the land, about
two miles on my right hand. I walked as far as I
could upon the shore to have got to her; but
found a neck, or inlet, of water, between me and
the boat, which was about half a mile broad; so I





THE ADVENTURES OF


came back for the present, being more intent upon
getting at the ship, where I hoped to find some-
thing for my present subsistence.
A little after noon, I found the sea very calm,
and the tide ebbed so far out, that I could come
within a quarter of a mile of the ship: and here
I found a fresh renewing of my grief; for I saw
evidently, that if we had kept on board, we had
been all safe; that is to say, we had all got safe
on shore, and I had not been so miserable as to be
left entirely destitute of all comfort and company,
as I now was. This forced tears from my eyes
again; but as there was little relief in that, I re-
solved, if possible, to get to the ship: so I pulled
off my clothes, for the weather was hot to extrem-
ity, and took the water; but when I came to the
ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how
to get on board; for as she lay aground, and high
out of the water, there was nothing within my
reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and
the second time I spied a small piece of rope, which
I wondered I did not see at first, hang down by
the fore-chains so low, as that with great difficulty
I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope got
into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that
the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water
in her hold; but that she lay so on the side of a
bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern
lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head low,
almost to the water. By this means all her quarter
was free, and all that was in that part was dry; for





ROBINSON CRUSOE


you may be sure my first work was to search and
to see what was spoiled and what was free: and,
first, I found that all the ship's provisions were
dry and untouched by the water; and, being very
well disposed to eat, I went to the bread-room
and filled my pockets with biscuit, and ate it as I
went about other things, for I had no time to lose.
I also found some rum in the great cabin, of which
I took a large dram, and which I had indeed need
enough of, to spirit me for what was before me.
Now I wanted nothing but a boat, to furnish my-
self with many things which I foresaw would be
very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was
not to be had, and this extremity roused my ap-
plication. We had several spare yards, and two or
three large spars of wood, and a spare topmast or
two in the ship; I resolved to fall to work with
these, and flung as many overboard as I could
manage for their weight, tying every one with a
rope, that they might not drive away. When this
was done, I went down the ship's side, and pulling
them to me, I tied four of them fast together at
both ends, as well as I could, in the form of a
raft, and laying two or three short pieces of plank
upon them, crossways, I found I could walk upon
it very well, but that it was not able to bear any
great weight, the pieces being too light: so I went
to work, and with the carpenter's saw I cut a spare
topmast into three lengths, and added them to my
raft, with a great deal of labour and pains. But the





THE ADVENTURES OF


hope of furnishing myself with necessaries encour-
aged me to go beyond what I should have been
able to have done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any rea-
sonable weight. My next care was what to load it
with, and how to preserve what I laid upon it from
the surf of the sea; but I was not long considering
this. I first laid all the planks or boards upon it
that I could get, and having considered well what
I most wanted, I got three of the seamen's chests,
which I had broken open and emptied, and low-
ered them down upon my raft; these I filled with
provisions, viz. bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses,
five pieces of dried goats' flesh (which we lived
much upon), and a little remainder of European
corn, which had been laid by for some fowls which
we had brought to sea with us, but the fowls were
killed. There had been some barley and wheat to-
gether, but, to my great disappointment, I found
afterwards that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all.
As for liquors, I found several cases of bottles be-
longing to our skipper, in which were some cordial
waters; and, in all, about five or six gallons of rack.
These I stowed by themselves, there being no need
to put them into the chests, nor any room for them.
While I was doing this, I found the tide began to
flow, though very calm; and I had the mortifica-
tion to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I
had left on shore upon the sand, swim away; as for
my breeches, which were only linen, and open-
kneed, I swam on board in them, and my stock-






ROBINSON CRUSOE


ings. However, this put me upon rummaging for
clothes, of which I found enough, but took no
more than I wanted for present use, for I had
other things which my eye was more upon; as,
first, tools to work with on shore; and it was after
long searching that I found the carpenter's chest,
which was indeed a very useful prize to me, and
much more valuable than a ship-lading of gold
would have been at that time. I got it down to
my raft, even whole as it was, without losing time
to look into it, for I knew in general what it con-
tained.
My next care was for some ammunition and
arms. There were two very good fowling-pieces in
the great cabin, and two pistols; these I secured
first, with some powder-horns and a small bag of
shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there were
three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not
where our gunner had stowed them; but with much
search I found them, two of them dry and good,
the third had taken water. Those two I got to my
raft, with the arms. And now I thought myself
pretty well freighted, and began to think how I
should get to shore with them, having neither sail,
oar, nor rudder; and the least capful of wind would
have overset all my navigation.
I had three encouragements: Ist, a smooth, calm
sea; 2dly, the tide rising, and setting in to the
shore; 3dly, what little wind there was blew me
towards the land. And thus, having found two or
three broken oars belonging to the boat, and be-





THE ADVENTURES OP


sides the tools which were in the chest, I found
two saws, an axe, and a hammer; and with this
cargo I put to sea. For a mile, or thereabouts, my
raft went very well, only that I found it drive a
little distant from the place where I had landed
before; by which I perceived that there was some
indraft of the water, and consequently I hoped to
find some creek or river there, which I might make
use of as a port to get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was: there appeared before
me a little opening of the land, and I found a strong
current of the tide set into it; so I guided my raft,
as well as I could, to get into the middle of the
stream. But here I had like to have suffered a sec-
ond shipwreck, which, if I had, I think it verily
would have broken my heart; for, knowing nothing
of the coast, my raft ran aground at one end of it
upon a shoal, and, not being aground at the other
end, it wanted but a little that all my cargo had
slipped off towards that end that was afloat, and so
fallen into the water. I did my utmost, by setting
my back against the chests, to keep them in their
places, but could not thrust off the raft with all my
strength; neither durst I stir from the posture I
was in, but holding up the chests with all my might,
I stood in that manner near half an hour, in which
time the rising of the water brought me a little
more upon a level; and a little after, the water still
rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off
with the oar I had into the channel, and then driv-
ing up higher, I at length found myself in the






ROBINSON CRUSOE


mouth of a little river, with land on both sides, and
a strong current or tide running up. I looked on
both sides for a proper place to get to shore, for I
was not willing to be driven too high up the river,
hoping, in time, to see some ship at sea, and there-
fore resolved to place myself as near the coast as
I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore
of the creek, to which, with great pain and diffi-
culty I guided my raft, and at last got so near, as
that, reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust
her directly in ; but here I had like to have dipped
all my cargo into the sea again; for that shore lying
pretty steep, that is to say, sloping, there was no
place to land, but where one end of my float, if it
ran on shore, would lie so high, and the other sink
lower, as before, that it would endanger my cargo
again. All that I could do was to wait till the tide
was at the highest, keeping the raft with my oar
like an anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the
shore, near a flat piece of ground, which I expected
the water would flow over; and so it did. As soon
as I found water enough, for my raft drew about
a foot of water, I thrust her upon that flat piece
of ground, and there fastened or moored her, by
sticking my two broken oars into the ground one
on one side, near one end, and one on the other
side, near the other end: and thus I lay till the
water ebbed away and left my raft and all my cargo
safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek





THE ADVENTURES OF


a proper place for my habitation, and where to stow
my goods, to secure them from whatever might
happen. Where I was I yet knew not; whether on
the continent or on an island; whether inhabited
or not inhabited; whether in danger of wild beasts
or not. There was a hill not above a mile from me,
which rose up very steep and high, and which
seemed to overtop some other hills, which lay as
in a ridge from it, northward. I took out one of
the fowling-pieces and one of the pistols and a horn
of powder; and thus armed, I travelled for discov-
ery up to the top of that hill; where, after I had,
with great labour and difficulty, got up to the top,
I saw my fate, to my great affliction, viz. that I was
in an island, environed every way with the sea, no
land to be seen, except some rocks, which lay a
great way off, and two small islands, less than this,
which lay about three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren,
and, as I saw good reason to believe, uninhabited,
except by wild beasts, of whom, however, I saw
none; yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not
their kinds; neither, when I killed them, could I
tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my
coming back, I shot at a great bird, which I saw
sitting upon a tree, on the side of a great wood. I
believe it was the first gun that had been fired
there since the creation of the world: I had no
sooner fired, but from all the parts of the wood
there arose an innumerable number of fowls, of
many sorts, making a confused screaming and cry-





ROBINSON CRUSOE


ing, every one according to his usual note; but not
one of them of any kind that I knew. As for the
creature I killed, I took it to be a kind of a hawk,
its colour and beak resembling it, but it had no
talons or claws more than common. Its flesh was
carrion and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to
my raft, and fell to work to bring my cargo on
shore, which took me up the rest of that day: what
to do with myself at night I knew not, nor indeed
where to rest: for I was afraid to lie down on the
ground, not knowing but some wild beast might
devour me; though, as I afterwards found, there
was really no need for those fears. However, as
well as I could, I barricadoed myself round with
the chests and boards that I had brought on shore,
and made a kind of hut for that night's lodging.
As for food, I yet saw not which way to supply
myself, except that I had seen two or three crea-
tures, like hares, run out of the wood where I shot
the fowl.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a
great many things out of the ship which would be
useful to me, and particularly some of the rigging
and sails, and such other things as might come to
land; and I resolved to make another voyage on
board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that
the first storm that blew must necessarily break her
all in pieces, I resolved to set all other things apart
till I got everything out of the ship that I could
get. Then I called a council, that is to say, in my





THE ADVENTURES OF


thoughts, whether I should take back the raft; but
this appeared impracticable: so I resolved to go as
before, when the tide was down; and I did so, only
that I stripped before I went from my hut; having
nothing on but a chequered shirt, a pair of linen
drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared
a second raft; and having had experience of the
first, I neither made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it
so hard, but yet I brought away several things very
useful to me; as, first, in the carpenter's stores,
I found two or three bags of nails and spikes, a
great screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets; and,
above all, that most useful thing called a grind-
stone. All these I secured together, with several
things belonging to the gunner; particularly, two
or three iron crows, and two barrels of musket
bullets, seven muskets, and another fowling-piece,
with some small quantity of powder more, a large
bag full of small shot, and a great roll of sheet
lead; but this last was so heavy, I could not hoist
it up to get it over the ship's side. Besides these
things, I took all the men's clothes that I could
find, and a spare fore-topsail, a hammock, and some
bedding; and with this I loaded my second raft,
and brought them all safe on shore, to my very
great comfort.
I was under some apprehensions lest, during my
absence from the land, my provisions might be de-
voured on shore: but when I came back, I found
no sign of any visitor; only there sat a creature





ROBINSON CRUSOE


like a wild cat upon one of the chests, which, when
I came towards it, ran away a little distance, and
then stood still. She sat very composed and un-
concerned, and looked full in my face, as if she
had a mind to be acquainted with me. I presented
my gun to her, but, as she did not understand it,
she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she
offer to stir away; upon which I tossed her a bit
of biscuit, though, by the way, I was not very free
of it, for my store was not great; however, I spared
her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled of it,
and ate it, and looked (as pleased) for more; but
I thanked her, and could spare no more: so she
marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore-though
I was fain to open the barrels of powder, and bring
them by parcels, for they were too heavy, being
large casks I went to work to make me a little
tent, with the sail, and some poles, which I cut for
that purpose; and into this tent I brought every-
thing that I knew would spoil either with rain or
sun; and I piled all the empty chests and casks up
in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from any
sudden attempt either from man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door
of the tent with some boards within, and an empty
chest set up on end without; and spreading one of
the beds upon the ground, laying my two pistols
just at my head, and my gun at length by me, I
went to bed for the first time, and slept very quietly
all night, for I was very weary and heavy; for the






THE ADVENTURES OF


night before I had slept little, and had laboured
very hard all day, as well to fetch all those things
from the ship, as to get them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that
ever was laid up, I believe, for one man : but I was
not satisfied still ; for while the ship sat upright in
that posture, I thought I ought to get everything
out of her that I could; so every day, at low water,
I went on board, and brought away something or
other: but particularly the third time I went, I
brought away as much of the rigging as I could,
as also all the small ropes and rope-twine I could
get, with a piece of spare canvas, which was to
mend the sails upon occasion, and the barrel of
wet gunpowder. In a word, I brought away all the
sails first and last; only that I was fain to cut them
in pieces, and bring as much at a time as I could;
for they were no more useful to be sails, but as mere
canvas only.
But that which comforted me still more was,
that, last of all, after I had made five or six such
voyages as these, and thought I had nothing more
to expect from the ship that was worth my med-
dling with; I say, after all this, I found a great
hogshead of bread, and three large runlets of rum
or spirits, and a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine
flour; this was surprising to me, because I had
given over expecting any more provisions, except
what was spoiled by the water. I soon emptied
the hogshead of that bread, and wrapped it up,
parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut






ROBINSON CRUSOE


out; and, in a word, I got all this safe on shore
also.
The next day I made another voyage, and now,
having plundered the ship of what was portable and
fit to hand out, I began with the cables, and cutting
the great cable into pieces such as I could move,
I got two cables and a hawser on shore, with all
the ironwork I could get; and having cut down
the spritsail-yard, and the mizen-yard, and every-
thing I could, to make a large raft, I loaded it
with all those heavy goods, and came away; but
my good luck began now to leave me ; for this raft
was so unwieldy, and so overladen, that after I was
entered the little cove, where I had landed the
rest of my goods, not being able to guide it so
handily as I did the other, it overset, and threw
me and all my cargo into the water; as for myself,
it was no great harm, for I was near the shore; but
as to my cargo, it was a great part of it lost, es-
pecially the iron, which I expected would have
been of great use to me: however, when the tide
was out, I got most of the pieces of cable ashore,
and some of the iron, though with infinite labour;
for I was fain to dip for it into the water, a work
which fatigued me very much. After this I went
every day on board, and brought away what I
could get.
I had been now thirteen days ashore, and had
been eleven times on board the ship; in which time
I had brought away all that one pair of hands could
well be supposed capable to bring; though I believe






THE ADVENTURES OF


verily, had the calm weather held, I should have
brought away the whole ship, piece by piece; but
preparing, the twelfth time, to go on board, I found
the wind began to rise. However, at low water, I
went on board; and though I thought I had rum-
maged the cabin so effectually as that nothing could
be found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers in
it, in one of which I found two or three razors, and
one pair of large scissars, with some ten or a dozen
of good knives and forks; in another I found about
thirty-six pounds in money, some European coin,
some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold, and
some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money;
0 drug I exclaimed, "what art thou good for ?
Thou art not worth to me, no, not the taking off
the ground; one of those knives is worth all this
heap: I have no manner of use for thee; e'en
remain where thou art, and go to the bottom, as
a creature whose life is not worth saving." How-
ever, upon second thoughts, I took it away; and
wrapping all this in a piece of canvas, I began to
think of making another raft; but while I was pre,
paring this, I found the sky overcast, and the wind
began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew
a fresh gale from the shore. It presently occurred
to me, that it was in vain to pretend to make a
raft with the wind off shore; and that it was my
business to be gone before the tide of flood began,
or otherwise I might not be able to reach the
shore at all. Accordingly I let myself down into






ROBINSON CRUSOE


the water, and swam across the channel which lay
between the ship and the sands, and even that
with difficulty enough, partly with the weight of
the things I had about me, and partly the rough-
ness of the water; for the wind rose very hastily,
and before it was quite high water it blew a storm.
But I was got home to my little tent, where I
lay, with all my wealth about me very secure. It
blew very hard all that night, and in the morning,
when I looked out, behold no more ship was to be
seen I I was a little surprised, but recovered myself
with this satisfactory reflection, viz. that I had lost
no time, nor abated no diligence, to get every-
thing out of her that could be useful to me, and
that, indeed, there was little left in her that I was
able to bring away, if I had had more time.
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship,
or of anything out of her, except what might drive
on shore from her wreck; as, indeed, divers pieces
of her afterwards did; but those things were of
small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about
securing myself against either savages, if any should
appear, or wild beasts, if any were in the island;
and I had many thoughts of the method how to
do this, and what kind of dwelling to make, whether
I should make a cave in the earth, or a tent upon
the earth; and, in short, I resolved upon both;
the manner and description of which, it may not
be improper to give an account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my






THE ADVENTURES OF


settlement, particularly because it was upon a low,
moorish ground, near the sea, and I believed it
would not be wholesome; and more particularly
because there was no fresh water near it; so I re-
solved to find a more healthy and more convenient
spot of ground.
I consulted several things in my situation, which
I found would be proper for me: first,airand fresh
water, I just now mentioned; secondly, shelter from
the heat of the sun; thirdly, security from raven-
ous creatures, whether men or beasts; fourthly, a
view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight,
I might not lose any advantage for my deliver-
ance, of which I was not willing to banish all my
expectation yet.
In search for a place proper for this, I found a
little plain on the side of a rising hill, whose front
towards this little plain was steep as a house-side,
so that nothing could come down upon me from
the top. On the side of this rock, there was a hol-
low place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or
door of a cave; but there was not really any cave,
or way into the rock, at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow
place, I resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was
not above a hundred yards broad, and about twice
as long, and lay like a green before my door; and,
at the end of it, descended irregularly every way
down into the low ground by the seaside. It was
on the N. N. W. side of the hill; so that it was
sheltered from the heat every day, till it came to





ROBINSON CRUSOE


a W. and by S. sun, or thereabouts, which in those
countries is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before
the hollow place, which took in about ten yards in
its semi-diameter from the rock, and twenty yards
in its diameter, from its beginning and ending.
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong
stakes, driving them into the ground till they
stood very firm like piles, the biggest end being
out of the ground about five feet and a half, and
sharpened on the top. The two rows did not stand
above six inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I cut in
the ship, and laid them in rows, one upon another,
within the circle, between these two rows of stakes,
up to the top, placing other stakes in the inside,
leaning against them, about two feet and a half
high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was so
strong, that neither man nor beast could get into
it or over it. This cost me a great deal of time and
labour, especially to cut the piles in the woods, bring
them to the place, and drive them into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be not by
a door, but by a short ladder to go over the top;
which ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after me;
and so I was completely fenced in and fortified, as
I thought, from all the world, and consequently
slept secure in the night, which otherwise I could
not have done; though, as it appeared afterwards,
there was no need of all this caution against the
enemies that I apprehended danger from.

















NTO this fence or fortress, with infinite labour, I
carried all my riches, all my provisions, am-
munition, and stores, of which you have the ac-
count above; and I made a large tent, which, to
preserve me from the rains, that in one part of the
year are very violent there, I made double, viz. one
smaller tent within, and one larger tent above it,
and covered the uppermost with a large tarpaulin,
which I had saved among the sails.
And now I lay no more for a while in the bed
which I had brought on shore, but in a hammock,
which was indeed a very good one, and belonged
to the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions and
everything that would spoil by the wet; and having
thus enclosed all my goods I made up the entrance,
which till now I had left open, and so passed and
repassed as I said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way
into the rock, and bringing all the earth and stones
that I dug down out through my tent, I laid them





ROBINSON CRUSOE


up within my fence in the nature of a terrace, so
that it raised the ground within about a foot and
a half; and thus I made me a cave, just behind my
tent, which served me like a cellar to my house.
It cost me much labour and many days, before all
these things were brought to perfection; and there-
fore I must go back to some other things which
took up some of my thoughts. At the same time
it happened, after I had laid my scheme for the set-
ting up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm
of rain falling from a thick, dark cloud, a sudden
flash of lightning happened, and after that, a great
clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I
was not so much surprised with the lightning as I
was with a thought which darted into my mind as
swift as the lightning itself: "0 my powder!" My
very heart sunk within me when I thought that at
one blast all my powder might be destroyed; on
which, not my defence only, but the providing me
food, as I thought, entirely depended. I was no-
thing near so anxious about my own danger, though,
had the powder taken fire, I should never have
known who had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that
after the storm was over, I laid aside all my works,
my building and fortifying, and applied myself to
make bags and boxes, to separate the powder, and
to keep it a little and a little in a parcel, in hope,
that whatever might come, it might not all take
fire at once; and to keep it so apart, that it should
not be possible to make one part fire another. I fin-






86 THE ADVENTURES OF
ished this work in about a fortnight; and I think
my powder, which in all was about two hundred
and forty pounds weight was divided into not less
than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel that had
been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from
that; so I placed it in my new cave, which, in my
fancy, I called my kitchen, and the rest I hid up
and down in holes among the rocks, so that no wet
might come to it, marking very carefully where I
laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I
went out at least once every day with my gun, as
well to divert myself, as to see if I could kill any-
thing fit for food; and, as near as I could, to ac-
quaint myself with what the island produced. The
first time I went out, I presently discovered that
there were goats upon the island, which was a great
satisfaction to me; but then it was attended with
this misfortune to me, viz. that they were so shy,
so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the most
difficult thing in the world to come at them; but
I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I
might now and then shoot one, as it soon hap-
pened; for after I had found their haunts a little,
I laid wait in this manner for them: I observed, if
they saw me in the valleys, though they were upon
the rocks, they would run away as in a terrible
fright; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and
I was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me;
from whence I concluded, that by the position of
their optics, their sight was so directed downward,






ROBINSON CRUSOE


that they did not readily see objects that were
above them: so afterwards I took this method-
I always climbed the rocks first, to get above them,
and then had frequently a fair mark. The first shot
I made among these creatures, I killed a she-goat,
which had a little kid by her, which she gave suck
to, which grieved me heartily; but when the old
one fell, the kid stood stock still by her, till I came
and took her up; and not only so, but when I car-
ried the old one with me, upon my shoulders, the
kid followed me quite to my enclosure; upon
which I laid down the dam, and took the kid in
my arms, and carried it over my pale, in hopes to
have bred it up tame: but it would not eat; so
I was forced to kill it, and eat it myself. These two
supplied me with flesh a great while, for I ate spar-
ingly, and preserved my provisions (my bread espe-
cially) as much as possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it ab-
solutely necessary to provide a place to make a
fire in, and fuel to burn; and what I did for that,
as also how I enlarged my cave and what conven-
iences I made, I shall give a full account of it in
its proper place; but I must first give some little
account of myself, and of my thoughts about liv-
ing, which, it may well be supposed, were not a
few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as
I was not cast away upon that island without being
driven, as is said, by a violent storm quite out of
the course of our intended voyage, and a great way,





88 THE ADVENTURES OF
viz. some hundreds of leagues, out of the ordinary
course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason
to consider it as a determination of Heaven, that
in this desolate place, and in this desolate manner,
I should end my life. The tears would run plenti-
fully down my face when I made these reflections;
and sometimes I would expostulate with myself
why Providence should thus completely ruin its
creatures, and render them so absolutely miserable,
so abandoned without help, so entirely depressed,
that it could hardly be rational to be thankful for
such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me
to check these thoughts, and to reprove me; and
particularly, one day walking with my gun in my
hand, by the sea-side, I was very pensive upon the
subject of my present condition, when reason, as it
were, expostulated with me the other way, thus:
"Well, you are in a desolate condition it is true;
but, pray remember, where are the rest of you ?
Did not you come eleven of you into the boat ?
Where are the ten ? Why were not they saved, and
you lost ? Why were you singled out ? Is it better
to be here or there ?" And then I pointed to the
sea. All evils are to be considered with the good
that is in them, and with what worse attends them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was
furnished for my subsistence, and what would have
been my case if it had not happened (which was a
hundred thousand to one) that the ship floated from
the place where she first struck, and was driven so





ROBINSON CRUSOE


near to the shore, that I had time to get all these
things out of her; what would have been my case,
if I had been to have lived in the condition in
which I at first came on shore, without necessaries
of life, or necessaries to supply and procure them ?
"Particularly," said I aloud (though to myself),
" what should I have done without a gun, without
ammunition, without any tools to make anything,
or to work with, without clothes, bedding, a tent,
or any manner of covering ? And that now I had
all these to a sufficient quantity, and was in a fair
way to provide myself in such a manner as to live
without my gun, when my ammunition was spent:
so that I had a tolerable view of subsisting, with-
out any want, as long as I lived; for I considered,
from the beginning, how I would provide for the
accidents that might happen, and for the time that
was to come, not only after my ammunition should
be spent, but even after my health or strength
should decay.
I confess, I had not entertained any notion of my
ammunition being destroyed at one blast, I mean
my powder being blown up by lightning; and this
made the thoughts of it so surprising to me when
it lightened and thundered, as I observed just now.
And now being to enter into a melancholy rela-
tion of a scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was
never heard of in the world before, I shall take it
from its beginning, and continue it in its order.
It was, by my account, the 3oth of September,
when, in the manner as above said, I first set foot






90 ROBINSON CRUSOE
upon this horrid island; when the sun, being to
us in its autumnal equinox, was almost just over
my head: for I reckoned myself, by observation,
to be in the latitude of nine degrees twenty-two
minutes north of the Line.

















A FTER I had been there about ten or twelve days,
it came into my thoughts that I should lose
my reckoning of time for want of books, and pen
and ink, and should even forget the Sabbath days
from the working days; but, to prevent this, I cut
it with my knife upon a large post, in capital let-
ters; and making it into a great cross, I set it up
on the shore where I first landed, viz. I came
on shore here on the 30th of September, 1659."
Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day
a notch with my knife, and every seventh notch was
as long again as the rest, and every first day of the
month as long again as that long one: and thus I
kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly
reckoning of time.
But it happened that among the many things
which I brought out of the ship, in the several voy-
ages which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got
several things of less value, but not at all less use-
ful to me, which I found some time after, in rum-
maging the chests: as, in particular, pens, ink, and





THE ADVENTURES OF


paper; several parcels in the captain's, mate's, gun-
ner's, and carpenter's keeping; three or four com-
passes, some mathematical instruments, dials, per-
spectives, charts, and books of navigation; all of
which I huddled together, whether I might want
them or no; also I found three very good Bibles,
which came to me in my cargo from England,
and which I had packed up among my things;
some Portuguese books also, and, among them,
two or three popish prayer-books, and several
other books, all which I carefully secured. And I
must not forget, that we had in the ship a dog,
and two cats, of whose eminent history I may have
occasion to say something, in its place; for I car-
ried both the cats with me; and as for the dog,
he jumped out of the ship himself, and swam on
shore to me the day after I went on shore with
my first cargo, and was a trusty servant to me for
many years: I wanted nothing that he could fetch
me, nor any company that he could make up to
me, I only wanted to have him talk to me, but
that would not do. As I observed before, I found
pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded them to
the utmost; and I shall show that while my ink
lasted, I kept things very exact, but after that was
gone, I could not; for I could not make any ink,
by any means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many
things, notwithstanding all that I had amassed to-
gether; and of these, this of ink was one; as also
a spade, pickaxe, and shovel, to dig or remove the






ROBINSON CRUSOE 93
earth; needles, pins, and thread; as for linen, I
soon learned to want that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go
on heavily: and it was near a whole year before I
had entirely finished my little pale, or surrounded
my habitation. The piles or stakes, which were as
heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in cut-
ting and preparing in the woods, and more by far,
in bringing home; so that I spent sometimes two
days in cutting and bringing home one of those
posts, and a third day in driving it into the ground;
for which purpose I got a heavy piece of wood at
first, but ai last bethought myself of one of the
iron crows; which, however, though I found it an-
swer, made driving these posts or piles very labori-
ous and tedious work. But what need I have been
concerned at the tediousness of anything I had to
do, seeing I had time enough to do it in ? nor had
I any other employment, if that had been over, at
least that I could foresee, except the ranging the
island to seek for food; which I did, more or less,
every day.
I now began to consider seriously my condition,
and the circumstance I was reduced to; and I drew
up the state of my affairs in writing, not so much
to leave them to any that were to come after me
(for I was like to have but few heirs), as to deliver
my thoughts from daily poring upon them, and
afflicting my mind: and as my reason began now
to master my despondency, I began to comfort my-
self as well as I could, and to set the good against




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