• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Half Title
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 List of Illustrations
 Robinson Crusoe






Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074471/00001
 Material Information
Title: Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Series Title: The Windermere series
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 382 p., 8 leaves of plates : col. ill. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Winter, Milo, 1888-1956
Rand McNally and Company ( Publisher )
Publisher: Rand McNally & Company
Place of Publication: Chicago ;
New York
Publication Date: 1932
 Subjects
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1864   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Illinois -- Chicago
 Notes
Citation/Reference: Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe,
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel Defoe.
General Note: Cover col. ill. with title: Robinson Crusoe; spine title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Illustrations c1916.
General Note: Part I of Robinson Crusoe.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074471
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001758150
oclc - 30762780
notis - AJH1205

Table of Contents
    Half Title
        Page 3
    Frontispiece
        Page 4
    Title Page
        Page 5
        Page 6
    List of Illustrations
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Robinson Crusoe
        Page 9
        Page 10
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Full Text












ROBINSON CRUSOE


j~e~z z I


; ~iLbuh;.iin~e~-vt/











































































With this cargo I put to sea


"'

-- '-'. u
--"~L~;

a--



IF~-~p~ -






THE WINDERMERE SERIES


Life and Adventures
OF

Robinson Crusoe


BY
DANIEL DEFOE


RAND MCNALLY & COMPANY
CHICAGO NEW YORK

















Iiustrations
Copyright, rpr6.
By RAND MCNALLY & CO.
All rights reserved
Edition of 1932


















THE ILLUSTRATIONS
With this cargo I put to sea .. Frontispiece
PFac=I PAGE
Our ship being disabled, and three of our men killed and eight

wounded, we were obliged to yield 32

I made me table and a chair .. 88

I employed myself in making a great many baskets .44

I must confess to you that I made more haste out than I did in 224

At last he lays his head flat upon the ground, close to my foot, and

sets my other foot upon his head 256

I went to him and gave him a handful of raisins ... 304

I gave them the whole history of the place . 344










ROBINSON CRUSOE

I was born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a
good family, though not of that country, my father being
a foreigner, of Bremen, who settled first at Hull; he
got a good estate by merchandise, and leaving off his
trade, lived afterward at York; from whence he had
married my mother, whose relations were named Robin-
son, a very good family in that country, and from whom
I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but, by the usual
corruption of words in England, we are now called,
nay, we call ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe;
and so my companions always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieuten-
ant-colonel to an English regiment of foot in Flanders,
formerly commanded by the famous Colonel Lockhart,
and was killed at the battle near Dunkirk against the
Spaniards. What became of my second brother I never
knew, any more than my father or mother did know
what was become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to
any trade, my head began to be filled very early with
rambling thoughts; my father, who was very ancient,
had given me a competent share of learning, as far as
house education and a country free school generally
goes, and designed me for the law; but I would be satisfied
with nothing but going to sea; and my inclination to
this led me so strongly against the will, nay, the com-
mands, of my father, and against all the entreaties and
persuasions of my mother and other friends, that there







ROBINSON CRUSOE


seemed to be something fatal in that propension of
nature, tending directly to the life of misery which
was to befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious
and excellent counsel against what he foresaw was my
design. He called me one morning into his chamber,
where he was confined by the gout, and expostulated
very warmly with me upon this subject. He asked me
what reasons, more than a mere wandering inclination,
I had for leaving my father's house and my native
country, where I might be well introduced, and had
a prospect of raising my fortune by application and
industry, with a life of ease and pleasure. He told me
it was men of desperate fortunes on one hand, or of
aspiring, superior fortunes on the other, who went abroad
upon adventures, to rise by enterprise, and make them-
selves famous in undertakings of a nature out of the
common road; that these things were all either too far
above me or too far below me; that mine was the middle
state, or what might be called the upper station of low
life, which he had found by long experience was the
best state in the world, the most suited to human hap-
piness, not exposed to the miseries and hardships, the
labor and sufferings of the mechanic part of mankind,
and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition,
and envy of the upper part of mankind. He told me
I might judge of the happiness of this state by this one
thing, viz., that this was the state of life which all other
people envied; that kings have frequently lamented
the miserable consequence of being born to great things,
and wished they had been placed in the middle of the two







ROBINSON CRUSOE


extremes, between the mean and the great; that the
wise man gave his testimony to this, as the just standard
of true felicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty
nor riches.
He bade me observe it, and I should always find
that the calamities of life were shared among the upper
and lower part of mankind; but that the middle station
had the fewest disasters, and was not exposed to so many
vicissitudes as the higher or lower part of mankind;
nay, they were not subjected to so many distempers
and uneasinesses, either of body or mind, as those were
who, by vicious living, luxury, and extravagances on
one hand, or by hard labor, want of necessaries, and
mean or insufficient diet on the other hand, bring dis-
tempers upon themselves by the natural consequences
of their way of living; that the middle station of life was
calculated for all kind of virtues and all kind of enjoy-
ments; that peace and plenty were the handmaids of
a middle fortune; that temperance, moderation, quiet-
ness, health, society, all agreeable diversions, and all
desirable pleasures, were the blessings attending the
middle station of life; that this way men went silently
and smoothly through the world, and comfortably out
of it, not embarrassed with the labors of the hands or
of the head, not sold to a life of slavery for daily bread,
nor harassed with perplexed circumstances, which rob
the soul of peace and the body of rest; nor enraged with
the passion of envy, nor the secret burning lust of ambi-
tion for great things; but, in easy circumstances, sliding
gently through the world and sensibly tasting the sweets
of living, without the bitter; feeling that they are happy






ROBINSON CRUSOE


and learning by every day's experience to know it more
sensibly.
After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most
affectionate manner, not to play the young man, nor
to precipitate myself into miseries which Nature, and
the station of life I was born in, seemed to have provided
against; that I was under no necessity of seeking my
bread; that he would do well for me, and endeavor to
enter me fairly into the station of life which he had just
been recommending to me; and that if I was not very
easy and happy in the world, it must be my mere fate or
fault that must hinder it; and that he should have nothing
to answer for, having thus discharged his duty in warning
me against measures which he knew would be to my
hurt; in a word, that as he would do very kind things
for me, if I would stay and settle at home as he directed,
so he would not have so much hand in my misfortunes
as to give me any encouragement to go away; and to
close all, he told me I had my elder brother for an example,
to whom he had used the same earnest persuasions to
keep him from going into the Low Country wars, but
could not prevail, his young desires prompting him
to run into the army, where he was killed. And though
he said he would not cease to pray for me, yet he would
venture to say to me that if I did take this foolish step,
God would not bless me, and I should have leisure
hereafter to reflect upon having neglected his counsel,
when there might be none to assist in my recovery.
I observed in this last part of his discourse, which
was truly prophetic, though I suppose my father did
not know it to be so himself-I say, I observed the







ROBINSON CRUSOE


tears run down his face very plentifully, especially when
he spoke of my brother who was killed; and that when
he spoke of my having leisure to repent, and none to
assist me, he was so moved that he broke off the discourse,
and told me his heart was so full he could say no more
to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed
who could be otherwise? And I resolved not to think
of going abroad any more, but to settle at home according
to my father's desire. But, alas! a few days wore it all
off; and, in short, to prevent any of my father's further
importunities, in a few weeks after I resolved to run
quite away from him. However, I did not act quite
so hastily neither as the first heat of my resolution
prompted, but I took my mother at a time when I
thought her a little more pleasant than ordinary, and
told her that my thoughts were so entirely bent upon
seeing the world that I should never settle to anything
with resolution enough to go through with it, and my
father had better give me his consent than force me to
go without it; that I was now eighteen years old, which
was too late to go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an
attorney; that I was sure, if I did, I should never serve
out my time, but I should certainly run away from my
master before my time was out, and go to sea; and if
she would speak to my father to let me go one voyage
abroad, if I came home again, and did not like it, I
would go no more, and I would promise, by a double
diligence, to recover the time that I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion. She
told me she knew it would be to no purpose to speak to






ROBINSON CRUSOE


my father upon any such subject; that he knew too well
what was my interest to give his consent to anything
so much for my hurt; and that she wondered how I
could think of any such thing after the discourse I had
had with my father, and such kind and tender expressions
as she knew my father had used to me; and that, in
short, if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me;
but I might depend I should never have their consent
to it; that for her part, she would not have so much hand
in my destruction; and I should never have it to say
that my mother was willing when my father was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my father,
yet I heard afterwards that she reported all the discourse
to him, and that my father, after showing a great concern
at it, said to her with a sigh: "That boy might be
happy if he would stay at home; but if he goes abroad
he will be the most miserable wretch that ever was born.
I can give no consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke
loose, though, in the meantime, I continued obstinately
deaf to all proposals of settling to business, and frequently
expostulated with my father and mother about their
being so positively determined against what they knew
my inclinations prompted me to. But being one day
at Hull, whither I went casually and without any purpose
of making an elopement at that time; but I say, being
there, and one of my companions about to go by sea to
London in his father's ship, and prompting me to go
with them, with the common allurement of a seafaring
man, that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I
consulted neither father nor mother any more, nor so







ROBINSON CRUSOE


much as sent them word of it; but leaving them to hear
of it as they might, without asking God's blessing or
my father's, without any consideration of circumstances
or consequences, and in an ill hour, God knows, on the
Ist of September, 1651, I went on board a ship bound
for London. Never any young adventurer's misfortunes,
I believe, began sooner or continued longer than mine.
The ship was no sooner got out of the Humber than
the wind began to blow, and the sea to rise in a most
frightful manner; and, as I had never been at sea before,
I was most inexpressibly sick in body and terrified in
mind. I began now seriously to reflect upon what I
had done, and how justly I was overtaken by the judg-
ment of Heaven for my wicked leaving my father's
house, and abandoning my duty. All the good counsel
of my parents, my father's tears and my mother's
entreaties, came now fresh into my mind; and my
conscience, which was not yet come to the pitch of
hardness to which it has come since, reproached me
with the contempt of advice, and the breach of my
duty to God and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea went
very high, though nothing like what I have seen many
times since; no, nor what I saw a few days after; but
it was enough to affect me then, who was but a young
sailor, and had never known anything of the matter.
I expected every wave would have swallowed us up,
and that every time the ship fell down, as I thought
it did, in the trough or hollow of the sea, we should
never rise more: in this agony of mind I made many
vows and resolutions that if it would please God to







ROBINSON CRUSOE


spare my life in this one voyage, if ever I got once my
foot upon dry land again, I would go directly home to
my father, and never set it into a ship again while I
lived; that I would take his advice, and never run myself
into such miseries as these any more. Now I saw
plainly the goodness of his observations about the middle
station of life, how easy, how comfortable he had lived
all his days, and never had been exposed to tempests
at sea or troubles on shore; and, in short, I resolved
that I would, like a true, repenting prodigal, go home
to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the
while the storm lasted, and indeed some time after;
but the next day the wind was abated and the sea calmer,
and I began to be a little inured to it; however, I was
very grave for all that day, being also a little seasick
still; but towards night the weather cleared up, the wind
was quite over, and a charming fine evening followed.
The sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next
morning; having little or no wind, and a smooth sea,
the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought,
the most delightful that ever I saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more
seasick, but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon
the sea that was so rough and terrible the day before,
and could be so calm and so pleasant in so little a time
after. And now, lest my good resolutions should con-
tinue, my companion, who had enticed me away, comes
to me.
"Well, Bob," says he, clapping me upon the shoulder,
"how do you do after it? I warrant you were frighted,







ROBINSON CRUSOE


were n't you, last night, when it blew but a capful of
wind?"
"A capful, d'you call it?" said I; "'t was a terrible
storm!"
"A storm, you fool, you!" replies he. "Do you
call that a storm? Why, it was nothing at all; give us but
a good ship and sea-room, and we think nothing of such a
squall of wind as that; but you're but a fresh-water sailor,
Bob. Come, let us make a bowl of punch and we'll for-
get all that; d'ye see what charming weather 't is now? "
To make short this sad part of my story, we went
the way of all sailors; the punch was made, and I was
made half drunk with it; and in that one night's wicked-
ness I drowned all my repentance, all my reflections
upon my past conduct, all my resolutions for the future.
In a word, as the sea was returned to its smoothness of
surface and settled calmness by the abatement of that
storm, so the hurry of my thoughts being over, my
fears and apprehensions of being swallowed up by the
sea being forgotten, and the current of my former desires
returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises that
I made in my distress. I found, indeed, some intervals
of reflection; and the serious thoughts did, as it were,
endeavor to return again sometimes; but I shook them
off, and roused myself from them as it were from a
distemper, and applying myself to drinking and company,
soon mastered the return of those fits, for so I called them.
And I had, in five or six days, got as complete a victory
over my conscience as any young fellow that resolved
not to be troubled with it could desire. But I was to
have another trial for it still; and Providence, as in such






ROBINSON CRUSOE


cases generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely
without excuse; for if I would not take this for a deliver-
ance, the next was to be such a one as the worst and
most hardened wretch among us would confess both
the danger and the mercy.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into
Yarmouth Roads; the wind having been contrary, and
the weather calm, we had made but little way since the
storm. Here we were obliged to come to an anchor,
and here we lay, the wind continuing contrary, viz.,
at southwest, for seven or eight days, during which time
a great many ships from Newcastle came into the same
Roads, as the common harbor where the ships might
wait for a wind for the River.
We had not, however, rid here so long, but we should
have tided it up the river, but that the wind blew too
fresh, and, after we had lain four or five days, blew very
hard. However, the Roads being reckoned as good
as a harbor, the anchorage good, and our ground-tackle
very strong, our men were unconcerned, and not in the
least apprehensive of danger, but spent the time in rest
and mirth, after the manner of the sea; but the eighth
day, in the morning, the wind increased, and we had all
hands at work to strike our topmasts, and make every-
thing snug and close, that the ship might ride as easy as
possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed,
and our ship rode forecastle in, shipped several seas, and
we thought once or twice our anchor had come home;
upon which our master ordered out the sheet-anchor,
so that we rode with two anchors ahead, and the cables
veered out to the better end.







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By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now
I began to see terror and amazement in the faces even of
the seamen themselves. The master, though vigilant
in the business of preserving the ship, yet as he went
in and out of his cabin by me, I could hear him softly
to himself say, several times, "Lord, be merciful to
us! We shall be all lost! We shall be all undone!"
and the like. During these first hurries I was stupid,
lying still in my cabin, which was in the steerage, and
cannot describe my temper. I could ill resume the
first penitence which I had so apparently trampled upon,
and hardened myself against: I thought the bitterness
of death had been past, and that this would be nothing
too, like the first; but when the master himself came
by me, as I said just now, and said we should be all
lost, I was dreadfully frighted. I got up out of my cabin,
and looked out; but such a dismal sight I never saw;
the sea ran mountains high, and broke upon us every
three or four minutes. When I could look about, I
could see nothing but distress round us; two ships that
rode near us, we found, had cut their masts by the board,
being deep laden; and our men cried out that a ship
which rid about a mile ahead of us was foundered. Two
more ships, being driven from their anchors, were run
out of the Roads to sea, at all adventures, and that not
with a mast standing. The light ships fared the best,
as not so much laboring in the sea; but two or three
of them drove, and came close by us, running away with
only their spritsail out before the wind.
Toward evening the mate and boatswain begged
the master of our ship to let them cut away the foremast,







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which he was very unwilling to do; but the boatswain
protesting to him that if he did not the ship would
founder, he consented; and when they had cut away
the foremast, the mainmast stood so loose, and shook
the ship so much, they were obliged to cut that away
also, and make a clear deck.
And one must judge what a condition I must be in
at all this, who was but a young sailor, and who had
been in such a fright before at but a little. But if I
can express at this distance the thoughts I had about
me at that time, I was in tenfold more horror of mind
upon account of my former convictions, and the having
returned from them to the resolutions I had wickedly
taken at first, than I was at death itself; and these,
added to the terror of the storm, put me into such a
condition that I can by no words describe it. But the
worst was not come yet; the storm continued with such
fury that the seamen themselves acknowledged they
had never seen a worse. We had a good ship, but she
was deep laden, and wallowed in the sea, so that the
seamen every now and then cried out she would founder.
It was my advantage, in one respect, that I did not
know what they meant by founder, till I inquired.
However, the storm was so violent that I saw, what
is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some
others more sensible than the rest, at their prayers,
and expecting every moment when the ship would go
to the bottom. In the middle of the night, and under
all the rest of our distresses, one of the men, that had
been down to see, cried out we had sprung a leak; another
said there was four feet of water in the hold. Then all







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hands were called to the pump. At that word, my
heart, as I thought, died within me; and I fell back-
wards upon the side of my bed, where I sat, into the
cabin. However, the men roused me, and told me
that I, that was able to do nothing before, was as well
able to pump as another; at which I stirred up, and
went to the pump, and worked very heartily. While
this was doing, the master seeing some light colliers,
who, not able to ride out the storm, were obliged to
slip, and run away to the sea, and would come near us,
ordered to fire a gun as a signal of distress. I, who knew
nothing what they meant, thought the ship had broken,
or some dreadful thing happened. In a word, I was
so surprised that I fell down in a swoon. As this was
a time when everybody had his own life to think of,
nobody minded me or what was become of me; but
another man stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me
aside with his foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead;
and it was a great while before I came to myself.
We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold,
it was apparent that the ship would founder; and though
the storm began to abate a little, yet as it was not possible
she could swim till we might run into any port, so the
master continued firing guns for help; and a light ship,
who had rid it out just ahead of us, ventured a boat out
to help us. It was with the utmost hazard the boat
came near us; but it was impossible for us to get on
board, or for the boat to lie near the ship's side, till at
last the men rowing very heartily, and venturing their
lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope over the
stern with a buoy to it, and then veered it out a great







ROBINSON CRUSOE


length, which they after much labor and hazard took
hold of, and we hauled them close under our stem, and
got all into their boat. It was to no purpose for them
or us, after we were in the boat, to think of reaching to
their own ship; so all agreed to let her drive, and only to
pull her in towards shore as much as we could; and
our master promised them that if the boat was staved
upon shore, he would make it good to their master.
So partly rowing, and partly driving, our boat went
away to the northward, sloping towards the shore
almost as far as Winterton Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour
out of our ship till we saw her sink, and then I understood
for the first time what was meant by a ship foundering
in the sea. I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to
look up when the seamen told me she was sinking;
for from the moment that they rather put me into the
boat than that I might be said to go in, my heart was,
as it were, dead within me, partly with fright, partly
with horror of mind and the thoughts of what was yet
before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet laboring
at the oar to bring the boat near the shore, we could see
(when, our boat mounting the waves, we were able to see
the shore) a great many people running along the strand,
to assist us when we should come near. But we made
but slow way towards the shore; nor were we able to
reach the shore till, being past the lighthouse at Winter-
ton, the shore falls off to the westward, towards Cromer,
and so the land broke off a little the violence of the wind.
Here we got in, and, though not without much difficulty,







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got all safe on shore, and walked afterwards on foot to
Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were used
with great humanity, as well by the magistrates of the
town, who assigned us good quarters, as by particular
merchants and owners of ships, and had money given
us sufficient to carry us either to London or back to
Hull, as we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull,
and have gone home, I had been happy, and my father,
an emblem of our blessed Saviour's parable, had even
killed the fatted calf for me; for hearing the ship I went
away in was cast away in Yarmouth Roads, it was a
great while before he had any assurances that I was not
drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy
that nothing could resist; and though I had several times
loud calls from my reason, and my more composed
judgment, to go home, yet I had no power to do it. I
know not what to call this, nor will I urge that it is a
secret overruling decree that hurries us on to be the
instruments of our own destruction, even though it be
before us, and that we rush upon it with our eyes open.
Certainly, nothing but some such decreed unavoidable
misery attending, and which it was impossible for me
to escape, could have pushed me forward against the
calm reasoning and persuasions of my most retired
thoughts, and against two such visible obstructions as
I had met with in my first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before,
and who was the master's son, was now less forward
than I. The first time he spoke to me after we were at






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Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days, for we
were separated in the town to several quarters; I say,
the first time he saw me, it appeared his tone was altered;
and looking very melancholy, and shaking his head, he
asked me how I did, and telling his father who I was,
and how I had come this voyage only for a trial, in
order to go farther abroad, his father turning to me
with a very grave and concerned tone, "Young man,"
says he, "you ought never to go to sea any more; you
ought to take this for a plain and visible token that you
are not to be a seafaring man." "Why, sir," said I, will
you go to sea no more?" "That is another case,"
said he; "it is my calling, and therefore my duty; but
as you have made this voyage for a trial, you see what
a taste Heaven has given you of what you are to expect
if you persist. Perhaps this has all befallen us on your
account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray,"
continues he, "what are you; and on what account did
you go to sea?" Upon which I told him some of my
story; at the end of which he burst out into a strange
kind of passion: "What had I done," says he, "that
such an unhappy wretch should come into my ship?
I would not set my foot in the same ship with thee
again for a thousand pounds." This indeed was, as I
said, an excursion of his spirits, which were yet agitated
by the sense of his loss, and was farther than he could
have authority to go. However, he afterwards talked
very gravely to me, exhorting me to go back to my father,
and not tempt Providence to my ruin; telling me I might
see a visible hand of Heaven against me. "And, young
man," said he, "depend upon it, if you do not go back,







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wherever you go you will meet with nothing but disasters
and disappointments, till your father's words are fulfilled
upon you."
We parted soon after, for I made him little answer,
and I saw him no more; which way he went I know not.
As for me, having some money in my pocket, I traveled
to London by land; and there, as well as on the road,
had many struggles with myself what course of life I
should take, and whether I should go home or go to sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best motions
that offered to my thoughts; and it immediately occurred
to me how I should be laughed at among the neighbors,
and should be ashamed to see, not my father and mother
only, but even everybody else; from whence I have often
since observed how incongruous and irrational the
common temper of mankind is, especially of youth, to
that reason which ought to guide them in such cases,
viz., that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are
ashamed to repent; not ashamed of the action for which
they ought justly to be esteemed fools, but are ashamed
of the returning, which only can make them be esteemed
wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some time,
uncertain what measures to take, and what course of
life to lead. An irresistible reluctance continued to
going home; and as I stayed a while, the remembrance
of the distress I had been in wore off; and as that abated,
the little motion I had in my desires to return wore off
with it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts of it,
and looked out for a voyage.
That evil influence which carried me first away from







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my father's house, which hurried me into the wild and
indigested notion of raising my fortune, and that im-
pressed those conceits so forcibly upon me as to make
me deaf to all good advice and to the entreaties and even
the commands of my father: I say, the same influence,
whatever it was, presented the most unfortunate of all
enterprises to my view; and I went on board a vessel
bound to the coast of Africa; or, as our sailors vulgarly
call it, a voyage to Guinea.1
It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures
I did not ship myself as a sailor; when, though I might
indeed have worked a little harder than ordinary, yet
at the same time I should have learned the duty and
office of a foremast man, and in time might have qualified
myself for a mate or lieutenant, if not for a master. But
as it was always my fate to choose for the worse, so I
did here; for having money in my pocket, and good
clothes upon my back, I would always go on board in
the habit of a gentleman; and so I neither had any
business in the ship nor learned to do any.
It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good
company in London, which does not always happen to
such loose and misguided young fellows as I then was,
the devil generally not omitting to lay some snare for
them very early; but it was not so with me. I first got
acquainted with the master of a ship who had been on
the coast of Guinea, and who, having had very good
success there, was resolved to go again. This captain,
1Guinea. A district of that part of the West Coast of Africa where the
land runs nearly due east and west. The six countries into which it is divided
are known to sailors under the names of Sierra Leone, Grain Coast, Ivory Coast,
Gold Coast, Slave Coast, and Benin.







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taking a fancy to my conversation, which was not at
all disagreeable at that time, hearing me say I had a
mind to see the world, told me if I would go the voyage
with him I should be at no expense; I should be his
messmate and his companion; and if I could carry
anything with me I should have all the advantage of it
that the trade would admit; and perhaps I might meet
with some encouragement.
I embraced the offer; and entering into a strict
friendship with this captain, who was an honest, plain-
dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and carried
a small adventure with me, which, by the disinterested
honesty of my friend the captain, I increased very con-
siderably; for I carried about 40 in such toys and trifles
as the captain directed me to buy. This 40 I had
mustered together by the assistance of some of my
relations whom I corresponded with, and who, I believe,
got my father, or at least my mother, to contribute so
much as that to my first adventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say was
successful in all my adventures, and which I owe to the
integrity and honesty of my friend the captain; under
whom also I got a competent knowledge of the mathe-
matics and the rules of navigation, learned how to keep
an account of the ship's course, take an observation,
and, in short, to understand some things that were need-
ful to be understood by a sailor. For, as he took delight
to instruct me, I took delight to learn; and, in a word,
this voyage made me both a sailor and a merchant; for
I brought home five pounds nine ounces of gold dust
for my adventure, which yielded me in London, at my







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return, almost 300; and this filled me with those aspir-
ing thoughts which have since so completed my ruin.
Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too,
particularly that I was continually sick, being thrown
into a violent calenture by the excessive heat of the cli-
mate; our principal trading being on the coast, from the
latitude of fifteen degrees north, even to the line itself.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend,
to my great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I
resolved to go the same voyage again, and I embarked
in the same vessel with one who was his mate in the
former voyage, and had now got the command of the
ship. This was the unhappiest voyage that ever man
made; for though I did not carry quite 1oo of my new-
gained wealth, so that I had 200 left which I had lodged
with my friend's widow, who was very just to me, yet I
fell into terrible misfortunes in this voyage. And the
first was this, viz., our ship making her course towards
the Canary Islands, or rather between those Islands and
the African shore, was surprised in the gray of the morning
by a Moorish rover of Sallee, who gave chase to us with
all the sail she could make. We crowded also as much
canvas as our yards would spread, or our masts carry, to
have got clear; but finding the pirate gained upon us,
and would certainly come up with us in a few hours, we
prepared to fight, our ship having twelve guns and the
rogue eighteen. About three in the afternoon he came
up with us, and bringing to, by mistake, just athwart our
quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as he intended, we
brought eight of our guns to bear on that side, and
poured in a broadside upon him, which made him sheer







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off again, after returning our fire, and pouring in also
his small shot from near two hundred men which he had
on board. However, we had not a man touched, all our
men keeping close. He prepared to attack us again,
and we to defend ourselves; but laying us on board the
next time upon our other quarter, he entered sixty men
upon our decks, who immediately fell to cutting and
hacking the sails and rigging. We plied them with
small-shot, half-pikes, powder chests, and such like, and
cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut short
this melancholy part of our story, our ship being disabled,
and three of our men killed and eight wounded, we were
obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners into
Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I
apprehended; nor was I carried up the country to the
emperor's court, as the rest of our men were, but was
kept by the captain of the rover as his proper prize, and
made his slave, being young and nimble, and fit for his
business. At this surprising change of my circumstances,
from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was perfectly
overwhelmed; and now I looked back upon my father's
prophetic discourse to me,-that I should be miserable
and have none to relieve me,-which I thought was now
so effectually brought to pass that I could not be worse;
for now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I
was undone without redemption. But, alas! this was
but a taste of the misery I was to go through, as will
appear in the sequel of this story.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to
his house, so I was in hopes that he would take me with






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him when he went to sea again, believing that it would
some time or other be his fate to be taken by a Spanish
or Portuguese man-of-war; and that then I should be
set at liberty. But this hope of mine was soon taken
away; for when he went to sea he left me on shore to
look after his little garden, and do the common drudgery
of slaves about his house; and when he came home again
from his cruise he ordered me to lie in the cabin to look
after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what
method I might take to effect it, but found no way that
had the least probability in it. Nothing presented to
make the supposition of it rational, for I had nobody to
communicate it to that would embark with me, no fellow-
slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or Scotsman there but
myself; so that for two years, though I often pleased
myself with the imagination, yet I never had the least
encouraging prospect of putting it in practice.
After about two years an odd circumstance presented
itself which put the old thought of making some attempt
for my liberty again in my head. My patron lying at
home longer than usual without fitting out his ship,
which, as I heard, was for want of money, he used con-
stantly, once or twice a week, sometimes oftener if the
weather was fair, to take the ship's pinnace and go out
into the road a-fishing; and as he always took me and
a young Moresco with him to row the boat, we made
him very merry, and I proved very dexterous in catching
fish; insomuch that sometimes he would send me with a
Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth the Moresco,
as they called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.







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It happened one time that, going a-fishing with him
in a calm morning, a fog rose so thick that though we
were not half a league from the shore we lost sight of it;
and rowing we knew not whither or which way, we
labored all day, and all the next night. And when the
morning came we found we had pulled out to sea instead
of pulling in for shore; and that we were at least two
leagues from the land. However, we got well in again,
though with a great deal of labor and some danger, for
the wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morning;
but particularly we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to
take more care of himself for the future; and having
lying by him the long boat of our English ship which he
had taken, he resolved he would not go a-fishing any
more without a compass and some provisions. So he
ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also was an English
slave, to build a little stateroom, or cabin, in the middle
of the long boat, like that of a barge, with a place to
stand behind it to steer and haul home the mainsheet,
and room before for a hand or two to stand and work
the sails.
She sailed with what we call a shoulder-of-mutton
sail; and the boom jibbed over the top of the cabin,
which lay very snug and low, and had in it room for him
to lie, with a slave or two, and a table to eat on, with
some small lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor
as he thought fit to drink; and particularly his bread,
rice, and coffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing; and
as I was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never







ROBINSON CRUSOE


went without me. It happened that he had appointed
to go out in this boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with
two or three Moors of some distinction in that place,
and for whom he had provided extraordinarily, and had
therefore sent on board the boat overnight a larger store
of provisions than usual; and had ordered me to get
ready three fusilsi with powder and shot, which were
on board his ship, for that they designed some sport of
fowling as well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he had directed; and waited
the next morning with the boat washed clean, her ancient2
and pendants out, and everything to accommodate his
guests; when by and by my patron came on board
alone, and told me his guests had put off going, from
some business that fell out, and ordered me, with the
man and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat and catch
them some fish, and that his friends were to sup at his
house. He commanded me, too, that as soon as I
had got some fish I should bring it home to his house: all
which I prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance darted
into my thoughts, for now I found I was likely to have
a little ship at my command; and my master being gone,
I prepared to furnish myself not for fishing business
but for a voyage; though I knew not, neither did I so
much as consider, whither I would steer; for anywhere
to get out of that place was my desire.
My first contrivance was to make a pretense to speak
to this Moor, to get something for our subsistence on
1Fusil. A French word, meaning a light musket or firelock.
2Ancient. The old word, derived from the French enseigne, for a flag, or
the man who carries it.



































































iWur lip/ 1, 'ini disabled, and three of our men killed ,and eight
woundedd 'W' 7,4're onligedl lo -yi/ld






ROBINSON CRUSOE


board; for I told him we must not presume to eat of our
patron's bread.
He said that was true; so he brought a large basket of
rusk or biscuit of their kind, and three jars with fresh
water, into the boat. I knew where my patron's case
of bottles stood, which it was evident, by the make,
were taken out of some English prize, and I conveyed
them into the boat while the Moor was on shore, as if
they had been there before for our master. I conveyed
also a great lump of beeswax into the boat, which weighed
about half an hundredweight, with a parcel of twine or
thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all of which
were of great use to us afterwards, especially the wax to
make candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which
he innocently came into also; his name was Ismael,
which they call Muley, or Moely; so I called to him:
"Moely," said I, "our patron's guns are all on board
the boat; can you not get a little powder and shot? It
may be we may kill some alcamies [a fowl like our cur-
lews] for ourselves, for I know he keeps the gunner's
stores in the ship." "Yes," say she, "I'll bring some."
Accordingly, he brought a great leather pouch, which
held about a pound and a half of powder, or rather more;
and another with shot, that had five or six pounds, with
some bullets, and put all into the boat. At the same time
I had found some powder of my master's in the great
cabin, with which I filled one of the large bottles in the
case, which was almost empty, pouring what was in it
into another; and thus furnished with everything needful,
we sailed out of the port to fish. The castle, which is at
the entrance of the port, knew who we were, and took






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no notice of us; and we were not above a mile out of the
port before we hauled in our sail, and sat us down to
fish. The wind blew from the N.N.E., which was con-
trary to my desire; for had it blown southerly, I had been
sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at least reached
to the bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow which
way it would, I would be gone from that horrid place
where I was, and leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and caught nothing,
for when I had fish on my hook I would not pull them
up, that he might not see them, I said to the Moor,
"This will not do; our master will not be thus served;
we must stand farther off." He, thinking no harm,
agreed, and, being in the head of the boat, set the sails;
and, as I had the helm, I ran the boat out near a league
farther, and then brought her to as if I would fish; when,
giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward to where
the Moor was, and making as if I stooped for something
behind him, I took him by surprise with my arm under
his waist, and tossed him clear overboard into the sea.
He rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and
called to me, begged to be taken in, telling me he would
go all over the world with me. He swam so strong after
the boat that he would have reached me very quickly,
there being but little wind; upon which I stepped into
the cabin, and fetching one of the fowling pieces, I pre-
sented it at him and told him I had done him no hurt,
and if he would be quiet I would do him none. "But,"
said I, "you swim well enough to reach the shore, and
the sea is calm; make the best of your way to shore,
and I will do you no harm; but if you come near the boat







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I'll shoot you through the head, for I am resolved to
have my liberty." So he turned himself about, and
swam for the shore, and I make no doubt but he reached
it with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor
with me, and have drowned the boy, but there was no
venturing to trust him. When he was gone I turned to
the boy, whom they called Xury, and said to him,
"Xury, if you will be faithful to me, I'll make you a
great man; but if you will not stroke your face to be
true to me," that is, swear by Mahomet and his father's
beard, "I must throw you into the sea too." The boy
smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently that I could
not mistrust him, and swore to be faithful to me and go
all over the world with me.
While I was in the view of the Moor that was swim-
ming, I stood out directly to sea, with the boat rather
stretching to windward, that they might think me gone
towards the Straits' mouth (as indeed any one that
had been in their wits must have been supposed to do);
for who would have supposed we were sailing on to the
southward to the truly barbarian coast, where whole
nations of negroes were sure to surround us with their
canoes, and destroy us; where we could never once go
on shore but we should be devoured by savage beasts,
or more merciless savages of human kind?
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening I changed
my course, and steered directly south and by east,
bending my course a little towards the east that I might
keep in with the shore; and having a fair, fresh gale of
i Straits. The Straits of Gibraltar.






ROBINSON CRUSOE


wind, and a smooth, quiet sea, I made such sail that I
believe by the next day at three o'clock in the afternoon,
when I first made the land, I could not be less than one
hundred and fifty miles south of Sallee, quite beyond
the Emperor of Morocco's dominions, or indeed of any
other king thereabouts, for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and
the dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their
hands, that I would not stop, or go on shore, or come
to an anchor, the wind continuing fair, till I had sailed
in that manner five days; and then, the wind shifting
to the southward, I concluded also that if any of our
vessels were in chase of me they also would now give
over. So I ventured to make to the coast, and came to
an anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew not what
nor where; neither what latitude, what country, what
nation, or what river. I neither saw nor desired to see
any people; the principal thing I wanted was fresh water.
We came into this creek in the evening, resolving to swim
on shore as soon as it was dark, and discover the country;
but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful
noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild
creatures, of we knew not what kinds, that the poor
boy was ready to die with fear, and begged of me not to
go on shore till day. "Well, Xury," said I, "then I
won't; but it may be we may see men by day, who will
be as bad to us as those lions." Then we give them the
shoot gun," says Xury, laughing; "make them run
wey." Such English Xury spoke by conversing among
us slaves. However, I was glad to see the boy so cheer-
ful, and I gave him a dram (out of our patron's case of







ROBINSON CRUSOE


bottles) to cheer him up. After all, Xury's advice was
good, and I took it. We dropped our little anchor, and
lay still all night; I say still, for we slept none; for in
two or three hours we saw vast great creatures (we knew
not what to call them), of many sorts, come down to
the seashore, and run into the water, wallowing and
washing themselves for the pleasure of cooling them-
selves; and they made such hideous howlings and yelling
that I never indeed heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too;
but we were both more frighted when we heard one
mighty creature come swimming toward our boat. We
could not see him, but we might hear him by his blowing
to be a monstrous, huge, and furious beast. Xury said
it was a lion, and it might be so for aught I know; but
poor Xury cried to me to weigh the anchor and row
away. "No," says I, "Xury; we can slip our cable,'
with the buoy to it, and go to sea; they cannot follow
us far." I had no sooner said so, but I perceived the
creature, whatever it was, within two oars' length, which
something surprised me. However, I immediately
stepped to the cabin door, and taking up my gun, fired
at him; upon which he immediately turned about, and
swam towards the shore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises, and
hideous cries and howlings that were raised, as well upon
the edge of the shore as higher within the country, upon
the noise or report of a gun, a thing I have some reason
to believe those creatures had never heard before. This
convinced me that there was no going on shore for us in
the night upon that coast; and how to venture on shore







ROBINSON CRUSOE


in the day was another question too; for to have fallen
into the hands of any of the savages had been as bad as
to have fallen into the paws of lions and tigers; at least
we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore
somewhere or other for water, for we had not a pint left
in the boat. When or where to get it was the point.
Xury said, if I would let him go on shore with one of
the jars he would find if there was any water, and bring
some to me. I asked him why he would go? Why
I should not go, and he stay in the boat? The boy
answered with so much affection that made me love him
ever after. Says he, "If wild mans come, they eat me,
you go wey." "Well, Xury," said I, "we will both go,
and if the wild mans come, we will kill them. They
shall eat neither of us." So I gave Xury a piece of rusk-
bread to eat, and a dram out of our patron's case of
bottles which I mentioned before; and we hauled the
boat in as near the shore as we thought was proper, and
waded on shore, carrying nothing but our arms and two
jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the
coming of canoes with savages down the river; but the
boy, seeing a low place about a mile up the country,
rambled to it, and by and by I saw him come running
towards me. I thought he was pursued by some savage,
or frighted with some wild beast, and I ran forward
towards him to help him; but when I came nearer to
him I saw something hanging over his shoulders, which
was a creature that he had shot, like a hare but different
in color, and longer legs; however, we were very glad of







ROBINSON CRUSOE


it, and it was very good meat; but the great joy poor
Xury came with was to tell me he had found good water,
and seen no wild mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not take such
pains for water, for a little higher up the creek where we
were we found the water fresh when the tide was out,
which flows but a little way up; so we filled our jars, and
feasted on the hare we had killed, and prepared to go
on our way, having seen no footsteps of any human
creature in that part of the country.
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew
very well that the islands of the Canaries, and the Cape
de Verd Islands also, lay not far off from the coast. But
as I had no instruments to take an observation to know
what latitude we were in, and did not exactly know, or
at least not remember, what latitude they were in, I.
knew not where to look for them, or when to stand off
to sea towards them; otherwise I might now easily have
found some of these islands. But my hope was, that if
I stood along this coast till I came to that part where
the English traded, I should find some of their vessels
upon their usual design of trade, that would relieve and
take us in.
By the best of my calculation, that place where I
now was must be that country which, lying between the
Emperor of Morocco's dominions and the negroes, lies
waste and uninhabited, except by wild beasts; the
negroes having abandoned it, and gone farther south,
for fear of the Moors; and the Moors not thinking it
worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness; and indeed
both forsaking it because of the prodigious numbers of







ROBINSON CRUSOE


tigers, lions, leopards, and other furious creatures which
harbor there; so that the Moors use it for their hunting
only, where they go like an army, two or three thousand
men at a time. And indeed, for near a hundred miles
together upon this coast we saw nothing but a waste,
uninhabited country by day, and heard nothing but
howlings and roarings of wild beasts by night.
Once or twice in the daytime I thought I saw the Pico
of Teneriffe, being the high top of the mountain Teneriffe
in the Canaries, and had a great mind to venture out,
in hopes of reaching thither; but having tried twice, I
was forced in again by contrary winds, the sea also
going too high for my little vessel. So I resolved to
pursue my first design, and keep along the shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water,
after we had left this place; and once in particular,
being early in the morning, we came to an anchor under
a little point of land which was pretty high; and the
tide beginning to flow, we lay still to go farther in.
Xury, whose eyes were more about him than it seems
mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me that we had
best go farther off the shore. "For," says he, "look,
yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of that hil-
lock, fast asleep." I looked where he pointed, and saw a
dreadful monster indeed, for it was a terrible great lion
that lay on the side of the shore, under the shade of a
piece of a hill that hung as it were a little over him.
"Xury," says I, "you shall go on shore and kill him."
Xury looked frighted and said, "Me kill? He eat me
at one mouth." One mouthful he meant. However, I
said no more to the boy, but bade him be still, and took







ROBINSON CRUSOE


our biggest gun, which was almost musket-bore, and
loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with two
slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded another gun with
two bullets; and the third (for we had three pieces) I
loaded with five smaller bullets. I took the best aim
I could with the first piece to have shot him in the head,
but he lay so, with his leg raised a little above his nose,
that the slugs hit his leg about the knee, and broke the
bone. He started up, growling at first, but finding his
leg broke, fell down again; and then got up upon three
legs, and gave the most hideous roar that ever I heard.
I was a little surprised that I had not hit him on the
head; however, I took up the second piece immediately,
and though he began to move off, fired again, and shot
him in the head, and had the pleasure to see him drop;
and making but little noise, he lay struggling for life.,
Then Xury took heart, and would have me let him go on
shore. "Well, go," said I; so the boy jumped into the
water, and taking the little gun in one hand, swam to
shore with the other hand, and coming close to the
creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear and shot
him in the head again, which dispatched him quite.
This was game indeed to us, but this was no food;
and I was very sorry to lose three charges of powder and
shot upon a creature that was good for nothing to us.
However, Xury said he would have some of him; so he
comes on board, and asked me to give him the hatchet.
"For what, Xury?" said I. "Me cut off his head,"
said he. However, Xury could not cut off his head, but
he cut off a foot, and brought it with him, and it was a
monstrous great one.







ROBINSON CRUSOE


I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin
of him might, one way or other, be of some value to us;
and I resolved to take off his skin if I could. So Xury and
I went to work with him; but Xury was much the better
workman at it, for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed,
it took us both the whole day, but at last we got off
the hide of him, and spreading it on the top of our cabin,
the sun effectually dried it in two days' time, and it
afterwards served me to lie upon.
After this stop we made on to the southward con-
tinually for ten or twelve days, living very sparingly on
our provisions, which began to abate very much, and
going no oftener into the shore than we were obliged to
for fresh water. My design in this was to make the River
Gambia or Senegal; that is to say, anywhere about the
Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to meet with some
European ship; and if I did not, I knew not what course
I had to take but to seek for the islands, or perish there
among the negroes. I knew that all the ships from
Europe which sailed either to the coast of Guinea or
to Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this cape, or those
islands; and, in a word, I put the whole of my fortune
upon this single point, either that I must meet with some
ship, or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days
longer, as I have said, I began to see that the land was
inhabited; and in two or three places, as we sailed by,
we saw people stand upon the shore to look at us; we
could also perceive they were quite black, and stark
naked. I was once inclined to have gone on shore to
them; but Xury was my better counselor, and said to







ROBINSON CRUSOE


me, "No go, no go." However, I hauled in nearer the
shore that I might talk to them, and I found they ran
along the shore by me a good way: I observed they had
no weapons in their hands, except one, who had a long
slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that
they could throw them a great way with good aim. So
I kept at a distance, but talked with them by signs as
well as I could; and particularly made signs for something
to eat: they beckoned to me to stop my boat and they
would fetch me some meat. Upon this, I lowered the
top of my sail, and lay by, and two of them ran up into
the country, and in less than half an hour came back,
and brought with them two pieces of dried flesh and some
corn, such as is the produce of their country; but we
neither knew what the one nor the other was. However,
we were willing to accept it, but how to come at it was,
our next dispute, for I would not venture on shore to
them, and they were as much afraid of us. But they took
a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore and
laid it down, and went and stood a great way off till we
fetched it on board, and then came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing
to make them amends. But an opportunity offered
that very instant to oblige them wonderfully, for while
we were lying on the shore, came two mighty creatures,
one pursuing the other (as we took it) with great fury
from the mountains towards the sea. Whether it was
the male pursuing the female, or whether they were in
sport or in rage, we could not tell, any more than we could
tell whether it was usual or strange. But I believe it
was the latter, because, in the first place, these ravenous







ROBINSON CRUSOE


creatures seldom appear but in the night; and, in the
second place, we found the people terribly frighted,
especially the women. The man that had the lance or
dart did not fly from them, as the rest did; however, as
the two creatures ran directly into the water, they did
not offer to fall upon any of the negroes, but plunged
themselves into the sea, and swam about, as if they had
come for their diversion: at last one of them began to
come nearer our boat than at first I expected; but I lay
ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with all possible
expedition, and bade Xury load both the others. As
soon as he came fairly within my reach, I fired, and shot
him directly in the head; immediately he sank down
into the water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and
down, as if he was struggling for life, and so indeed he
was. He immediately made to the shore; but between
the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and the strangling
of the water, he died just before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these
poor creatures at the noise and fire of my gun. Some of
them were ready even to die for fear, and fell down as
dead with the very terror. But when they saw the
creature dead, and sunk into the water, and that I made
signs to them to come to the shore, they took heart and
began to search for the creature. I found him by his
blood staining the water: and by the help of a rope,
which I slung round him, and gave the negroes to haul,
they dragged him on shore, and found that it was a
most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an admirable
degree; and the negroes held up their hands with admira-
tion to think what it was I killed him with.







ROBINSON CRUSOE


The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and
the noise of the gun, swam to the shore, and ran up
directly to the mountains from whence they came; nor
could I at that distance know what it was. I found
quickly the negroes were for eating the flesh of this
creature, so I was willing to have them take it as a favor
from me; which, when I made signs to them that they
might take it, they were very thankful for. Immedi-
ately they fell to work with him; and though they had
no knife, yet, with a sharpened piece of wood, they
took off his skin as readily, and much more readily, than
we would have done with a knife. They offered me some
of the flesh, which I declined, making as if I would give
it them; but made signs for the skin, which they gave
me very freely, and brought me a great deal more of
their provision, which, though I did not understand,
yet I accepted. Then I made signs to them for some
water, and held out one of my jars to them, turning its
bottom upward, to show that it was empty, and that I
wanted to have it filled. They called immediately to
some of their friends, and there came two women, and
brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt as I
suppose in the sun; this they set down for me, as before,
and I sent Xury on shore with my jars, and filled them all
three. The women were as stark naked as the men.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it
was, and water; and leaving my friendly negroes, I
made forward for about eleven days more, without
offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run out
a great length into the sea, at about the distance of four
or five leagues before me; and the sea being very calm,






ROBINSON CRUSOE


I kept a large offing to make this point. At length,
doubling the point at about two leagues from the land,
I saw plainly land on the other side, to seaward; then I
concluded, as it was most certain indeed, that this was
the Cape de Verd, and those the islands called, from
thence, Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at
a great distance, and I could not well tell what I had
best do; for if I should be taken with a fresh gale of
wind, I might neither reach one nor other.
Innlthis dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into
the cabin, and sat me down, Xury having the helm; when,
on a sudden, the boy cried out, "Master, master, a ship
with a sail!" and the foolish boy was frighted out of
his wits, thinking it must needs be some of his master's
ships sent to pursue us, when I knew we were gotten far
enough out of their reach. I jumped out of the cabin,
and immediately saw not only the ship, but that it was a
Portuguese ship; and, as I thought, was bound to the
coast of Guinea for negroes. But when I observed the
course she steered I was soon convinced they were bound
some other way, and did not design to go any nearer the
shore: upon which I stretched out to the sea as much as
I could, resolving to speak with them if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not
be able to come in their way, but that they would be
gone by before I could make any signal to them. But
after I had crowded to the utmost, and began to despair,
they, it seems, saw me by the help of their perspective
glasses, and that it was some European boat, which
they supposed must belong to some ship that was lost; so
they shortened sail to let me come up. I was encouraged






ROBINSON CRUSOE


with this, and as I had my patron's ancient on board,
I made a waft of it to them for a signal of distress,
and fired a gun, both which they saw; for they told me
they saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun.
Upon these signals they very kindly brought to, and lay
by for me; and in about three hours' time I came up
with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in
Spanish, and in French, but I understood none of them;
but at last a Scotch sailor, who was on board, called to
me: and I answered him, and told him I was an English-
man that had made my escape out of slavery from the
Moors at Sallee. They then bade me come on board,
and very kindly took me in, and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will
believe, that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it,
from such a miserable and almost hopeless condition
as I was in; and I immediately offered all I had to the
captain of the ship as a return for my deliverance. But
he generously told me he would take nothing from me,
but that all I had should be delivered safe to me when I
came to the Brazils. "For," says he, "I have saved
your life on no other terms than as I would be glad to
be saved myself; and it may, one time or other, be my
lot to be taken up in the same condition. Besides,"
said he, "when I carry you to the Brazils, so great a
way from your own country, if I should take from you
what you have you will be starved there, and then I
only take away that life I have given. No, no," says he,
"Seignor Inglese (Mr. Englishman), I will carry you
thither in charity, and these things will help you to buy






ROBINSON CRUSOE


your subsistence there, and your passage home again."
As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just
in the performance to a tittle; for he ordered the seamen
that none should offer to touch anything I had. Then
he took everything into his own possession, and gave me
back an exact inventory of them, that I might have
them, even to my three earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he
saw, and told me he would buy it of me for the ship's
use; and asked me what I would have for it. I told
him he had been so generous to me in everything that I
could not offer to make any price of the boat, but left
it entirely to him: upon which, he told me he would give
me a note of his hand to pay me eighty pieces of eight
for it at Brazil; and when it came there, if any one offered
to give more, he would make it up. He offered me also
sixty pieces of eight more for my boy Xury, which I was
loath to take; not that I was unwilling to let the captain
have him, but I was very loath to sell the poor boy's
liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in procuring
my own. However, when I let him know my reason, he
owned it to be just, and offered me this medium, that he
would give the boy an obligation to set him free in ten
years, if he turned Christian. Upon this, and Xury say-
ing he was willing to go to him, I let the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I
arrived in the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints
Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And now I was
once more delivered from the most miserable of all condi-
tions of life; and what to do next with myself I was to
consider.







ROBINSON CRUSOE


The generous treatment the captain gave me I can
never enough remember. He would take nothing of
me for my passage, gave me twenty ducats for the
leopard's skin, and forty for the lion's skin, which I had
in my boat, and caused everything I had in the ship to
be punctually delivered to me. And what I was willing
to sell he bought of me: such as the case of bottles, two
of my guns, and a piece of the lump of beeswax, for I
had made candles of the rest. In a word, I made about
two hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo,
and with this stock I went on shore in the Brazils.
I had not been long here, but being recommended to
the house of a good, honest man, like himself, who had an
ingenio, as they call it (that is, a plantation and a sugar
house), I lived with him some time, and acquainted
myself, by that means, with the manner of their planting
and making of sugar; and seeing how well the planters
lived, and how they got rich suddenly, I resolved, if I
could get a license to settle there, I would turn planter
among them, resolving in the meantime to find out some
way to get my money, which I had left in London,
remitted to me. To this purpose, getting a kind of letter
of naturalization, I purchased as much land that was
uncured as my money would reach, and formed a plan
for my plantation and settlement,-such a one as might
be suitable to the stock which I proposed to myself to
receive from England.
I had a neighbor, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of
English parents, whose name was Wells, and in much
such circumstances as I was. I call him neighbor,
because his plantation lay next to mine, and we went on
4







ROBINSON CRUSOE


very sociably together. My stock was but low, as well
as his; and we rather planted for food than anything
else, for about two years. However, we began to increase,
and our land began to come into order, so that the third
year we planted some tobacco, and made each of us a
large piece of ground ready for planting canes in the year
to come. But we both wanted help; and now I found,
more than before, I had done wrong in parting with my
boy Xury.
But, alas! for me to do wrong that never did right
was no great wonder. I had no remedy but to go on. I
had got into an employment quite remote to my genius
and directly contrary to the life I delighted in, and for
which I forsook my father's house, and broke through all
his good advice. Nay, I was coming into the very middle
station, or upper degree of low life, which my father
advised me to before, and which, if I resolved to go on
with, I might as well have stayed at home, and never
fatigued myself in the world, as I have done. And I used
often to say to myself, "I could have done this as well
in England, among my friends, as have gone five thousand
miles off to do it among strangers and savages, in a
wilderness, and at such a distance as never to hear from
any part of the world that had the least knowledge of
me."
In this manner I used to look upon my condition
with the utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with,
but now and then this neighbor; no work to be done,
but by the labor of my hands; and I used to say, I lived
just like a man cast away upon some desolate island,
that had nobody there but himself. But how just has







ROBINSON CRUSOE 51

it been! and how should all men reflect that when they
compare their present conditions with others that are
worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the exchange,
and be convinced of their former felicity by their expe-
rience. I say, how just has it been that the truly solitary
life I reflected on, in an island, or mere desolation,
should be my lot, who had so often unjustly compared it
with the life which I then led, in which, had I continued, I
had, in all probability, been exceeding prosperous and rich.
I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for
carrying on the plantation, before my kind friend, the
captain of the ship that took me up at sea, went back;
for the ship remained there, in providing her lading and
preparing for the voyage, near three months; when,
telling him what little stock I had left behind me in
London, he gave me this friendly and sincere advice:
"Seignor Inglese," says he (for so he always called me),
"if you will give me letters, and a procuration in form
to me, with orders to the person who has your money in
London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons
as I shall direct, and in such goods as are proper for this
country, I will bring you the produce of them, God
willing, at my return; but, since human affairs are all
subject to changes and disasters, I would have you give
orders but for one hundred pounds sterling, which, you
say, is half your stock, and let the hazard be run for the
first; so that, if it comes safe, you may order the rest
the same way; and if it miscarry, you may have the
other half to have recourse to for your supply."
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly,
that I could not but be convinced it was the best course







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I could take; so I accordingly prepared letters to the
gentleman with whom I had left my money, and a pro-
curation to the Portuguese captain, as he desired.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account
of all my adventures, my slavery, escape, and how I had
met with the Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity
of his behavior, and what condition I was now in, with
all other necessary directions for my supply. And when
this honest captain came to Lisbon he found means, by
some of the English merchants there, to send over not
the order only, but a full account of my story, to a mer-
chant in London, who represented it effectually to her.
Whereupon she not only delivered the money, but out
of her own pocket sent the Portugal captain a very
handsome present for his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London vested this hundred pounds
in English goods, such as the captain had written for,
sent them directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them
all safe to me to the Brazils; among which, without my
direction (for I was too young in my business to think of
them), he had taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron
work, and utensils necessary for my plantation, and
which were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived I thought my fortune made;
for I was surprised with the joy of it; and my good
steward the captain had laid out the five pounds, which
my friend had sent him for a present for himself, to pur-
chase and bring me over a servant, under bond for six
years' service, and would not accept of any consideration,
except a little tobacco, which I would have him accept,
being of my own produce.







ROBINSON CRUSOE


Neither was this all; for my goods being all English
manufacture, such as cloth, stuffs, baize, and things
particularly valuable and desirable in the country, I
found means to sell them at a very great advantage; so
that I may say I had more than four times the value of
my first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my poor
neighbor-I mean in the advancement of my plantation;
for the first thing I did, I bought me a negro slave, and
an European servant also: I mean another besides that
which the captain brought me from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very
means of our greatest adversity, so was it with me. I
went on the next year with great success in my plantation.
I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on my own ground,
more than I had disposed of for necessaries among my
neighbors; and these fifty rolls, being each of above a
hundredweight, were well cured, and laid by against the
return of the fleet from Lisbon. And now increasing in
business and wealth, my head began to be full of projects
and undertakings beyond my reach; such as are indeed
often the ruin of the best heads in business. Had I
continued in the station I was now in, I had room for
all the happy things to have yet befallen me for which
my father so earnestly recommended a quiet, retired life,
and which he had so sensibly described the middle station
of life to be full of; but other things attended me, and I
was still to be the willful agent of all my own miseries;
and particularly, to increase my fault, and double the
reflections upon myself, which in my future sorrows I
should have leisure to make; all these miscarriages were
procured by my apparent obstinate adhering to my foolish






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inclination of wandering abroad, and pursuing that in-
clination in contradiction to the clearest views of doing
myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of those prospects
and those measures of life which nature and Providence
concurred to present me with, and to make my duty.
As I had once done thus in breaking away from my
parents, so I could not be content now, but I must go
and leave the happy view I had of being a rich and thriv-
ing man in my new plantation, only to pursue a rash
and immoderate desire of rising faster than the nature
of the thing admitted. And thus I cast myself down
again into the deepest gulf of human misery that ever
man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent with life
and a state of health in the world.
To come, then, by just degrees to the particulars of
this part of my story: You may suppose, that having
now lived almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning
to thrive and prosper very well upon my plantation, I
had not only learned the language but had contracted
acquaintance and friendship among my fellow-planters,
as well as among the merchants at St. Salvadore, which
was our port; and that, in my discourse among them, I
had frequently given them an account of my two voyages
to the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with the
negroes there, and how easy it was to purchase upon the
coast for trifles-such as beads, toys, knives, scissors,
hatchets, bits of glass, and the like-not only gold dust,
Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, etc., but negroes, for the
service of the Brazils, in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my discourses
on these heads, but especially to that part which related







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to the buying negroes; which was a trade, at that time,
not only not far entered into, but, as far as it was, had
been carried on by the assiento, or permission, of the King
of Spain and Portugal, and engrossed in the public stock;
so that few negroes were brought, and those excessively
dear.
It happened, being in company one day with some
merchants and planters of my acquaintance, and talking
of those things very earnestly, three of them came to
me the next morning and told me they had been musing
very much upon what I had discoursed of with them the
last night, and they came to make a secret proposal to
me; and after enjoining me to secrecy, they told me that
they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that
they had all plantations as well as I, and were straitened
for nothing so much as servants; that as it was a trade
that could not be carried on, because they could not
publicly sell the negroes when they came home, so they
desired to make but one voyage, to bring the negroes on
shore privately, and divide them among their own
plantations; and, in a word, the question was whether I
would go their supercargo in the ship, to manage the trad-
ing part upon the coast of Guinea; and they offered me
that I should have my equal share of the negroes, without
providing any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it
been made to any one that had not had a settlement and
plantation of his own to look after, which was in a fair
way of coming to be very considerable, and with a good
stock upon it. But for me, that was thus entered and
established, and had nothing to do but go on as I had







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begun, for three or four years more, and to have sent
for the other hundred pounds from England; and who
in that time, and with that little addition, could scarce
have failed of being worth three or four thousand pounds
sterling, and that increasing too-for me to think of
such a voyage was the most preposterous thing that ever
man in such circumstances could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no
more resist the offer than I could restrain my first ram-
bling designs when my father's good counsel was lost
upon me. In a word, I told them I would go with all
my heart if they would undertake to look after my plan-
tation in my absence, and would dispose of it as I should
direct, if I miscarried. This they all engaged to do,
and entered into writings, or covenants, to do so; and I
made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and effects
in case of my death, making the captain of the ship that
had saved my life, as before, my universal heir, but
obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had directed
in my will; one half of the produce being to himself,
and the other to be shipped to England.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my
effects, and to keep up my plantation. Had I used
half as much prudence to have looked into my own
interest, and have made a judgment of what I ought
to have done and not to have done, I had certainly never
gone away from so prosperous an undertaking, leaving
all the probable views of a thriving circumstance, and
gone upon a voyage to sea, attended with all its common
hazards, to say nothing of the reasons I had to expect
particular misfortunes to myself.







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But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates
of my fancy rather than my reason; and accordingly,
the ship being fitted out, and the cargo finished, and all
things done as by agreement by my partners in the
voyage, I went on board in an evil hour again, the Ist of
September, I659, being the same day eight years that I
went from my father and mother at Hull, in order to
act the rebel to their authority and the fool to my own
interest.
Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons
burden, carried six guns, and fourteen men besides the
master, his boy, and myself; we had on board no large
cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit for our
trade with the negroes, such as beads, bits of glass, shells,
and odd trifles, especially little looking glasses, knives,
scissors, hatchets, and the like.
The same day I went on board we set sail, standing
away to the northward upon our own coasts, with design
to stretch over for the African coast, when they came
into about ten or twelve degrees of northern latitude;
which, it seems, was the manner of their course in those
days. We had very good weather, only excessively hot,
all the way upon our own coast, till we came to the height
of Cape St. Augustino; from whence, keeping farther
off at sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if we were
bound for the Isle of Fernando de Noronha, holding our
course N.E. by N., and leaving those isles on the east.
In this course we passed the line in about twelve days'
time, and were, by our last observation, in seven degrees
twenty-two minutes northern latitude, when a violent
tornado. or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge.







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It began from the southeast, came about to the north-
west, and then settled into the northeast; from whence
it blew in such a terrible manner, that for twelve days
together we could no nothing but drive, and, scudding
away before it, let it carry us wherever fate and the fury
of the winds directed; and during these twelve days I
need not say that I expected every day to be swallowed
up; nor did any in the ship expect to save their lives.
In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm,
one of our men die of the calenture, and a man and a boy
washed overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather
abating a little, the master made an observation as well
as he could, and found that he was in about eleven degrees
of north latitude, but that he was twenty-two degrees of
longitude difference west from Cape St. Augustino; so
that he found he was gotten upon the coast of Guiana,
or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river Amazones,
towards that of the river Oroonoque, commonly called
the Great River; and now he began to consult with me
what course he should take; for the ship was leaky, and
very much disabled, and he was for going directly back
to the coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that; and looking over the
charts of the seacoast of America with him, we concluded
there was no inhabited country for us to have recourse
to till we came within the circle of the Carribbee Islands,
and therefore resolved to stand away for Barbadoes;
which, by keeping off at sea, to avoid the indraft of the
bay or gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform, as we
hoped, in about fifteen days' sail; whereas we could not
possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa without







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some assistance both to our ship and to ourselves.
With this design we changed our course, and steered
away N.W. by W., in order to reach some of our English
islands, where I hoped for relief; but our voyage was
otherwise determined; for, being in the latitude of twelve
degrees eighteen minutes, a second storm came upon us,
which carried us away with the same impetuosity west-
ward, and drove us so out of the way of all human com-
merce that, had all our lives been saved as to the sea, we
were rather in danger of being devoured by savages
than ever returning to our own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one
of our men early one morning cried out, "Land!" and we
had no sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes
of seeing whereabouts in the world we were, than the
ship struck upon the sand, and in a moment, her motion
being so stopped, the sea broke over her in such a manner
that we expected we should all have perished immedi-
ately; and we were even driven into our close quarters,
to shelter us from the very foam and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like
condition to describe or conceive the consternation of
men in such circumstances. We knew nothing where
we were, or upon what land it was we were driven;
whether an island or the main, whether inhabited or
not inhabited. As the rage of the wind was still great,
though rather less than at first, we could not so much
as hope to have the ship hold many minutes without
breaking in pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of miracle,
should turn immediately about. In a word, we sat
looking one upon another, and expecting death every







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moment, and every man acting accordingly, as preparing
for another world; for there was little or nothing more
for us to do in this; that which was our present comfort,
and all the comfort we had, was that, contrary to our
expectation, the ship did not break yet, and that the
master said the wind began to abate.
Now, though we thought the wind did a little abate,
yet the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and
sticking too fast for us to expect her getting off, we were
in a dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing to do
but to think of saving our lives as well as we could. We
had a boat at our stern just before the storm, but she
was first staved by dashing against the ship's rudder, and
in the next place she broke away, and either sunk, or
was driven off to sea; so there was no hope from her.
We had another boat on board; but how to get her off
into the sea was a doubtful thing; however, there was no
room to debate, for we fancied the ship would break in
pieces every minute, and some told us she was actually
broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of
the boat, and with the help of the rest of the men, they
got her flung over the ship's side; and getting all into
her, we let go, and committed ourselves, being eleven
in number, to God's mercy and the wild sea: for though
the storm was abated considerably, yet the sea went
dreadfully high upon the shore, and might be well called
den wild zee, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all
saw plainly that the sea went so high that the boat could
not escape, and that we should be inevitably drowned.







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As to making sail, we had none, nor, if we had, could
we have done anything with it; so we worked at the oar
towards the land, though with heavy hearts, like men
going to execution; for we all knew that when the boat
came near the shore she would be dashed in a thousand
pieces by the breach of the sea. However, we committed
our souls to God in the most earnest manner, and, the
wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened our
destruction with our own hands, pulling as well as we
could towards land.
What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether
steep or shoal, we knew not; the only hope that could
rationally give us the least shadow of expectation was,
if we might happen into some bay or gulf, or the mouth
of some river, where by great chance we might have run
our boat in, or got under the lee of the land, and perhaps
made smooth water. But there was nothing of this
appeared; but as we made nearer and nearer the shore,
the land looked more frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league
and a half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-
like, came rolling astern of us, and plainly bade us expect
the coup de grace. In a word, it took us with such a fury
that it overset the boat at once; and separating us as
well from the boat as from one another, gave us not time
hardly to say, "0 God!" for we were all swallowed up
in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which
I felt when I sank into the water; for though I swam very
well, yet I could not deliver myself from the waves so
as to draw breath, till that wave having driven me, or







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rather carried me, a vast way on towards the shore, and
having spent itself, went back, and left me upon the land
almost dry, but half dead with the water I took in. I
had so much presence of mind, as well as breath left,
that seeing myself nearer the mainland than I expected,
I got upon my feet, and endeavored to make on towards
the land as fast as I could, before another wave should
return and take me up again; but I soon found it was
impossible to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me
as high as a great hill, and as furious as an enemy, which
I had no means or strength to contend with: my business
was to hold my breath, and raise myself upon the water,
if I could; and so by swimming to preserve my breathing,
and pilot myself towards the shore if possible, my greatest
concern now being that the wave, as it would carry me a
great way towards the shore when it came on, might
not carry me back again with it when it gave back towards
the sea.
The wave that came upon me again buried me at once
twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body, and I could
feel myself carried with a mighty force and swiftness
towards the shore a very great way; but I held my
breath, and assisted myself to swim still forward with
all my might. I was ready to burst with holding my
breath, when as I felt myself rising up, so, to my imme-
diate relief, I found my head and hands shoot out above
the surface of the water; and though it was not two
seconds of time that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved
me greatly, gave me breath and new courage. I was
covered again with water a good while, but not so long
but I held it out; and finding the water had spent itself,






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and began to return, I struck forward against the return
of the waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I
stood still a few moments to recover breath, and till
the waters went from me, and then took to my heels,
and ran with what strength I had, farther towards the
shore. But neither would this deliver me from the
fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me again;
and twice more I was lifted up by the waves and carried
forwards as before, the shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well-nigh been fatal
to me; for the sea having hurried me along, as before,
landed me, or rather dashed me, against a piece of a
rock, and that with such force as it left me senseless, and
indeed helpless as to my own deliverance, for the blow
taking my side and breast, beat the breath as it were
quite out of my body, and had it returned again imme-
diately I must have been strangled in the water. But I
recovered a little before the return of the waves, and
seeing I should be covered again with water, I resolved
to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my
breath, if possible, till the wave went back. Now, as
the waves were not so high as at first, being nearer land,
I held my hold till the wave abated, and then fetched
another run, which brought me so near the shore that
the next wave, though it went over me, yet did not so
swallow me up as to carry me away; and the next run
I took I got to the mainland, where, to my great comfort,
I clambered up the clifts of the shore, and sat me down
upon the grass, free from danger, and quite out of the
reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to






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look up and thank God that my life was saved, in a case
wherein there was some minutes before scarce any room
to hope. I believe it is impossible to express, to the life,
what the ecstasies and transports of the soul are when it
is so saved, as I may say, out of the very grave: and I
do not wonder now at that custom, when a malefactor,
who has the halter about his neck, is tied up, and just
going to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought to
him-I say, I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon
with it, to let him bleed that very moment they tell him
of it, that the surprise may not drive the animal spirits
from the heart, and overwhelm him,
For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my
whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in a contemplation
of my deliverance; making a thousand gestures and
motions, which I cannot describe; reflecting upon all my
comrades that were drowned, and that there should not
be one soul saved but myself; for, as for them, I never
saw them afterwards, or any sign of them, except three
of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not
fellows.
jlcast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach
and froth of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it,
it lay so far off; and considered, Lord! how was it possible
I could get on shore?
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable
part of my condition, I began to look round me, to see
what kind of place I was in, and what was next to be
done: and I soon found my comforts abate, and that,
in a word, I had a dreadful deliverance: for I was wet,






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had no clothes to shift me, nor anything either to eat
or drink, to comfort me; neither did I see any prospect
before me but that of perishing with hunger, or being
devoured by wild beasts: and that which was particularly
afflicting to me was that I had no weapon, either to
hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or to
defend myself against any other creature that might
desire to kill me for theirs. In a word, I had nothing
about me but a knife, a tobacco pipe, and a little tobacco
in a box. This was all my provision; and this threw
me into terrible agonies of mind, that for a while I ran
about like a madman. Night coming upon me, I began,
with a heavy heart, to consider what would be my lot
if there were any ravenous beasts in that country,
seeing at night they always come abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that
time, was to get up into a thick, bushy tree, like a fir,
but thorny, which grew near me, and where I resolved
to sit all night, and consider the next day what death I
should die, for as yet I saw no prospect of life. I walked
about a furlong from the shore, to see if I could find any
fresh water to drink, which I did, to my great joy; and
having drunk, and put a little tobacco in my mouth to
prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into
it, endeavored to place myself so that if I should sleep
I might not fall. And having cut me a short stick, like
a trucheon, for my defense, I took up my lodging; and
being excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept
as comfortably as, I believe, few could have done in my
condition, and found myself more refreshed with it than
I think I ever was on such an occasion.







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When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear,
and the storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and
swell as before; but that which surprised me most was,
that the ship was lifted off in the night from the sand
where she lay, by the swelling of the tide, and was driven
up almost as far as the rock which I at first mentioned,
where I had been so bruised by the wave dashing me
against it. This being within about a mile from the
shore where I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright
still, I wished myself on board, that at least I might save
some necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree I
looked about me again, and the first thing I found was the
boat, which lay, as the wind and sea had tossed her up,
upon the land, about two miles on my right hand. I
walked as far as I could upon the shore to have got to her;
but found a neck or inlet of water between me and the
boat which was about half a mile broad; so I came back for
the present, being more intent upon getting at the ship,
where I hoped to find something formypresent subsistence.
A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the
tide ebbed so far out that I could come within a quarter
of a mile of the ship. And here I found a fresh renewing
of my grief; for I saw evidently that, if we had kept on
board, we had been all safe; that is to say, we had all got
safe on shore, and I had not been so miserable as to be
left entirely destitute of all comfort and company, as I
now was. This forced tears to my eyes again; but as
there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to
get to the ship. So I pulled off my clothes, for the
weather was hot to extremity, and took to the water.






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But when I came to the ship my difficulty was still
greater to know how to get on board; for, as she lay
aground, and high out of the water, there was nothing
within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice,
and the second time I espied a small piece of rope, which
I wondered I did not see at first, hanging down by the
fore-chains so low that with great difficulty I got hold
of it, and by the help of that rope got up into the fore-
castle of the ship. Here I found that the ship was bulged,
and had a great deal of water in her hold; but that she
lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth,
that her stem lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head
low, almost to the water. By this means all her quarter
was free and all that was in that part was dry; for you
may be sure my first work was to search, and to see what
was spoiled and what was free. And, first, I found that
all the ship's provisions were dry and untouched by the
water, and being very well disposed to eat, I went to the
bread room, and filled my pockets with biscuit, and ate
it as I went about other things, for I had no time to lose.
I also found some rum in the great cabin, of which I
took a large dram, and which I had, indeed, need enough
of to spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted
nothing but a boat, to furnish myself with many things
which I foresaw would be very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not
to be had; and this extremity roused my application.
We had several spare yards, and two or three large spars
of wood, and a spare topmast or two in the ship: I re-
solved to fall to work with them, and I flung as many of
them overboard as I could manage for their weight,







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tying every one with a rope, that they might not drive
away. When this was done, I went down the ship's
side, and pulling them to me, I tied four of them together
at both ends, as well as I could, in the form of a raft,
and laying two or three short pieces of plank upon them,
crossways, I found I could walk upon it very well, but
that it was not able to bear any great weight, the pieces
being too light. So I went to work, and with the car-
penter's saw I cut a spare topmast into three lengths,
and added them to my raft, with a great deal of labor
and pains. But the hope of furnishing myself with
necessaries encouraged me to go beyond what I should
have been able to have done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable
weight. My next care was what to load it with, and how
to preserve what I laid upon it from the surf of the sea:
but I was not long in considering this. I first laid all the
planks or boards upon it that I could get, and having
considered well what I most wanted, I first got three of
the seamen's chests, which I had broken open and
emptied, and lowered them down upon my raft; the
first of these I filled with provisions -viz., bread, rice,
three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goat's flesh
(which we lived much upon), and a little remainder of
European corn, which had been laid by for some fowls
which we brought to sea with us, but the fowls were
killed. There had been some barley and wheat together;
but, to my great disappointment, I found afterwards that
the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for liquors, I
found several cases of bottles belonging to our skipper,
in which were some cordial waters; and in all, about







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five or six gallons of arrack. These I stowed by them-
selves, there being no need to put them into the chest,
nor any room for them. While I was doing this, I
found the tide began to flow, though very calm; and I
had the mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waist-
coat, which I had left on shore upon the sand, swim
away. As for my breeches, which were only linen, and
open-kneed, I swam on board in them and my stockings.
However, this put me upon rummaging for clothes, of
which I found enough, but took no more than I wanted
for present use, for I had other things which my eye was
more upon; as, first, tools to work with on shore; and
it was after long searching that I found out the car-
penter's chest, which was indeed a very useful prize to
me, and much more valuable than a ship-lading of gold
would have been at that time. I got it down to my raft,
whole as it was, without losing time to look into it, for
I knew in general what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms.
There were two very good fowling pieces in the great
cabin, and two pistols. These I secured first, with some
powder horns, a small bag of shot, and two old rusty
swords. I knew there were three barrels of powder in
the ship, but knew not where our gunner had stowed
them; but with much search I found them, two of them
dry and good, the third had taken water. Those two I
got to my raft, with the arms. And now I thought
myself pretty well freighted, and began to think how
I should get to shore with them, having neither sail, oar,
nor rudder; and the least capful of wind would have
overset all my navigation.







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I had three encouragements: first, a smooth, calm
sea; secondly, the tide rising, and setting in to the shore;
thirdly, what little wind there was blew me towards the
land. And thus, having found two or three broken oars
belonging to the boat, and besides the tools which were
in the chest, two saws, an ax, and a hammer. With this
cargo I put to sea. For a mile, or thereabouts, my raft
went very well, only that I found it drive a little distant
from the place where I had landed before; by which I
perceived that there was some indraft of the water,
and consequently, I hoped to find some creek or river
there, which I might make use of as a port to get to land
with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me
a little opening of the land. I found a strong current
of the tide set into it; so I guided my raft as well as I
could, to keep in the middle of the stream.
But here I had like to have suffered a second ship-
wreck, which, if I had, I think verily would have broken
my heart; for knowing nothing of the coast, my raft
ran aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and not being
aground at the other end, it wanted but a little that all
my cargo had slipped off towards the end that was afloat,
and so fallen into the water. I did my utmost, by
setting my back against the chests, to keep them in
their places, but could not thrust off the raft with all
my strength; neither durst I stir from the posture I was
in; but holding up the chests with all my might, I stood
in that manner near half an hour, in which time the rising
of the water brought me a little more upon a level; and,
a little after, the water still rising, my raft floated again,







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and I thrust her off with the oar I had into the channel,
and then driving up higher, I at length found myself in
the mouth of a little river, with land on both sides, and
a strong current or tide running up. I looked on both
sides for a proper place to get to shore, for I was not
willing to be driven too high up the river; hoping in
time to see some ship at sea, and therefore resolved to
place myself as near the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the
creek, to which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided
my raft, and at last got so near that, reaching ground
with my oar, I could thrust her directly in. But here I
had like to have dipped all my cargo into the sea again;
for that shore lying pretty steep-that is to say, sloping
-there was no place to land, but where one end of my
float, if it ran on shore, would lie so high, and the other
sink lower, as before, that it would endanger my cargo
again. All that I could do was to wait till the tide was
at the highest, keeping the raft with my oar like an anchor,
to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece
of ground, which I expected the water would flow over;
and so it did. As soon as I found water enough, for my
raft drew about a foot of water, I thrust her upon that
flat piece of ground, and there fastened or moored her,
by sticking my two broken oars into the ground-one
on one side, near one end, and one on the other side,
near the other end; and thus I lay till the water ebbed
away, and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a
proper place for my habitation, and where to stow my
goods, to secure them from whatever might happen.







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Where I was I yet knew not; whether on the continent
or an island; whether inhabited or not inhabited; whether
in danger of wild beasts or not. There was a hill not
above a mile from me, which rose up very steep and
high, and which seemed to overtop some other hills,
which lay as in a ridge from it, northward. I took out
one of the fowling pieces, and one of the pistols, and a
horn of powder; and thus armed I traveled for discovery
up to the top of that hill, where, after I had with great
labor and difficulty got to the top, I saw my fate, to my
great affliction-viz., that I was in an island environed
every way with the sea: no land to be seen except some
rocks, which lay a great way off, and two small islands, less
than this, which lay about three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren, and,
as I saw good reason to believe, uninhabited, except by
wild beasts, of which, however, I saw none. Yet I saw
abundance of fowls, but knew not their kinds; neither,
when I killed them, could I tell what was fit for food,
and what not. At my coming back I shot at a great
bird which I saw sitting upon a tree, on the side of a
great wood. I believe it was the first gun that had been
fired there since the creation of the world. I had no
sooner fired but from all the parts of the wood there
arose an innumerable number of fowls of many sorts,
making a confused screaming and crying, every one
according to his usual note, but not one of them of any
kind that I knew. As for the creature I killed, I took
it to be a kind of a hawk, its color and beak resembling
it, but it had no talons or claws more than common.
Its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.







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Contented with this discovery, I came back to my
raft and fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which
took me up the rest of the day. What to do with myself
at night I knew not, nor indeed where to rest, for I was
afraid to lie down on the ground, not knowing but some
wild beast might devour me; though, as I afterwards
found, there was really no need for those fears.
However, as well as I could I barricaded myself
round with the chests and boards that I had brought
on shore, and made a kind of hut for that night's lodg-
ing. As for food, I yet saw not which way to supply
myself, except that I had seen two or three creatures,
like hares, run out of the wood where I shot the fowl.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a great
many things out of the ship which would be useful to
me, and particularly some of the rigging and sails, and
such other things as might come to land; and I resolved
to make another voyage on board the vessel, if possible.
And as I knew that the first storm that blew must neces-
sarily break her all in pieces, I resolved to set all other
things apart till I got everything out of the ship that I
could get. Then I called a council-that is, to say, in
my thoughts-whether I should take back the raft; but
this appeared impracticable. So I resolved to go as
before, when the tide was down; and I did so, only that
I stripped before I went from my hut, having nothing
on but a checkered shirt, a pair of linen drawers, and a
pair of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a
second raft; and, having had experience of the first, I
neither made this so unwieldy nor loaded it so hard, but







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yet I brought away several things very useful to me; as,
first, in the carpenter's stores I found two or three bags
full of nails and spikes, a great screw-jack, a dozen or
two of hatchets, and, above all, that most useful thing
called a grindstone. All these I secured, together with
several things belonging to the gunner, particularly two
or three iron crows, and two barrels of musket bullets,
seven muskets, and another fowling piece, with some
small quantity of powder more, a large bagful of small
shot, and a great roll of sheet lead; but this last was so
heavy I could not hoist it up to get it over the ship's
side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes
that I could find, and a spare fore-topsail, a hammock,
and some bedding; and with this I loaded my second
raft, and brought them all safe on shore, to my very great
comfort.
I was under some apprehension during my absence
from the land that at least my provisions might be
devoured on shore; but when I came back I found no
sign of any visitor; only there sat a creature like a wildcat
upon one of the chests, which when I came towards it,
ran away a little distance, and then stood still. She sat
very composed and unconcened, and looked full in my
face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with me.
I presented my gun to her, but, as she did not understand
it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer
to stir away; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit,
though, by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store
was not great; however, I spared her a bit, I say, and
she went to it, smelled at it, and ate it, and looked (as







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pleased) for more; but I thanked her, and could spare
no more; so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore-though I was
obliged to open the barrels of powder, and bring them by
parcels, for they were too heavy, being large casks-
I went to work to make me a little tent, with the sail
and some poles which I cut for that purpose; and into
this tent I brought everything that I knew would spoil
either with rain or sun; and I piled all the empty chests
and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from
any sudden attempt, either from man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the
tent with some boards within, and an empty chest set
up on end without; and spreading one of the beds upon
the ground, laying my two pistols just at my head, and
my gun at length by me, I went to bed the first time,
and slept very quietly all night. I was very weary and
heavy; for the night before I had slept little, and had
labored very hard all day, as well to fetch those things
from the ship as to get them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever
was laid up, I believe, for one man; but still I was not
satisfied, for while the ship sat upright in that posture I
thought I ought to get everything out of her that I
could; so every day, at low water, I went on board, and
brought away something or other; but particularly, the
third time I went, I brought away as much of the rigging
as I could, as also all the small ropes and rope twine I
could get, with a piece of spare canvas, which was to
mend the sails upon occasion, and the barrel of wet
gunpowder. In a word, I brought away all the sails,







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first and last; only that I was fain to cut them in pieces,
and bring as much at a time as I could, for they were no
more useful to me for sails, but as mere canvas only.
But that which comforted me more still was, that at
last of all, after I had made five or six such voyages as
these, and thought I had nothing more to expect from
the ship that was worth my meddling with-I say,
after all thus, I found a great hogshead of bread, three
large runlets of rum, or spirits, a box of fine sugar, and
a barrel of fine flour: this was surprising to me, because
I had given over expecting any more provisions except
what was spoiled by the water. I soon emptied the
hogshead of the bread, and wrapped it up, parcel by
parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut out; and, in a
word, I got all this safe on shore also, though at several
times.
The next day I made another voyage, and now, having
plundered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand
out, I began with the cable; cutting the great cable into
pieces such as I could move, I got two cables and a hawser
on shore, with all the ironwork I could get; and having
cut down the spritsail-yard and the mizzen-yard, and
everything I could to make a large raft, I loaded it with
all those heavy goods and came away; but my good luck
began to leave me, for this raft was so unwieldy, and so
overladen, that after I was entered the little cove, where
I had landed the rest of my goods, not being able to guide
it so handily as I did the other, it overset, and threw me
and all my cargo into the water; as for myself, it was
no great harm, for I was near the shore; but as to my
cargo, it was great part lost, especially the iron, which I







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expected would have been of great use to me; however,
when the tide was out I got most of the pieces of cable
ashore, and some of the iron, though with infinite labor;
for I was fain to dip for it into the water, a work which
fatigued me very much. After this, I went every day
on board, and brought away what I could get.
I had now been thirteen days on shore, and had been
eleven times on board the ship, in which time I had
brought away all that one pair of hands could well be
supposed capable of bringing; though I verily believe,
had the calm weather held, I should have brought away
the whole ship, piece by piece; but preparing the twelfth
time to go on board, I found the wind began to rise;
however, at low water I went on board, and though I
thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectually that
nothing more could be found, yet I discovered a locker
with drawers in it, in one of which I found two or three
razors, and one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a
dozen of good knives and forks; in another I found about
thirty-six pounds' value in money-some European coin,
some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold, and some
silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. "Oh,
drug!" said I aloud, "what art thou good for? Thou
art not worth to me-no, not the taking off the ground;
one of those knives is worth all this heap. I have no
manner of use for thee; e'en remain where thou art, and
go to the bottom, as a creature whose life is not worth
saving." However, upon second thoughts, I took it
away; and wrapping all in a piece of canvas, I began to
think of making another raft; but while I was preparing







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this, I found the sky overcast, and the wind began to
rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from
the shore. It presently occurred to me that it was in
vain to pretend to make a raft with the wind offshore;
and that it was my business to be gone before the tide
of flood began, otherwise I might not be able to reach
the shore at all. Accordingly, I let myself down into the
water, and swam across the channel which lay between
the ship and the sands, and even that with difficulty
enough, partly with the weight of the things I had about
me, and partly from the roughness of the water; for the
wind rose very hastily, and before it was quite high water
it blew a storm.
But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I lay,
with all my wealth about me very secure. It blew very
hard all that night, and in the morning, when I looked
out, behold, no more ship was to be seen. I was a little
surprised, but recovered myself with this satisfactory
reflection, that I had lost no time, nor abated any dili-
gence, to get everything out of her that could be useful
to me; and that, indeed, there was little left in her that
I was able to bring away, if I had had more time.
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or
of anything out of her, except what might drive on shore
from her wreck; as, indeed, divers pieces of her after-
wards did; but those things were of small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about secur-
ing myself against either savages, if any should appear,
or wild beasts, if any were in the island; and I had many
thoughts of the method how to do this, and what kind
of dwelling to make -whether I should make me a cave







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in the earth, or a tent upon the earth; and, in short, I
resolved upon both; the manner and description of which
it may not be improper to give an account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not fit for my
settlement, particularly because it was upon a low moor-
ish ground near the sea, and I believed would not be
wholesome, and more particularly because there was no
fresh water near it; so I resolved to find a more healthy
and more convenient spot of ground.
I consulted several things in my situation which I
found would be proper for me: first, health and fresh
water, I just now mentioned; secondly, shelter from the
heat of the sun; thirdly, security from ravenous creatures,
whether man or beast; fourthly, a view to the sea, that
if God sent any ship in sight I might not lose any advan-
tage for my deliverance, of which I was not willing to
banish my expectation yet.
In search of a place proper for this I found a little
plain on the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this
little plain was steep as a house-side, so that nothing
could come down upon me from the top. On the side
of the rock there was a hollow place, worn a little way in,
like the entrance or door of a cave; but there was not
really any cave, or way into the rock, at all.
On the flat of the green, just below this hollow place,
I resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above
a hundred yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay
like a green before my door; and, at the end of it, de-
scended irregularly every way down into the low ground
by the seaside. It was on the N.N.W. side of the hill;
so that it was sheltered from the heat every day, till it







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came to the W. and by S. sun, or thereabouts, which,
in those countries, is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent I drew a half-circle before the
hollow place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-
diameter from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter
from its beginning and ending.
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes,
driving them into the ground till they stood very firm,
like piles, the biggest end being out of the ground above
five feet and a half, and sharpened on the top. The two
rows did not stand above six inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in
the ship, and laid them in rows, upon one another, within
the circle, between these two rows of stakes, up to the
top, placing other stakes in the inside, leaning against
them, about two feet and a half high, like a spur to a
post; and this fence was so strong that neither man nor
beast could get into it or over it. This cost me a great
deal of time and labor, especially to cut the piles in the
woods, bring them to the place, and drive them into the
earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a
door, but by a short ladder to go over the top; which
ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after me; and so I
was completely fenced in and fortified, as I thought,
from all the world, and consequently slept secure in the
night, which otherwise I could not have done; though,
as it appeared afterwards, there was no need of all this
caution from the enemies that I apprehended danger
from.
Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labor I carried







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all my riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores,
of which you have the account above; and I made me
a large tent also, to preserve me from the rains, that in
one part of the year are very violent there. I made it
double-viz., one smaller tent within, and one larger
tent above it; and covered the uppermost part of it
with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among the
sails.
And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I
had brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was
indeed a very good one, and belonged to the mate of the
ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and every-
thing that would spoil by the wet; and having thus
inclosed all my goods, I made up the entrance, which till
now I had left open, and so passed and repassed, as I
said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way into
the rock, and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug
down, out through my tent, I laid them up within my
fence, in the nature of a terrace, so that it raised the
ground within about a foot and a half; and thus I made
me a cave, just behind my tent, which served me like a
cellar to my house.
It cost me much labor and many days before all these
things were brought to perfection; and therefore I must
go back to some other things which took up some of my
thoughts. At the same time it occurred, after I had laid
my scheme for the setting up the tent, and making the
cave, that a storm of rain falling from a thick, dark
cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened, and after
6






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that, a great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect
of it. I was not so much surprised with the lightning,
as I was with the thought which darted into my mind
as swift as the lightning itself. "Oh, my powder!"
My very heart sank within me, when I thought that, at
one blast, all my powder might be destroyed; on which
not my defense only, but the providing me food, as I
thought, entirely depended. I was nothing near so
anxious about my own danger; though, had the powder
took fire, I had never known who had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me that, after
the storm was over, I laid aside all my work, my building
and fortifying, and applied myself to make bags and boxes
to separate my powder, and to keep it a little and a little
in a parcel, in hopes, that whatever might come, it might
not all take fire at once; and to keep it so apart that it
should not be possible to make one part fire another. I
finished this work in about a fortnight; and I think my
powder, which in all was about one hundred and forty
pounds' weight, was divided into no less than a hundred
parcels. As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not
apprehend any danger from that; so I placed it in my new
cave, which, in my fancy, I called my kitchen; and the
rest I hid up and down in holes among the rocks, so that
no wet might come to it, marking very carefully where
I had laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went
out at least once every day with my gun, as well to divert
myself as to see if I could kill anything fit for food;
and, as near as I could, to acquaint myself with what the
island produced. The first time I went out I presently







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discovered that there were goats in the island, which was
a great satisfaction to me; but then it was attended with
this misfortune to me, viz., that they were so shy, so
subtle, and so swift of foot that it was the most difficult
thing in the world to come at them; but I was not dis-
couraged at this, not doubting but I might now and then
shoot one, as it soon happened; for after I had found
their haunts a little, I laid wait in this manner for them:
I observed if they saw me in the valleys, though they
were upon the rocks, they would run away, as in a terrible
fright; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and I
was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me; from
whence I concluded that, by the position of their optics,
their sight was so directed downward that they did not
readily see objects that were above them; so afterwards
I took this method-I always climbed the rocks first, to
get above them, and then had frequently a fair mark.
The first shot I made among these creatures I killed
a she-goat, which had a little kid by her, which she gave
suck to, which grieved me heartily; for, when the old
one fell, the kid stood stock still by her, till I came and
took her up; and not only so, but when I carried the old
one with me upon my shoulders, the kid followed me
quite to my inclosure; upon which I laid down the dam,
and took the kid in my arms, and carried it over my pale,
in hopes to have bred it up tame; but it would not eat;
so I was forced to kill it and ate it myself. These two
supplied me with flesh a great while, for I ate sparingly,
and saved my provisions, my bread especially, as much
as I possibly could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely






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necessary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to
bur; and what I did for that, as also how I enlarged my
cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a full
account of in its place; but I must now give some little
account of myself, and of my thoughts about living,
which, it may well be supposed, were not a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition, for as I was
not cast away upon that island without being driven, as
is said, by a violent storm quite out of the course of our
intended voyage, and a great way, viz., some hundreds
of leagues, out of the ordinary course of the trade of
mankind, I had great reason to consider it as a deter-
mination of Heaven that in this desolate place, and in
this desolate manner, I should end my life. The tears
would run plentifully down my face when I made these
reflections: and sometimes I would expostulate with
myself why Providence should thus completely ruin its
creatures, and render them so absolutely miserable, so
without help abandoned, and so entirely depressed, that
it could hardly be rational to be thankful for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to
check these thoughts, and to reprove me; and particu-
larly one day, walking with my gun in my hand by the
seaside, I was very pensive upon the subject of my
present condition, when Reason, as it were, put in
expostulating with me the other way, thus: "Well,
you are in a desolate condition, it is true; but, pray
remember, where are the rest of you? Did not you come
eleven of you into the boat? Where are the ten? Why
were not they saved, and you lost? Why are you
singled out? Is it better to be here or there?" And then







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I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be considered with
the good that is in them and with what worse attended
them.
Then it occurred to me again how well I was furnished
for my subsistence, and what would have been my case
if it had not happened (which was a hundred thousand
to one) that the ship floated from the place where first
she struck, and was driven so near to the shore that I
had time to get all these things out of her? What
would have been my case if I had been forced to have
lived in the condition in which I at first came on shore,
without necessaries of life, or any means to supply and
procure them? "Particularly," said I aloud (though to
myself), "what should I have done without a gun, with-
out ammunition, without any tools to make anything,
or to work with, without clothes, bedding, a tent, or
any manner of coverings?" And that now I had all
these to a sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to
provide myself in such a manner as to live without my
gun, when my ammunition was spent: so that I had a
tolerable view of subsisting without any want as long as
I lived; for I considered from the beginning how I
would provide for the accidents that might happen, and
for the time that was to come, even not only after my
ammunition should be spent, but even after my health
and strength should decay.
I confess I had not then entertained any notion of
my ammunition being destroyed at one blast-I mean,
my powder being blown up by lightning; and this made
the thought of it surprising to me, when it lightened and
thundered, as I observed just now.







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And now, being about to enter into a melancholy
relation of a scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was
never heard of in the world before, I shall take it from
its beginning, and continue it in its order. It was, by
my account, the 30th of September, when, in the manner
as above said, I first set foot upon this horrid island; when
the sun being to us in its autumnal equinox, was almost
just over my head; for I reckoned myself, by observation,
to be in the latitude of nine degrees twenty-two minutes
north of the line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve days it
came into my thoughts that I should lose my reckoning
of time for want of books, and pen, and ink, and should
even forget the Sabbath day from the working days;
but to prevent this I cut it with my knife upon a large
post, in capital letters; and making it into a great cross,
I set it up on the shore where I first landed, viz., "I came
on shore here on the 30th of September, 1659."
Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a
notch with my knife, and every seventh notch was as
long again as the rest, and every first day of the month
as long again as that long one; and thus I kept my
calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of
time.
In the next place, we are to observe that, among the
many things which I brought from the ship in the several
voyages which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got
several things of less value, but not at all less useful
to me, which I omitted setting down before; as, in par-
ticular, pens, ink, and paper; several parcels in the cap-
tain's, mate's, gunner's, and carpenter's keeping; three







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or four compasses, some mathematical instruments, dials,
perspectives, charts, and books of navigation; all which
I huddled together, whether I might want them or no;
also I found three very good Bibles, which came to me
in my cargo from England, and which I had packed up
among my things; some Portuguese books also; and,
among them, two or three Popish prayer books, and
several other books; all which I carefully secured. And
I must not forget that we had in the ship a dog and two
cats, of whose eminent history I must have occasion to
say something in its place, for I carried both the cats
with me; and as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship
of himself, and swam on shore to me the day after I
went on shore with my first cargo, and was a trusty
servant to me many years; I wanted nothing that he
could fetch me, nor any company that he could make up
to me; I only wanted to have him talk to me, but that
he could not do. As I observed before, I found pens,
ink, and paper, and I husbanded them to the utmost;
and I shall show that while my ink lasted I kept things
very exact; but after that was gone I could not, for I
could not make any ink by any means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things,
notwithstanding all that I had amassed together; and
of these, ink was one: as also a spade, pick-ax, and shovel,
to dig or remove the earth; needles, pins, and thread;
as for linen, I soon learned to want that without much
difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on
heavily; and it was near a whole year before I had
entirely finished my little pale, or surrounded habitation.







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The piles or stakes, which were as heavy as I could well
lift, were a long time in cutting and preparing in the
woods, and more, by far, in bringing home; so that I
spent sometimes two days in cutting and bringing home
one of those posts, and a third day in driving it into the
ground; for which purpose I got a heavy piece of wood
at first, but at last bethought myself of one of the iron
crows; which, however, though I found it, yet made
driving those posts or piles very laborious and tedious
work. But what need I have been concerned at the
tediousness of anything I had to do, seeing I had time
enough to do it in? Nor had I any other employment,
if that had been over, at least that I could foresee, except
the ranging the island to seek for food, which I did, more
or less, every day.
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and
the circumstances I was reduced to; and I drew up the
state of my affairs in writing, not so much to leave them
to any that were to come after me, for I was like to have
but few heirs, as to deliver my thoughts from daily
poring upon them, and afflicting my mind. And as my
reason began now to master my despondency, I began
to comfort myself as well as I could, and to set the good
against the evil, that I might have something to dis-
tinguish my case from worse, and I stated it very impar-
tially, like debtor and creditor, the comfort I enjoyed,
against the miseries I suffered, thus:

EVIL
I am cast upon a horrible, desolate island; void of all hope
of recovery.











r


I -


I,


I made me a table and a chair







ROBINSON CRUSOE


I am singled out and separated, as it were, from all the world, to
be miserable.
I am divided from mankind, a solitary; one banished from
human society.
I have no clothes to cover me.
I am without any defense, or means to resist any violence of man
or beast.
I have no soul to speak to or relieve me.
GOOD
But I am alive, and not drowned, as all my ship's company was.
But I am singled out, too, from all the ship's crew, to be spared
from death; and He that miraculously saved me from death can
deliver me from this condition.
But I am not starved and perishing on a barren place, affording no
sustenance.
But I am in a hot climate, where if I had clothes I could hardly
wear them.
But I am cast on an island where I see no wild beasts to hurt me,
as I saw on the coast of Africa; and what if I had been shipwrecked
there?
But God wonderfully sent the ship in near enough to the
shore, that I have got out so many necessary things as will either
supply my wants or enable me to supply myself even as long as
I live.
Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony
that there was scarce any condition in the world so miser-
able but there was something negative, or something
positive, to be thankful for in it: and let this stand as a
direction, from the experience of the most miserable of
all conditions in this world-that we may always find
in it something to comfort ourselves from, and to set,
in the description of good and evil, on the credit side of
the account.







ROBINSON CRUSOE


Having now brought my mind a little to relish my
condition, and giving over looking out to sea to see if I
could spy a ship; I say, giving over these things, I began
to apply myself to accommodate my way of living, and
to make things as easy to me as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was a
tent under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong
pale of posts and cables; but I might now rather call it
a wall, for I raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs,
about two feet thick on the outside: and after some time
(I think it was a year and a half) I raised rafters from it,
leaning to the rock, and thatched or covered it with
boughs of trees, and such things as I could get to keep
out the rain, which I found at some times of the year
very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods
into this pale, and into the cave which I had made
behind me. But I must observe, too, that at first this
was a confused heap of goods, which, as they lay in no
order, so they took up all my place; I had no room to
turn myself. So I set myself to enlarge my cave, and
worked farther into the earth; for it was a loose, sandy
rock, which yielded easily to the labor I bestowed on it:
and so when I found I was pretty safe as to beasts of
prey, I worked sideways, to the right hand, into the
rock; and then turning to the right again, worked quite
out, and made me a door to come out on the outside of
my pale or fortification.
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it was a
back way to my tent and to my storehouse, but gave me
room to stow my goods.







ROBINSON CRUSOE


And now I began to apply myself to make such neces-
sary things as I found I most wanted, particularly a chair
and a table; for without these I was not able to enjoy
the few comforts I had in the world; I could not write, or
eat, or do several things with so much pleasure without
a table.
So I went to work; and here I must needs observe
that as reason is the substance and original of the mathe-
matics, so by stating and squaring everything by reason,
and by making the most rational judgment of things,
every man may be, in time, master of every mechanic
art. I had never handled a tool in my life; and yet in
time by labor, application, and contrivance I found at
last that I wanted nothing but I could have made it,
especially if I had had tools. However, I made abun-
dance of things, even without tools; and some with no
more tools than an adze and a hatchet, which, perhaps,
were never made that way before, and that with infinite
labor. For example, if I wanted a board, I had no other
way but to cut down a tree, set it on an edge before me,
and hew it flat on either side with my ax till I had brought
it to be as thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth with
my adze. It is true, by this method I could make but
one board out of a whole tree; but this I had no remedy
for but patience, any more than I had for the prodigious
deal of time and labor which it took me up to make a
plank or board; but my time and labor was little worth,
and so it was as well employed one way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed
above, in the first place; and this I did out of the short
pieces of boards that I brought on my raft from the ship.






ROBINSON CRUSOE


But when I had wrought out some boards as above, I
made large shelves, of the breadth of a foot and an half,
one over another, all along one side of my cave, to lay
all my tools, nails and ironwork on; and, in a word, to
separate everything at large into their places, that I
might come easily at them; also I knocked pieces into
the wall of the rock, to hang my guns and all things that
would hang up: so that had my cave been to be seen, it
looked like a general magazine of all necessary things;
and I had everything so ready at my hand that it was a
great pleasure to me to see all my goods in such order,
and especially to find my stock of all necessaries so great.
And now it was when I began to keep a journal of
every day's employment; for, indeed, at first, I was in
too much hurry, and not only a hurry as to labor, but
in too much discomposure of mind; and my journal would
have been full of many dull things; for example, I must
have said thus:
"September 30. After I had got to shore, and had
escaped drowning, instead of being thankful to God for
my deliverance, having first vomited, with the great
quantity of salt water which had gotten into my stomach,
and recovering myself a little, I ran about the shore
wringing my hands and beating my head and face,
exclaiming at my misery, and crying out I was undone,
undone! till, tired and faint, I was forced to lie down on
the ground for repose, but durst not sleep, for fear of
being devoured."
Some days after this, and after I had been on board
the ship, and had got all I could out of her, yet I could
not forbear getting up at the top of a little mountain,







ROBINSON CRUSOE


and looking out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship: then
fancy at a vast distance I spied a sail, please myself with
the hopes of it, and then, after looking steadily, till I
was almost blind, lose it quite, and sit down and weep
like a child, and thus increase my misery by my folly.
But having gotten over these things in some measure,
and having settled my household stuff and habitation,
made me a table and a chair, and all as handsome about
me as I could, I began, I say, to keep my journal; of
which I shall here give you the copy (though in it will be
told all these particulars over again), as long as it lasted;
for at last, having no more ink, I was forced to leave it off.
THE JOURNAL
September 30, 1659. I, poor miserable Robinson
Crusoe, being shipwrecked during a dreadful storm in
the offing, came on shore on this dismal, unfortunate
island, which I called "The Island of Despair"; all the
rest of the ship's company being drowned, and myself
almost dead.
All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at
the dismal circumstances I was brought to; viz., I had
neither food, house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to;
and in despair of any relief, saw nothing but death before
me; either that I should be devoured by wild beasts,
murdered by savages, or starved to death for want of
food. At the approach of night I slept in a tree, for
fear of wild creatures; but slept soundly, though it
rained all night.
October I. In the morning I saw, to my great sur-
prise, the ship had floated with the high tide, and was






ROBINSON CRUSOE


driven on shore again, much nearer the island; which,
as it was some comfort on one hand (for seeing her sit
upright, and not broken to pieces, I hoped, if the wind
abated, I might get on board, and get some food and
necessaries out of her for my relief), so, on the other hand,
it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades, who, I
imagined, if we had all stayed on board, might have
saved the ship, or at least, that they would not have
been all drowned, as they were; and that, had the men
been saved, we might perhaps have built us a boat out
of the ruins of the ship, to have carried us to some other
part of the world. I spent great part of this day in per-
plexing myself on these things; but, at length, seeing
the ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I
could, and then swam on board. This day also it con-
tinued raining, though with no wind at all.
From the Ist of October to the 24th. All these days
entirely spent in many several voyages to get all I could
out of the ship, which I brought on shore, every tide of
flood, upon rafts. Much rain also, in those days, though
with some intervals of fair weather; but it seems this
was the rainy season.
October 24. I overset my raft, and all the goods I had
got upon it; but being in shoal water, and the things
being chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them when the
tide was out.
October 25. It rained all night and all day, with some
gusts of wind; during which time the ship broke in
pieces, the wind blowing a little harder than before, and
was no more to be seen, except the wreck of her,
and that only at low water. I spent this day in covering







ROBINSON CRUSOE


and securing the goods which I saved, that the rain
might not spoil them.
October 26. I walked about the shore almost all day,
to find out a place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned
to secure myself from any attack in the night, either from
wild beasts or men. Towards night I fixed upon a
proper place, under a rock, and marked out a semicircle
for my encampment, which I resolved to strengthen with
a work, wall, or fortification, made of double piles, lined
within with cables, and without with turf.
From the 26th to the 3oth I worked very hard in
carrying all my goods to my new habitation, though some
part of the time it rained exceeding hard.
The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island
with my gun, to seek for some food, and discover the
country; when I killed a she-goat, and her kid followed
me home, which I afterwards killed also, because it would
not feed.
November i. I set up my tent under a rock, and lay
there for the first night; making it as large as I could,
with stakes driven in to swing my hammock upon.
November 2. I set up all my chests and boards, and
the pieces of timber which made my rafts, and with them
formed a fence round me, a little within the place I had
marked out for my fortification.
November 3. I went out with my gun, and killed
two fowls like ducks, which were very good food. In
the afternoon went to work to make me a table.
November 4. This morning I began to order my times
of work, of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time
of diversion; viz., every morning I walked out with my







ROBINSON CRUSOE


gun for two or three hours, if it did not rain; then em-
ployed myself to work till about eleven o'clock; then
ate what I had to live on; and from twelve to two I lay
down to sleep, the weather being excessive hot: and
then, in the evening, to work again. The working part
of this day and the next were wholly employed in making
this table, for I was yet but a very sorry workman, though
time and necessity made me a complete natural mechanic
soon after, as I believe they would do any one else.
November 5. This day I went abroad with my gun
and my dog, and killed a wildcat; her skin pretty soft,
but her flesh good for nothing; every creature I killed,
I took off the skins and preserved them. Coming back
by the seashore, I saw many sorts of sea-fowls, which I
did not understand; but was surprised, and almost
frighted, with two or three seals, which, while I was
gazing at, not well knowing what they were, got into the
sea and escaped me for that time.
November 6. After my morning walk, I went to work
with my table again, and finished it, though not to my
liking; nor was it long before I learned to mend it.
November 7. Now it began to be settled fair weather.
The 7th, 8th, 9th, loth, and part of the 12th (for the
IIth was Sunday according to my reckoning), I took
wholly up to make me a chair, and with much ado brought
it to a tolerable shape, but never to please me; and even
in the making, I pulled it to pieces several times.
NOTE. I soon neglected keeping Sundays; for, omit-
ting my mark for them on my post, I forgot which was
which.
November 13. This day it rained, which refreshed







ROBINSON CRUSOE


me exceedingly, and cooled the earth: but it was accom-
panied with terrible thunder and lightning, which frighted
me dreadfully, for fear of my powder. As soon as it was
over, I resolved to separate my stock of powder into as
many little parcels as possible, that it might not be in
danger.
November 14, 15, I6. These three days I spent in
making little square chests, or boxes, which might hold
about a pound, or two pounds at most, of powder; and
so, putting the powder in, I stowed it in places as secure
and remote from one another as possible. On one of
these three days I killed a large bird that was good to
eat, but I knew not what to call it.
November 17. This day I began to dig behind my
tent into the rock, to make room for my further con-
venience.
NOTE. Three things I wanted exceedingly for this
work; viz., a pickax, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow, or
basket; so I desisted from my work, and began to con-
sider how to supply that want, and make me some tools.
As for the pickax, I made use of the iron crows, which
were proper enough, though heavy; but the next thing
was a shovel, or spade; this was so absolutely necessary
that, indeed, I could do nothing effectually without it;
but what kind of one to make I knew not.
November I8. The next day, in searching the woods,
I found a tree of that wood, or like it, which, in the Brazils,
they call the iron tree, for its exceeding hardness; of
this, with great labor, and almost spoiling my ax, I cut
a piece, and brought it home, with difficulty enough, for
it was exceeding heavy. The excessive hardness of the
7






ROBINSON CRUSOE


wood, and having no other way, made me a long while
upon this machine, for I worked it effectually by little
and little into the form of a shovel or spade; the handle
exactly shaped like ours in England, only that the board
part having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it would
not last me so long; however, it served well enough for
the uses which I had occasion to put it to; but never
was a shovel, I believe, made after that fashion, or so
long making.
I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket, or a wheel-
barrow. A basket I could not make by any means,
having no such things as twigs that would bend to make
wickerware-at least, none yet found out; and as to
the wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make all but the
wheel; but that I had no notion of; neither did I know
how to go about it; besides, I had no possible way to make
iron gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the wheel to run
in; so I gave it over, and so, for carrying away the earth
which I dug out of the cave, I made me a thing like a
hod, which the laborers carry mortar in, when they serve
the bricklayers. This was not so difficult to me as the
making the shovel; and yet this and the shovel, and the
attempt which I made in vain to make a wheelbarrow,
took me up no less than four days, I mean always
excepting my morning's walk with my gun, which I
seldom failed, and very seldom failed also of bringing
home something fit to eat.
November 23. My other work having stood still,
because of my making these tools, when they were finished
I went on, and working every day, as my strength and
time allowed, I spent eighteen days entirely in widening







ROBINSON CRUSOE


and deepening my cave, that it might hold my goods
commodiously.
NOTE. During all this time I worked to make this
room, or cave, spacious enough to accommodate me as a
warehouse or magazine, a kitchen, a dining room, and
a cellar. As for a lodging, I kept to the tent; except
that sometimes, in the wet season of the year, it rained
so hard that I could not keep myself dry, which caused
me afterwards to cover all my place within my pale with
long poles, in the form of rafters, leaning against the rock,
and load them with flags and large leaves of trees, like
a thatch.
December o1. I began now to think my cave or vault
finished, when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too
large) a great quantity of earth fell down from the top
and one side; so much that, in short, it frighted me, and
not without reason, too; for if I had been under it, I
had never wanted a grave digger. Upon this disaster I
had a great deal of work to do over again; for I had the
loose earth to carry out; and, which was of more impor-
tance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure
no more would come down.
December 11. This day I went to work with it accord-
ingly, and got two shores or posts pitched upright to the
top, with two pieces of board across over each post; this
I finished the next day, and setting more posts up with
boards, in about a week more I had the roof secured; and
the posts, standing in rows, served me for partitions to
part off my house.
December 17. From this day to the 20th I placed
shelves, and knocked up nails on the posts, to hang every-







ROBINSON CRUSOE


thing up that could be hung up; and now I began to be
in some order within doors.
December 20. Now I carried everything into the
cave, and began to furnish my house, and set up some
pieces of board like a dresser, to order my victuals upon;
but board began to be very scarce with me; also I made
me another table.
December 24. Much rain all night and all day; no
stirring out.
December 25. Rain all day.
December 26. No rain, and the earth much cooler
than before, and pleasanter.
December 27. Killed a young.goat, and lamed another
so that I caught it, and led it home in a string; when
I had it at home, I bound and splintered up its leg, which
was broke.
N. B. I took such care of it that it lived, and the leg
grew well and as strong as ever; but by nursing it so
long it grew tame and fed upon the little green at my
door, and would not go away. This was the first time
that I entertained a thought of breeding up some tame
creatures, that I might have food when my powder and
shot were all spent.
December 28, 29, 30, 31. Great heats and no breeze,
so that there was no stirring abroad, except in the eve-
ning, for food; this time I spent in putting all my things
in order within doors.
January I. Very hot still: but I went abroad early
and late with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the
day. This evening, going farther into the valleys which
lay towards the center of the island, I found there were


1oo




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