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Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074472/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Series Title: Every child's library
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 250 p. : ill. ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Brundage, Frances, 1854-1937
Saalfield Pub. Co ( Publisher )
Publisher: Saalfield Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Chicago ;
Akron Ohio ;
New York
Publication Date: [1935]
 Subjects
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1864   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Illinois -- Chicago
United States -- Ohio -- Akron
United States -- New York -- New York
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel Defoe ; illustrated by Frances Brundage.
General Note: Cover col. ill. with title: Robinson Crusoe; spine title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Date from edition cited in: Cumulative book index, 1933-37, p. 617.
General Note: Part I of Robinson Crusoe.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074472
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001758148
oclc - 30769380
notis - AJH1203

Table of Contents
    Half Title
        Page 3
    Frontispiece
        Page 4
    Title Page
        Page 5
        Page 6
    The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
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Full Text

















EVERY CHILD'S LIBRARY























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It would have made a stoic smile to have seen me and my
little family sit down to dinner.


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The Life and Adventures
of
Robinson Crusoe



BY
DANIEL DEFOE


ILLUSTRATED BY
FRANCES BRUNDAGE


THE SAALFIELD PUBLISHING COMPANY
CHICAGO AKRON, OHIO NEW YORK

ADb I 0U. &. A.










THE LIFE
AND ADVENTURES
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE
I was born in the year 1632, in the City of York,
of a good family, though not of that country, my
father being a foreigner of Bremen, who settled
first at Hull. He got a good estate by merchan-
dise, and leaving off his trade, lived afterward at
York, from whence he had married my mother,
whose relations were named Robinson, a very good
family in that country, and from whom I was
called Robinson Kreutznaer; but by the usual cor-
ruption of words in England we are now called,
nay, we call ourselves, and write our name Crusoe.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to
any trade, my head began to be filled very early
with rambling thoughts. My father, who was very
ancient, had given me a competent share of
learning, as far as house education and a country
free school generally goes, and designed me for the
law; but I would be satisfied with nothing but
going to sea; and my inclination to this led me so
strongly against the will, nay, the commands, of
my father and all the entreaties and persuasions of
my mother, that there seemed to be something fatal
in that propension of nature tending directly to the
life of misery which was to befall me.
7







ROBINSON CRUSOE


Being one day at Hull, where I went casually,
and without any purpose of making an elopement
that time; but I say, being there, and one of my
companions being going by sea to London, in his
father's ship, and prompting me to go with them,
with the common allurement of sea-faring men,
viz., that it should cost me nothing for my passage,
I consulted neither father nor mother, nor so much
as sent them word of it; but leaving them to hear of
it as they might, without asking God's blessing, or
my father's, without any consideration of circum-
stances or consequences, and in an ill hour, God
knows, on the first of September, 1651, I went on
board a ship bound for London. Never any young
adventurer's misfortunes, I believe, began sooner,
or continued longer than mine. The ship was no
sooner gotten out of the Humber, but the wind be-
gan to blow, and the waves to rise in a most fright-
ful manner; and as I had never been at sea before,
I was most inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified
in my mind. I began now seriously to reflect upon
what I had done, and how justly I was overtaken
by the judgment of heaven for my wicked leaving
of my father's house, and abandoning my duty; all
the good counsel of my parents, my father's tears
and my mother's entreaties, came now fresh into
my mind, and my conscience, which was not yet
come to the pitch of hardness which it has been
since, reproached me with the contempt of advice,
and the breach of my duty to God and my father.
All this while the storm increased. I expected


































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"I warrant you were frighted, wa'n't you, last night, when
it blew but a capful of wind?"


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ROBINSON CRUSOE


every wave would have swallowed us up, and
that every time the ship fell down, as I thought,
in the trough or hollow of the sea, we should never
rise more; and in this agony of mind I made many
vows and resolutions, that if it would please God
here to spare my life this one voyage, if ever I got
once my foot upon dry land again, I would go
directly home to my father, and never set it into a
ship again while I lived; and that I would take his
advice, and never run myself into such miseries as
these any more.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the
while the storm continued, and indeed some time
after; but the next day the wind was abated and
the sea calmer, and I began to be a little inured to
it. However, I was very grave for all that day,
being also a little sea-sick still; but towards night
the weather cleared up, the wind was quite over,
and a charming fine evening followed; the sun went
down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning.
I slept well in the night, and was now no more
sea-sick but very cheerful, looking with wonder up-
on the sea that was so rough and terrible the day
before, and could be so calm and so pleasant in so
little time after. And now lest my good resolu-
tions should continue, my companion, who had in-
deed enticed me away, comes to me: "Well, Bob,"
says he, clapping me on the shoulder, "how do you
do after it? I warrant you were frighted, wasn't
you, last night, when it blew but a capful of wind?"
"A capful, do you call it?" said I; 'twas a ter-






ROBINSON CRUSOE


rible storm." "A storm, you fool you," replies he;
"do you call that a storm? Why, it was nothing at
all; give us but a good ship and sea-room, and we
think nothing of such a squall of wind as that; but
you're but a fresh-water sailor, Bob. Come, let us
make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that;
d'ye see what charming weather 'tis now?" To
make short this sad part of my story, we went the
old way of all sailors; the punch was made, and I
was made drunk with it, and in that one night's
wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my
reflections upon my past conduct, and all my reso-
lutions for my future.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into
Yarmouth Roads; the wind having been contrary
and the weather calm, we had made but little way
since the storm. Here we were obliged to come to
an anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing
contrary, viz., at south-west, for seven or eight
days, during which time a great many ships from
Newcastle came into the same roads, as the com-
mon harbor where the ships might wait for a wind
for the river.
The eighth day in the morning the wind in-
creased, and we had all hands at work to strike our
top-masts, and make everything snug and close,
that the ship might ride as easy as possible. By
noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship
rid forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we
thought once or twice our anchor had come home;
upon which our master ordered out the sheet-






ROBINSON CRUSOE


anchor, so that we rode with two anchors ahead,
and the cables veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed, and
now I began to see terror and amazement in the
faces even of the seamen themselves. When the
master himself came by me, and said we should
be all lost, I was dreadfully frightened; I got up
out of my cabin, and looked out. But such a
dismal sight I never saw; the sea went mountains
high and broke upon us every three or four minutes;
when I could look about, I could see nothing but
distress round us. Two ships that rid near us we
found had cut their masts by the board, being deep
loaden; and our men cried out that a ship which
rid about a mile ahead of us was foundered.
Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged
the master of our ship to let them cut away the
fore-mast, which he was very unwilling to. But
the boatswain protesting to him that if he did not
the ship would founder, he consented; and when
they had cut away the fore-mast, the main-mast
stood so loose, and shook the ship so much, they
were obliged to cut her away also, and make a
clear deck.
But the worst was not come yet; the storm con-
tinued with such fury that the seamen themselves
acknowledged they had never known a worse. We
had a good ship, but she was deep loaden, and
wallowed in the sea, that the seamen every now
and then cried out she would founder. It was my
advantage in one respect, that I did not know what






ROBINSON CRUSOE


they meant by founder till I inquired. However,
the storm was so violent, that I saw what is not
often seen: the master, the boatswain, and some
others more sensible than the rest, at their prayers,
and expecting every moment when the ship would
go to the bottom. In the middle of the night, and
under all the rest of our distresses, one of the men
that had been down on purpose to see cried out we
had sprung a leak; another said there was four feet
of water in the hold. Then all hands were called
to the pump. At that very word my heart, as I
thought, died within me, and I fell backwards upon
the side of my bed where I sat, into the cabin.
However, the men aroused me, and told me that I,
that was able to do nothing before, was as well able
to pump as another; at which I stirred up and
went to the pump and worked very heartily.
The water increasing in the hold, it was apparent
that the ship would founder. The master fired
guns for help; and a light ship, who had rid it
out just ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help
us. It was with the utmost hazard the boat came
near us, but it was impossible for us to get on
board, or for the boat to lie near the ship's side,
till at last the men rowing very heartily, and
venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast
them a rope over the stern with a buoy to it, and
then veered it out a great length, which they after
great labor and hazard took hold of, and we hauled
them close under our stern, and got all into their
boat. It was to no purpose for them or us after we






ROBINSON CRUSOE


were in the boat to think of reaching to their own
ship, so partly rowing and partly driving, our boat
went away to the norward, sloping towards the
shore almost as far as Winterton Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an
hour out of our ship but we saw her sink, and then
I understood for the first time what was meant by
a ship foundering in the sea.
We made but slow way towards the shore, and
walked afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as
unfortunate men, we were used with great human-
ity and had money given us sufficient to carry us
either to London or back to Hull, as we thought fit.
As for me, having some money in my pocket, I
travelled to London by land; and there, as well as
on the road, had many struggles with myself and
whether I should go home, or go to sea.
It was my lot to fall into pretty good company in
London. I first fell acquainted with the master of
a ship who had been on the coast of Guinea, and
who, having had very good success there, was re-
solved to go again; and who, taking a fancy to my
conversation, told me if I would go the voyage with
him I should be at no expense; I should be his mess-
mate and his companion; and if I could carry any-
thing with me, I should have all the advantage of
it that the trade would admit, and perhaps I might
meet with some encouragement.
I embraced the offer; and, entering into a strict
friendship with this captain, who was an honest
and plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with him,





ROBINSON CRUSOE


and carried a small adventure with me, which, by
the disinterested honesty of my friend the captain,
I increased very considerably, for I carried about
40 in such toys and trifles as the captain directed
me to buy. This 40 I had mustered together by
the assistance of some of my relations whom I
corresponded with, and who, I believe, got my
father, or at least my mother, to contribute so
much as that to my first adventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say was
successful in all my adventures, and which I owe to
the integrity and honesty of my friend the captain;
under whom also I got a competent knowledge of
the mathematics and rules of navigation, learned
how to keep an account of the ship's course, take an
Observation, and, in short, to understand some
things that were needful to be understood by a
sailor. For, as he took delight to introduce me, I
took delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage
made me both a sailor and a merchant; for I
brought him five pounds nine ounces of gold dust
for my adventure, which yielded me in London at
my return almost 300, and this filled me with
those aspiring thoughts which have since so com-
pleted my ruin.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my
friend, to my great misfortune, dying soon after his
arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage again,
and I embarked in the same vessel with one who
was his mate in the former voyage, and had now
got command of the ship. This was the unhappiest
2






ROBINSON CRUSOE


voyage that ever man made; for though I did not
carry quite 100 of my new-gained wealth, so that
I had 200 left, and which I lodged with my
friend's widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell
into terrible misfortunes in this voyage; and the
first was this, viz., our ship making her course to-
wards the Canary Islands, or rather between those
islands and the African shore, was surprised in the
grey of the morning by a Turkish rover of Sallee,
who gave chase to us with all the sail she could
make. Finding the pirate gained upon us, we pre-
pared to fight, our ship having twelve guns, and the
rogue eighteen. About three in the afternoon he
came up with us, and bringing to, by mistake, just
athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our stern,
as he intended, we brought eight of our guns to
bear on that side, and poured in a broadside upon
him, which made him sheer off again, after re-
turning our fire and pouring in also his small-shot
from near 200 men which he had on board. How-
ever, we had not a man touched, all our men
keeping close. He prepared to attack us again,
and we to defend ourselves; but laying us on board
the next time upon our other quarter, he entered
sixty men upon our decks, who immediately fell to
cutting and hacking the decks and rigging. We
plied them with small-shot, half-pikes, powder-
chests, and such like, and cleared our deck of them
twice. However, to cut short this melancholy part
of our story, our ship being disabled, and three of
our men killed and eight wounded, we were obliged





ROBINSON CRUSOE


to yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee,
a port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at
first I apprehended, being kept by the captain of
the rover as his proper prize, and made his slave,
being young and nimble and fit for his business.
After about two years an odd circumstance pre-
sented itself, which put the old thought of making
some attempt for my liberty again in my head.
My patron lying at home longer than usual without
fitting out his ship, which, as I heard, was for want
of money, he used constantly, once or twice a week,
sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take
the ship's pinnace, and go out into the road a-
fishing; and as he always took me and a young
Maresco with him to row the boat, we made him
very merry, and I proved very dexterous in catch-
ing fish; insomuch, that sometimes he would send
me with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth
the Maresco, as they called him, to catch a dish of
fish for him. It happened one time that, going a-
fishing in a stark calm morning, a fog rose so thick,
that though we were not a half a league from the
shore we lost sight of it; and rowing we knew not
whither or which way, we labored all day, and all
the next night, and when the morning came we
found we had pulled off to sea instead of pulling in
for the shore; and that we were at least two leagues
from the shore. However we got well in again,
though with a great deal of labor, and some danger,
for the wind began to blow pretty fresh in the






ROBINSON CRUSOE


morning; but particularly we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved
to take more care of himself for the future; and
having lying by him the long-boat of our English
ship which he had taken, he resolved he would not
go a-fishing any more without a compass and some
provision; so he ordered the carpenter of his ship,
who also was an English slave, to build a little
state-room, or cabin, in the middle of the long-boat,
like that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it
to steer and haul home the main-sheet, and room
before for a hand or two to stand and work the
shoulder-of-mutton sail; and the boom jibbed over
the top of the cabin, which lay very snug and low.
We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing,
and as I was most dexterous to catch fish for him,
he never went without me. It happened that he
had appointed to go out in this boat with two or
three Moors of some distinction and had therefore
sent on board the boat overnight a larger store of
provisions than ordinary; and had ordered me to
get ready three fuzees with powder and shot, which
were on board his ship, for that they designed some
sport of fowling as well as fishing.
The next morning my patron came on board
alone, and told me his guests had put off going,
and ordered me with the man and the boy, as
usual, to go out with the boat and catch them some
fish, for that his friends were to sup at his house.
This moment my former notions of deliverance
darted into my thoughts, for now I found I was






ROBINSON CRUSOE


like to have a little ship at my command; and my
master being gone I prepared to furnish myself,
not for a fishing business, but for a voyage.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to
speak to this Moor, to get something for our sub-
sistence on board; for I told him we must not pre-
sume to eat of our patron's bread. He said that
was true; so he brought a large basket of rusk or
biscuit of their kind, and three jars of fresh water,
into the boat. I knew where my patron's case of
bottles stood, and I conveyed them into the boat
while the Moor was on shore, as if they had been
there before for our master. I conveyed also a
great lump of beeswax into the boat, which weighed
about half a hundredweight, with a parcel of twine
or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer. An-
other trick I tried upon him, which he innocently
came into also. "Moely," said I, "our patron's
guns are on board the boat; can you not get a little
powder and shot? it may be we may kill some
alcamies (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves,
for I know he keeps the gunner's stores in the ship."
"Yes," says he, "I'll bring some"; and accordingly
he brought a great leather pouch which held about
a pound and a half of powder, or rather more; and
another with shot, that had five or six pounds with
some bullets, and put all into the boat. Thus
furnished with everything needful, we sailed out of
the port to fish. The castle, which is at the en-
trance of the port, knew who we were, and took
no notice of us; and we were not above a mile






ROBINSON CRUSOE


out of the port before we set us down to fish.
After we had fished some time and catched
nothing, I said to the Moor, "This will not do; our
master will not thus be served; we must stand
farther off." He, thinking no harm, agreed, and
being in the head of the boat set the sails; and as
I had the helm I run the boat out near a league
farther, and then I brought her to as if I would
fish; when giving the boy the helm, I stepped for-
ward to where the Moor was, and making as if I
stooped for something behind him, I took him by
surprise and tossed him clear overboard into the
sea. He rose immediately, for he swam like a
cork, and called to me, begged to be taken in, told
me he would go all the world over with me. He
swam so strong after the boat, that he would have
reached me very quickly, there being but little
wind; upon which I stepped into the cabin, and
fetching one of the fowling pieces, I presented it at
him, and told him I had done him no hurt, and if
he would be quiet I would do him none. "But,"
said I, "you swim well enough to reach the shore,
and the sea is calm; make the best of your way to
shore, and I will do you no harm; but if you come
near the boat I'll shoot you through the head, for
I am resolved to have my liberty." So he swam
for the shore, and I make no doubt but he reached
it with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.
When he was gone I turned to the boy, whom
they called Xury, and said to him, "Xury, if you
will be faithful to me I'll make you a great man;






ROBINSON CRUSOE


but if you will not stroke your face to be true to
me," that is, swear by Mahomet and his father's
beard, "I must throw you into the sea too." The
boy smiled in my face, and swore to be faithful to
me, and go all over the world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swim-
ming, I stood out directly to sea with the boat.
But as soon as it grew dusk, I changed my course,
and steered directly .south and by east, bending
my course a little toward the east, that I might
keep in with the shore; and having a fair, fresh
gale of wind, and a smooth, quiet sea, I made such
sail that I believe by the next day at three o'clock
in the afternoon, when I first made the land, I
could not be less than 150 miles south of Sallee.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors,
and the dreadful apprehensions I had of falling in-
to their hands, that I would not stop, or go on
shore, or come to anchor, the wind continuing fair,
till I had sailed in that manner five days; and then
the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded
also that if any of our vessels were in chase of me,
they also would now give over; so I ventured to
come to ar anchor in the mouth of a little river,
I knew not what, or where; neither what latitude,
what country, what nations, or what river. I
neither saw, or desired to see, any people; the
principal thing .I wanted was fresh water. We
came into this creek in the evening, resolving to
swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and discover
the country; but as soon as it was quite dark we






ROBINSON CRUSOE


heard such dreadful noises of the barking, roaring,
and howling of wild creatures, of we knew not what
kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear,
and begged of me not to go on shore till day.
"Well, Xury," said I, "then I won't; but it may be
we may see men by day, who will be as bad to us as
those lions." "Then we give them the shoot gun,"
says Xury, laughing; "make them run away."
Such English Xury spoke by conversing among us
slaves. However, I was glad to see the boy so
cheerful, and I gave him a dram (out of our pa-
tron's case of bottles) to cheer him up. After all,
Xury's advice was good, and I took it; we dropped
our little anchor and lay still all night. I say still,
for we slept none; for in two or three hours we saw
vast great creatures (we knew not what to call
them) of many sorts come down to the seashore
and run into the water, wallowing and washing
themselves for the pleasure of cooling themselves;
and they made such hideous howlings and yelling,
that I never indeed heard the like.
The next morning we found we need not take
great pains for water, for a little higher up the
creek we found the water fresh when the tide was
out, which flowed but a little way up; so we filled
our jars, and feasted on a hare we had killed, and
prepared to go on our way, having seen no foot-
steps of any human creature.
After this stop we made on to the southward con-
tinually for ten or twelve days, living very sparing
on our provisions, which began to abate very much,






ROBINSON CRUSOE


and going no oftener into the shore than we were
obliged to for fresh water. My design in this was
to make the river Gambia or Senegal-that is to
say, anywhere about the Cape de Verde-where I
was in hopes to meet with some European ship;
and if I did not, I knew not what course I had to
take, but to seek out for the islands, or perish there
among the negroes. I knew that all the ships
from Europe, which sailed either to the coast of
Guinea or to Brazil, or to the East Indies, made
this cape, or those islands; and in a word, I put the
whole of my fortune upon this single point, either
that I must meet with some ship, or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution many days,
Xury having the helm suddenly cried out, "Master,
master, a ship with a sail!" I jumped out of the
cabin, and immediately saw it was a Portuguese
ship, and, as I thought, bound to the coast of
Guinea, for negroes. I stretched out to sea as
much as I could, resolved to speak with them if
possible. But after I had crowded to the utmost,
and began to despair, they, it seems, saw me by the
help of their perspective glasses, so they shortened
sail and lay by for me; and in about three hours'
time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and
in Spanish, and in French, .but I understood none
of them; but at last a Scots sailor, who was on
board, called to me, and I answered him, and told
him I was an Englishman, that I had made my es-
cape out of slavery from the Moors, at Sallee.






ROBINSON CRUSOE


Then they bade me come on board, and very kindly
took me in, and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me that I was thus
delivered from such a miserable condition as I was
in; and I immediately offered all I had to the cap-
tain of the ship, as a return for my deliverance.
But he generously told me he would take nothing
from me, but that all I had should be delivered
safe to me when I came to the Brazils.
As to my boat, it was a very good one, and that
he saw, and told me he would buy it of me for the
ship's use, and asked me what I would have for it?
I told him he had been so generous to me in every-
thing, that I could not offer to make any price for
the boat, but left it entirely to him; upon which he
told me he would give me a note of his hand to pay
me eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil, and when
it came there, if any one offered to give more, he
would make it up. He offered me also sixty pieces
of eight more for my boy Xury, but I was very
loth to sell the poor boy's liberty, who had assisted
me so faithfully in procuring my own. However,
when I let him know my reason, he owned it to be
just, and offered me this medium, that he would
give the boy an obligation to set him free in ten
years if he turned Christian. Upon this, and
Xury saying he was willing to go to him, I let the
captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and
arrived in the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All
Saints' Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And






ROBINSON CRUSOE


now I was once more delivered from the most
miserable of all conditions of life; and what to do
next with myself I was now to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I
can never enough remember. He would take noth-
ing of me for my passage, and caused everything
I had in the ship to be punctually delivered me;
and what I was willing to sell he bought, such as
the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of
the lump of beeswax-for I had made candles of
the rest; in a word, I made about 220 pieces of
eight of all my cargo, and with this stock I went
on shore in the Brazils.
I had not been long here, but being recommended
to the house of a good honest man like himself,
who had a plantation and a sugar-house, I lived
with him some time, and acquainted myself by
that means with the manner of their planting and
making of sugar; and seeing how well the planters
lived, and how they grew rich suddenly, I resolved,
if I could get a license to settle there, I would turn
planter among them, resolving in the meantime to
find out some way to get my money which I left in
London remitted to me. To this purpose, getting
a kind of a letter of naturalization, I purchased as
much land that was uncured as my money would
reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and
settlement, and such a one as might be suitable to
the stock which I proposed to myself to receive
from England.
I had a neighbor, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but






ROBINSON CRUSOE


born of English parents, whose name was Wells,
and in much such circumstances as I was. My
stock was but low, as well as his; and we rather
planted for food than anything else, for about two
years. However, we began to increase, and our
land began to come into order; so that the third
year we planted some tobacco, and made each of us
a large piece of ground ready for planting canes in
the year to come. But we both wanted help; and
now I found more than before, I had done wrong
in parting with my boy Xury. I bought me a
negro slave, and two European servants also.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the
very means of our greatest adversity, so was it
with me. I went on the next year with great suc-
cess in my plantation. I raised fifty great rolls
of tobacco on my own ground, more than I had dis-
posed of for necessaries among my neighbors; and
these fifty rolls, being each of above a hundred-
weight, were well cured, and laid by against the re-
turn of the fleet from Lisbon. And now, increas-
ing in business and in wealth, my head began to
be full of projects and undertakings beyond my
reach, such as are, indeed, often the ruin of the
best heads in business.
To come, then, by the just degrees to the particu-
lars of this part of my story. You may suppose,
that having now lived almost four years in the
Brazils, and beginning to thrive and prosper very
well upon my plantation, I had not only learned
the. language, but had contracted acquaintance and






ROBINSON CRUSOE


friendship among my fellow-planters, as well as
among the merchants at St. Salvador, which was
our port, and that in my discourses among them I
had frequently given them an account of my two
voyages to the coast of Guinea, the manner of trad-
ing with the negroes there, and how easy it was to
purchase upon the coast for trifles-such as beads,
toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and
the like--not only gold dust, Guinea grains, ele-
phants' teeth, etc., but negroes, for the service of
the Brazils, in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my dis-
courses on these heads, but especially to that part
which related to the buying of negroes; which was
a trade, at that time, not only not far entered into,
but, as far as it was, had been carried on by the
assiento, or permission, of the Kings of Spain and
Portugal, and engrossed in the public, so that few
negroes were brought, and those excessive dear.
It happened, being in company with some mer-
chants and planters of my acquaintance in St. Sal-
vador, and talking of those things very earnestly,
three of them came to me one morning, and told
me they had been musing very much upon what I
had discoursed with them of, the last night, and
they came to make a secret proposal to me. And
after enjoining me secrecy, they told me that they
had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that
they had all plantations as well as I, and were
straitened for nothing so much as servants; that as
it was a trade that could not be carried on because






ROBINSON CRUSOE


they could not publicly sell the negroes when they
came home, so they desired to make but one voy-
age, to bring the negroes on shore privately, and
divide them among their own plantations; and, in
a word, the question was, whether I would go their
supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading part
upon the coast of Guinea; and they offered me that
I should have my equal share of the negroes with-
out providing any part of the stock.
I told them I would go with all my heart, if they
would undertake to look after my plantation in my
absence, and would dispose of it to such as I should
direct if I miscarried. This they all engaged to
do, and entered into writings or covenants to do
so; I made a formal will, disposing of my planta-
tion and effects, in case of my death; making the
captain of the ship that had saved my life, before,
my universal heir, but obliging him to dispose of
my effects as I had directed in my will; one-half
of the produce being to himself, and the other to be
shipped to England.
Accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the
cargo furnished, and all things done as by agree-
ment by my partners in the voyage, I went on board
in an evil hour, the [first] of [September 1659],
being the same day eight year that I went from my
father and mother at Hull, in order to act the rebel
to their authority, and the fool to my own interest.
Our ship was about 120 tons burthen, carried
six guns and fourteen men, besides the master, his
boy, and myself. We had on board no large cargo





ROBINSON CRUSOE


of goods, except of such toys as were fit for our
trade with the negroes-such as beads, bits of
glass, shells, and odd trifles, especially little look-
ing-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.
The same day I went on board we set sail, stand-
ing away to the northward upon our own coast,
with design to stretch over for the African coast,
when they came about 10 or 12 degrees of northern
latitude, which, it seems, was the manner of their
course in those days. We had very good weather,
only excessive hot, all the way upon our own coast,
till we came to the height of Cape St. Augustino,
frem whence, keeping farther off at sea, we lost
sight of land, and steered as if we were bound for
the Isle Fernando de Noronha, holding our course
N.E. by N., and leaving those isles on the east.
In this course we passed the line in about twelve
days' time, and were, by our last observation, in 7
degrees 22 minutes northern latitude, when a vio-
lent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our
knowledge. It began from the south-east, came
about to the north-west, and then settled into the
north-east, from whence it blew in such a terrible
manner, that for twelve days together we could
do nothing but drive, and scudding away before it,
let it carry us wherever fate and the fury of the
winds directed; and during these twelve days, I
need not say that I expected every day to be swal-
lowed up, nor, indeed, did any in the ship expect
to save their lives.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard,





ROBINSON CRUSOE


one of our men early in the morning cried out,
"Land!" and we had no sooner ran out of our
cabin to look out, but the ship struck upon the sand,
and in a moment, her motion being so stopped,
the sea broke over her in such manner, that we ex-
pected we should all have perished immediately.
The mate of our vessel lay hold of the boat,
and with the help of the rest of the men they got
her slung over the ship's side; and getting all into
her, let go, and committed ourselves, being eleven
in number, to God's mercy and the wild sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a
league and a half, as we reckoned it, a raging
wave, mountainlike, came rolling astern of us, and
plainly bade us expect the coup de grace. In a
word, it took us with such a fury, that it overset
the boat at once; and separating us, as well from
the boat as from one another, gave us not time
hardly to say, "0 God!" for we were all swallowed
up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought
which I felt when I sunk into the water; for though
I swam very well, yet I could aot deliver myself
from the waves so as to draw breath, till that wave
having driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way
on towards the shore, and having spent itself, went
back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but
half dead with the water I took in. I had so much
presence of mind, as well as breath left, that see-
ing myself nearer the mainland than I expected, I
got upon my feet and endeavored to make on to-






ROBINSON CRUSOE


wards the land as fast as I could, before another
wave should return and take me up again.
The wave that came upon me again buried me at
once twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body,
and I could feel myself carried with a mighty force
and swiftness towards the shore a very great way;
but I held my breath and assisted myself to swim
still forward with all my might. The sea came
pouring in after me again and again and I was
lifted up by the waves and carried forward as be-
fore.
Now as the waves were not so high as at first,
being near land, I fetched another run, which
brought me to the mainland, where, to my great
comfort, I clambered up the cliffs and sat me down
upon the grass, free from danger, and quite out of
reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began
to look up and thank God that my life wap saved in
a case wherein there was some minutes before
scarce any room to hope.
I walked about on the shore lifting up my hands,
and my whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in the
contemplation of my deliverance, reflecting upon
all my comrades that were drowned, and that there
should not be one soul saved but myself; for, as for
them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign of
them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two
shoes that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when the
breach and froth of the sea being so big, I could


31"






ROBINSON CRUSOE


hardly see it, it lay so far off, and considered, Lord!
how was it possible I could get on shore?
After I had solaced my mind with the comfort-
able part-of my condition, I began to look round
me to see what kind of place I was in, and what
was next to be done, and I soon found my comforts
abate, and that, in a word, I had a dreadful de-
liverance; for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me,
nor anything either to eat or drink to comfort me,
neither did I see any prospect before me but that
of perishing with hunger, or being devoured by
wild beasts; and that which was particularly af-
flicting to me was, that I had no weapon either to
hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or
to defend myself against any other creature that
might desire to kill me for theirs. In a word, I
had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe,
and a little tobacco in a box. This was all my pro-
vision; and this threw me into terrible agonies of
mind, that for a while I ran about like a madman.
Night coming upon me, I began, with a heavy heart,
to consider what would be my lot if there were any
ravenous beasts in that country, seeing at night
they always come abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at
that time was, to get up into a thick bushy tree
like a fir, but thorny, which grew near me, and
where I resolved to sit all night, and consider the
next day what death I should die, for as yet I saw
no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong
from the shore, to see if I could find any fresh






ROBINSON CRUSOE


water to drink, which I did, to my great joy; and
having drank, and put a little tobacco in my mouth
to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and getting
up into it, endeavored to place myself so as that
if I should sleep I might not fall; and having cut


-*"

jsf^ U


me a short stick, like a truncheon, for my defence,
I took up my lodging.
When I waked it was broad day and when I came
down from my apartment in the tree the first thing
I found was the boat, which lay as the wind and
the sea had tossed her upon the land, about two


P






ROBINSON CRUSOE


miles on my right hand. I walked as far as I
could upon the shore to have got to her, but found
a neck or inlet of water between me and the boat,
which was about half a mile broad; so I came back
for the present, being more intent upon getting at
the ship, where I hoped to find something for my
present subsistence.
A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and
the tide ebbed so far out that I could come within
a quarter of a mile of the ship; and here I found
a fresh renewing of my grief, for I saw evidently
that if we had kept on board we had been all safe,
that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I
had not been so miserable as to be left entirely
destitute of all comfort and company.
I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship; so I
pulled off my clothes, for the weather was hot to
extremity, and took the water. I found that the
ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water in
her hold, but that she lay so on the side of a bank
of hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay
lifted up upon the bank, and her head low almost.
to the water. By this means all her quarter was
free, and all that was in that part was dry; for you
may be sure my first work was to search and to see
what was spoiled and what was free. And first I
found that all the ship's provisions were dry and
untouched by the water; and being very well dis-
posed to eat, I went to the bread-room and filled
my pockets with biscuit and ate it as I went about
other things, for I had no time to lose. I also





BOBINSON CRUSOE


found some rum in the great cabin, of which I
took a large dram, and which I had indeed need
enough of, to spirit me for what was before me.
Now I wanted nothing but a boat, to furnish my-
self with many things which I foresaw would be
very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was
not to be had, and this extremity roused my appli-
cation. We had several spare yards, and two or
three large spars of wood, and a square top-mast
or two in the ship, and from this I made a raft
strong enough to bear any reasonable weight.
My next care was what to load it with, and how
to preserve what I laid upon it from the surf of
the sea; but I was not long considering this. I
first laid all the planks or boards upon it that I
could get, and having considered well what I most
wanted, I first got three of the seamen's chests,
which I had broken open and emptied, and low-
ered them down upon my raft. The first of these I
filled with provisions, viz., bread, rice, three Dutch
cheeses, five pieces of dried goat's flesh, which we
lived much upon, and a little remainder of Euro-
pean corn. As for liquors, I found several cases
of bottles belonging to our skipper. While I was
doing this, I found the tide began to flow, though
very calm, and I had the mortification to see my
coat, shirt, and waist-coat, which I had left on
shore upon the sand, swim away; as for my
breeches, which were only linen, and open-kneed,
I swam on board in them, and my stockings.






ROBINSON CRUSOE


However, this put me upon rummaging for clothes,
of which I found enough, but took no more than I
wanted for present use. It was after long search-
ing that I found out the carpenter's chest, which
was indeed a very useful prize to me.
My next care was for some ammunition and
arms; there were two very good fowling-pieces in
the great cabin, and two pistols; these I secured
first, with some powder-horns, and a small bag of
shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there were
three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not
where our gunner had stowed them; but with much
search I found them, two of them dry and good,
the third had taken water; those two I got to my
raft with the arms. And now I thought myself
pretty well freighted, and began to think how I
should get to shore with them, having neither sail,
oar, nor rudder; and the least capful of wind
would have overset all my navigation.
I had three encouragements. 1. A smooth, calm
sea. 2. The tide rising and 'setting in to the shore.
3. What little wind there was blew me towards
the land. And thus, having found two or three
broken oars belonging to the boat, and besides the
tools which were in the chest, I found two saws,
an axe and a hammer, and with this cargo I put to
sea. For a mile or thereabouts my raft went very
well, only that I found it drive a little distant from
the place where I had landed before, by which I
perceived that there was some indraft of the water,
and consequently I hoped to find some creek or






ROBINSON CRUSOE


river there, which I might make use of as a port to
get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was; there appeared before
me a little opening of the land, and I found a
strong current of the tide set into it, so I guided
my raft as well as I could to keep in the middle of
the stream.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore
of the creek, to which, with great pain and diffi-
culty, I guided my raft, and at last got so near, as
that, reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust
her directly in; and here I lay till the water ebbed
away, and left my raft and all my cargo safe on
shore.
My next work was to view the country and seek a
proper place for my habitation, and where to stow
my goods to secure them from whatever might
happen. Where I was, I yet knew not; whether
on the continent, or on an island; whether inhab-
ited, or not inhabited; whether in danger of wild
beasts, or not. There was a hill, not above a mile
from me, which rose up very steep and high, and
which seemed to overtop some other hills, which
lay as in a ridge from it, northward. I took out
one of the fowling-pieces and one of the pistols, and
a horn of powder; and thus armed, I travelled for
discovery up to the top of that hill, where, after I
had with great labor and difficulty got to the top,
I saw my fate to my great affliction, viz., that I
was in an island environed every way with the
sea, no land to be seen, except some rocks which





ROBINSON CRUSOE


lay a great way off, and two small islands less than
this, which lay about three leagues to the west.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to
my raft, and fell to work to bring my cargo on
shore, which took me up the rest of that day; and
what to do with myself at night, I knew not, nor
indeed where to rest; for I was afraid to lie down
on the ground, not knowing but some wild beast
might devour me, though, as I afterwards found,
there was really no need for those fears. However,
as well as I could, I barricaded myself round with
the chests and boards that I had brought on shore,
and made a kind of a hut for that night's lodging.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a
great many things out of the ship, which would be
useful to me. And as I knew that the first storm
that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces,
I resolved to set all other things apart till I got
everything out of the ship that I could get.
I got on board the ship as before when the tide
was down, and prepared a second raft. I neither
made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard; but
yet I brought away several things very useful to
me; as, first, in the carpenter's stores I found two
or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great
screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and above
all that most useful thing called a grindstone. All
these I secured, together with several things be-
longing to the gunner, particularly two or three
iron crows, and two barrels of musket bullets,
seven muskets, and another fowling-piece, with





ROBINSON CRUSOE


some small quantity of powder more; a large bag
full of small-shot, and a great roll of sheet lead.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes


that I could find, and a spare fore-top sail, a ham-
mock, and some bedding.
Having got my second cargo on shore, though I
was fain to open the barrels of powder and bring
them by parcels, for they were too heavy, being
large casks, I went to work to make me a little tent
with the sail and some poles which I cut for that


/Ivqr/-


LtA






ROBINSON CRUSOE


purpose; and into this tent I brought everything
that I knew would spoil either with rain or sun;
and I piled all the empty chests and casks up in
a circle round the tent, to fortify it from any sud-
den attempt, either from man or beast.


-~ -
- -


-Y -,



4


When I had done this I blocked up the door of
the tent with some boards within, and an empty
chest set up on end without; and spreading one of
the beds upon the ground, laying my two pistols
just at my head, and my gun at length by me, I
went to bed for the first time, and slept very






ROBINSON CRUSOE


quietly all night, for I was very weary and heavy.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that
ever was laid up, I believe, for one man; but I was
not satisfied still, for while the ship sat upright in
that posture, I thought I ought to get everything
out of her that I could. So every day at low water
I went on board, and brought away something or
other; but, particularly, the third time I went I
brought away as much of the rigging as I could,
as also all the small ropes and rope-twine I could
get, with a piece of spare canvas, which was to
mend the sails upon occasion, the barrel of wet
gunpowder; in a word, I brought away all the sails
first and last, only that I was fain to cut them in
pieces, and bring as much at a time as I could;
for they were no more useful to be sails, but as
mere canvas only.
I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had
been eleven times on board the ship; in which time
I had brought away all that one pair of hands
could well be supposed capable to bring, though I
believe verily, had the calm weather held, I should
have brought away the whole ship piece by piece.
But preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I
found the wind begin to rise. However, at low
water I went on board, and though I thought I
had rummaged the cabin so effectually as that noth-
ing more could be found, yet I discovered a locker
with drawers in it, in one of which I found two or
three razors, and one pair of large scissors, with
some ten or a dozen of good knives and forks; in






ROBINSON CRUSOE


another, I found about thirty-six pounds value in
money, some European coin, some Brazil, some
pieces of eight, some gold, some silver.
It blew very hard all that night, and in the morn-
ing, when I looked out, behold, no more ship was to
be seen.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about
securing myself against either savages, if any
should appear, or wild beasts, if any were in the
island.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my
settlement, particularly because it was upon a low
moorish ground near the sea, and I believed would
not be wholesome; and more particularly because
there was no fresh water near it. So I resolved to
find a more healthy and more convenient spot of
ground.
I consulted several things in my situation, which
I found would be proper for me. First, health
and fresh water, I just now mentioned. Secondly,
shelter from the heat of the sun. Thirdly, secu-
rity from ravenous creatures, whether men or
beasts. Fourthly, a view to the sea, that if God
sent any ship in sight I might not lose any advan-
tage for my deliverance, of which I was not willing
to banish all my expectation yet.
In search of a place proper for this, I found a
little plain on the side of a rising hill, whose front
towards this little plain was steep as a house-side,
so that nothing could come down upon me from the
top; on the side of this rock there was a hollow






ROBINSON CRUSOE


place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or
door of a cave; but there was not really any cave,
or way into the rock at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow
place, I resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was
not above an hundred yards broad, and about twice
as long, and lay like a green before my door, and
at the end of it descended irregularly every way
down into the low grounds by the seaside. It was
on the N.N.W. side of the hill, so that I was shel-
tered from the heat every day, till it came to a W.
and by S. sun, or thereabouts, which in those coun-
tries is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half circle be-
fore the hollow place, which took in about ten yards
in its semi-diameter from the rock, and twenty
yards in its diameter from its beginning and end-
ing. In this half circle I pitched two rows of
strong stakes, driving them into the ground till
they stood very firm like piles, the biggest end be-
ing out of the ground about five feet and a half,
and sharpened on the top. The two rows did not
stand above six inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut
in the ship, and laid them in rows one upon an-
other, within the circle, between these two rows of
stakes, up to the top, placing other stakes in the
inside leaning against them, about two feet and a
half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was
so strong, that neither man nor beast could get
into it, or over it. This cost me a great deal of






ROBINSON CRUSOE


time and labor, especially to cut the piles in the
woods, bring them to the place, and drive them
into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be not
by a door, but by a short ladder, to go over the top;
which ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after me,
and so I was completely fenced in, and fortified, as
I thought, from all the world, and consequently
slept secure in the night.
Into this fence or fortress, with infinite labor, I
carried all my riches, all my provisions, ammuni-
tion, and stores, of which you have the account
above; and I made me a large tent, which, to pre-
serve me from the rains that in one part of the
year are very violent there, I made double, viz.,
one smaller tent within, and one larger tent above
it, and covered the upper-most with a large tar-
paulin, which I had saved among the sails. And
now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I
had brought on shore, but in a hammock, which
was indeed a very good one, and belonged to the
mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and
everything that would spoil by the wet; and hav-
ing thus enclosed all my goods, I made up the en-
trance, which, till now, I had left open, and so
passed and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way
into the rock; and bringing all the earth and stones
that I dug down out through my tent, I laid them
up within my fence in the nature of a terrace, so






ROBINSON CRUSOE


that it raised the ground within about a foot and
a half; thus I made me a cave just behind my tent,
which served me like a cellar to my house.
It cost me much labor, and many days, before all
these things were brought to perfection, and there-
fore I must go back to some other things which
took up some of my thoughts. At the same time it
happened, after I had laid my scheme for the set-
ting up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm
of rain falling from a thick dark cloud, a sudden
flash of lightning happened, and after that a great
clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I
was not so much surprised with the lightning, as I
was with a thought which darted into my mind as
swift as the lightning itself. 0 my powder! My
very heart sunk within me when I thought that at
one blast all my powder might be destroyed, on
which, not my defence only, but the providing me
food, as I thought, entirely depended. I was noth-
ing near so anxious about my own danger; though
had the powder took fire, I had never known who
had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me that
after the storm was over I laid aside all my works,
my building, and fortifying, and applied myself to
make bags and boxes to separate the powder, and
keep it a little and a little in a parcel, in hope that
whatever might come it might not all take fire at
once, and to keep it so apart, that it should not be
possible to make one part fire another. I finished
this work in about a fortnight; and I think my






ROBINSON CRUSOE


powder, which in all was about 240 pounds weight,
was divided in not less than a hundred parcels.
As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not appre-
hend any danger from that, so I placed it in my
new cave, which in my fancy I called my kitchen,
and the rest I hid up and down in holes among
the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, mark-
ing very carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I
went out once, at least, every day with my gun, as
well to divert myself, as to see if I could kill
anything fit for food, and as near as I could to ac-
quaint myself with what the island produced. The
first time I went out, I presently discovered that
there were goats in the island, which was a great
satisfaction to me; but then it was attended with
this misfortune to me, viz., that they were so shy,
so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the diffi-
cultest thing in the world to come at them. But I
was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I
might now and then shoot one, as it soon hap-
pened.
The first shot I made among these creatures I
killed a she-goat, which had a little kid by her,
which she gave suck to, which grieved me heartily;
but when the old one fell, the kid stood stock still
by her till I came and took her up; and not only
so, but when I carried the old one with me upon
my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my en-
closure; upon which I laid down the dam, and took
the kid in my arms, and carried it over my pale, in





ROBINSON CRUSOE


hopes to have bred it up tame; but it would not eat,
so I was forced to kill it, and eat it myself. These
two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I ate
sparingly, and saved my provisions, my bread espe-
cially, as much as possibly I could.


Having now fixed my habitation, I found it ab-
solutely necessary to provide a place to make a
fire in, and fuel to burn; and what I did for that,
as also how I enlarged my cave, and what con-
veniences I made, I shall give a full account of in
its place. But I must first give some little ac-
count of myself, and of my thoughts about living,
which it may well be supposed were not a few.
4






ROBINSON CRUSOE


I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as I
was not cast away upon that island without being
driven, as is said, by a violent storm, quite out of
the course of our intended voyage, and a great way,
viz., some hundreds of leagues out of the ordinary
course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason
to consider it as a determination of Heaven, that in
this desolate place, and in this desolate manner, I
should end my life. The tears would run plenti-
fully down my face when I made these reflections,
and sometimes I would expostulate with myself,
why Providence should thus completely ruin its
creatures, and render them so absolutely miser-
able, so without help abandoned, so entirely de-
pressed, that it could hardly be rational to be
thankful for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to
check these thoughts, and to reprove me; and par-
ticularly one day, walking with my gun in my hand
by the seaside, I was very pensive upon the subject
of my present condition, when Reason, as it were,
expostulated with me t'other wry, thus: "Well,
you are in a desolate condition, it is true, but pray
remember, where are the rest of you? Did not
you come eleven of you into the boat? Where are
the ten? Why were they not saved, and you lost?
And now being to enter into a melancholy rela-
tion of a scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was
never heard of in the world before, I shall take it
from its beginning, and continue it in its order.
It was, by my account, the 30th of September when,






ROBINSON CRUSOE 49

In the manner as above said, I first set foot upon
this horrid island, when the sun being to us in its
autumnal equinox, was almost just over my head,
for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in the
latitude of 9 degrees 22 minutes north of the line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve days,
it came into my thoughts that I should lose my















reckoning of time for want of books and pen and
ink, and should even forget the Sabbath days from
the working days; but to prevent this, I cut it
with my knife upon a large post, in capital letters;
and making it into a great cross, I set it up on the
shore where I first landed, viz., "I came on shore
here on the 30th of September, 1659." Upon the
sides of this square post I cut every day a notch
with my knife and every seventh notch was as long
again as the rest, and every first day of the month






ROBINSON CRUSOE


as long again as that long one; and thus I kept
my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly reck-
oning of time.
In the next place we are to observe, that among
the many things which I brought out of the ship in
the several voyages, which, as above mentioned, I
made to it, I got several things of less value, but
not all less useful to me, which I omitted setting
down before; as in particular, pens, ink, and paper,
several parcels in the captain's, mate's, gunner's,
and carpenter's keeping, three or four compasses,
some mathematical instruments, dials, perspec-
tives, charts, and books of navigation, all which I
huddled together, whether I might want them or
no. Also I found three very good Bibles, which
came to me in my cargo from England, and which
I had packed up among my things; some Portu-
guese books also, and among them two or three
Popish prayer-books, and several other books, all
which I carefully secured. And I must not forget,
that we had in the ship a dog and two cats, of
whose eminent history I may have occasion to say
something in its place; for I carried both the cats
with me; and as for the dog, he jumped out of the
ship of himself, and swam on shore to me the day
after I went on shore with my first cargo, and was
a trusty servant to me many years. I wanted
nothing that he could fetch me, nor any company
that he could make up to me; I only wanted to
have him talk to me, but that he would not do.
The want of tools made every work I did go on






ROBINSON CRUSOE


heavily; and it was near a whole year before I had
entirely finished my little pale or surrounded habi-
tation. The piles of stakes, which were as heavy
as I could well lift, were a long time in cutting and
preparing in the woods, and more by far in bring-
ing home; so that I spent sometimes two days in
cutting and bringing home one of those posts, and
a third day in driving it into the ground.
But what need I have been concerned at the
tediousness of anything I had to do, seeing I had
time enough to do it in? nor had I any other em-
ployment, if that had been over, at least, that I
could foresee, except the ranging the island to seek
for food, which I did more or less every day.
I now drew up the state of my affairs in writing;
not so much to leave them to any that were to come
after me, for I was like to have but few heirs, as
to deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon
them, and afflicting my mind. And as my reason
began now to master my despondency, I stated it
very impartially, like debtor and creditor, the com-
forts I enjoyed against the miseries I suffered,
thus:

Evil. Good.
I am cast upon a hor- But I am alive, and
rible desolate island, not drowned, as all my
void of all hope of re- ship's company was.
cover.
I am singled out and But I am singled out,
separated, as it were, too, from all the ship's






ROBINSON CRUSOE


from all the world to be
miserable.



I am divided from
mankind, a solitaire,
one banished from hu-
man society.
I have not clothes to
cover me.


I am without any de-
fence or means to resist
any violence of man or
beast.



I have no soul to
speak to, or relieve me.


crew to be spared from
death; and He that mi-
raculously saved me
from death, can deliver
me from this condition.
But I am not starved
and perishing on a bar-
ren place, affording no
sustenance,
But I am in a hot cli.
mate, where if I had
clothes I could hardly
wear them.
But I am cast on an
island, where I see no
wild beasts to hurt me,
as I saw on the coast of
Africa; and what if I
had been shipwrecked
there?
But God wonderfully
sent the ship in near
enough to the shore,
that I have gotten out
so many necessary
things as will either
supply my wants, or en-
able me to supply my-
self even as long as I
live.






ROBINSON CRUSOE


Having now brought my mind a little to relish
my condition, and given over looking out to sea, to
see if I could spy a ship; I say, giving over these
things, I began to apply myself to accommodate
my way of living, and to make things as easy to
me as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which
was a tent under the side of a rock, surrounded
with a strong pale of posts and cables; but I might
now rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind of wall
up against it of turfs, about two feet thick on the
outside, and after some time-I think it was a year
and a half-I raised rafters from it leading to the
rock, and thatched it with boughs of trees and
such things as I could get to keep out the rain,
which I found at some times of the year very
violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my
goods into this pale, and into the cave which I had
made behind me. But I must observe, too, that at
first this was a confused heap of goods, which as
they lay in no order, so they took up all my place;
I had no room to turn myself. So I set myself
.to enlarge my cave and works farther into the
earth; for it was a loose sandy rock, which yielded
easily to the labor I bestowed on it. And so, when
I found I was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I
worked sideways to the right hand into the rock;
and then, turning to the right again, worked quite
out, and made me a door to come out on the out-
side of my pale or fortification. This gave me not





ROBINSON CRUSOE


only egress and regress, as it were a back-way to
my tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room
to stow my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such
necessary things as I found I most wanted, as par-
ticularly a chair and a table.
So I went to work. I had never handled a tool
in my life; and yet in time, by labor, application,
and contrivance, I found at last that I wanted noth-
ing but I could have made it, especially if I had
had tools. However, I made an abundance of
things even without tools, and some with no more
tools than an adze and a hatchet, which, perhaps,
were never made that way before, and that with
infinite labor. For example, if I wanted a board,
I had no other way but to cut down a tree, set it
on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either side
with my axe, till I had brought it to be thin as a
plank, and then dub it smooth with my adze. It
is true, by this method I could make but one board
out of a whole tree; but my time or labor was little
worth, and so it was as well employed one way as
another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I
observed above, in the first place, and this I did out
of the short pieces of boards that I brought on my
raft from the ship. But when I had wrought out
some boards, as above, I made large shelves of the
breadth of a foot and a half one over another, all
along one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails,
and iron-work; and, in a word, to separate every-






ROBINSON CRUSOE


thing at large in their places, that I might come
easily at them.
And now it was when I began to keep a journal
of every day's employment, of which I shall here
give you the copy (though in it will be told all
these particulars over again) as long as it lasted;
for, having no more ink, I was forced to leave it
off.

THE JOURNAL
September 30, 1659.-I, poor miserable Robin-
son Crusoe, being shipwrecked, during a dreadful
storm, in the offing, came on shore on this dismal
unfortunate island, which I called the Island of
Despair, all the rest of the ship's company being
drowned, and myself almost dead.
All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting my-
self at the dismal circumstances I was brought to,
viz., I had neither food, house, clothes, weapon, or
place to fly to; and in despair to any relief, saw
nothing but death before me; either that I should
be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by savages,
or starved to death for want of food. At the ap-
proach of night, I slept in a tree for fear of wild
creatures, but slept soundly, though it rained all
night.
Oct. 1. In the morning I saw, to my great sur-
prise, the ship had floated with the high tide) and
was driven on shore again much nearer the island;
which, as it was some comfort on one hand, for see-






ROBINSON CRUSOE


ing her sit upright, and not broken to pieces, I
hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board,
and get some food and necessaries out of her for
my relief; so, on the other hand, it renewed my
grief at the loss of my comrades, who, I imag-
ined, if we had all stayed on board, might have
saved the ship, or at least that they would not have
been all drowned as they were; and that had the
men been saved, we might perhaps have built us a
boat out of the ruins of the ship, to have carried us
to some other part of the world. Seeing the ship
almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I
could, and then swam on board; this day also it
continued raining, though with no wind at all.
From the 1st of October to the 24th.-All these
days entirely spent in many several voyages to get
all I could out of the ship, which I brought on
shore, every tide of flood, upon rafts. Much
rain.
Oct. 25.-It rained all night and all day, with
some gusts of wind, during which time the ship
broke in pieces, and was no more to be seen, except
the wreck of her, and that only at low water. I
spent this day in securing the goods which I had
saved, that the rain might not spoil them.
Oct. 26.-I walked about the shore almost all
day to find out a place to fix my habitation. To-
wards night I fixed upon a proper -place under a
rock, and marked out a semicircle for my encamp-
ment, which I resolved to strengthen with a work.






ROBINSON CRUSOE


wall, or fortification made of double piles, lined
within with cables, and without with turf.
From the 26th to the 30th I worked very hard in
carrying all my goods to my new habitation,
though part of the time it rained exceeding hard.
The 31st, the morning, I went out with my gun
to see for some food, and discover the country;
when I killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me
home, which I afterwards killed also, because it
would not feed.
Nov. 1.-I set up my tent under a rock, and lay
there the first night, making it as large as I could,
with stakes driven in to swing my hammock upon.
Nov. 2.-I set up all my chests and boards, and
the pieces of timber which made my rafts, and with
them formed a fence round me, a little within the
place I had marked out for my fortification.
Nov. 3.-I went out with my gun, and killed two
fowls, like ducks, which were very good food. In
the afternoon went to work to make me a table.
Nov. 4.-This morning I began to order my times
of work, of going out with my gun, time of sleep,
and time of diversion, viz., every morning I walked
out with my gun for two or three hours, if it did
not rain; then employed myself to work till about
eleven o'clock; then eat what I had to live on; and
from twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the weather
being excessive hot; and then in the evening to
work again. The working part of this day and of
the next were wholly employed in making my table.






ROBINSON CRUSOE


Nov. 5.-This day went abroad with my gun and
my dog, and killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft,
but her flesh good for nothing. Every creature I
killed, I took off the skins and preserved them.
Nov. 7.-Now it began to be settled fair weather.
The 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and part of the 12th (for
the 11th was Sunday) I took wholly up to make
me a chair, and with much ado, brought it to a
tolerable shape, but never to please me; and even
in the making, I pulled it in pieces several times.
Note, I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for,
omitting my mark for them on my post, I forgot
which was which.
Nov. 13.-This day it rained, which refreshed
me exceedingly, and cooled the earth, but it was
accompanied with terrible thunder and lightning,
which frightened me dreadfully, for fear of my
powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved to
separate my stock of powder into as many little
parcels as possible, that it might not be in danger.
Nov. 14, 15, 16.-These three days I spent in
making little square chests or boxes, which might
hold about a pound, or two pound at most, of
powder; and so putting the powder in, I stowed it
in places as secure and remote from one another as
possible. On one of these three days I killed a
large bird that was good to eat, but I know not
what to call it.
Nov. 17.-This day I began to dig behind my
tent into the rock, to make room for my farther
conveniency. Note, three things I wanted exceed-






ROBINSON CRUSOE


ingly for this work, viz., a pick-axe, a shovel, and a
wheel-barrow or basket; so I desisted from my
work, and made me some tools. As for a pick-axe,
I made use of the iron crows, which were proper
enough, though heavy; but the next thing was a
shovel or spade. What kind of one to make, I
knew not.
Nov. 18.-The next day, in searching the woods,
I found a tree which in the Brazils they call the
iron tree. Of this, with great labor, and almost
spoiling my axe, I cut a piece and brought it home
though it was exceeding heavy.
The excessive hardness of the wood made me a
long while upon this machine, for I worked it
effectually, by little and little, into the form of a
shovel or spade, the handle exactly shaped like
ours in England, only that the broad part having
no iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not last
me so long.
For carrying away the earth which I dug out of
the cave, I made me a thing like a hod which the
laborers carry mortar in, when they serve the
bricklayers.
Nov. 23.-My other work having now stood still
because of my making these tools, I spent eighteen
days entirely in widening and deepening my cave,
that it might hold my goods commodiously.
Note.-During all this time I worked to make
this room or cave spacious enough to accommodate
me as a warehouse or magazine, a kitchen, a din-
ing-room, and a cellar; as for my lodging, I kept






ROBINSON CRUSOE


to the tent, except that sometimes in the wet sea-
son of the year it rained so hard, that I could not
keep myself dry, which caused me afterwards to
cover all my place within my pale with long poles,
in the form of rafters, leaning against the rocks,
and load them with flags and large leaves of trees,
like a thatch.
Dec. 10.-I began now to think my cave or vault
finished, when on a sudden a great quantity of
earth fell down from the top and one side, so much
that if I had been under it, I had never wanted a
grave-digger. Upon this disaster I had a great
deal of work to do over again; for I had the loose
earth to carry out; and, which was of more im-
portance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I
might be sure no more would come down.
Dec. 17.-From this day to the twentieth I
placed shelves, and knocked up nails on the posts
to hang everything up that could be hung up; and
now I began to be in some order within doors.
Dec. 20.-Now I carried everything into the cave,
and began to furnish my house, and set up some
pieces of boards, like a dresser, to order my victuals
upon; but boards began to be very scarce with me;
also I made me another table.
Dec. 24.-Much rain all night and all day; no
stirring out.
Dec. 25.-Rain all day.
Dec. 26.-No rain, and the earth much coolr
than before, and pleasanter.
Dec. 27.-Killed a young goat, and lamed a ,






ROBINSON CRUSOE


other, so that I catched it. When I had it home,
I bound and splintered up its leg, which was broke.
N.B.-I took such care of it, that it grew well and
as strong as ever; but by my nursing it so long it
grew tame. This was the first time I entertained
a thought of breeding up some tame creatures, that
I might have food when my powder and shot was
all spent.
Dec. 28, 29, 30.-Great heats and no breeze, so
that there was no stirring abroad, except in the
evening, for food.
Jan. 1.-Very hot still. This evening, going
farther into the valleys which lay towards the cen-
tre of the island, I found there was plenty of goats,
though exceeding shy, and hard to come at.
Jan. 2.-I went out with my dog, and set him
upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they all
faced about upon the dog; and he knew his danger
too well, for he would not come near them.
Jan. 3.-I began my fence or wall; which, being
still jealous of my being attacked by somebody, I
resolved to make very thick and strong.
N.B.-This wall being described before, I pur-
posely omit what was said in the journal. It is
sufficient to observe that I was no less time than
from the 3rd of January to the 14th of April work-
ing, finishing, and perfecting this wall, though it
was no more than about twenty-four yards in
length.
During this time, I made my rounds in the woods
for game every day, when the rain admitted me,






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and made frequent discoveries to my advantage;
particularly I found a kind of wild pigeons, who
built in the holes of the rocks. I frequency found
their nests, and got their young ones, which were
very good meat.
And now in the managing my household affairs I
found myself wanting in many things, which I
thought at first it was impossible for me to make.
I was at a great loss for candle; so that as soon
as ever it was dark, which was generally by seven
o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. The only rem-
edy I had was, that when I had killed a goat I
saved the tallow, and with a little dish made of
clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I added a
wick of some oakum, I made me a lamp; and this
gave me light, though not a clear steady light like
a candle.
In rummaging my things, I found a little bag,
which had been filled with corn. What little re-
mainder of corn had been in the bag was all de-
voured with the rats, and I shook the husks of
corn out of it on one side of my fortification, un-
der the rock. It was a little before the great
rains that I threw this stuff away, ard, about a
month after I saw some few stalks of something
green shooting out of the ground, which I fancied
might be some plant I had not seen; but I was
surprised, and perfectly astonished, when, after a
little longer time, I saw about ten or twelve ears
come out, which were perfect green barley of the
same kind as our European, nay, as our English






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barley. And because I saw near it, all along
by the side of the rock, some other straggling
stalks, which proved to be stalks of rice, and
which I knew, because I had seen it grow in
Africa.
Not doubting but that there was more in the
place, I went all over that part of the island where
I had been before, peering in every corner, and
under every rock, to see for more of it; but I could
not find any. At last it occurred to my thoughts
that I had shook the bag out on that place, and
then the wonder began to cease.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, and I
resolved to sow them all again, hoping in time to
have some quantity sufficient to supply me with
bread. But it was not till the fourth year that I
could allow myself the least grain of this corn to
eat, and even then but sparingly, as I shall say
afterwards in its order.
I worked excessive hard these three or four
months to get my wall done; and the 14th of April
I closed it up, contriving to go into it, not by a
door, but over the wall by a ladder, that there
might be no sign in the outside of my habitation.
April 16.-I finished the ladder, so I went up
with the ladder to the top, and then pulled it up
after me, and let it down on the inside. This was
a complete enclosure to me;. for within I had room
enough, and nothing could come at me from with-
out, unless it could first mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished, I
5









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had almost had all my labor overthrown at once,
and myself killed. The case was thus: As I was
busy just in the entrance into my cave, all on a
sudden I found the earth come crumbling down
from the roof of my cave, and from the edge of the
hill over my head, and two of the posts I had set up
in the cave cracked in a frightful manner. I ran
forward to my ladder; and not thinking myself
safe there neither, I got over my wall for fear of
the pieces of the hill which I expected might roll
down upon me. I was no sooner stepped down
upon the firm ground, but I plainly saw it was a
terrible earthquake; for the ground I stood on
shook three times at about eight minutes' distance,
and a great piece of the top of a rock, which stood
about half a mile from me next the sea, fell down
with such a terrible noise as I never heard in all
my life. I perceived also the very sea was put
into violent motion by it; and I believed the
shocks were stronger under the water than on the
island.
After the third shock was over, and I felt no
more for some time, I began to take courage; and
yet I had not heart enough to go over my wall
again, for fear of being buried alive, but sat still
upon the ground, greatly cast down and disconso-
late, not knowing what to do. All this while I
had not the least serious religious thought, nothing
but the common, "Lord, have mercy upon me!" and
when it was over, that went away too.
While I sat thus the wind rose by little and little,






ROBINSON CRUSOE


so that in less than half an hour it blew a most
dreadful hurricane. The sea was all on a sudden
covered over with foam and froth; the shore was
covered with the breach of the water; the trees were
torn up by the roots; and a terrible storm it was:
and this held about three hours, and then began to
abate; and in two hours more it was stark calm,
and began to rain very hard. The rain was so
violent that my tent was ready to be beaten down
with it, and I was forced to go into my cave,
though very much afraid and uneasy, for fear it
should fall on my head.
It continued raining all that night and great
part of the next day, so that I could rot stir
abroad; but my mind being more composed, I
began to think of what I had best do, concluding
that if the island was subject to these earthquakes,
there would be no living for me in a cave, but I
must consider of building me some little hut in an
open place, which I might surround with a wall,
as I had done here, and so make myself secure from
wild beasts or men.
With these thoughts I resolved to remove my
tent from the place where it stood, which was just
under the hanging precipice of the hill, and which,
if it should be shaken again, would certainly fall
upon my tent; and I spent the two next days, be-
ing the 19th and 20th of April, in contriving where
and how to remove my habitation.
In the meantime it occurred to me that it would
require a vast deal of time for me to do this, and






ROBINSON CRUSOE


that I must be contented to run the venture where
I was, till I had formed a camp for myself, and
had secured it so as to remove to it. So with this
resolution I composed myself for a time, and re-
solved that I would go to work with all speed to
build me a wall with piles and cables, etc., in a
circle as before, and set my tent up in it when it
was finished, but that I would venture to stay
where I was till it was finished, and fit to remove
to. This was the 21st.
April 22.-The next morning I began to consider
of means to put this resolve in execution; but I
was at a great loss about my tools. I had three
large axes, and abundance of hatchets (for we car-
ried the hatchets for traffic with the Indians), but
with much chopping and cutting knotty hard wood,
they were all full of notches and dull; and though
I had a grindstone, I could not turn it and grind
my tools too. At length I contrived a wheel with
a string, to turn it with my foot, that I might have
both my hands at liberty. Note, I had never seen
any such thing in England, or at least not to take
notice how it was done, though since I have ob-
served it is very common there; besides that, my
grindstone was very large and heavy. This ma-
chine cost me a full week's work to bring it to per-
fection.
April 28, 29.-These two whole days I took up in
grinding my tools, my machine for turning my
grindstone performing very well.
April 30.-Having perceived my bread had been






ROBINSON CRUSOE


low a great while, now I took a survey of it, and re-
duced myself to one biscuit-cake a day.
May 1.-In the morning, looking towards the
seaside, I found the ship strangely removed. The
stern, which was broken to pieces, and parted from
the rest by the force of the sea soon after I had
left rummaging her, was tossed, as it were, up,
and cast on one side, and the sand was thrown
so high on that side next her stern, that whereas
there was a great place of water before, so that I
could not come within a quarter of a mile of the
wreck without swimming, I could now walk quite
up to her when the tide was out. I was surprised
with this at first, but soon concluded it must be
done by the earthquake.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the de-
sign of removing my habitation; and I busied my-
self mightily, that day especially, in searching
whether I could make any way into the ship. But
I found nothing was to be expected of that kind,
for that all the inside of the ship was choked up
with sand. However, as I had learned not to
despair of anything, I resolved to pull everything
to pieces that I could of the ship.
I caught a young dolphin. I had made me a
long line of some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks;
yet I frequently caught fish enough, as much as I
cared to eat; all which I dried in the sun, and ate
them dry.
May 24.-Every day to this day I worked on the
wreck, and with hard labor I loosened some things






ROBINSON CRUSOE


so much with the crow, that the first blowing tide
several casks floated out, and two of the seamen's
chests.
I continued this work every day to the 15th of
June, except the time necessary to get food, which
I always appointed, during this part of my employ-
ment, to be when the tide was up, that I might be
ready when it was ebbed out.
June 16.-Going down to the seaside, I found a
large tortoise, or turtle. This was the first I had
seen.
June 17.-I spent in cooking the turtle. I found
in her threescore eggs; and her flesh was to me, at
that time, the most savory and pleasant that ever
I tasted in my life, having had no flesh, but of
goats and fowls, since I landed in this horrid place.
June 18.-Rained all day, and I stayed within.
I thought the rain felt cold, and I was something
chilly, which I knew was not usual in that latitude.
June 19.-Very ill, and shivering, as if the
weather had been cold.
June 20.-No rest all night; violent pains in my
head, and feverish.
June 21.-Very ill, frighted almost to death
with the apprehensions of my sad condition, to be
sick, and no help. Prayed to God for the first
time since the storm off Hull, but scarce knew
what I said, or why.
June 22.-A little better, but under dreadful ap-
prehensions of sickness.






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June 23.-Very bad again; cold and shivering,
and then a violent headache.
June 24.-Much better.
June 25.-An ague very violent; the fit held me
seven hours; cold fit, and hot, with faint sweats
after it.
June 26.-Better; and having no victuals to eat,
took my gun, but found myself very weak. How-
ever, I killed a she-goat, and with much difficulty
got it home, and broiled some of it, and ate.
June 27.-The ague again so violent that I lay
abed all day, and neither ate nor drank. I was
ready to perish for thirst; but so weak, I had not
strength to stand up, or to get myself any water
to drink. Prayed to God again, and had this ter-
rible dream.
I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on
the outside of my wall, where I sat when the storm
blew after the earthquake, and that I saw a man
descend from a great black cloud, in a bright flame
of fire, and light upon the ground. He was all
over as bright as a flame, so that I could but just
bear to look towards him.
He moved forward towards me, and I heard a
voice so terrible that it is impossible to express the
terror of it. All that I can say I understood was
this: "Seeing all these things have not brought
thee to repentance, now thou shalt die"; at which
words I thought he lifted up the spear that was in
his hand to kill me.






ROBINSON CRUSOE


I had, alas! no divine knowledge; what I had re-
ceived by the good instruction of my father was
then worn out, by an uninterrupted series, for
eight years, of seafaring wickedness, and a con-
stant conversation with nothing but such as were,
like myself, wicked and profane to the last degree.
I was all that the most hardened, unthinking,
wicked creature among our common sailors can be
supposed to be; not having the least sense, either
of the fear of God in danger, or of thankfulness to
God in deliverances.
In relating what is already past of my story,
this will be the more easily believed, when I shall
add, that through all the variety of miseries that
had to this day befallen me, I never had so much as
one thought of it being the hand of God, or that it
was a just punishment for my sin; my rebellious
behavior against my father, or my present sins,
which were great; or so much as a punishment
for the general course of my wicked life.
June 28.-Having been somewhat refreshed with
the sleep I had had, and the fit being entirely off,
I got up; and though the fright and terror of my
dream was very great, yet I considered that the fit
of the ague would return again the next day, and
now was my time to get something to refresh and
support myself when I should be ill. And the first
thing I did I filled a large square case-bottle with
water, and set it upon my table, in reach of my
bed; and to take off the chill or aguish disposition
of the water, I put about a quarter of a pint of






ROBINSON CRUSOE


rum into it, and mixed them together. Then I got
me a piece of the goat's flesh, and broiled it on the
coals, but could eat very little. I walked about,
but was very weak, and at night I made my supper
of three of the turtle's eggs, which I roasted in the
ashes, and ate, as we call it, in the shell; and this
was the first bit of meat I had ever asked God's
blessing to, as I could remember, in my whole
life.
After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found
myself so weak that I could hardly carry the gun
(for I never went out without that) ; so I went but
a little way, and sat down upon the ground, look-
ing out upon the sea, which was just before me,
and very calm and smooth. As I sat there, some
such thoughts as these occurred to me.
What is this earth and sea, of which I have seen
so much? whence is it produced? And what am I,
and all the other creatures, wild and tame, human
and brutal, whence are we? Sure we are all made
by some secret Power, who formed the earth and
sea, the air and sky. And who is that?
Then it followed most naturally, It is God that
has made it all. Well, if God has made all these
things, He guides and governs them all, and all
things that concern them; for the Power that could
make things, must certainly have power to guide
and direct them.
If so, nothing can happen in the great circuit of
His works, either without His knowledge or ap-
pointment. And if nothing happens without His






ROBINSON CRUSOE


knowledge, He knows that I am here, and am in
this dreadful condition. And if nothing happens
without His appointment, He has appointed all
this to befall me.
Nothing occurred to my thoughts to contradict
any of these conclusions; and therefore it rested
upon me with the greater force, that it must needs
be that God had appointed all this to befall me,
that I was brought to this miserable circumstance
by His direction, He having the sole power, not of
me only, but of everything that happened in the
world. Immediately it followed, Why has God
done this to me? What have I done to be thus
used?
My conscience presently checked me in that in-
quiry, as if I had blasphemed, and methought it
spoke to me like a voice: "Wretch! dost thou ask
what thou hast done? Look back upon a dreadful
misspent life, and ask thyself what thou hast not
done? Ask, Why is it that thou wert not long ago
destroyed? Why wert thou not drowned in Yar-
mouth Roads; killed in the fight when the ship
was taken by the Sallee man-of-war; devoured by
the wild beasts on the coast of Africa; or drowned
here, when all the crew perished but thyself?
Dost thou ask, What have I done?"
I was struck dumb with these reflections, as one
astonished and had not a word to say, no, not to
answer to myself, but rose up pensive and sad,
walked back to my retreat, and went up over my
wall, as if I had been going to bed. But my






ROBINSON CRUSOE


thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I had no in-
clination to sleep; so I sat down in my chair, and
lighted my lamp, for it began to be dark. Now,
as the apprehension of the return of my distemper
terrified me very much, it occurred to my thought
that the Brazilians take no physic but their to-
bacco for almost all distempers; and I had a piece
of a roll of tobacco in one of the chests, which was
quite cured, and some also that was green.
I went, directed by Heaven no doubt; for in this
chest I found a cure for both soul and body. I
opened the chest, and found what I looked for, viz.,
the tobacco; and as the few books I had saved lay
there too, I took out one of the Bibles which I men-
tioned before, and which to this time I had not
found leisure, or so much as inclination, to look
into. I say, I took it out, and brought both that
and the tobacco with me to the table.
What use to make of the tobacco I knew not, as
to my distemper, or whether it was good f9r it or
no; but I tried several experiments with it, as if
I was resolved it should hit one way or other. I
first took a piece of a leaf, and chewed it in my
mouth, which indeed at first almost stupefied my
brain, the tobacco being green and strong, and that
I had not been much used to it. Then I took some
and steeped it an hour or two in some rum, and
resolved to take a dose of it when I lay down.
And lastly, I burnt some upon a pan of coals, and
held my nose close over the smoke of it, as long
as I could bear it.






ROBINSON CRUSOE


In the interval of this operation, I took up the
Bible, and began to read, but my head was too
much disturbed with the tobacco to bear reading,
at least that time; only having opened the book
casually, the first words that occurred to me were
these, "Call on Me in the day of trouble, and I will
deliver, and thou shalt glorify Me."
It grew now late, and the tobacco had, as I said,
dozed my head so much that I inclined to sleep.
But before I lay down, I did what I never had
done in my life; I kneeled down and prayed to God
to fulfil the promise to me, that if I called upon
Him in the day of trouble, He would deliver me.
After my broken and imperfect prayer was over,
I drank the rum in which I had steeped the to-
bacco; which was so strong and rank of the
tobacco that indeed I could scarce get it down.
When I awaked I found myself exceedingly re-
freshed, and my spirits lively and cheerful. I was
stronger than I was the day before, and my stom-
ach better, for I was hungry; and, in short, I had
no fit the next day, but continued much altered
for the better. This was the 29th.
The 30th was my well day. I ate some more of
the turtle's eggs, which were very good. This
evening I renewed the medicine, which I had sup-
posed did me good the day before, viz., the tobacco
steeped in rum; only I did not take so much as be-
fore, nor did I chew any of the leaf, or hold my
head over the smoke. However, I was not so well






ROBINSON CRUSOE


the next day, which was the first of July, as I
hoped I should have been; for I had a little spice
of the cold fit, but it was not much.
July 2.-I renewed the medicine all the three
ways; and dosed myself with it as at first, and
doubled the quantity which I drank.
July 3.-I missed the fit for good and all, though
I did not recover my full strength for some weeks
after. While I was thus gathering strength, my
thoughts ran exceedingly upon this Scripture, "I
will deliver thee"; and the impossibility of my
deliverance lay much upon my mind, in bar of my
ever expecting it. But as I was discouraging my-
self with such thoughts, it occurred to my mind
that I pored so much upon my deliverance from
the main affliction, that I disregarded the deliver-
ance I had received; and I was, as it were, made
to ask myself such questions as these, viz., Have I
not been delivered, and wonderfully too, from
sickness? from the most distressed condition that
could be, and that was so frightful to me? and
what notice had I taken of it? Had I done my
part? God had delivered me, but I had not glor-
ified Him; that is to say, I had not owned and
been thankful for that as a deliverance; and how
could I expect greater deliverance?
This touched my heart very much; and immedi-
ately I kneeled down, and gave God thanks aloud
for my recovery from my sickness.
July 4.-In the morning I took the Bible: and






ROBINSON CRUSOE


beginning at the New Testament, I began seriously
to read it, and imposed upon myself to read awhile
every morning and every night, not tying myself
to the number of chapters, but as long as my
thoughts should engage me.
My condition began now to be, though not less
miserable as to my way of living, yet much easier
to my mind; and my thoughts being directed, by a
constant reading the Scripture, and praying to
God, to things of a higher nature, I had a great
deal of comfort within, which, till now, I knew
nothing of. Also, as my health and strength re-
turned, I bestirred myself to furnish myself with
everything that I wanted, and make my way of
living as regular as I could.
From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly
employed in walking about with my gun in my
hand, a little and a little at a time, as a man that
was gathering up his strength after a fit of sick-
ness; for it is hardly to be imagined how low I
was, and to what weakness I was reduced.
I had been now in this unhappy island above ten
months; all possibility of deliverance from this
condition seemed to be entirely taken from me;-
and I firmly believed that no human shape had
ever set foot upon that place.
It was the 15th of July that I began to take a
more particular survey of the island itself. I went
up the creek first, where, as I hinted, I brought
my rafts on shore. I found, after I came about
two miles up, that the tide did not flow any higher,






ROBINSON CRUSOE


and that it was no more than a little brook of run-
ing water, and very fresh and good.
On the bank of this brook I found many pleas-
ant savannas or meadows, plain, smooth, and cov-
ered with grass; and on the rising parts of them,
next to the higher grounds, where the water, as
might be supposed, never overflowed, I found a
great deal of tobacco, green, and growing to a
great and very strong stalk.
The next day, the 16th, after going something
farther than I had the day before, I found the
brook and the savannas began to cease, and the
country became more woody than before. In this
part I found different fruits, and particularly I
found melons upon the ground in great abundance,
and great clusters of grapes were just now in their
prime, very ripe and rich. I found an excellent
use for these grapes; and that was, to cure or dry
them in the sun, and keep them as dried grapes or
raisins are kept, which I thought would be, as in-
deed they were, as wholesome as agreeable to eat,
when no grapes might be to be had.
I spent all that evening there, and went not back
to my habitation; which, by the way, was the first
night, as I might say, I had lain from home. In
the night, I took my first contrivance, and got up
into a tree, where I slept well; and the next morn-
ing proceeded upon my discovery, travelling near
four miles, as I might judge by the length of the
valley, keeping still due north, with a ridge of hills
on the south and north side of me.






ROBINSON CRUSOE


At the end of this march I came to an opening,
where the country seemed to descend to the west;
and a little spring of fresh water, which issued out
of the side of the hill by me, ran the other way,
that is, due east; and the country appeared so
fresh, so green, so flourishing, everything being in
a constant verdure or flourish of spring, that it
looked like a planted garden.
I saw here abundance of cocoa trees, orange, and
lemon, and citron trees; but all wild, and very few
bearing any fruit, at least not then. However, the
green limes that I gathered were not only pleasant
to eat, but very wholesome.
I was so enamored of this place that I spent
much of my time there for the whole remaining
part of the month of July; and, though, upon sec-
ond thoughts, I resolved not to remove, yet I built
me a little kind of a bower, and surrounded it at a
distance with a strong fence, being a double hedge
as high as I could reach, well staked, and filled
between with brushwood. And here I lay very se-
cure, sometimes two or three nights together, al-
ways going over it with a ladder, as before; so that
I fancied now I had my country house and my sea-
coast house; and this work took me up to the be-
ginning of August.
I had but newly finished my fence, and began to
enjoy my labor, but the rains came on, and made
me stick close to my first habitation; for though
I had made me a tent like the other, with a piece
of a sail, and spread it very well, yet.I had not the






ROBIOSON CRUSOE


shelter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave
retreat when the rains were extraordinary.
About the beginning of August, as I said, I had
finished my bower and began to enjoy myself.
The 3rd of August, I found the grapes I had hung
up were perfectly dried, and indeed were excellent
good raisins of the sun; so I began to take them
down from the trees. And it was very happy that
I did so, for the rains which followed would have
spoiled them, and I had lost the best part of my
winter food; for I had above two hundred large
bunches of them. No sooner had I taken them all
down, and carried most of them home to my cave,
but it began to rain; and from hence, which was
the 14th of August, it rained, more or less, every
day till the middle of October, and sometimes so
violently that I could not stir out of my cave for
several days.
From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant
rain, so that I could not stir, and was now very
careful not to be much wet. In this confinement,
I began to be straitened for food; but venturing
out twice, I one day killed a goat, and the last day,
which was the 26th, found a very large tortoise,
which was a treat to me, and my food was regulated
thus: I ate a bunch of raisins for my breakfast, a
piece of the goat's flesh, or of the turtle, for my
dinner, broiled; for, to my great misfortune, I had
no vessel to boil or stew anything; and two or three
of the turtle's eggs for my supper.
During this confinement in my cover by the





ROBINSON CRUSOE


rain, I worked daily two or three hours at enlarg-
ing my cave, and by degrees worked it on towards
one side, till I came to the outside of the hill, and
made a door, or way out, which came beyond my
fence or wall; and so I came in and out this way.
Sept. 30.-I was now come to the unhappy anni-
versary of my landing. I cast up the notches on
my post, and found I had been on shore three hun-
dred and sixty-five days. I kept this day as a
solemn fast, setting it apart to religious exercise,
prostrating myself on the ground with the most se-
rious humiliation, confessing my sins to God, ac-
knowledging His righteous judgments upon me,
and praying to Him to have mercy on me through
Jesus Christ; and having not tasted the least re-
freshment for twelve hours, even till the going
down of the sun, I then ate a biscuit-cake and a
bunch of grapes, and went to bed, finishing the day
as I began it.
I had all this time observed no Sabbath day, for
as at first I had no sense of religion upon my mind,
I had, after some time, omitted to distinguish the
weeks, by making a longer notch than ordinary for
the Sabbath day, and so did not really know what
any of the days were. But now, having cast up
the days, as above, I found I had been there a year,
so I divided it into weeks, and set apart every
seventh day for a Sabbath; though I found at the
end of my account, I had lost a day or two in my
reckoning.
A little after this my ink began to fail me, and so






ROBINSON CRUSOE


I contented myself to use it more sparingly, and to
write down only the most remarkable events of my
life, without continuing a daily memorandum of
other things.
I have mentioned that I had saved the few ears
of barley and rice, which I had so surprisingly
found spring up, as I thought, of themselves, and
believe there were about thirty stalks of rice, and
about twenty of barley. Now I thought it a
proper time to sow it after the rains, the sun being
in its southern position, going from me.
Accordingly I dug up a piece of ground as well
as I could with my wooden spade, and dividing it
into two parts, I sowed my grain; but as I was sow-
ing, it casually occurred to my thoughts that I
would not sow it all at first, because I did not
know when was the proper time for it, so I sowed
about two-thirds of the seed, leaving about a hand-
ful of each.
Finding my first seed did not grow, which I
easily imagined was by the drought, I sought for
a moister piece of ground to make another trial in,
and I dug up a piece of ground near my new bower,
and sowed the rest of my seed in February, a little
before the vernal equinox. And this having the
rainy months of March and April to water it,
sprung up very pleasantly, and yielded a very good
crop; but having part of the seed left only, and
not daring to sow all that I had, I had but a small
quantity at last, my whole crop not amounting to
above half a peck of each kind. But by this ex-





ROBINSON CRUSOE


.periment I was made master of my business, and
knew I might expect two seed-times and two har-
vests every year.
While this corn was growing, I made a little dis-
covery, which was of use to me afterwards. As
soon as the rains were over, and the weather began
to settle, which was about the month of November,
I made a visit up the country to my bower, where,
though I had not been some months, yet I found
all things just as I left them. The circle or
double hedge that I had made was not only firm
and entire, but the stakes which I had cut out of
some trees that grew thereabouts were all shot out,
and grown with long branches, as much as a wil-
low-tree usually shoots the first year after lopping
its head. I could not tell what tree to call it that
these stakes were cut from. I was surprised, and
yet very well pleased to see the young trees grow,
and I pruned them, and led them up to grow as
much alike as I could. And it is scarce credible
how beautiful a figure they grew into in three
years; so that though the hedge made a circle of
about twenty-five yards in diameter, yet the trees,
for such I might now call them, soon covered it,
and it was a complete shade, sufficient to lodge
under all the dry season.
This made me resolve to cut some more stakes,
and make me a hedge like this, in a semicircle
round my wall (I mean that of my first dwelling),
which I did; and placing the trees or stakes in a
double row, at about eight yards distant from my






ROBINSON CRUSOE


first fence, they grew presently, and were at first a
fine cover to my habitation, and afterward served
for a defence also, as I shall observe in its order.
I found now that the seasons of the year might
generally be divided, not into summer and winter,
as in Europe, but into the rainy seasons and the
dry seasons; which were generally thus:


Half February
March
Half April
Half April
May
June
July
Half August
Half August
September
Half October
Half October
November
December
January
Half February


Rainy, the sun being then on,
or near the equinox.


Dry, the sun being then to the
north of the line.


Rainy, the sun being then come
back.

1
Dry, the sun being then to the
south of the line.
J


The rainy season sometimes held longer or
shorter as the winds happened to blow, but this was
the general observation I made. After I had found
by experience the ill consequence of being abroad
in the rain, I took care to furnish myself with pro-






ROBINSON CRUSOE


visions beforehand, that I might not be obliged
to go out; and I sat within doors as much as pos-
sible during the wet months.
In this time I found much employment; particu-
larly, I tried many ways to make myself a basket;
but all the twigs I could get for the purpose proved
so brittle that they would do nothing. It proved
of excellent advantage to me now, that when I was
a boy I used to take great delight in standing at a
basket-maker's in the town where my father lived,
and sometimes lending a hand, I had by this means
full knowledge of the methods of it, that I wanted
nothing but the materials; when it came into my
mind that the twigs of that tree from whence I cut
my stakes that grew might possibly be as tough as
the sallows, and willows, and osiers in England.
Accordingly, the next day, I went to my country
house, as I called it; and cutting some of the
smaller twigs, I found them to my purpose as much
as I could desire; whereupon I came the next time
prepared with a hatchet to cut down a quantity.
These I set up to dry within my circle of hedge,
and when they were fit for use, I carried them to
my cave; and here during the next season I em-
ployed myself in making, as well as I could, a great
many baskets, both to carry earth, or to lay up
anything as I had occasion.
I mentioned before that I had a great mind to
see the whole island, and that I had travelled up
the brook, and so on to where I built my bower,
and where I had an opening quite to the sea, on






ROBINSON CRUSOE


the other side of the island. I now resolved to
travel quite across to the seashore on that side;
so taking my gun, a hatchet, and my dog, and a
larger quantity of powder and shot than usual,
with two biscuit-cakes and a great bunch of raisins
in my pouch for my store, I began my journey.
When I passed the vale where my bower stood, as
above, I came within view of the sea to the west;
and it being a very clear day, I fairly described
land, whether an island or a continent I could not
tell; but it lay very high, extending from the west
to the W.S.W. at a very great distance; by my
guess, it could not be less than fifteen or twenty
leagues off.
I could not tell what part of the world this might
be, otherwise than that I know it must be part of
America, and, as I concluded, by all my observa-
tions, must be near the Spanish dominions, and
perhaps was all inhabited by savages, where, if I
should have landed, I had been in a worse con-
dition than I was now; and therefore I acqui-
esced in the dispositions of Providence, which I
began now to believe ordered everything for the
best.
With these considerations I walked very lei-
surely forward. I found that side of the island,
where I now was, much pleasanter than mine, the
open or savanna fields sweet, adorned with flow-
ers and full of very fine woods.
I saw abundance of parrots, and I did, after some
painstaking, catch a young parrot, for I knocked







ROBINSON CRUSOE


it down with a stick, and having recovered it, I
brought it home; but it was some years before I
could make him speak. However, at last I taught
him to call me by my name very familiarly.
As soon as I came to the seashore, I was sur-
prised to see that I had taken up my lot on the
worst side of the island, for here indeed the shore
was covered with innumerable turtles; whereas, on
the other side, I had found but three in a year and
a half.
I traveled along the shore of the sea towards the
east, I suppose about twelve miles, and then setting
up a great pole upon the shore for a mark, I con-
cluded I would go home again; and that the next
journey I took should be on the other side of the
island, east from my dwelling, and so round till
I came to my post again.
I took another way to come back than that I
went, thinking I could easily keep all the island so
much in my view, that I could not miss finding my
first dwelling by viewing the country. But I
found myself mistaken; for being come about two
or three miles, I found myself descended into a
very large valley, but so surrounded with hills, and
those hills covered with wood, that I could not see
which was my way by any direction but that of
the sun.
It happened to my farther misfortune that the
weather proved hazy for three or four days while
I was in this valley; and not being able to see the
sun, I wandered about very uncomfortably, and at






ROBINSON CRUSOE


last was obliged to find out the seaside, look for
my post, and come back the same way I went; and
then by easy journeys I turned homeward, the
weather being exceeding hot, and my gun, ammuni-
tion, hatchet, and other things very heavy.
In this journey my dog surprised a young kid,
and seized upon it, and I running in to take hold
of it, caught it, and saved it alive from the dog.
I made a collar to this little creature, and with
a string, which I made of some rope-yarn, which I
always carried about me, I led him along though
with some difficulty, till I came to my bower, and
there I enclosed him and left him, for I was very
impatient to be home, from whence I had been ab-
sent above a month.
I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale
myself after my long journey; during which most
of the time was taken up in the weighty affair of
making a cage for my Poll, who began now to be a
mere domestic, and to be mighty well acquainted
with me. Then I began to think of the poor kid
which I had penned in within my little circle,
and resolved to go and fetch it home, or give it
some food. Accordingly I went, and found it was
so tame with being hungry, that I had no need to
tie it, for it followed me like a dog. And as I con-
tinually fed it, the creature became so loving, so
gentle, and so fond, that it became from that time
one of my domestics also, and would never leave
me afterwards.
The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was







ROBINSON CRUSOE


now come, and I kept the 30th of September in
the same solemn manner as before, being the anni-
versary of my landing on the island, having now
been there two years, and no more prospect of be-
ing delivered than the first day I came there. I
spent the whole day in humble and thankful ac-
knowledgments of the many wonderful mercies
which my solitary condition was attended with,
and without which it might have been infinitely
more miserable.
Thus I began my third year; and though I have
not given the reader the trouble of so particular
account of my works this year as the first, yet in
general it may be observed that I was very seldom
idle, but having regularly divided my time, accord-
ing to the several daily employment that were
before me, such as, first, my duty to God, and the
reading the Scriptures, which I constantly set
apart some time for, thrice every day; secondly,
the going abroad with my gun for food, which
generally took me up three hours in every morning,
when it did not rain; thirdly, the ordering, cur-
ing, preserving, and cooking what I had killed or
catched for my supply; these took up a great part of
the day; also, it is to be considered that the middle
of the day, when the sun was in the zenith, the vio-
lence of the heat was too great to stir out; so that
about four hours in the evening was all the time I
could be supposed to work in, with this exception,
that sometimes I changed my hours of hunting and







ROBINSON CRUSOE


working, and went to work in the morning, and
abroad with my gun in the afternoon.
I was now, in the months of November and De-
cember, expecting my crop of barley and rice. The
ground I had manured or dug up for them was not
great; for as I observed, my seed of each was not
above the quantity of half a peck; for I had lost
one whole crop by sowing in the dry season. But
now my crop promised very ivell, when on a sud-
den I found I was in danger of losing it all again
by enemies of several sorts, which it was scarce
possible to keep from it; as, first the goats and
wild creatures which I called hares, who, tasting
the sweetness of the blade, lay in it night and day,
as soon as it came up, and ate it so close, that it
could get no time to shoot up into stalk.
This I saw no remedy for but by making an en-
closure about it with a hedge, which I did with a
great deal of toil, and the more, because it required
speed. However, as my arable land was but small,
suited to my crop, I got it totally well fenced in
about three weeks' time, and shooting some of the
creatures in the daytime, I set my dog to guard it
in the night.
But as the beasts ruined me before while my corn
was in the blade, so the birds were as likely to
ruin me now when it was in the ear; for going
along by the place to see how it throve, I saw my
little crop surrounded with fowls, of I know not
how many sorts, who stood, as it were, watching






ROBINSON CRUSOE


till I should be gone. I immediately let fly among
them, for I always had my gun with me. I had
no sooner shot, but there rose up a little cloud of
fowls, which I had not seen at all, from among the
corn itself. For as I walked off, as if I was gone,
I was no sooner out of their sight but they dropped
down, one by one, into the corn again. I was so
provoked, that I could not have patience to stay
till more came on, knowing that every grain that
they ate now was, as it might be said, a peck-loaf
to me in the consequence; but coming up to the
hedge, I fired again, and killed three of them.
This was what I wished for; so I took them up,
and served them as we serve notorious thieves in
England, viz., hanged them in chains, for a terror
to others. It is impossible to imagine almost that
this should have such an effect as it had, for the
fowls would not only not come at the corn, but, in
short, they forsook all that part of the island, and
I could never see a bird near the place as long as
my scare-crows hung there.
This I was very glad of, you may be sure; and
about the latter end of December, which was our
second harvest of the year, I reaped my crop.
I was sadly put to it for a scythe or a sickle to
cut it down, and all I could do was to make one as
well as I could out of one of the broadswords, or
cutlasses, which I saved among the arms out of
the ship. However, as my first crop was but small,
I cut nothing off but the ears, and carried it away






ROBINSON CRUSOE


in a great basket which I had made, and so rubbed
it out with my hands; and at the end of all my har-
vesting, I found that out of my half peck of seed
I had near two bushels of rice, and above two
bushels and a half of barley, that is to say, by my
guess, for I had no measure at that time.
However, this was a great encouragement to me,
and I foresaw that, in time, it would please God to
supply me with bread. And yet here I was per-
plexed again, for I neither knew how to grind or
make meal of my corn, or indeed how to clean it
and part it; nor, if made into meal, how to make
bread of it, and if how to make it, yet I knew not
how to bake it. These things being added to my
desire of having a good quantity for store, and to
secure a constant supply, I resolved not to taste
any of this crop, but to preserve it all for seed
against the next season, and in the meantime, to
employ all my study in hours of working to accom-
plish this great work of providing myself with corn
and bread.
It might be truly said, that now I worked for my
bread. 'Tis a little wonderful, and what I believe
few people have thought much upon, viz., the
strange multitude of little things necessary in the
providing, producing, curing, dressing, making,
and finishing this one article of bread.
I, that was reduced to a mere state of nature,
found this to my daily discouragement, and was
made more and more sensible of it every hour, even






ROBINSON CRUSOE


after I had got the first handful of seed-corn,
which, as I have said, came up unexpectedly, and
indeed to a surprise.
First, I had no plough to turn up the earth, no
spade or shovel to dig it. Well, this I conquered


by making a wooden spade, as I observed before,
but this did my work in but a wooden manner; and
though it cost me a great many days to make it,
yet, for want of iron, it not only wore out the
sooner, but made my work the harder, and made it
be performed much worse.





ROBINSON CRUSOE


When the corn was sowed, I had no harrow, but
was forced to go over it myself, and drag a great
heavy bough of a tree over it, to scratch if, as it
may be called, rather than rake or harrow it.
When it was growing and grown, I have ob-
served already how many things I wanted to fence
it, secure it, mow or reap it, cure and carry it
home, thrash, part it from the chaff, and save it.
Then I wanted a mill to grind it, sieves to dress it,
yeast and salt to make it into bread, and an oven to
bake it, and yet all these things I did without, as
shall be observed; and yet the corn was an ines-
timable comfort and advantage to me, too. All
this, as I said, made everything laborious and te-
dious to me, but that there was no help for;
neither was my time so much loss to me, because,
as I Lad divided it, a certain part of it was every
day appointed to these works, and as I resolved
to use none of the corn for bread till I had a greater
quantity by me, I had the next six months to apply
myself wholly, by labor and invention, to furnish
myself with utensils proper for the performing all
the operations necessary for the making the corn,
when I had it, fit for my use.
But first I was to prepare more land, for I had
now seed enough to sow above an acre of ground.
Before I did this, I had a week's work at least to
make me a spade, which, when it was done, was but
a sorry one indeed, and very heavy, and required
double labor to work with it. However, I went
through that, and sowed my seed in two large flat





ROBINSON CRUSOE


pieces of ground, as near my house as I could find
them to my mind, and fenced them in with a good
hedge, the stakes of which were all cut of that wood
which I had set before, and knew it would grow;
so that in one year's time I knew I should have a
quick or living hedge, that would want but little
repair. This work was not so little as to take me
up less than three months, because a great part of
that time was of the wet season, when I could not
go abroad.
Within doors, that is, when it rained, and I
could not go out, I found employment on the fol-
lowing occasions; always observing, that all the
while I was at work, I diverted myself talking to
my parrot, and teaching him to speak, and I quickly
taught him to know his own name, and at last to
speak it out pretty loud, "Poll," which was the
first word I ever heard spoken in the island by any
mouth but my own. This, therefore, was not my
work, but an assistant to my work; for now, as I
said, I had a great employment upon my hands, as
follows, viz., I had long studied, by some means
or other, to make myself some earthen vessels,
which indeed I wanted sorely, but knew not where
to come at them. However, considering the heat
of the climate, I did not doubt but if I could find
out any such clay, I might botch up some such pot
as might, being dried in the sun, be hard enough
and strong enough to bear handling, and to hold
anything that was dry, and required to be kept so;
and as this was necessary in the preparing corn,





ROBINSON CRUSOE


meal, etc., which was the thing I was upon, I re-
solved to make some as large as I could, and fit
only to stand like jars, to hold what should be
put into them.
It would make the reader pity me, or rather
laugh at me, to tell how many awkward ways I
took to raise this paste; what odd, misshapen, ugly
things I made; how many of them fell in, and how
many fell out, the clay not being stiff enough to
bear its own weight; how many cracked by the
over-violent heat of the sun, being set out too
hastily; and how many fell in pieces with only re-
moving, as well before as after they were dried;
and, in a word, how, after having labored hard to
find the clay, to dig it, to temper it, to bring it
home, and work it, I could not make above two
large earthen ugly things (I cannot call them jars)
in about two months' labor.
Though I miscarried so much in my design for
large pots, yet I made several smaller things with
better success; such as little round pots, flat dishes,
pitchers, and pipkins, and any things my hand
turned to; and the heat of the sun baked them
strangely hard. But all this would not answer my
end, which was to get an earthen pot to hold what
was liquid, and bear the fire, which none of these
could do. It happened after some time, making
a pretty large fire for cooking my meat, when I
went to put it out after I had done with it, I found
a broken piece of one of my earthenware vessels
in the fire, burnt as hard as a stone, and red as a






96 ROBINSON CRUSOE

tile. I was agreeably surprised to see it, and said
to myself, that certainly they might be made to
burn whole, if they would burn broken.


'Ib


% 4-


This set me to studying how to order my fire, so
as to make it burn me some pots. I had no notion






ROBINSON CRUSOE


of a kiln, such as the potters burn in, or glazing
them with lead, though I had some lead to do it
with; but I placed three large pipkins, and two or
three pots in a pile, one upon another, and placed
my firewood all round it, with a great heap of em-
bers under them. I plied the fire with fresh fuel
round the outside, and upon the top, till I saw the
pots in the inside red-hot quite through, and ob-
served that they did not crack at all. When I saw
them clear red, I let them stand in that heat about
five or six hours, till I found one of them, though it
did not crack, did melt or run, for the sand which
was mixed with the clay melted by the violence of
the heat, and would have run into glass, if I had
gone on; so I slacked my fire gradually till the pots
began to abate of the red color; and watching them
all night, that I might not let the fire abate too fast,
in the morning I had three very good, I will not
say handsome, pipkins, and two other earthen pots,
as hard burnt as could be desired, and one of them
perfectly glazed with the running of the sand.
No joy at a thing of so mean a nature was ever
equal to mine, when I found I had made an earthen
pot that would bear the fire; and had hardly pa-
tience to stay till they were cold, before I set one
upon the fire again, with some water in it, to boil
me some meat, which it did admirably well; and
with a piece of a kid I made some very good broth.
My next concern was to get me a stone mortar
to stamp or beat some corn in. I spent many a day
to find out a great stone big enough to cut hollow,






ROBINSON CRUSOE


and make fit for a mortar, and could find none at
all, except what was in the solid rock, and which I
had no way to dig or cut out; nor indeed were the
rocks in the island of hardness sufficient, but were
all of a sandy crumbling stone, which neither would
bear the weight of a heavy pestle, or would break
the corn without filling it with sand. So, after a
great deal of time lost in searching for a stone, I
gave it over, and resolved to look out for a great
block of hard wood, which I found indeed much
easier; and getting one as big as I had strength to
stir, I rounded it, and formed it in the outside with
my axe and hatchet, and then, with the help of fire,
and infinite labor, made a hollow place in it, as the
Indians in Brazil made their canoes. After this,
I made a great heavy pestle, or beater, of the wood
called the iron-wood; and this I prepared and laid
by against I had my next crop of corn, when I pro-
posed to myself to grind, or rather pound, my corn
into meal, to make my bread.
The baking part was the next thing to be con-
sidered, and how I should make bread when I
came to have corn; for, first, I had no yeast. As
to that part, as there was no supplying the want,
so I did not concern myself much about it; but for
an oven I was indeed in great pain. At length I
found out an experiment for that also, which was
this: I made some earthen vessels very broad, but
not deep, that is to say, about two feet diameter,
and not above nine inches deep; these I burned
in the fire, as I had done the other, and laid them






ROBINSON CRUSOE


by; and when I wanted to bake, I made a great
fire upon my hearth, which I had paved with some
square tiles, of my own making and burning also;
but I should not call them square.
When the firewood was burned pretty much into
embers, or live coals, I drew them forward upon
this hearth, so as to cover it all over, and there I
let them lie till the hearth was very hot; then
sweeping away all the embers, I set down my loaf,
or loaves, and whelming down the earthen pot upon
them, drew the embers all round the outside of the
pot, to keep in and add to the heat. And thus I
baked my barley-loaves.
It need not be wondered at if all these things
took me up most part of the third year of my abode
here; for it is to be observed, that in the intervals
of these things I had my new harvest and hus-
bandry to manage; for I reaped my corn in its sea-
son, and carried it home as well as I could, and
laid it up in the ear, in my large baskets, till I had
time to rub it out, for I had no floor to thrash it
on, or instrument to thrash it with.
And now, indeed, my stock of corn increasing, I
really wanted to build my barns bigger. I wanted
a place to lay it up in, for the increase of the corn
now yielded me so much that I had of the barley
about twenty bushels, and of the rice as much, or
more, insomuch that now I resolved to begin to
use it freely; for my bread had been quite gone a
great while.
Upon the whole, I found that the forty bushels






ROBINSON CRUSOE


of barley and rice was much more than I could
consume in a year; so I resolved to sow just the
same quantity every year that I sowed the last, in
hopes that such a quantity would fully provide me
with bread, etc.
All the while these things were doing, you may
be sure my thoughts ran many times upon the
prospect of land which I had seen from the other
side of the island, and I was not without secret
wishes that I were on shore there, fancying the
seeing the mainland, and in an inhabited country,
I might find some way or other to convey myself
farther, and perhaps at last find some means of
escape.
Now I wished for my boy Xury, and the long-
boat with the shoulder-of-mutton sail, with which
I sailed above a thousand miles on the coast of
Africa; but this was in vain.
This at length put me upon thinking whether it
was not possible to make myself a canoe, or peri-
agua, such as the natives of those climates make,
even without tools, or, as I might say, without
hand, viz., of the trunk of a great tree.
I went to work upon this boat the most like a
fool that ever man did who had any of his senses
awake. I pleased myself with the design, without
determining whether I was ever able to undertake
it. Not but that the difficulty of launching my
boat came often into my head; but I put a stop to
my own inquiries into it, by this foolish answer


100






ROBINSON CRUSOE


which I gave myself, "Let's first make it; I'll war-
rant I'll find some way or other to get it along
when 'tis done."
This was a most preposterous method; but the



















eagerness of my fancy prevailed, and to work I
went. I felled a cedar tree: I question much
whether Solomon ever had such a one for the build-
ing of the Temple at Jerusalem. It was five feet
ten inches diameter at the lower part next the
stump, and four feet eleven inches diameter at
the end of twenty-two feet, after which it lessened


101






ROBINSON CRUSOE


for a while, and then parted into branches. It
was not without infinite labor that I felled this
tree. I was twenty days hacking and hewing at
it at the bottom; I was fourteen more getting the
branches and limbs, and the vast spreading head
of it cut off, which I hacked and hewed through
with axe and hatchet, and inexpressible labor.
After this, it cost me a month to shape it and dub
it to a proportion, and to something like the bot-
tom of a boat, that it might swim upright as it
ought to do. It cost me near three months more
to clear the inside, and work it so as to make an ex-
act boat of it. This I did, indeed, without fire,
by mere mallet and chisel, and by the dint of hard
labor, till I had brought it to be a very handsome
periagua and big enough to have carried six and
twenty men, and consequently big enough to have
carried me and all my cargo.
When I had gone through this work, I was ex-
tremely delighted with it. Many a weary stroke it
had cost, you may be sure; and there remained
nothing but to get it into the water.
But all my devices to get it into the water failed
me, though they cost me infinite labor too. It lay
about one hundred yards from the water, and not
more; but the first inconvenience was, it was up-
hill towards the creek. Well, to take away this
discouragement, I resolved to dig into the surface
of the earth, and so make a declivity. This I be-
gan, and it cost me a prodigious deal of pains; but
who grudges pains, that have their deliverance in


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