• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Part I
 Part II
 Advertising
 Back Cover
 Spine






Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074452/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: viii, 547, 16 p., 1 leaf of plates : 1 ill. ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Defoe, Daniel,
Macklin, T. Eyre
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Walter Scott Publishing Co
Publisher: Walter Scott Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: London
New York (3 East 14th St.)
Felling-on-Tyne
 Subjects
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1905   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1905   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' catalogues   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
England -- Felling-on-Tyne
United States of America -- New York -- New York
 Notes
General Note: Spine title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Date based on title and series information in the publisher's catalog 16 p. at end.
General Note: Illustration signed: T. Eyre Macklin.
General Note: Variant of Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe, 872.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe, divided into chapters. Part II originally published under title: The farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel Defoe.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074452
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: lccn - SN01271
oclc - 27020827

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
    Frontispiece
        Frontispiece
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
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    Part I
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Full Text





























































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"HE LAID IT DOWN, WITH THE HEAD OF THE SAVAGE."-P,. 198.


IRobinson Crusoe.]


kill,


> ;
/ ^ **'







THE


LIFE AND ADVENTURES


OF



ROBINSON CRUSOE





BY
DANIEL DEFOE









Condon and elting-on-Cyne:
THE WALTER SCOTT PUBLISHING CO, LTD.,
NEW YORK: 3 EAST 14TH STREET.





















CONTENTS.




PART I.

CHAP. I.-My birth and parents-At nineteen years of age I determined
to go to sea-Dissuaded by my parents-Elope with a schoolfellow,
and go on board ship-A storm arises, during which I am dreadfully
frightened-Ship founders-Myself and crew saved by a boat from
another vessel, and landed near Yarmouth-Meet my companion's
father there, who advises me never to go to sea more, but all in
vain p. 1
CHAP. II.-Make a trading voyage to Guinea very successfully-Death of
my captain-Sail another trip with his mate-The vengeance of
Providence for disobedience to parents now overtakes me-Taken by
a Sallee rover, and all sold as slaves-My master frequently sends me
a-fishing, which suggests an idea of escape-Make my escape in an
open boat, with a Moresco boy p. 14

CHAP. III.-Make for the southward in the hopes of meeting some
European vessel-See savages along shore-Shoot a large leopard-Ain
taken up by a merchantman-Arrive at the Brazils, and buy a settle-
ment there-Cannot be quiet, but sail on a voyage of adventure to
Guinea-Ship strikes on a sandbank in unknown land-All lost but
myself, who am driven ashore half dead p. 27







CONTENTS.


CHAP. IV.-Appearance of the wreck and country next day-Swim on
board of the ship, and, by means of a contrivance, get a quantity of
stores on shore-Shoot a bird, but it turns out perfect carrion-
Mforalise upon my situation-The ship blown off land, and totally
lost-Set out in search of a proper place for a habitation-See numbers
of goats-Melancholy reflections p. 46

CHAP. V.-I begin to keep a journal-Christen my desert island the
Island of Despair-Fall upon various schemes to make tools, baskets,
etc., and begin to build my house-At a great loss of an evening for
candle, but fall upon an expedient to supply the want-Strange dis-
covery of corn-A terrible earthquake and storm p. 67

CHAP. VI.-Observe the ship driven further aground by the late storm-
Procure a vast quantity of necessaries from the wreck-Catch a large
turtle-I fall ill of a fever and ague-Terrible dream, and serious re-
flections thereupon-Find a Bible in one of the seamen's chests thrown
ashore, the reading whereof gives me great comfort p. 81

CHAP. VII.-I begin to take a survey of my island-Discover plenty of
tobacco, grapes, lemons, and sugar-canes, wild, but no human inhabi-
tants-Resolve to lay up a store of these articles, to furnish me against
the wet season-My cat, which I supposed lost, returns with kittens-
I regulate my diet, and shut myself up for the wet season-Sow my
grain, which comes to nothing ; but I discover and remedy my error-
Take account of the course of the weather p. 95

CHAP. VIII.-Make a second tour through the island-Catch a young
parrot, which I afterwards teach to speak-My mode of sleeping at
night-Find the other side of the island much more pleasant than
mine, and covered with turtle and sea-fowl-Catch-a young kid, which
I tame-Return to my old habitation-Great plague with my
harvest p. 104

CHAP. IX.-I attempt to mould earthenware, and succeed-Description
of my mode of baking-Begin to make a boat-After it is finished, am
unable to get it down to the water-Serious reflections-My ink and
biscuit exhausted, and clothes in a bad state-Contrive to make a
dress of skins p.115







CONTENTS.


CHAP. X.-I succeed in getting a canoe afloat, and set out on a voyage in
the sixth year of my reign or captivity-Blown out to sea-Reach the
shore with great difficulty-Fall asleep, and am awakened by a voice
calling my name-Devise various schemes to tame goats, and at last
succeed p. 132

O0A. XI.-Description of my figure-Also of my dwelling and enclosures
-Dreadful alarm on seeing the print of a man's foot on the shore-
Reflections-Take every possible measure of precaution p. 144

CHAP. XII.-I observe a canoe out at sea-Find on the shore the
remnant of a feast of cannibals-Horror of mind thereon-Double arm
myself-Terribly alarmed by a goat-Discover a singular cave or
grotto, of which I form my magazine-My fears on account of the
savages begin to subside p. 157
CHAP. XIII.-Description of my situation in the twenty-third year of my
residence-Discover nine naked savages round the fire on my side of
the island-My horror on beholding the dismal work they were about
-I determine on the destruction of the next party, at all risks-A ship
lost off the island-Go on board the wreck, which I discern to be
Spanish-Procure a great variety of articles from the vessel p. 174

CHAP. XIV.-Reflections-An extraordinary dream-Discover five canoes
of savages on shore-Observe from my station two miserable wretches
dragged out of the boats to be devoured-One of them makes his escape,
and runs directly towards me, pursued by two others--I take measures so
as to destroy his pursuers, and save his life-Christen him by the name
of Friday, and he becomes a faithful and excellent servant p. 188

CHAP. XV.-I am at great pains to instruct Friday respecting my
abhorrence of the cannibal practices of the savages-He is amazed
at the effects of the gun, and considers it an intelligent being-Begins
to talk English tolerably-A dialogue-I instruct him in the knowledge
of religion, and find him very apt-He describes to me some white men
who had come to his country, and still lived there p. 204

COAP. XVI.-I determine to go over to the continent-Friday and I con-
struct a boat equal to carry twenty men-His dexterity in managing
her-Friday brings intelligence of three canoes of savages on shore-







CONTENTS.


Resolve to go down upon them-Friday and I fire upon the wretches,
and save the life of a poor Spaniard-List of the killed and wounded-
Discover a poor Indian bound in one of the canoes, who turns out to
be Friday's father p. 220
CHAP. XVII.-I learn from the Spaniard that there were sixteen more of
his countrymen among the savages-The Spaniard and Friday's father,
well armed, sail on a mission to the continent-I discover an English
ship lying at anchor off the island-her boat comes on shore with three
prisoners-The crew straggle into the woods, their boat being aground-
Discover myself to the prisoners, who prove to be the captain and mate
of the vessel, and a passenger-Secure the mutineers p. 237

CHAP. XVIII.-The ship makes signals for her boat-On receiving no
answer, she sends another boat on shore-Methods by which we secure
this boat's crew, and recover the ship p. 252

CHAP. XIX.-I take leave of the island, and, after a long voyage, arrive
in England-Go down into Yorkshire, and find the greater part of my
family dead-Resolve to go to Lisbon for information respecting my
plantation at the Brazils-Meet an old friend there, by whose means I
become rich-Set out for England overland-Much annoyed by wolves
on the road p. 269

CHAP. XX.-Strange battle betwixt Friday and a bear-Terrible engage-
ment with a whole army of wolves--Arrive in England safely, and
settle my affairs there-I marry, and have a family p. 284



PART II,

CHAP. XXI.-Reflections-Unsettled state of mind, and conversation with
my wife thereon-Purchase a farm in the county of Bedford-Lose my
wife-I determine to revisit my island, and for that purpose settle all
my affairs in England-Description of the cargo I carried out with me
-Save the crew of a vessel burnt at sea p. 297

CHaP. XXII.-Steer for the West Indies-Distressing account of a Bristol
ship, the crew of which we save, in a state of starvation-Arrive at my







CONTENTS.


island-Friday's joy on discovering it-Affecting interview betwixt,
him and his father on landing-Narrative of the occurrences on the
island during my absence p. 817
CHAP. XXIII.-Narrative continued-Insolence of three Englishmen to
the Spaniards-They are disarmed and brought to order-A great body
of savages land upon the island-They turn out to be two adverse
nations met there by chance-A bloody battle betwixt them-Several of
the vanquished party secured by the Spaniards p. 834

CHAP. XXIV.-Fresh broils betwixt the turbulent Englishmen and the
Spaniards The English make a voyage to the mainland, and
return in twenty days-Particulars of their voyage-Description of the
men and women they brought with them-The colony discovered by
an unlucky accident to the savages, who invade the island but are
defeated p. 349
CHAP. XXV.-The island is invaded by a formidable fleet of savages-A
terrible engagement, in which the cannibals are utterly routed-Thirty-
seven wretches, the survivors, are saved, and employed by my people as
servants-Description of Will Atkins' ingenious contrivances for his
accommodation p. 874
CHAP. XXVI.-I hold conversations with the Spaniards, and learn the
history of their situation among the savages from which I relieved
them-I inform the colony for what purpose I am come, and what I
mean to do for them-Distribution of the stores I brought with me-
The priest I saved at sea solemnises the marriages of the sailors
and female Indians, who had hitherto lived together as man and
wife p. 387
CHAP. XXVII.-Sincere and wo-e thy character of the priest-Dialogue
with Will Atkins and myself-Conversation betwixt Atkins and his
Indian wife on the subject of religion-Her baptism-Settlement of the
commonwealth p. 419
CHAP. XXVIII -I entertain the prospect of converting the Indians--
Amiable character of the young woman we saved in a famished state at
sea-Her own relation of her sufferings from hunger-Sail from the
island for the Brazils-Encounter and rout a whole fleet of savages-
Death of Friday-Arrival at Brazil p. 434








CONTENTS.


CHAP. XXIX.-I despatch a number of additional recruits, and a quantity
of extra stores, to the island, and take my leave of it for ever-I
determine to go with the ship to the East Indies-Arrive at Mada-
gascar-Dreadful occurrences there p. 449.
CHAP. XXX.-Difference with my nephew on account of the cruelties
practised at Madagascar-Five men lost on the Arabian shore, off the
Gulf of Persia-The seamen refuse to sail if I continue on board, in
consequence of which I am left on shore-Make a very advantageous
trading voyage, in company with an English merchant, and purchase
a vessel p. 466
CHAP. XXXI.-Make a trading voyage in this ship-Put into the river of
Cambodia-Am warned of my danger by a countryman, in con-
sequence of which we set sail, and are pursued-Great difficulty in
making our escape P - p. 475
CHAP. XXXII.-Obliged to come to anchor on a savage coast, to repair
our ship-We are attacked by the natives, whom our carpenter
disperses by a whimsical contrivance-Serious reflections upon our
disagreeable situation p. 485
CHAP. XXXIII.-We arrive in China in safety-Dispose of the ship-
Description of the inhabitants-Arrive at Pekin, and find an oppor-
tunity of returning to Europe p. 496
CHAP. XXXIV.-Set out by the caravan-Account of the valuable effects
we took with us-Further description of the interior of China-Pass
the great wall-Attacked by Tartars, who are dispersed by the resolu-
tion of a Scots merchant-The old pilot saves my life-We are again
attacked, and defeat the Tartars p. 510
CHAP. XXXV. -Further account of our journey-Description of an idol:
which we destroy-Great danger we incur thereby-Account of our
travels through Muscovy p. 520
CHAP. XXXVI.-Conversations with a Russian grandee-Set out on my
journey homewards-Harassed by Kalmucks on the road-Arrival at
Archangel-Sail from thence, and arrive safely in England p. 585















THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE.



PART I.

CHAPTER I.

My birth and parentage-At nineteen years of age I determined to go to
sea-Dissuaded by my parents-Elope with a schoolfellow, and go on
board ship-A storm arises, during which I am dreadfully frightened-
Ship founders-Myself and crew saved by a boat from another vessel, and
landed near Yarmouth-Meet my companion's father there, who advises
me never to go to sea more, but all in vain.

I WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good
family, though not of that country, my father being a foreigner
of Bremen, who settled first at Hull. He got a good estate by
merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York,
from whence he had married my mother, whose relations were
named Robinson, a very good family in that country, and from
whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but, by the usual cor-
ruption of words in England, we are now called-nay, we call
ourselves and write our name-Crusoe; and so my companions
always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel
to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded







LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle
near Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What became of my second
brother I never knew, any more than my father or mother knew
what became of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade,
my head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts.
My father, who was very ancient, had given me a competent share
of learning, as far as house-education and a country free-school
generally go, and designed me for the law; but I would be
satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and my inclination to
this led me so strongly against the will, nay, the commands of
my father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of my
mother and other friends, that there seemed to be something fatal
in that propensity of nature, tending directly to the life of misery
which was to befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent
counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He called me
one morning into his chamber, where he was confined by the
gout, and expostulated very warmly with me upon this subject.
He asked me what reasons, more than a mere wandering inclina-
tion, I had for leaving my father's house and my native country,
where I might be well introduced, and had a prospect of raising
my fortune by application and industry, with a life of ease and
pleasure. He told me it was men of desperate fortunes on one
hand, or of aspiring, superior fortunes on the other, who went
abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise and make them-
selves famous in undertakings of a nature out of the common
road; that these things were all either too far above me or too
far below me; that mine was the middle state, or what might be
called the upper station of low life, which he had found, by long
experience, was the best state in the world, the most suited to
human happiness, not exposed to the miseries and hardships, the
labour and sufferings of the mechanic part of mankind, and not
embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the
upper part of mankind. He told me I might judge of the







ROBINSON CR USOB.


happiness of this state by this one thing-viz., that this was the
state of life which all other people envied; that kings have
frequently lamented the miserable consequence of being born to
great things, and wished they had been placed in the middle of
the two extremes, between the mean and the great; that the wise
man gave his testimony to this, as the standard of felicity, when
he prayed to have neither poverty nor riches.
He bade me observe it, and I should always find that the
calamities of life were shared among the upper and lower part
of mankind, but that the middle station had the fewest disasters,
and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes as the higher or
lower part of mankind; nay, they were not subjected to so many
distempers and uneasiness, either of body or mind, as those were
who, by vicious living, luxury, and extravagances on the one
hand, or by hard labour, want of necessaries, and mean or in-
sufficient diet on the other hand, bring distemper upon them-
selves by the natural consequences of their way of living; that
the middle station of life was calculated for all kind of virtue
and all kind of enjoyments; that peace and plenty were the
handmaids of a middle fortune; that temperance, moderation,
quietness, health, society, all agreeable diversions, and all desir-
able pleasures were the blessings attending the middle station
of life; that this way men went silently and smoothly through
the world, and comfortably out of it, not embarrassed with the
labours of the hands or of the head, not sold to a life of slavery
for daily bread, nor harassed with perplexed circumstances, which
rob the soul of peace and the body of rest, nor enraged with the
passion of envy or the secret burning lust of ambition for great
things; but in easy circumstances sliding gently through the
world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of living without the bitter;
feeling that they are happy, and learning by every day's experience
to know it more sensibly.
After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate
manner, not to play the young man, not to precipitate myself into
miseries which nature, and the station of life I was born in,







LIFE AND AD VENTURES OF


seemed to have provided against; that I was under no necessity
of seeking my bread; that he would do well for me, and en-
deavour to enter me fairly into the station of life which he had
just been recommending to me; and that if I was not very easy
and happy in the world, it must be my mere fate or fault that
must hinder it; and that he should have nothing to answer for,
having thus discharged his duty in warning me against measures
which he knew would be to my hurt; in a word, that as he would
do very kind things for me if I would stay and settle at home as
he directed, so he would not have so much hand in my mis-
fortunes as to give me any encouragement to go away; and to
close all, he told me I had my elder brother for an example, to
whom he had used the same earnest persuasions to keep him
from going into the Low Country wars, but could not prevail, his
young desires prompting him to run into the army, where he was
killed; and though he said he would not cease to pray for me,
yet he would venture to say to me, that if I did take this foolish
step, God would not bless me, and I should have leisure here-
after to reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there
might be none to assist in my recovery.
I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly
prophetic, though I suppose my father did not know it to be so
himself-I say, I observed the tears run down his face very
plentifully, especially when he spoke of my brother who was
killed; and that when he spoke of my having leisure to repent,
and none to assist me, he was so moved that he broke off the
discourse, and told me his heart was so full he could say no more
to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, and, indeed, who
could be otherwise ? and I resolved not to think of going abroad
any more, but to settle at home according to my father's desire.
But alas! a few days wore it all off; and, in short, to prevent any
of my father's further importunities, in a few weeks after I resolved
to run quite away from him. However, I did not act quite so
hastily as the first heat of my resolution prompted; but I took my







ROBINSON CRUSOE.


mother at a time when I thought her a little more pleasant than
ordinary, and told her that my thoughts were so entirely bent
upon seeing the world that I should never settle to anything with
resolution enough to go through with it, and my father had better
give me his consent than force me to go without it; that I was
now eighteen years old, which was too late to go apprentice to a
trade or clerk to an attorney; that I was sure if I did I should
never serve out my time, but I should certainly run away from my
master before my time was out and go to sea; and if she would
speak to my father to let me go one voyage abroad, if I came
home again, and did not like it, I would go no more; and I
would promise, by a double diligence, to recover the time that
I had lost.
This put my mother into a. great passion; she told me she
knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any
such subject; that he knew too well what was my interest to give
his consent to anything so much for my hurt; and that she
wondered how I could think of any such thing after the discourse
I had had with my father, and such kind and tender expres-
sions as she knew my father had used to me; and that, in short,
if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me; but I might
depend I should never have their consent to it; that for her part,
she would not have so much hand in my destruction; and I
should never have it to say that my mother was willing when my
father was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet I heard
afterwards that she reported all the discourse to him, and that my
father, after showing a great concern at it, said to her, with a sigh,
" That boy might be happy if he would stay at home; but if he
goes abroad, he will be the most miserable wretch that ever was
born: I can give no consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose,
though, in the meantime, I continued obstinately deaf to all
proposals of settling to business, and frequently expostulated with
my father and mother about their being so positively determined







LIFE AND AD VENTURES OF


against what they knew my inclinations prompted me to. But
being one day at Hull, where I went casually, and without any
purpose of making an elopement at that time; but, I say, being
there, and one of my companions being about to sail to London
in his father's ship, and prompting me to go with them with the
common allurement of seafaring men, that it should cost me
nothing for my passage, I consulted neither father nor mother
any more, nor so much as sent them word of it; but leaving them
to hear of it as they might, without asking God's blessing or my
father's, without any consideration of circumstances or conse-
quences, and in an ill hour, God knows, on the ist of September
1651, I went on board a ship bound for London. Never any
young adventurer's misfortunes, I believe, began sooner, or con-
tinued longer, than mine. The ship was no sooner out of the
Humber than the wind began to blow and the sea to rise in
a most frightful manner; and as I had never been at sea before,
I was most inexpressibly sick in body and terrified in mind. I
began now seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how
justly I was overtaken by the judgment of heaven for my wicked
leaving my father's house and abandoning my duty. All the
good counsels of my parents, my father's tears and my mother's
entreaties, came now fresh into my mind; and my conscience,
which was not yet come to the pitch of hardness to which it has
since, reproached me with the contempt of advice, and the breach
of my duty to God and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very high,
though nothing like what I have seen many times since; no, nor
what I saw a few days after; but it was enough to affect me then,
who was but a young sailor, and had never known anything of the
matter. I expected every wave would have swallowed us up, and
that every time the ship fell down, as I thought it did, in the
trough or hollow of the sea, we should never rise more; in this
agony of mind I made many vows and resolutions, that if it would
please God to spare my life in this one voyage, if ever I got once
my foot upon dry land again, I would go directly home to my








ROBINSON CR USOE.


father, and never set it into a ship again while I lived; that I
would take his advice, and never run myself into such miseries as
these any more. Now I saw plainly the goodness of his observa-
tions about the middle station of life, how easy, how comfortably
he had lived all his days, and never had been exposed to tempests
at sea or troubles on shore; and I resolved that I would, like a
true repenting prodigal, go home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the
storm lasted, and indeed some time after; but the next day the
wind was abated and the sea calmer, and I began to be a little
inured to it; however, I was very grave for all that day, being also
a little sea-sick still; but towards night the weather cleared up,
the wind was quite over, and a charming fine evening followed;
the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning;
and having little or no wind and a smooth sea, the sun shining
upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most delightful that ever
I saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick, but
very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough
and terrible the day before, and could be so calm and so pleasant
in so little a time after. And now, lest my good resolutions
should continue, my companion, who had enticed me away, comes
to me: "Well, Bob," says he, clapping me upon the shoulder,
"how do you do after it? I warrant you were frighted, weren't
you, last night, when it blew but a capful of wind ?" "A capful,
d'you call it?" said I; "'twas a terrible storm." "A storm, you
fool you," replies he; "do you call that a storm? why, it was
nothing at all; give us but a good ship and sea-room, and we
think nothing of such a squall of wind as that; but you're but a
fresh-water sailor, Bob. Come, let us make a bowl of punch, and
we'll forget all that; d'ye see what charming weather 'tis now?"
To make .short this sad part of my story, we went the way of all
sailors; the punch was made, and I was made half-drunk with it;
and in that one night's wickedness I drowned all my repentance,
all my reflections upon my past conduct, all my resolutions for







LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


the future. In a word, as the sea was returned to its smoothness
of surface and settled calmness by the abatement of that storm, so
the hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions
of being swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and the current
of my former desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and
promises that I made in my distress. I found, indeed, some
intervals of reflection; and the serious thoughts did, as it were,
endeavour to return again sometimes; but I shook them off, and
roused myself-from them as it were from a distemper, and apply-
ing myself to drinking and company, soon mastered the return of
those fits-for so I called them; and I had in five or six days got
as complete a victory over conscience as any young fellow that
resolved not to be troubled with it could desire. But I was to
have another trial for it still; and Providence, as in such cases
generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely without excuse; for
if I would not take this for a deliverance, the next was to be such
a one as the worst and most hardened wretch among us would
confess both the danger and the mercy of.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth
Roads; the wind having been contrary and the weather calm, we
had made but little way since the storm. Here we were obliged
to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing con-
trary-viz., at south-west, for seven or eight days, during which
time a great many ships from Newcastle came into the same
Roads, as the common harbour where the ships might wait for
a wind for the river.
We had not, however, rid here so long but we should have
tided it up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh, and after we
had lain four or five days, blew very hard. However, the Roads
being reckoned as good as a harbour, the anchorage good, and our
ground-tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned and not in
the least apprehensive of danger, but spent the time in rest and
mirth, after the manner of the sea; but the eighth day, in the
morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands at work to
strike our top-masts and make everything snug and close, that the







ROBINSON CRUSOE.


ship might ride as easy as possible. By noon the sea went very
high indeed, and our ship rode forecastle in, shipped several seas,
and we thought once or twice our anchor had come home; upon
which our master ordered out the sheet-anchor, so that we rode
with two anchors ahead, and the cables veered out to the better
end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began
to see terror and amazement in the faces even of the seamen them-
selves. The master, though vigilant in the business of preserving
the ship, yet as he went in and out of his cabin by me I could
hear him softly to himself say, several times, Lord be merciful
to us! we shall be all lost; we shall be all undone !" and the like.
During these first hurries I was stupid, lying still in my cabin,
which was in the steerage, and cannot describe my temper: I
could ill resume the first penitence which I had so apparently
trampled upon and hardened myself against: I thought the bitter-
ness of death had been past, and that this would be nothing like
the first; but when the master himself came by me, as I said just
now, and said we should be-all lost, I was dreadfully frighted. I
got up out of my cabin and looked out; but such a dismal sight
I never saw: the sea ran mountains high, and broke upon us every
three or four minutes; when I could look about, I could see
nothing but distress round us; two ships that rode near us, we
found, had cut their masts by the board, being deep laden; and
our men cried out that a ship which rode about a mile ahead
of us was foundered. Two more ships, being driven from their
anchors, were run out of the Roads to sea, at all adventures, and
that not with a mast standing. The light ships fared the best, as
not so much labouring in the sea; but two or three of them drove
and came close by us, running away with only their sprit-sail out
before the wind.
Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master of
our ship to let them cut away the fore-mast, which he was very
unwilling to do; but the boatswain protesting to him that if he
did not the ship would founder, he consented; and when they







LIFE AND AD VENTURES OF


had cut away the fore-mast, the main-mast stood so loose, and
shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut that away also,
and make a clear deck.
Any one must judge what a condition I must be in at all this,
who was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright
before at but a little. But if I can express at this distance the
thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in tenfold more
horror of mind upon account of my former convictions, and the
having returned from them to the resolutions I had wickedly
taken at first, than I was at death itself; and these, added to the
terror of the storm, put me into such a condition that I can by
no words describe it. But the worst was not come yet; the
storm continued with such fury that the seamen themselves
acknowledged they had never seen a worse. We had a good
ship, but she was deep laden, and wallowed in the sea, so that
the seamen every now and then cried out she would founder. It
was my advantage, in one respect, that I did not know what they
meant by founder till I inquired. However, the storm was so
violent, that I saw, what is not often seen, the master, the boat-
swain, and some others more sensible than the rest, at their
prayers, and expecting every moment when the ship would go to
the bottom. In the middle of the night, and under all the rest of
our distresses, one of the men that had been down to see cried
out we had sprung a leak; another said there was four feet water
in the hold. Then all hands were called to the pump. At that
word my heart, as I thought, died within me, and I fell back-
wards upon the side of my bed where I sat into the cabin.
However, the men roused me, and told me that I, that was able
to do nothing before, was as well able to pump as another; at
which I stirred up and went to the pump, and worked very
heartily. While this was doing, the master seeing some light
colliers, who, not able to ride out the storm, were obliged to slip
and run away to the sea, and would come near us, ordered to fire
a gun as a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing what they
meant, thought the ship had broken, or some dreadful thing







ROBINSON CRUSOE.


happened. In a word, I was so surprised that I fell down in
a swoon. As this was a time when everybody had his own life to
think of, nobody minded me, or what was become of me; but
another man stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me aside
with his foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead; and it was a
great while before I came to myself.
We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it was
apparent that the ship would founder; and though the storm
began to abate a little, yet it was not possible she could swim
till we might run into any port; so the master continued firing
guns for help; and a light ship, who had rid it out just ahead of
us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the utmost
hazard the boat came near us; but it was impossible for us to get
on board, or for the boat to lie near the ship's side, till at last the
men rowing very heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours,
our men cast them a rope over the stern with a buoy to it, and
then veered it out a great length, which they, after much labour
and hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them close under our
stem, and got all into their boat. It was to no purpose for them
or us, after we were in the boat, to think of reaching their own
ship; so all agreed to let her drive, and only to pull her in
towards shore as much as we could; and our master promised
them that if the boat was staved upon shore, he would make it
good to their master; so partly rowing, and partly driving, our
boat went away to the northward, sloping towards the shore
almost as far as Winterton Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our
ship till we saw her sink, and then I understood for the first time
what was meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I must acknow-
ledge I had hardly eyes to look up when the seamen told me she
was sinking; for from the moment that they rather put me into
the boat than that I might be said to go in, my heart was, as it
were, dead within me, partly with fright, partly with horror of
mind, and the thoughts of what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition-the men yet labouring at the







LIFE AND AD VENTURES OF


oar to bring the boat near the shore-we could see (when, our
boat mounting the waves, we were able to see the shore) a great
many people running along the strand to assist us when we should
come near; but we made but slow way towards the shore; nor
were we able-to reach the shore till, being past the lighthouse at
Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward towards Cromer,
and so the land broke off a little the violence of the wind. Here
we got in, and, though not without much difficulty, got all safe
on shore, and walked afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as
unfortunate men, we were used with great humanity, as well by
the magistrates of the town, who assigned us good quarters, as by
particular merchants and owners of ships, and had money given
us sufficient to carry us either to London or back to Hull, as we
thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and have
gone home, I had been happy, and my father, as in our blessed
Saviour's parable, had even killed the fatted calf for me; for
hearing the ship I went away in was cast away in Yarmouth
Roads, it was a great while before he had any assurances that I
was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that
nothing could resist; and though I had several times loud calls
from my reason and my more composed judgment to go home,
yet I had no power to do it. I know not what to call this, nor
will I urge that it is a secret overruling decree that hurries us on
to be the instruments of our own destruction, even though it be
before us, and that we rush upon it with our eyes open. Cer-
tainly, nothing but some such decreed unavoidable misery, which
it was impossible for me to escape, could have pushed me forward
against the calm reas6nings and persuasions of my most retired
thoughts, and against two such visible instructions as I had met
with in my first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who
was the master's son, was now less forward than I. The first time
he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which was not till two







ROBINSON CRUSOE.


or three days, for we were separated in the town to several
quarters; I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared his tone
was altered; and looking very melancholy, and shaking his head,
he asked me how I did, and telling his father who I was, and how
I had come this voyage only for a trial, in order to go farther
abroad: his father, turning to me with a very grave and concerned
tone, "Young man," says he, "you ought never to go to sea any
more; you ought to take this for a plain and visible token that
you are not to be a seafaring man." "Why, sir," said I, "will
you go to sea no more ?" That is another case," said he; "it
is my calling, and therefore my duty; but as you made this
voyage on trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given you of
what you are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this has all be-
fallen us on your account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish.
Pray," continues he, "what are you, and on what account did
you go to sea ?" Upon that I told him some of my story; at the
end of which he burst out into a strange kind of passion: What
had I done," says he, that such an unhappy wretch should come
into my ship ? I would not set my foot in the same ship with
thee again for a thousand pounds." This indeed was, as I said,
an excursion of his spirits, which were yet agitated by the sense
of his' loss, and was further than he could have authority to go.
However, he afterwards talked very gravely to me, exhorting me
to go back to my father, and not tempt Providence to my ruin,
telling me I might see a visible hand of Heaven against me.
"And, young man," said he, depend upon it, if you do not go
back, wherever you go you will meet with nothing but disasters
and disappointments, till your father's words are fulfilled upon
you."
We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I saw
him no more; which way he went I knew not. As for me, having
some money in my pocket, I travelled to London by land; and
there, as well as on the road, had many struggles with myself
what course of life I should take, and whether I should go home
or to sea.







LIFE AND AD VENTURES OF


As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered
to my thoughts, and it immediately occurred to me how I should
be laughed at among the neighbours, and should be ashamed to
see, not my father and mother only, but even everybody else;
from whence I have since often observed how incongruous and
irrational the common temper of mankind is, especially of youth,
to that reason which ought to guide them in such cases-viz., that
they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; n )t
ashamed of the action for which they ought justly to be esteemed
fools, but are ashamed of the returning, which only can make
them be esteemed wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain
what measures to take and what course of life to lead. An
irresistible reluctance continued to going home; and as I stayed
away awhile, the remembrance of the distress I had been in wore
off, and as that abated, the little motion I had in my desires to
return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts
of it, and looked out for a voyage.





CHAPTER II.

Make a trading voyage to Guinea very successfully-Death of my captain-
Sail another trip with his mate-The vengeance of Providence for dis-
obedience to parents now overtakes me-Taken by a Sallee rover, and
all sold as slaves-My master frequently sends me a-fishing, which
suggests an idea of escape-Make my escape in an open boat, with a
Moresco boy.

THAT evil influence which carried me first away from my father's
house-which hurried me into the wild and indigested notion of
raising my fortune, and that impressed those conceits so forcibly
upon me, as to make me deaf to all good advice, and to the
entreaties and even the commands of my father-I say, the same







ROBINSON CRUSOE.


influence, whatever it was, presented the most unfortunate of all
enterprises to my view; and I went on board a vessel bound to
the coast of Africa; or, as our sailors vulgarly called it, a voyage
to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I did
not ship myself as a sailor; when, though I might indeed have
worked a little harder than ordinary, yet at the same time I
should have learnt the duty and office of a fore-mast man, and
in time might have qualified myself for a mate or lieutenant,
if not for a master. But as it was always my fate to choose
for the worse, so I did here; for, having money in my pocket
and good clothes upon my back, I would always go on board
in the habit of a gentleman; and so I neither had any business
in the ship, nor learned to do any.
It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company
in London, which does not always happen to such loose and
misguided young fellows as I then was; the devil generally not
omitting to lay some snare for them very early; but it was not
so with me. I first got acquainted with the master of a ship
who had been on the coast of Guinea; and who, having had
very good success there, was resolved to go again. This captain
taking a fancy to my conversation, which was not at all disagree-
able at that time, hearing me say I had a mind to see the world,
told me if I would go the voyage with him I should be at no
expense; I should be his messmate and his companion; and if
I could carry anything with me, I should have all the advantage
of it that the trade would admit; and perhaps I might meet with
some encouragement.
I embraced the offer; and entering into a strict friendship with
this captain, who was an honest, plain-dealing man, I went the
voyage with him, and carried a small adventure with me, which,
by the disinterested honesty of my friend the captain, I increased
very considerably; for I carried about ;640 in such toys and trifles
as the captain directed me to buy. These 40 I had mustered
together by the assistance of some of my relations whom I corre-







LIFE AND AD VENTURES OF


sponded with; and who, I believe, got my father, or at least my
mother, to contribute so much as that to my first adventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in all
my adventures, which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my
friend the captain; under whom also I got a competent knowledge
of the mathematics and the rules of navigation, learned how to
keep an account of the ship's course, take an observation, and, in
short, to understand some things that were needful to be under-
stood by a sailor; for as he took delight to instruct me, I took
delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage made me both a
sailor and a merchant; for I brought home five pounds nine
ounces of gold-dust for my adventure, which yielded me in
London, at my return, almost Z300; and this filled me with
those aspiring thoughts which have since so completed my
ruin.
Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too; particularly,
that I was continually sick, being thrown into a violent calenture
by the excessive heat of the climate; our principal trading being
upon the coast, from latitude of 15 north even to the line itself.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my
great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the
same voyage again, and I embarked in the same vessel with one
who was his mate in the former voyage, and had now got the
command of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage that
ever man made; for though I did not carry quite 00oo of my
new-gained wealth, so that I had 200 left, which I had lodged
with my friend's widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell into
terrible misfortunes; the first was this-our ship making her
course towards the Canary Islands, or rather between those
Islands and the African shore, was surprised in the grey of
the morning by a Turkish rover of Sallee, who gave chase to
us with all the sail she could make. We crowded also as much
canvas as our yards would spread or our masts carry to get
clear; but finding the pirate gained upon us, and would certainly
come up with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight; our ship







ROBINSON CRUSOE.


having twelve guns, and the rogue eighteen. About three in the
afternoon he came up with us, and bringing to, by mistake, just
athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as he intended,
we brought eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured in
a broadside upon him which made him sheer off again, after
returning our fire, and pouring in also his small shot from near
two hundred men which he had on board. However, we had
not a man touched, all our men keeping close. He prepared
to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves. But laying us
on board the next time upon our other quarter, he entered sixty
men upon our decks, who immediately fell to cutting and hacking
the sails and rigging. We plied them with small shot, half-pikes,
powder-chests, and such-like, and cleared our deck of them twice.
However, to cut short this melancholy part of our story, our ship
being disabled, and three of our men killed and eight wounded,
we were obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee,
a port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I appre-
hended; nor was I carried up the country to the emperor's court,
as the rest of our men were, but was kept by the captain of the
rover as his proper prize, and made his slave, being young and
nimble and fit for his business. At this surprising change of
my circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was
perfectly overwhelmed; and now I looked back upon my father's
prophetic discourse to me, that I should be miserable and have
none to relieve me, which I thought was now so effectually brought
to pass that I could not be worse; for now the hand of Heaven
had overtaken me, and I was undone without redemption; but,
alas this was but a taste of the misery I was to go through, as
will appear in the sequel of this story.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house,
so I was in hopes that he would take me with him when he went
to sea again, believing that it would some time or other be his
fate to be taken by a Spanish -or Portugal man-of-war; and that
then I should be set at liberty. But this hope of mine was soon







LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


taken away; for when he went to sea he left me on shore to
look after his little garden and do the common drudgery of
slaves about his house; and when he came home again from
his cruise he ordered me to lie in the cabin to look after
the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I
might take to effect it, but found no way that had the least prob-
ability in it; nothing presented to make the supposition of it
rational; for I had nobody to communicate it to that would
embark with me-no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or
Scotchman there but myself; so that for two years, though I
often pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had the
least encouraging prospect of putting it in practice.
After about two years an odd circumstance presented itself
which put the old thought of making some attempt for my liberty
again in my head. My patron lying at home longer than usual
without fitting out his ship, which, as I heard, was for want of
money, he used constantly, once or twice a week, sometimes
oftener if the weather was fair, to take the ship's pinnace and go
out into the road a-fishing; and as he always took me and young
Maresco with him to row the boat, we made him very merry, and
I proved very dexterous in catching fish; insomuch that some-
times he would send me with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and
the youth-the Maresco, as they called him-to catch a dish
of fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a calm morning, a
fog rose so thick that, though we were not half a league from the
shore, we lost sight of it; and rowing we knew not whither or
which way, we laboured all day and all the next night; and
when the morning came we found we had pulled off to sea
instead of pulling in for the shore, and that we were at least
two leagues from the shore. However, we got well in again,
though with a great deal of labour and some danger; for the
wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morning; but we were all
very hungry.







ROBINSON CR USOE.


But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more
care of himself for the future; and having lying by him the long-
boat of our English ship that he had taken, he resolved he would
not go a-fishing any more without a compass and some provision;
so he ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also was an English
slave, to build a little state-room, or cabin, in the middle of the
long-boat, like that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it
to steer and haul home the main-sheet; the room before for
a hand or two to stand and work the sails. She sailed with what
we call a shoulder-of-mutton sail; and the boom gibed over the
top of the cabin, which lay very snug and low, and had in it room
for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table to eat on, with
some small lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor as he
thought fit to drink; and his bread, rice, and coffee.
We went frequently out with his boat a-fishing; and as I was
most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without me.
It happened that he had appointed to go out in this boat, either
for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors of some distinc-
tion in that place, and for whom he had provided extraordinarily,
and had, therefore, sent on board the boat over-night a larger
store of provisions than ordinary; and had ordered me to get
ready three fusees with powder and shot, which were on board his
ship, for that they designed some sport of fowling as well as
fishing.
I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the next
morning with the boat washed clean, her ancient and pendants
out, and everything to accommodate his guests; when by-and-by
my patron came on board alone, and told me his guests had
put off going, from some business that fell out, and ordered me,
with the man and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat and
catch them some fish, for that his friends were to sup at his
house, and commanded that as soon as I got some fish I should
bring it home to his house; all which I prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into my
thoughts, for now I found I was likely to have a little ship at my







LIFE AND AD VENTURES OF


command; and my master being gone, I prepared to furnish
myself, not for fishing business, but for a voyage; though I knew
not, neither did I so much as consider, whither I should steer-
anywhere to get out of that place was my desire.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this
Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board; for I told
him we must not presume to eat of our patron's bread. He said
that was true; so he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit and
three jars of fresh water into the boat. I knew where my patron's
case of bottles stood, which it was evident, by the make, were
taken out of some English prize, and I conveyed them into the
boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had been there
before for our master. I conveyed also a great lump of bees-wax
into the boat, which weighed about half a hundredweight, with a
parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all of
which were of great use to us afterwards, especially -the wax, to
make candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which he
innocently came into also: his- name was Ismael, which they
call Muley, or Moely; so I called to him, "Moely," said I,
"our patron's guns are on board the boat; can you not get
a little powder and shot ? It may be we may kill some alcamies
(a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know he keeps the
gunner's stores in the ship." "Yes," says he, "I'll bring some;"
and accordingly he brought a great leather pouch, which held a
pound and a half of powder, or rather more; and another with shot,
that had five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put all into the
boat. At the same time I had found some powder of my master's
in the great cabin, with which I filled one of the large bottles in
the case, which was almost empty, pouring what was in it into
another; and thus furnished with everything needful, we sailed
out of the port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of
the port, knew who we were, and took no notice of us; and we
were not above a mile out of the port before we hauled in our
sail and set us down to fish. The wind blew from the N.N.E.,
which was contrary to my desire, for had it blown southerly I had







ROBINSON CRUSOE.


been sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at least reached
to the bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow which way it
would, I would be gone from that horrid place where I was, and
leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and caught nothing, for when I
had fish on my hook I would not pull them up, that he might not
see them, I said to the Moor, This will not do; our master will
not be thus served; we must stand farther off." He, thinking no
harm, agreed, and being in the head of the boat, set the sails;
and as I had the helm, I ran the boat out near a league farther,
and then brought her to, as if I would fish; when, giving the boy
the helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was, and making
as if I stooped for something behind him, I took him by surprise
with my arm under his waist and tossed him clear overboard into
the sea. He rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and
called to me, begged to be taken in, told me he would go all over
the world with me. He swam so strong after the boat that he
would have reached me very quickly, there being but little wind;
upon which I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the
fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and told him I had done
him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I would do him none:
" But," said I, you swim well enough to reach to the shore, and
the sea is calm; make the best of your way to shore, and I will
do you no harm; but if you come near the boat I'll shoot you
through the head, for I am resolved to have my liberty;" so he
turned himself about and swam for the shore, and I make no
doubt but he reached it with ease, for he was an excellent
swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me,
and have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust
him. When he was gone I turned to the boy, whom they called
Xury, and said to him, Xury, if you will be faithful to me, I'll
make you a great man; but if you will not stroke your face to be
true to me," that is, swear by Mahomet and his father's beard,
" I must throw you into the sea too." The boy smiled in my







LIFE AND AD VENTURES OF


face, and spoke so innocently that I could not distrust him, and
swore to be faithful to me and go all over the world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming I stood
out directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching to windward,
that they might think me gone towards the Straits' mouth (as
indeed any one that had been in their wits must have been
supposed to do); for who would have supposed we were sailed
on to the southward, to the truly Barbarian coast, where whole
nations of Negroes were sure to surround us with their canoes
and destroy us; where we could not go on shore but we should
be devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless savages of
human kind.
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening I changed my
course and steered directly south and by east, bending my course
a little towards the east, that I might keep in with the shore; and
having a fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth, quiet sea, I made
such sail that I believe by the next day, at three o'clock in the
afternoon, when I first made the land, I could not be less than
one hundred and fifty miles south of Sallee; quite beyond the
Emperor of Morocco's dominions, or indeed of any other king
thereabouts, for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken of the Moors, and the
dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that
I would not stop or go on shore, or come to an anchor; the
wind continuing fair till I had sailed in that manner five days;
and then the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also
that if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would now
give over; so I ventured to make to the coast, and came to an
anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew not what, nor where,
neither what latitude, what country, what nation, or what river.
I neither saw nor desired to see any people; the principal thing
I wanted was fresh water. We came into this creek in the even-
ing, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark and discover
the country; but as soon as it was quite dark we heard such dread-
ful noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures,







ROBINSON CRUSOE.


of we knew not what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die
with fear, and begged of me not to go on shore till day. Well,
Xury," said I, then I won't; but it may be that we may see men
by day, who will be as bad to us as those lions." Then we give
them the shoot gun," says Xury, laughing, "make them run wey."
Such English Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves. How-
ever, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him
a dram (out of our patron's case of bottles) to cheer him up.
After all, Xury's advice was good, and I took it; we dropped our
little anchor and lay still all night; I say still, for we slept none;
for in two or three hours we saw vast great creatures (we knew
not what to call them) of many sorts come down to the sea-shore
and run into the water, wallowing and washing themselves for the
pleasure of cooling themselves; and they made such hideous
howlings and yelling that I never indeed heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but we
were both more frighted when we heard one of these mighty
creatures come swimming towards our boat; we could not see
him, but we might hear him by his blowing to be a monstrous
huge and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion, and it might be
so for aught I know; but poor Xury cried to me to weigh the
anchor and row away; "No," says I, "Xury; we can slip our
cable, with the buoy to it, and go off to sea; they cannot follow
us far." I had no sooner said so but I perceived the creature
(whatever it was) within two oars' length, which something
surprised me; however, I immediately stepped to the cabin-door,
and taking up my gun, fired at him; upon which he immediately
turned about and swam towards the shore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises and hideous
cries and howlings that were raised, as well upon the edge of the
shore as higher within the country, upon the noise or report of
the gun, a thing I have some reason to believe those creatures
had never heard before: this convinced me that there was no
going on shore for us in the night on that coast, and how to
venture on shore in the day was another question too; for to







LIFE AND AD VENTURES OF


have fallen into the hands of any of the savages had been as bad
as to have fallen into the hands of the lions and tigers; at least
we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere
or other for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat; when
and where to get to it was the point. Xury said, if I would let
him go on shore with one of the jars he would find if there was
any water and bring some to me. I asked him why he would
go? why I should not go, and he stay in the boat? The boy
answered with so much affection as made me love him ever after.
Says he, "If wild mans come, they eat me, you go wey." "Well,
Xury," said I, "we will both go, and if the wild mans come we
will kill them, they shall eat neither of us." So I gave Xury a
piece of rusk bread to eat and a dram out of our patron's case of
bottles which I mentioned before; and we hauled the boat in as
near the shore as we thought was proper, and so waded on shore;
carrying nothing but our arms and two jars for water.
* I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming
of canoes with savages down the river;- but the boy seeing a low
place about a mile up the country, rambled to it, and by-and-by I
saw him come running towards me. I thought he was pursued
by some savage, or frighted with some wild beast, and I ran
forwards towards him to help him; but when I came nearer to
him I saw something hanging over his shoulders, which was a
creature that he had shot, like a hare, but different in colour, and
longer legs; however, we were very glad of it, and it was very
good meat; but the great joy that poor Xury came with was to
tell me he had found good water and seen no wild mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for
water, for a little higher up the creek where we were we found the
water fresh when the tide was out, which flowed but a little way
up; so we filled our jars and 'feasted on the hare we had killed,
and prepared to go on our way, having seen no footsteps of any
human creature in that part of the country.
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very
I







ROBINSON CRUSOE.


well that the islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd
Islands also, lay not far off from the coast. But as I had no
instruments to take an observation to know what latitude we were
in, and not exactly knowing, or at least remembering, what
latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for them, or
when to stand off to sea towards them; otherwise I might now
easily have found some of these islands. But my hope was that
if I stood along this coast till I came to that part where the
English traded, I should find some of their vessels upon their
usual design of trade that would relieve and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was must
be that country which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco's
dominions and the Negroes, lies waste and uninhabited, except
by wild beasts; the Negroes having abandoned it and gone
farther south for fear of the Moors; and the Moors not thinking
it worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness; and, indeed, both
forsaking it because of the prodigious number of tigers, lions,
leopards, and other furious creatures which harbour there; so
that the Moors use it for their hunting only, where they go like
an army, two or three thousand men at a time; and, indeed, for
near a hundred miles together upon this coast we saw nothing
but a waste, uninhabited country by day, and heard nothing but
howlings and roaring of wild beasts by night.
Once or twice in the daytime I thought I saw the Pico of
Teneriffe, being the high top of the Mountain Teneriffe in the
Canaries, and had a great mind to venture out, in hopes of
reaching thither; but having tried twice, I was forced in again by
contrary winds, the sea also going too high for my little vessel;
so I resolved to pursue my first design and keep along the
shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we
had left this place; and once in particular, being early in the
morning, we came to an anchor under a little point of land, which
was pretty high; and the tide beginning to flow, we lay still to go
farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about him than it seems







LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


mine were, calls softly to me and tells me that we had best go
farther off the shore; "For," says he, "look, yonder lies a
dreadful monster on the side of that hillock fast asleep." I
looked where he pointed and saw a dreadful monster indeed, for
it was a terrible, great lion that lay on the side of the shore, under
the shade of a piece of the hill that hung, as it were, a little over
.him. Xury," says I, "you shall go on shore and kill him."
Xury looked frighted, and said, "Me kill! he eat me at one
mouth !" one mouthful he meant. However, I said no more to
the boy, but bade him lie still, and I took our biggest gun, which
was almost musket bore, and loaded it with a good charge of
powder and with two slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded
another gun with two bullets; and the third (for we had three
pieces) I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took the best aim I
could with the first piece to have shot him in the head, but he
lay so with his leg raised a little above his nose that the slugs hit
his leg above the knee and broke the bone. He started up,
growling at first, but finding his leg broken, fell down again; and
then got upon three legs and gave the most hideous roar that
ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I had not hit him on
the head; however, I took up the second piece immediately, and
though he began to move off, fired again, and shot him in the
head, and had the pleasure to see him drop and make but little
noise, but lie struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and
would have me let him go on shore. Well, go," said I; so the
boy jumped into the water, and taking a little gun in one hand,
swam to shore with the other hand, and coming close to the
creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear and shot him in
the head again, which despatched him quite.
This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I was
very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a crea-
ture that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury said he
would have some of him; so he comes on board and asked me to
give him the hatchet. For what, Xury ? said I. Me cut off
his head," said he. However, Xury could not cut off his head,







ROBINSON CRUSOE.


but he cut off a foot and brought it with him, and it was a mon-
strous great one.
I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him
might, one way or other, be of some value to us; and I resolved
to take off his skin if I could. So Xury and I went to work with
him; but Xury was much the better workman at it, for I knew
very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us both up the whole day,
but at last we got off the Nhde of him, and spreading it on the top
of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two days' time, and it
afterwards served me to lie upon.




CHAPTER III.
Make for the southward in hopes of meeting with some European vessel-
See savages along shore-Shoot a large leopard-Am taken up by a
merchantman-Arrive at the Brazils, and buy a settlement there-Cannot
be quiet, but sail on a voyage of adventure to Guinea-Ship strikes on a
sandbank in unknown land-All lost but myself, who am driven ashore
half dead.

AFTER this stop we made on to the southward continually for ten
or twelve days, living very sparingly on our provisions, which
began to abate very much, and going no oftener to the shore than
we were obliged to for fresh water. My design in this was to
make the River Gambia or Senegal, that is to say, anywhere about
the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to meet with some
European ship; and if I did not, I knew not what course I had
to take but to seek for the islands, or perish there among the
Negroes. I knew that all the ships from Europe which sailed
either to the coast of Guinea, or to Brazil, or to the East Indies,
made this Cape or those islands; and, in a word, I put the whole
of my fortune upon this single point, either that I must meet with
some ship or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I







LIFE AND AD VENTURES OF


have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited; and in two
or three places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand upon the
shore to look at us; we could also perceive they were quite black
and naked. I was once inclined to have gone on shore to them;
but Xury was my better counsellor, and said to me, "No go, no
go." However, I hauled in nearer the shore that I might talk to
them, and I found they ran along the shore by me a good way. I
observed they had no weapons in their hand, except one, who had
a long slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they
could throw them a great way with good aim; so I kept at a
distance, but talked with them by signs as well as I could; and
particularly made signs for something to eat: they beckoned to me
to stop my boat, and they would fetch me some meat. Upon this
I lowered the top of my sail and lay by, and two of them ran up
into the country, and in less than half-an-hour came back, and
brought with them two pieces of dried flesh and some corn, such
as is the produce of their country; but we neither knew what the
one or the other was; however, we were willing to accept it, but
how to come at it was our next dispute, for I would not venture
on shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us; but they
took a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore and laid
it down, and went and stood a great way off till we fetched it on
board, and then came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make
them amends; but an opportunity offered that very instant to
oblige them wonderfully; for while we were lying by the shore
came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took it)
with great fury from the mountains towards the sea; whether it
was the male pursuing the female, or whether they were in sport
or in rage, we could not tell, any more than we could tell whether
it was usual or strange, but I believe it was the latter; because, in
the first place, those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the
night; and, in the second place, we found the people terribly
frighted, especially the women. The man that had the lance or
dart did not fly from them, but the rest did; however, as the two







ROBINSON CRUSOE.


creatures ran directly into the water, they did not offer to fall upon
any of the Negroes, but plunged themselves into the sea, and swam
about as if they had come for their diversion; at last one of them
began to come nearer our boat than at first I expected; but I lay
ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with all possible expedi-
tion, and bade Xury load both the others. As soon as he came
fairly within my reach I fired, and shot him directly in the head;
immediately he sank down into the water, but rose instantly, and
plunged up and down as if he was struggling for life, and so
indeed he was; he immediately made to the shore; but between
the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the
water, he died just before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor
creatures at the noise and fire of my gun; some of them were
even ready to die for fear, and fell down as dead with the very
terror; but when they saw the creature dead and sunk in the
water, and that I made signs to them to come to the shore, they
took heart and came, and began to search for the creature. I
found him by his blood staining the water; and by the help of a
rope which I slung round him and gave the Negroes to haul, they
dragged him on shore, and found that it was a most curious
leopard, spotted, and fine to an admirable degree; and the
Negroes held up their hands with admiration, to think what it
was I had killed him with.
The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the noise
of the gun, swam on shore and ran up directly to the mountains
from whence they came; nor could I at that distance know what
it was. I found quickly the Negroes wished to eat the flesh of
this creature, so I was willing to have them take it as a favour
from me; which, when I made signs to them that they might take
him, they were very thankful for. Immediately they fell to work
with him; and though they had no knife, yet with a sharpened
piece of wood they took off his skin as readily, and much more
readily, than we could have done with a knife. They offered me
some of the flesh, which I declined, pointing out that I would







LIFE AND AD VENTURES OF


give it them, but made signs for the skin, which they gave me
very freely, and brought me a great deal more of their provisions,
which, though I did not understand, yet I accepted. I then
made signs to them for some water, and held out one of my jars
to them, turning it bottom upward to show that it was empty and
that I wanted to have it filled. They called immediately to some
of their friends, and there came two women and brought a great
vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I supposed, in the sun; this they
set down to me as before, and I sent Xury on shore with my jars
and filled them all three. The women were as naked as the men.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and
water; and leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward for
about eleven days more, without offering to go near the shore
till I saw the land run out a great length into the sea, at about
the distance of four or five leagues before me; and the sea being
very calm, I kept a large offing to make this point. At length,
doubling the point at about two leagues from the land, I saw
plainly land on the other side, to seaward; then I concluded, as
it was most certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verd, and
those the islands called, from thence, Cape de Verd Islands.
However, they were at a great distance, and I could not well tell
what I had best to do, for if I should be taken with a fresh of
wind I might neither reach one or other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the
cabin and sat down, Xury having the helm; when, on a sudden,
the boy cried out, Master, master, a ship with a sail! and the
foolish boy was frighted out of his wits, thinking it must needs be
some of his master's ships sent to pursue us, but I knew we were
far enough out of their reach. I jumped out of the cabin and
immediately saw not only the ship, but that it was a Portuguese
ship; and, as I thought, was bound to the coast of Guinea for
Negroes. But when I observed the course she steered I was soon
convinced they were bound some other way, and did not design
to come any nearer to the shore; upon which I stretched out to
sea as much as I could, resolving to speak with them if possible.







ROBINSON CRUSOE.


With all the sail I could make I found I should not be able to
come in their way, but that they would be gone by before I could
make any signal to them; but after I had crowded to the utmost,
and began to despair, they, it seems, saw by the help of their
glasses that it was some European boat, which they supposed
must belong to some ship that was lost; so they shortened sail to
let me come up. I was encouraged with this, and as I had my
patron's ancient on board I made a waft of it to them for a signal
of distress and fired a gun, both which they saw; for they told
me they saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon
these signals they very kindly brought to and lay by for me; and
in about three hours' time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was in Portuguese, and in Spanish and
in French, but I understood none of them; but at last a Scotch
sailor who was on board called to me; and I answered him, and
told him I was an Englishman, that I had made my escape out of
slavery from the Moors at Sallee; they then bade me come on
board, and very kindly took me in, and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one can believe,
that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable
and almost hopeless condition as I was in; and I immediately
offered all I had to the captain of the ship as a return for my
deliverance; but he generously told me he would take nothing
from me, but that all I had should be delivered safe to me when I
came to the Brazils. For," says he, "I have saved your life on
no other terms than I would be glad to be saved myself; and it
may, one time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same
condition. Besides," said he, "when I carry you to the Brazils,
so great a way from your own country, if I should take from you
what you have, you will be starved there, and then I only take
away that life I have given. No, no," says he; "Seignor Inglese"
(Mr. Englishman), I will carry you thither in charity, and those
things will help to buy your subsistence there, and your passage
home again."
As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the







LIFE AND AD VENTURES OF


performance to a tittle; for he ordered the seamen that none
should touch anything that I had; then he took everything into
his own possession, and gave me back an exact inventory of them,
that I might have them, even to my three earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw, and
told me he would buy it of me for his ship's use, and asked me
what I would have for it ? I told him he had been so generous
to me in everything that I could not offer to make any price of
the boat, but left it entirely to him; upon which he told me he
would give me a note of hand to pay me eighty pieces of eight
for it at Brazil; and when it came there, if any one offered to
give more, he would make it up. He offered me also sixty
pieces of eight more for my boy Xury, which I was loath to
take; not that I was unwilling to let the captain have him, but
I was very loath to sell the poor boy's liberty, who had assisted
me so faithfully in procuring my own. However, when I let him
know my reason, he owned it to be just, and offered me this
medium, that he would give the boy an obligation to set him
free in ten years if he turned Christian; upon this, and Xury
saying he was willing to go to him, I let the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived in the
Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints' Bay, in about twenty-two
days after. And now I was once more delivered from the most
miserable of all conditions of life; and what to do next with
myself I was to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me I can never
enough remember: he would take nothing of me for my passage,
gave me twenty ducats for the leopard's skin and forty for the
lion's skin, which I had in my boat, and caused everything I had
in the ship to be punctually delivered to me; and what I was
willing to sell he bought of me, such as the case of bottles,
two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees-wax-for I had
made candles of the rest; in a word, I made about two hundred
and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo; and with this stock
I went on shore in the Brazils.







ROBINSON CR USOR.


I had not been long here before I was recommended to the
house of a good, honest man, like himself, who had an ingenio,
as they call it (that is, a plantation and a sugar-house). I lived
with him some time, and acquainted myself, by that means, with
the manner of planting and making of sugar; and seeing how well
the planters lived, and how they got rich suddenly, I resolved, if
I could get a licence to settle there, I would turn planter among
them, resolving, in the meantime, to find out some way to get
my money which I had left in London remitted to me. To
this purpose, getting a kind of letter of naturalisation, I purchased
as much land that was uncured as my money would reach, and
formed a plan for my plantation and settlement; such a one as
might be suitable to the stock which I proposed to myself to
receive from England.
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese, of Lisbon, but born of English
parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such circumstances
as I was. I call him my neighbour, because his plantation lay
next to mine, and we went on very sociably together. My stock
was but low, as well as his; and we rather planted for food than
anything else for about two years. However, we began to
increase, and our land began to come into order; so that the
third year we planted some tobacco, and made each of us a
large piece of ground ready for planting canes in the year to
come. But we both wanted help; and now I found, more than
before, I had done wrong in parting with my boy Xury.
But, alas! for me to do wrong that never did right was no
great wonder. I had no remedy but to go on: I had got into
an employment quite remote to my genius, and directly contrary
to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my father's
house, and broke through all his good advice. Nay, I was
coming into the very middle station, or upper degree of low
life, which my father advised me to before, and which, if I
resolved to go on with, I might as well have stayed at home, and
never have fatigued myself in the world as I had done; and I
used often to say to myself, I could have done this as well in
3







LIFE AND AD VENTURES OF


England, among my friends, as have gone five thousand miles
off to do it among strangers and savages, in a wilderness, and
at such a distance as never to hear from any part of the world
that had the least knowledge of me.
In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the
utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with, but now and
then this neighbour; no work to be done but by the labour of
my hands; and I used to say, I lived just like a man cast away
upon some desolate island that had nobody there but himself.
But how just has it been-and how should all men reflect, that
when they compare their present conditions with others that are
worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the exchange, and be
convinced of their former felicity by their experience-I say,
how just has it been, that the truly solitary life I reflected on,
in an island of mere desolation, should be my lot, who had so
often unjustly compared it with the life which I then led, in
which, had I continued, I had, in all probability, been exceeding
prosperous and rich ?
I was in some degree settled in my measures for carrying
on the plantation before my kind friend, the captain of the
ship that took me up at sea, went back-for the ship remained
there, in providing his lading and preparing for his voyage, nearly
three months. -When telling him what little stock I had left behind
me in London, he gave me this friendly and sincere advice:-
" Seignor Inglese," says he (for so he always called me), if you
will give me letters and a procuration in form to me, with orders
to the person who has your money in London to send your effects
to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct, and in such goods as
are proper for this country, I will bring you the produce of them,
God willing, at my return; but, since human affairs are all subject
to changes and disasters, I would have you give orders but for
one hundred pounds sterling, which, you say, is half your stock,
and let the hazard be run for the first; so that, if it come safe,
you may order the rest the same way, and, if it miscarry, you may
have the other half to have recourse to for your supply."







ROBINSON CR USOE.


This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that
I could not but be convinced it was the best course I could take;
so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman with whom
I had left my money, and a procuration to the Portuguese captain,
as he desired.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all my
adventures-my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the
Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity of his behaviour, and
what condition I was now in, with all other necessary directions
for my supply; and when this honest captain came to Lisbon, he
found means, by some of the English merchants there, to send
over, not the order only, but a full account of my story to
a merchant in London, who represented it effectually to her;
whereupon she not only delivered the money, but out of her own
pocket sent the Portuguese captain a very handsome present for
his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in
English goods, such as the captain had written for, sent them
directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me to
the Brazils; among which, without my direction (for I was too
young in my business to think of them), he had taken care to
have all sorts of tools, ironwork, and utensils necessary for my
plantation, and which were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived I thought my fortune made, for I was
surprised with the joy of it; and my good steward, the captain,
had laid out the five pounds which my friend had sent him for a
present for himself, to purchase and bring me over a servant,
under bond for six years' service, and would not accept of any
consideration, except a little tobacco, which I would have him
accept, being of my own produce.
Neither was this all; for my goods being all English manu-
facture, such as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valu-
able and desirable in the country, I found means to sell them to
a very great advantage; so that I might say I had more than four
times the value of my first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond







LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


my poor neighbour-I mean in the advancement of my plant.
tion; for the first thing I did, I bought me a negro slave, and an
European servant also-I mean another besides that which the
captain brought me from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means of
our greatest adversity, so it was with me. I went on the next
year with great success in my plantation: I raised fifty great rolls
of tobacco on my own ground more than I had disposed of for
necessaries among my neighbours; and these fifty rolls, being
each of above a hundredweight, were well cured and laid by
against the return of the fleet from Lisbon; and now increasing
in business and wealth, my head began to be full of projects and
undertakings beyond my reach; such as are, indeed, often the
ruin of the best heads in business. Had I continued in the
station I was now in, I had room for all the happy things to have
yet befallen me for which my father so earnestly recommended a
quiet, retired life, and of which he had so sensibly described the
middle station of life to be full of; but other things attended me,
and I was still to be the wilful agent of all my own miseries; and
particularly, to increase my fault and double the reflections upon
myself, which in my future sorrows I should have leisure to make;
all these miscarriages were procured by my apparent obstinate
adhering to my foolish inclination of wandering abroad, and
pursuing that inclination in contradiction to the clearest views of
doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of those prospects
and those measures of life which nature and Providence con-
curred to present me with, and to make my duty.
As I had once done thus in my breaking away from my
parents, so I could not be content now, but I must go and leave
the happy view I had of being a rich and thriving man in my new
plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of rising
faster than the nature of the thing admitted; and thus I cast
myself down again into the deepest gulf of human misery that
ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent with life and
a state of health in the world.






ROBINSON CRUSOE.


To come, then, by the just degrees, to the particulars of this
part of my story:-You may suppose that, having now lived
almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and
prosper very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned the
language, but had contracted acquaintance and friendship among
my fellow-planters, as well as amorig the merchants at St. Salvador,
which was our port; and that, in my discourses among them, I
had frequently given them an account of my two voyages to the
coast of Guinea: the manner of trading with the Negroes there,
and how easy it was to purchase upon the coast for trifles-such
as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and the
like-not only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, etc.,
but Negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these
heads, but especially to that part which related to the buying of
Negroes, which was a trade at that time not only not far entered
into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on by assientos, or
permission of the kings of Spain and Portugal,* and engrossed in
the public stock; so that few Negroes were bought, and those
excessively dear.
It happened, being in company with some merchants and
planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very
earnestly, three of them came to me next morning and told me
they had been musing very much upon what I had discoursed
with them of the last night, and they came to make a secret pro-
posal to me; and after enjoining me secrecy, they told me that
they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that they had
all plantations as well as I, and were straitened for nothing so
much as servants; that as it was a trade that could not be carried
on, because they could not publicly sell the Negroes when they
came home, so they desired to make but one voyage, to bring the
Negroes on shore privately, and divide them among their own
plantations; and, in a word, the question was, whether I would
go their supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading part upon
the coast of Guinea; and they offered me that I should have my







LIFE AND AD VENTURES OF


equal share of the Negroes, without providing any part of the
stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made
to any one that had not had a settlement and a plantation of his
own to look after, which was in a fair way of coming to be very
considerable, and with a good stock upon it; but for me, that was
thus entered and established, and had nothing to do but to go on
as I had begun for three or four years more, and to have sent for
the other hundred pounds from England, and who in that time,
and with that little addition, could scarce have failed of being
worth three or four thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing
too-for me to think of such a voyage was the most preposterous
thing that ever man in such circumstances could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more
resist the offer than I could restrain my first rambling designs
when my father's good counsel was lost upon me In a word, I
told them I would go with all my heart, if they would undertake
to look after my plantation in my absence, and would dispose of
it to such as I should direct, if I miscarried. This they all
engaged to do, and entered into writings ol covenants to do so;
and I made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and effects
in case of my death, making the captain of the ship that had
saved my life, as before, my universal heir, but obliging him to
dispose of my effects as I had directed in my will.; one half of the
produce being to himself, and the other to be shipped in England.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects and
to keep up my plantation. Had I used half as much prudence to
have looked into my own interest, and have made a judgment of
what I ought to have done and not to have done, I had certainly
never gone away from so prosperous an undertaking, leaving all
the probable views of a thriving circumstance and gone upon a
voyage to sea, attended with all its common hazards, to say
nothing of the reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes to
myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my






ROBINSON CRUSOE.


fancy rather than my reason; and accordingly, the ship being
fitted out and the cargo furnished, and all things done, as by
agreement, by my partners in the voyage, I went on board in an
evil hour, the ist September 1659, being the same day eight years
that I went from my father and mother at Hull, in order to act
the rebel to their authority, and the fool to my own interests.
Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden,
carried six guns and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy,
and myself. We had on board no large cargo of goods, except
of such toys as were fit for our trade with the Negroes, such as
beads, bits of glass, shells, and other trifles, especially little look-
ing-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.
The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to
the northward upon our own coast, with design to stretch over for
the African coast when we came about ten or twelve degrees of
northern latitude, which, it seems, was the manner of course in
those days. We had very good weather, only excessively hot, all
the way upon our own coast, till we came to the height of Cape
St. Augustino; from whence, keeping farther off at sea, we lost
sight of land, and steered as- if we were bound for the isle Fer-
nando de Noronha, holding our course N.E. by N., and leaving
those isles on the east. In this course we passed the line in
about twelve days' time, and were, by our last observation, in
seven degrees twenty-two minutes northern latitude, when a
violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge.
It began from the south-east, came about to the north-west, and
then settled in the north-east; from whence it blew in such a ter-
rible manner that for twelve days together we could do nothing but
drive, and scudding away before it, let it carry us whither ever
fate and the fury of the winds directed; and during these twelve
days I need not say that I expected every day to be swallowed
up; nor, indeed, did any in the ship expect to save their lives.
In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of
our men die of the calenture, and one man and the boy washed
overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather abating a little,







LIFE AND AD VENTURES OF


the master made an observation as well as he could, and found
that he was in about eleven degrees north latitude, but that he was
twenty-two degrees of longitude difference west from Cape St.
Augustino; so that he found he was upon the coast of Guinea, or
the north part of Brazil, beyond the river Amazons, towards that
of the river Oroonoque, commonly called the Great River; and
began to consult with me what course he should take, for the
ship was leaky and very much disabled, and he was going
directly back to the coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that; and looking over the charts of
the sea-coast of America with him, we concluded there was no
inhabited country for us to have recourse to till we came within
the circle of the Caribbee Islands, and therefore resolved to stand
away for Barbadoes; which, by keeping off at sea, to avoid the
indraft of the Bay or Gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform, as
we hoped, in about fifteen days' sail; whereas we could not
possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa without some
assistance both to our ship and to ourselves.
With this design we changed our course and steered away
N.W. by W., in order to reach some of our English islands, where
I hoped for relief But our voyage was otherwise determined; for,
being in the latitude of twelve degrees eighteen minutes, a second
storm came upon us which carried us away with the same im-
petuosity westward, and drove us so out of the way of all human
commerce, that, had all our lives been saved as to the sea, we
were rather in danger of being devoured by savages than ever
returning to our own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our
men early in the morning cried out, Land I and we had no
sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing where-
abouts in the world we were, than the ship struck upon a sand,
and in a moment, her motion being so stopped, the sea broke
over her in such a manner that we expected we should all have
perished immediately; and we were immediately driven into our
close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam and spray of the sea.






ROBINSON CR USO. 41

It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like
condition to describe or conceive the consternation of men in
such circumstances. We knew nothing where we were, or upon
what land it was we were driven-whether an island or the main,
whether inhabited or not inhabited. As the rage of the wind was
still great, though rather less than at first, we could not so much
as hope to have the ship hold many minutes without breaking
into pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn
immediately about. In a word, we sat looking upon one another
and expecting death every moment, and every man, accordingly,
preparing for another world; for there was little or nothing more
for us to do in this. That which was our present comfort, and
all the comfort we had, was that, contrary to our expectation, the
ship did not break yet, and that the master said the wind began
to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet
the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast
for us to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful condition
indeed, and had nothing to do but to think of saving our lives as
well as we could. We had a boat at our stern just before the
storm, but she was first staved by dashing against the ship's
rudder, and in the next place she broke away, and either sunk or
was driven off to sea; so there was no hope from her. We had
another boat on board, but how to get her off into the sea was a
doubtful thing. However, there was no time to debate, for we
fancied that the ship would break in pieces every minute, and
some told us she was actually broken already.
In this distress the mate of our vessel laid hold of the boat, and
with the help of the rest of the men got her slung over the ship's
side; and getting all into her, let go, and committed ourselves,
being eleven in number, to God's mercy and the wild sea; for
though the storm was abated considerably, yet the sea ran dread-
fully high upon the shore, and might be well called den wild zee,
as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all saw







LIFE AND AD VENTURES OF


plainly that the sea went so high that the boat could not live, and
that we should be inevitably drowned. As to making sail, we had
none, nor if we had could we have done anything with it; so we
worked at the oar towards the land, though with heavy hearts,
like men going to execution; for we all knew that when the boat
came near the shore she would be dashed in a thousand pieces
by the breach of the sea. However, we committed our souls to
God in the most earnest manner; and the wind driving us
towards the shore, we hastened our destruction with our own
hands, pulling as well as we could towards land.
What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep or
shoal, we knew not. The only hope that could rationally give us
the least shadow of expectation was, if we might find some bay
or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where by great chance we
might have run our boat in, or got under the lee of the land, and
perhaps made smooth water. But there was nothing like this
appeared; but as we made nearer and nearer the shore, the land
looked more frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed or rather driven about a league and a
half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came
rolling astern of us, and plainly bade us expect the coup de grace.
It took us with such a fury that it overset the boat at once; and
separating us, as well from the boat as from one another, gave us
no time to say, "0 God!" for we were all swallowed up in a
moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt
when I sank into the water; for though I swam very well, yet I
could not deliver myself from the waves so as to draw breath, till
that wave having driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way on
towards the shor-, and having spent itself, went back, and left me
upon the land almost dry, but half-dead with the water I took in.
I had so much presence of mind as well as breath left, that
seeing myself nearer the mainland than I expected, I got upon
my feet and endeavoured to make on towards the land as fast as
I could before another wave should return and take me up again;







ROBINSON CRUSOE.


but I soon found it was impossible to avoid it; for I saw the sea
come after me as high as a great hill, and as furious as an enemy,
which I had no means or strength to contend with: my business
was to hold my breath and raise myself upon the water, if I
could; and so, by swimming, to preserve my breathing and pilot
myself towards the shore, if possible, my greatest concern now
being that the sea, as it would carry me a great way towards the
shore when it came on, might not carry me back again with it
when it gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again buried me at once twenty or
thirty feet deep in its own body, and I could feel myself carried
with a mighty force and swiftness towards the shore a very great
way; but I held my breath and assisted myself to swim still
forward with all my might. I was ready to burst with holding my
breath, when, as I felt myself rising up, so, to my immediate relief,
I found my head and hands shoot out above the surface of the
water; and though it was not two seconds of time that I could keep
myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave me breath and new
courage. I was covered again with water a good while, but not
so long but I held it out; and finding the water had spent itself
and began to return, I struck forward against the return of the
waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I stood still a few
moments to recover breath and till the waters went from me, and
then took to my heels and ran with what strength I had farther
towards the shore. But neither would this deliver me from the
fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me again; and twice
more I was lifted up by the waves and carried forward as before,
the'shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well-nigh been fatal to me, for
the sea having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather
dashed me against a piece of rock, and that with such force that
it left me senseless, and indeed helpless as to my own deliver-
ance; for the blow taking my side and breast, beat the breath, as
it were, quite out of my body; and had it returned again imme-
diately, I must have been strangled in the water; but I recovered







LIFE AND AD VENTURES OF


a little before the return of the waves, and seeing I should be
covered again with the water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece
of the rock, and so to hold my breath, if possible, till the wave
went back. Now, as the waves were not so high at at first, being
nearer land, I held my hold till the wave abated, and then fetched
another run, which brought me so near the shore that the next
wave, though it went over me, yet did not so swallow me up as to
carry me away; and the next run I took I got to the mainland,
where, to my great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the shore
and sat me down upon the grass, free from danger and quite out
of the reach of the water.
I was now landed and safe on shore, and began to look up and
thank God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there was,
s6me minutes before, scarce any room to hope. I believe it is
impossible to express, to the life, what the ecstasies and transports
of the soul are when it is so saved, as I may say, out of the very
grave; and I do not wonder now at the custom,, when a male-
factor, who has the halter about his neck, is tied up, and just
going to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought to him-I say,
I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon with it, to let him
blood that very moment they tell him of it, that the surprise may
not drive the animal spirits from the heart and overwhelm him.
For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first."

I walked about on the shore lifting up my hands, and my whole
being, as I may say, wrapt up in a contemplation of my deliver-
ance; making a thousand gestures and motions which I cannot
describe; reflecting upon all my comrades that were drowned, and
that there should not be one soul saved but myself; for, as for
them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign of them, except
three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not fellows.
I cast my eye to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and froth
of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far off; and
considered, Lord how was it possible I could get on shore ?
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my







ROBINSON CRUSOE.


condition, I began to look round me, to see what kind of place I
was in, and what was next to be done; and I soon found my
comforts abate, and that, in a word, I had a dreadful deliverance;
for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor anything either to
eat or drink to comfort me; neither did I see any prospect before
me but that of perishing with hunger or being devoured by wild
beasts; and that which was particularly afflicting to me was that
I had no weapon, either to hunt and kill any creature for my sus-
tenance, or to defend myself against any other creature that might
desire to kill me for theirs. In a word, I had nothing about me
but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a box. This
was all my provisions; and this threw me into terrible agonies of
mind, that for a while I ran about like a madman. Night coming
upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what would be
my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that country, as at
night they always come abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time was to
get up into a thick bushy tree like a fir, but thorny, which grew
near me, and where I resolved to sit all night, and consider the
next day what death I should die, for as yet I saw no prospect of
life. I walked about a furlong from the shore to see if I could
find any fresh water to drink, which I did, to my great joy; and
having drank and put a little tobacco into my mouth to prevent
hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured to
place myself so that if I should sleep I might not fall. And
having cut me a short stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I
took up my lodging; and having been excessively fatigued, I fell
fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could have
done in my condition, and found myself more refreshed with it
than, I think, I ever was on such an occasion.







LIFE AND AD VENTURES OF


CHAPTER IV.

Appearance of the wreck and country next day-Swim on board of the ship,
and by means of a contrivance get a quantity of stores on shore-Shoot
a bird, but it turns out perfect carrion-Moralise upon my situation-The
ship blown off land and totally lost-Set out in search of a proper place
for a habitation-See numbers of goats-Melancholy reflections.

WHEN I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the
storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as before.
But that which surprised me most was that the ship was lifted off
in the night from the sand where she lay by the swelling of the
tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock which I at first
mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the wave dashing me
against it. This being within about a mile from the shore where
I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished
myself on board, that at least I might save some necessary things
for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked
about me again, and the first thing I found was the boat, which
lay, as the wind and the sea had tossed her up, upon the land,
about two miles on my right hand. I walked as far as I could
upon the shore to have got to her; but found a neck or inlet of
water between me and the boat which was about half-a-mile
broad; so I came back for the present, being more intent upon
getting at the ship, where I hoped to find something for my
present subsistence.
A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the tide
ebbed so far out that I could come within a quarter of a mile
of the ship. And here I found a fresh renewing of my grief; for
I saw evidently that if we had kept on board we had been all
safe-that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had not
been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort
and company as I now was. This forced tears to my eyes again;
but as there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get







ROBINSON CRUSOE.


to the ship; so I pulled off my clothes-for the weather was hot
to extremity-and took the water. But when I came to the ship
my difficulty was still greater to know how to get on board; for
as she lay aground and high out of the water, there was nothing
within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and the
second time I spied a small piece of rope, which I wondered I
did not see at first, hung down by the fore-chains so low as that
with great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope
I got up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that the
ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her hold, but
that she lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather
earth, that her stem lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head
low, almost to the water. By this means all her quarter was free,
and all that was in that part was dry; for you may be sure my
first work was to search, and to see what was spoiled and what
was free. And, first, I found that all the ship's provisions were
dry and 'untouched by the water; and being very well disposed
to eat, I went to the bread-room and filled my pockets with
biscuit, and ate it as I went about other things, for I had no time
to lose. I also found some rum in the great cabin, of which I
took a large dram, and which I had, indeed, need enough of to
spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a
boat to furnish myself with many things which I foresaw would
be very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had;
and this extremity roused my application. We had several spare
yards, and two or three large spars of wood, and a spare top-mast
or two in the ship; I resolved to fall to work with these, and I
flung as many of them overboard as I could manage for their
weight, tying every one with a rope, that they might not drive
away. When this was done I went down the ship's side, and
pulling them to me, I tied four of them together at both ends as
well as I could, in the form of a raft, and laying two or three
short pieces of plank upon them cross-ways, I found I could walk
upon it very well, but that it was not able to bear any great







LIFE AND AD VENTURES OF


weight, the pieces being too light. So I went to work, and with
a carpenter's saw I cut a spare top-mast into three lengths, and
added them to my raft, with a great deal of labour and pains.
But the hope of furnishing myself with necessaries encouraged
me to go beyond what I should have been able to have done
upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight
My next care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what
I laid upon it from the surf of the sea; but I was not long con.
sidering this. I first laid all the planks or boards upon it that I
could get, and having considered well what I most wanted, I first
got three of the seamen's chests, which I had broken open and
emptied, and lowered them down upon my raft; the first of these
I filled with provisions-viz., bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses,
five pieces of dried goat's flesh (which we lived much upon), and
a little remainder of European corn, which had been laid by for
some fowls which we brought to sea with us, but the fowls were
killed. There had been some barley and wheat together; but, to
my great disappointment, I found afterwards that the rats had
eaten or spoiled it all As for liquors, I found several cases of
bottles belonging to our skipper, in which were some cordial
waters; and, in all, about five or six gallons of rack. These I
stowed by themselves, there being no need to put them into the
chest, nor any room for them. While I was doing this I found
the tide begin to flow, though very calm; and I had the mortifi-
cation to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on
the shore upon the sand, swim away. As for my breeches, which
were only linen, and open-kneed, I swam on board in them and
my stockings. However, this set me on rummaging for clothes,
of which I found enough, but took no more than I wanted for
present use, for I had other things which my eye was more upon
-as, first, tools to work with on shore. And it was after long
searching that I found out the carpenter's chest, which was indeed
a very useful prize to me, and much more valuable than a ship-
load of gold would have been at that time. I got it down to my







ROBINSON CRUSOE.


raft, whole as it was, without losing time to look into it, for I
knew in general what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were
two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols.
These I secured first, with some powder-horns and a small bag of
shot and two old rusty swords. I knew there were three barrels
of powder in the ship, but knew not where our gunner had stowed
them; but with much search I found them, two of them dry and
good, the third had taken water. Those two I got to my raft,
with the arms. And now I thought myself pretty well freighted,
and began to think how I should get to shore with them, having
neither sail, oar, nor rudder; and the least capful of wind would
have overset all my navigation.
I had three encouragements first, a smooth, calm sea;
secondly, the tide rising and setting in to the shore; thirdly, what
little wind there was blew me towards the land. And thus, having
found two or three broken oars belonging to the boat-and,
besides the tools which were in the chest, I found two saws, an
axe, and a hammer; with this cargo I put to sea. For a mile or
thereabouts my raft went very well, only that I found it drive a
little distant from the place where I had landed before; by which
I perceived that there was some indraft of the water, and conse-
quently I hoped to find some creek or river there which I might
make use of as a port to get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a little
opening of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide set
into it; so I guided my raft as well as I could, to keep in the
middle of the stream.
But here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck,
which, if I had, I think, verily, would have broken my heart; for
knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran aground at one end of
it upon a shoal, and not being aground at the other end, it wanted
but a little that all my cargo had slipped off towards the end that
was afloat, and so fallen into the water. I did my utmost, by
setting my back against the chests, to keep them in their places,
4







LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


but could not thrust off the raft with all my strength; neither
durst I stir from the posture I was in; but holding up the chests
with all my might, I stood in that manner near half-an-hour, in
which time the rising of the water brought me a little more upon
a level; and a little after, the water still rising, my raft floated
again, and I thrust her off with the oar I had into the channel,
and then driving up higher, I at length found myself in the mouth
of a little river, with land on both sides, and a strong current of
tide running up. I looked on both sides for a proper place to
get to shore, for I was not willing to be driven too high up the
river; hoping, in time, to see some ship at sea, and therefore
resolved to place myself as near the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek,
to which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at
last got so near that, reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust
her directly in. But here I had like to have dipped all my cargo
into the sea again; for that shore lying pretty steep-that is to
say, sloping-there was no place to land but where one end
of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie so high, and the other
sink lower, as before, that it would endanger my cargo again.
All that I could do was to wait till the tide was at the highest,
keeping the raft with my oar like an anchor, to hold the side of it
fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground, which I expected the
water would flow over; and so it did. As soon as I found water
enough-for my raft drew about a foot of water-I thrust her
upon that flat piece of ground, and there fastened or moored her,
by sticking my two broken oars into the ground, one on one side,
near one end, and one on the other side near the other end; and
thus I lay till the water ebbed away, and left my raft and all my
cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country and seek a proper
place for my habitation, and where to stow my goods to secure
them from whatever might happen. Where I was I yet knew
not; whether on the continent or on an island; whether inhabited
or not inhabited; whether in danger of wild beasts or not. There







ROBINSON CRUSOE.


was a hill not above a mile from me, which rose up very steep
and high, and which seemed to overtop some other hills, which
lay as in a ridge from it northward. I took out one of the
fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn of powder; and
thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to the top of that hill,
where, after I had with great labour and difficulty got to the top,
I saw my fate, to my great affliction-viz., that I was in an island
environed every way with the sea: no land to be seen except
some rocks, which lay a great way off; and two small islands,
less than this, which lay about three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw
good reason to believe, uninhabited except by wild beasts, of
whom, however, I saw none. Yet I saw abundance of fowls, but
knew not their kinds; neither when I killed them could I tell
what was fit for food and what not. At my coming back I shot
at a great bird which I saw sitting upon a tree on the side of a
great wood. I believe it was the first gun that had been fired
there since the creation of the world. I had no sooner fired than
from all parts of the wood there arose an innumerable number of
fowls, of many sorts, making a confused screaming and crying,
and every one according to his usual note, but not one of them
of any kind that I knew. As for the creature I killed, I took it
to be a kind of hawk, its colour and beak resembling it, but it
had no talons or claws more than common. Its flesh was carrion,
and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell
to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest
of that day. What to do with myself at night I knew not, nor
indeed where to rest, for I was afraid to lie down on the
ground, not knowing but some wild beast might devour me,
though, as I afterwards found, there was really no need for those
fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round with
the chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and made
a kind of hut for that night's lodging. As for food, I yet saw







LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


not which way to supply myself, except that I had seen two
or three creatures like hares run out of the wood where I shot
the fowl.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many
things out of the ship which would be useful to me, and par-
ticularly some of the rigging and sails, and such other things
as might come to land; and I resolved to make another voyage
on board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that the first
storm that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I re-
solved to set all other things apart till I had got everything out of
the ship that I could get. Then I called a council-that is to
say, in my thoughts-whether I should take back the raft; but
this appeared impracticable, so I resolved to go as before, when
the tide was down; and I did so, only that I stripped before
I went from my hut, having nothing on but my chequered shirt,
a pair of linen drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft;
and having had experience of the first, I neither made this so
unwieldy nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought away several
things very useful to me; as, first, in the carpenter's stores I
found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great screw-
jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and, above all, that most useful
thing called a grindstone. All these I secured, together with
several things belonging to the gunner, particularly two or three
iron crows and two barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets,
another fowling-piece, with some small quantity of powder more;
a large bagful of small shot, and a great roll of sheet-lead; but
this last was so heavy I could not hoist it up to get it over the
ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes that I could
find, and a spare foretop-sail, a hammock, and some bedding;
and with this I loaded my second raft, and brought them all safe
on shore, to my very great comfort.
I was under some apprehension, during my absence from the
land, that at least my provisions might be devoured on shore; but







ROBINSON CRUSOe.


when I came back I found no sign of any visitor; only there sat
a creature like a wild cat upon one of the chests, which, when I
came towards it, ran away a little distance, and then stood still.
She sat very composed and unconcerned, and looked full in my
face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with me. I presented
my gun at her, but as she did not understand it, she was perfectly
unconcerned at it, nor did she offer to stir away; upon which I
tossed her a bit of biscuit, though, by the way, I was not very free
of it, for my store was not great; however, I spared her a bit, I
say, and she went to it, smelled at it, and ate it, and looked (as if
pleased) for more; but I thanked her, and could spare no more,
so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore-though I was fain to
open the barrels of powder and bring them by parcels, for they
were too heavy, being large casks-I went to work to make me a
little tent with the sail and some poles which I cut for that pur-
pose; and into this tent I brought everything that I knew would
spoil either with rain or sun; and I piled all the empty chests
and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from any
sudden attempt, either from man or beast.
When I had done this I blocked up the door of the tent with
some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end without;
and spreading one of the beds upon the ground, laying my two
pistols just at my head, and my gun at length by me, I went to
bed for the first time, and slept very quietly all night, for I was
very weary and heavy; for the night before I had slept little, and
had laboured very hard all day to fetch all those things from the
ship, and to get them on, shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid
up, I believe, for one man; but I was not satisfied still, for while
the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought I ought to get
everything out of her that I could; so every day at low water I
went on board and brought away something or other; but par-
ticularly the third time I went I brought away as much of the
rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes and rope-twine







LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


I could get, with a piece of spare. canvas, which was to mend the
sails upon occasion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder. In a word,
I brought away all the sails, first and last; only that I was fain to
cut them in pieces, and bring as much at a time as I could, for
they were no more useful to be sails, but as mere canvas only.
But that which comforted me more still was that, last of all,
after I had made five or six such voyages as these, and thought I
had nothing more to expect from the ship that was worth my
meddling with-I say, after all this I found a great hogshead of
bread, three large runlets of rum or spirits, a box of sugar, and a
barrel of fine flour; this was surprising to me, because I had
given over expecting any more provisions, except what was
spoiled by the water. I soon emptied the hogshead of the
bread, and wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails,
which I cut out; and, in a word, I got all this safe on shore
also.
The next day I made another voyage, and now, having plun-
dered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I began
with the cables. Cutting the great cable into pieces such as I
could move, I got two cables and a hawser on shore, with all the
ironwork I could get; and having cut down the spritsail-yard and
the mizen-yard, and everything I could, to make a large raft, I
loaded it with all these heavy goods and came away. But my
good luck began now to leave me; for this raft was so unwieldy
and so overladen, that after I had entered the little cove where I
had landed the rest of my goods, not being able to guide it so
handily as I did the other, it overset and threw me and all my
cargo into the water. As for myself, it was no great harm, for I
was near the shore; but as to my cargo, it was a great part of it
lost, especially the iron, which I expected would have been of
great use to me; however, when the tide was out I got most of
the pieces of the cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with
infinite labour; for I was fain to dip for it into the water, a work
which fatigued me very much. After this I went every day on
board, and brought away what I could get.







ROBZNVSON CR USO.


I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven
times on board the ship, in which time I had brought away all
that one pair of hands could well be supposed capable to bring;
though I believe verily, had the calm weather held, I should have
brought away the whole ship, piece by piece. But preparing the
twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind began to rise;
however, at low water I went on board, and though I thought I
had rummaged the cabin so effectually that nothing more could
be found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers in it, in one of
which I found two or three razors and one pair of large scissors,
with some ten or a dozen of good knives and forks; in another I
found about thirty-six pounds value in money-some European
coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold, and some
silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money: 0 drug I" said
I aloud, what art thou good for ? Thou art not worth to me-
no, not the taking off the ground; one of those knives is worth all
this heap; I have no manner of use for thee-e'en remain where
thou art and go to the bottom, as a creature whose life is not
worth saving." However, upon second thoughts I took it away;
and wrapping all this in a piece of canvas, I began to think of
making another raft; but while I was preparing this I found the
sky overcast, and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter of an
hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore. It presently occurred to
me that it was in vain to pretend to make a raft with the wind off
shore, and that it was my business to be gone before the tide
of flood began, otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore
at all. Accordingly, I let myself down into the water and swam
across the channel which lay between the ship and the sands, and
even that with difficulty enough, partly with the weight of the
things I had about me, and partly the roughness of the water; for
the wind rose very hastily, and before it was quite high-water it
blew a storm.
But I had got home to my little tent, where I lay,. with all my
wealth about me, very secure. It blew very hard all night, and in






LIFE AND AD VENTURES OF


the morning when I looked out, behold, no more ship was to be
seen! I was a little surprised, but recovered myself with the
satisfactory reflection that I had lost no time, nor abated any
diligence, to get everything out of her that could be useful to me,
and that, indeed, there was little left in her that I was able to
bring away, if I had had more time.
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything
out of her, except what might drive on shore from her wreck; as,
indeed, divers pieces of her afterwards did; but those things were
of small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself
against either savages, if any should appear, or wild beasts, if any
were in the island; and I had many thoughts of the method how
to do this, and what kind of dwelling to make-whether I should
make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the earth; and, in
short, I resolved upon both, the manner and description of which
it may not be improper to give an account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not fit for my settlement,
because it was upon a low, moorish ground near the sea, and I
believed it would not be wholesome, and more particularly
because there was no fresh water near it; so I resolved to find a
more healthy and more convenient spot of ground.
I consulted several things in my situation which I found would
be proper for me: first, health and fresh water, I just now men-
tioned; secondly, shelter from the heat of the sun; thirdly,
security from ravenous creatures, whether man or beast; fourthly,
a view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight I might not
lose any advantage for my deliverance, of which I was not willing
to banish all my expectation yet.
In search of a proper place for this, I found a little plain on the
side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was steep
as a house-side, so that nothing could come down upon me from
the top. On the one side of the rock there was a hollow place,
worn a little way in, like the entrance or door of a cave; but there
was not really any cave or way into the rock at all.






ROBINSON CRUSOE.


On the flat of the green, just below this hollow place, I resolved
to pitch my tent. This plain was not above a hundred yards
broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a green before my
door; and at the end of it descended irregularly every way down
into the low ground by the sea-side. It was on the N.N.W. side
of the hill, so that it was sheltered from the heat every day till
it came to a W. and by S. sun, or thereabouts, which in those
countries is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent I drew a half-circle before the hollow
place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter from
the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter from its beginning and
ending.
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving
them into the ground till they stood very firm like piles, the
biggest end being out of the ground above five feet and a half,
and sharpened on the top. The two rows did not stand above
six inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship,
and laid them in rows, one upon another, within the circle,
between these two rows of stakes, up to the top placing other
stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two feet and
a half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong,
that neither man nor beast could get into it or over it. This
cost me a great deal of time and labour, especially to cut the
piles in the woods, bring them to the place, and drive them into
the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but
by a short ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when I was
in, I lifted over after me; and so I was completely fenced in and
fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and consequently slept
secure in the night, which otherwise I could not have done;
though, as it appeared afterwards, there was no need of all this
caution from the enemies that I apprehended danger from.
Into this fence or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all my
riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you






LIFE AND AD VENTURES OP


have the account above; and I made a large tent, which, to
preserve me from the rains that in one part of the year are very
violent there, I made double-one smaller tent within, and one
larger tent above it; and covered the uppermost with a large tar-
paulin which I had saved among the sails.
And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had
brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very
good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that
would spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all my goods,
I made up the entrance, which till now I had left open, and so
passed and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this I began to work my way into the rock,
and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down out through
my tent, I laid them up within my fence, in the nature of a
terrace, so that it raised the ground within about a foot and
a half; and thus I made me a cave just behind my tent, which
served me like a cellar to my house.
It cost me much labour and many days before all these things
were brought to perfection; and, therefore, I must go back to
some other things which took up some of my thoughts. At the
same time it happened, after I had laid my scheme for the setting
up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain falling from
a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened, and
after that a great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it.
I was not so much surprised with the lightning as I was with the
thought which darted into my mind as swift as the lightning itself
-Oh, my powder My very heart sank within me when I thought
that at one blast all my powder might be destroyed; on which,
not my defence only, but the providing my food, as I thought,
entirely depended. I was nothing near so anxious about my own
danger, though, had the powder took fire, I should never have
known who had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm
was over I laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying,







ROBINSON CRUSOE.


and applied myself to make bags and boxes, to separate the
powder, and to keep it a little and a little in a parcel, in the hope
that whatever might come, it might not all take fire at once; and
to keep it so apart that it should not be possible to make one
part fire another. I finished this work in about a fortnight; and
I think my powder, which in all was about two hundred and
forty pounds weight, was divided in not less than a hundred
parcels. As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not apprehend
any danger from that; so I placed it in my new cave, which, in
my fancy, I called my kitchen; and the rest I hid up and down
in holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it,
marking very carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing I went out once
at least every day with my gun, as well to divert myself as to see
if I could kill anything fit for food; and, as near as I could, to
acquaint myself with what the island produced. The first time I
went out I presently discovered that there were goats in the
island, which was a great satisfaction to me; but then it was
attended with this misfortune to me-viz., that they were so shy,
so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the most difficult thing
in the world to come at them; but I was not discouraged at this,
not doubting but I might now and then shoot one, as it soon
happened; for after I had found their haunts a little, I laid
wait in this manner for them: I observed if they saw me in the
valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would run away,
as in a terrible fright; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and
I was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence
I concluded that, by the position of their optics, their sight was
so directed downward that they did not readily see objects
that were above them; so afterwards I took this method-I
always climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and then had
frequently a fair mark.
The first shot I made among these creatures I killed a she-
goat, which had a little kid by her, which she gave suck to,
which grieved me heartily; for when the old one fell the kid






LIFE AND AD VENTURES OF


stood stock-still by her, till I came and took her up; and not
only so, but when I carried the old one with me upon my
shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my enclosure; upon
which I laid down the dam and took the kid in my arms and
carried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame; but
it would not eat; so I was forced to kill it and eat it myself.
These two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I ate
sparingly and saved my provisions, my bread especially, as much
as possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary
to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and what
I did for that, and also how I enlarged my cave, and what con-
veniences I made, I shall give a full account of in its place; but,
I must now give some little account of myself, and of my thoughts
about living, which, it may well be supposed, were not a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as I was not cast
away upon that island without being driven, as is said, by a
violent storm, quite out of the course of our intended voyage,
and a great way-viz., some hundreds of leagues, out of the
ordinary course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason to
consider it as a determination of Heaven that in this desolate
place, and in this desolate manner, I should end my life. The
tears would run plentifully down my face when I made these
reflections; and sometimes I would expostulate with myself
why Providence should thus completely ruin His creatures and
render them so absolutely miserable; so without help, aban-
doned, so entirely depressed, that it could hardly be rational to
be thankful for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to check these
thoughts, and to reprove me; and particularly one day, walking
with my gun in my hand by the sea-side, I was very pensive
upon the subject of my present condition, when reason, as. it
were, expostulated with me the other way, thus: "Well, you are
in a desolate condition, it is true; but, pray remember, where are
the rest of you ? Did not you come eleven of you in the boat ?







SROBINSON CR USOE.


Where are the ten ? Why were they not saved and you lost?
Why were you singled out ? Is it better to be here or there ?"
And then I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be considered
with the good that is in them, and with what worse attends them.
Then it occurred to me again how well I was furnished for
my subsistence, and what would have been my case if it had not
happened (which was a hundred thousand to one) that the ship
floated from the place where she first struck, and was driven so
near to the shore that I had time to get all these things out of
her; what would have been my case if I had been forced to have
lived in the condition in which I at first came on shore, without
necessaries of life or necessaries to supply and procure them?
"Particularly," said I, aloud (though to myself), "what should I
have done without a gun, without ammunition, without any tools
to make anything or to work with, without clothes, bedding, a
tent, or any manner of covering ?" and that now I had all these
to sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to provide myself in
such a manner as to live without my gun when my ammunition
was spent; so that I had a tolerable view of subsisting, without
any want, as long as I lived; for I considered from the beginning
how I would provide for the accidents that might happen, and for
the time that was to come, even not only that my ammunition
should be spent, but even after my health and strength should decay.
I confess I had not entertained any notion of my ammunition
being destroyed at one blast-I mean my powder being blown
up by lightning; ana this made the thoughts of it so surprising
to me when it lightened and thundered, as I observed just now.
And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene
of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world
before, I shall take it from its beginning and continue it in its
order. It was by my account the 3oth September when, in the
manner as above said, I first set foot upon this horrid island;
when the sun, being to us in its autumnal equinox, was almost
over my head; for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in
the latitude of nine degrees, twenty-two minutes north of the line.







LIFE AND AD VENTURES OF


After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into my
thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time for want of
books and pen and ink, and should even forget the Sabbath days;
but to prevent this, I cut with my knife upon a large post, in
capital letters, and making it into a great cross, I set up on the
shore where I first landed, I came on shore here on the 3oth of
September 1659."
Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a notch
with my knife, and every seventh notch was as long again as the
rest, and every first day of the month as long again as that long
one; and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and
yearly reckoning of time.
In the next place we are to observe that among the many
things which I brought out of the ship, in the several voyages
which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got several things of
less value, but not at all less useful to me, which I omitted
setting down before; as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper,
several parcels in the captain's, mate's, gunner's, and carpenter's
keeping; three or four compasses, some mathematical instruments,
dials, perspectives, charts, and books of navigation, all which I
huddled together, whether I might want them or no; also, I
found three very good Bibles, which came to me in my cargo
from England, and which I had packed up among my things;
some Portuguese books also; and among them two or three
Popish prayer-books and several other books, all which I care-
fully secured. And I must not forget that we had in the ship a
dog and two cats, of whose eminent history I may have occasion
to say something in its place; for I carried both the cats with me;
and as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship of himself and
swam on shore to me the day after I went on shore with my first
cargo, and was a trusty servant to me many years; I wanted
nothing that he could fetch me; nor any company that he could
make up to me; I only wanted to have him talk to me, but
that would not do. As I observed before, I found pens, ink,
and paper, and I husbanded them to the utmost; and I shall







ROBINSON CRUSOE.


show that while my ink lasted I kept things very exact, but
after that was gone I could not, for I could not make any ink by
any means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwith-
standing all that I had amassed together; and of these, ink was
one; as also a spade, pick-axe, and shovel, to dig or remove the
earth; needles, pins, and thread; as for linen, I soon learned to
want that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily; and
it was near a whole year before I had entirely finished my little
pale, or surrounded my habitation. The piles, or stakes, which
were as heavy as I could lift, were a long time in cutting and pre-
paring in the woods, and more by far in bringing home; so that
I spent sometimes two days in cutting and bringing home one of
those posts, and a third day in driving it into the ground; for
which purpose I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last
bethought myself of one of the iron crows; which, however,
though I found it, made driving those posts or piles very
laborious and tedious work. But what need I have been
concerned at the tediousness of anything I had to do, seeing
I had time enough to do it in? nor had I any other employ-
ment if that had been over, at least that I could foresee, except
the ranging the island to seek for food, which I-did, more or less,
every day.
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the cir-
cumstances I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of my
affairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any that were to
come after me-for I was likely to have but few heirs-as to
deliver my thoughts from daily poring over them and afflicting
my mind; and as my reason began now to master my despond-
ency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could, and to set
the good against the evil, that I might have something to dis-
tinguish my case from worse; and I stated very impartially, like
debtor and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed against the miseries I
suffered, thus:-







LIFE AND AD VENTURES OF


EVIL.
I am cast upon a horrible, desolate
island, void of all hope of recovery.
I am singled out and separated, as
it were, from all the world, to be
miserable.


I am divided from mankind-a
solitaire; one banished from human
society.
I have not clothes to cover me.


I am without any defence or means
to resist any violence of man or beast.


I have no soul to speak to or re-
lieve me.


GOOD.
But I am alive, and not drowned,
as all my ship's company were.
But I am singled out, too, from all
the ship's crew, to be spared from
death; and He that miraculously
saved me from death can deliver me
from this condition.
But I am not starved, and perishing
on a barren place affording no sus-
tenance.
But I am in a hot climate, where,
if I had clothes, I could hardly wear
them.
But I am cast on an island where I
see no wild beasts to hurt me, as I saw
on the coast of Africa; and what if I
had been shipwrecked there ?
But God wonderfully sent the ship in
near enough to the shore, that I have
got out as many necessary things as
will either supply my wants or enable
me to supply myself, even as long as I
live.


Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony that there
was scarce any condition in the world so miserable but there was
something negative or something positive to be thankful for in it;
and let this stand as a direction from the experience of the most
miserable of all conditions in this world: that we may always find
in it something to comfort ourselves from, and to set, in the de,
scription of good and evil, on the credit side of the account.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition,
and given over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship-I
say, giving over these things, I began to apply myself to arrange
my way of living, and to make things as easy to me as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was a tent under
the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts and
cables; but I might now rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind







ROBINSON CRUSOE.


of wall up against it of turfs, about two feet thick on the outside;
and after some time (I think it was a year and a half) I raised
rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched or covered it
with boughs of trees, and such things as I could get to keep out
the rain, which I found at some times of the year very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this
pale, and into the cave which I had made behind me. But I
must observe, too, that at first this was a confused heap of goods,
which, as they lay in no order, so they took up all my place; I
had no room to turn myself; so I set myself to enlarge my cave,
and work farther into the earth, for it was a loose sandy rock
which yielded easily to the labour I bestowed on it; and so when
I found I was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways,
to the right hand, into the rock; and then, turning to the right
again, worked quite out, and made me a door to come out on the
outside of my pale or fortification. This gave me not only egress
and regress, as it was a back way to my tent and to my store-
house, but gave me room to store my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary
things as I found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a table;
for without these I was not able to enjoy the few comforts I had
in the world; I could not write or eat, or do several things, with
so much pleasure without a table: so I went to work. And here
I must needs observe that, as reason is the substance and origin of
the mathematics, so by stating and squaring everything by reason,
and by making the most rational judgment of things, every man
may be in time master of every mechanic art. I had never
handled a tool in my life; and yet in time, by labour, applica-
tion, and contrivance, I found at last that I wanted nothing but
I could have made it, especially if I had had tools. However, I
made abundance of things, even without tools; and some with
no more tools than an adze and a hatchet, which perhaps were
never made that way before, and that with infinite labour. For
example, if I wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut
down a tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on
5







LIFE AND AD VENTURES OF


either side with my axe till I brought it to be thin as a plank,
and then dub it smooth with my adze. It is true, by this method
I could make but one board out of a whole tree; but this I had
no remedy for but patience, any more than I had for the pro-
digious deal of time and labour which it took me up to make
a plank or board; but my time or labour was little worth, and so
it was as well employed one way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above,
in the first plaee; and this I did out of the short pieces of boards
that I brought on my raft from the ship. But when I had wrought
out some boards as above, I made large shelves, of the breadth of
a foot and a half, one over another all along one side of my cave,
to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work on; and, in a word, to
separate everything at large into their places, that I might come
easily at them. I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock to
hang my guns and all things that would hang up; so that, had
my cave been to be seen, it looked like a general magazine of all
necessary things; and I had everything so ready at my hand that
it was a great pleasure to me to see all my goods in such order,
and especially to find my stock of all necessaries so great.
And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every day's
employment; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much hurry, and
not only hurry as to labour, but in too much discomposure of
mind; and my journal would have been full of many dull things;
for example, I must have said thus:-" Sept. 30th.-After I had
got to shore, and had escaped drowning, instead of being thankful
to God for my deliverance, having first vomited, with the great
quantity of salt water which had got into my stomach, and
recovering myself a little, I ran about the shore wringing my
hands and beating my head and face, exclaiming at my misery,
and crying out 'I was undone, undone!' till, tired and faint, I
was forced to lie down on the ground to repose, but durst not
sleep for fear of being devoured."
Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship
and got all that I could out of her, yet I could not forbear getting







ROBINSON CRUSOE.


up to the top of a little mountain, and looked out to sea in hopes
of seeing a ship; then fancy, at a vast distance, I spied a sail,
please myself with the hopes of it, and then after looking steadily,
till I was almost blind, lose it quite, and sit down and weep like a
child, and thus increase my misery by my folly.
But having gotten over these things in some measure, and
having settled my household staff and habitation, made me a
table and a chair, and all as handsome about me as I could,
I began to keep. my journal; of which I shall here give you the
copy (though in it will be told all these particulars over again) as
long as it lasted; for having no more ink, I was forced to leave
it off.




CHAPTER V.

I begin to keep a journal-Christen 'my desert island the Island of Despair
-Fall upon various schemes to make tools, baskets, etc., and begin to
build my house-At a great loss of an evening for candle, but fall upon
an expedient to supply the want-Strange discovery of corn-A terrible
earthquake and storm.
THE JOURNAL,

SEPTEMBER 30, 1659.-I, poor, miserable Robinson Crusoe,
being shipwrecked during a dreadful storm in the offing, came
on shore on this dismal, unfortunate island, which I called The
Island of Despair"; all the rest of the ship's company being
drowned, and myself almost dead.
All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at the dismal
circumstances I was brought to-viz., I had neither food, house,
clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to; and in despair of any
relief, saw nothing but death before me-either that I should
be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or starved to
death for want of food. At the approach of night I slept in







LIFE AND AD VENTURES OF


a tree, for fear of wild creatures; but slept soundly, though it
rained all night.
October i.-In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the
ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven on the shore
again much nearer the island; which, as it was some comfort, on
one hand-for, seeing her set upright and not broken to pieces, I
hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board and get some
food and necessaries out of her for my relief-so, on the other
hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades, who, I
imagined, if we had all stayed on board, might have saved the
ship, or, at least, that they would not have been all drowned,
as they were; and that, had the men been saved, we might
perhaps have built us a boat out of the ruins of the ship to
have carried us to some other part of the world. I spent great
part of this day in perplexing myself on these things; but at
length, seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as
near as I could, and then swam on board. This day also it
continued raining, though with no wind at all.
From the Ist of October to the 24th.-All these days entirely
spent in many several voyages to get all I could out of the ship,
which I brought on shore every tide of flood upon rafts. Much
rain also in the days, though with some intervals of fair weather;
but it seems this was the rainy season.
Oct. 20.-I overset my raft and all the goods I had got upon
it; but being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly heavy,
I recovered many of them when the tide was out.
Oct. 25.-It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of
wind; during which time the ship broke in pieces, the wind blow-
ing a little harder than before, and was no more to be seen, except
the wreck of her, and that only at low water. I spent this day in
covering and securing the goods which I had saved, that the rain
might not spoil them.
Oct. 26.-I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out
a place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself
from any attack in the night, either from wild beasts or men.







ROBINSON CRUSOE.


Towards night I fixed upon a proper place under a rock, and
marked out a semicircle for my encampment; which I resolved
to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification made of double
piles, lined within with cables, and without with turf.
From the 26th to 3oth I worked very hard in carrying all my
goods to my new habitation, though some part of the time it
rained exceedingly hard.
The 3ist, in the morning, I went out into the island with my
gun to see for some food and discover the country; when I
killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me home, which I after-
wards killed also, because it would not feed.
November i.-I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there for
the first night; making it as large as I could, with stakes driven
in to swing my hammock upon.
Nov. 2.-I set up all my chests and boards and the pieces of
timber which made my rafts, and with them formed a fence
round me, a little within the place I had marked out for my
fortification.
Nov. 3.-I went out with my gun and killed two fowls like
ducks, which were very good food. In the afternoon went to
work to make me a table.
Nov. 4.-This morning I began to order my times of work, of
going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion-viz.,
every morning I walked out with my gun for two or three hours,
if it did not rain; then employed myself to work till about eleven
o'clock; then eat what I had to live on; and from twelve to two I
lay down to sleep, the weather being excessively hot; and then,
in the evening, to work again. The working part of this day and
of the next were wholly employed in making my table, for I was
yet but a very sorry workman, though time and necessity made
me a complete natural mechanic soon after, as I believe they
would do any one else.
Nov. 5.-This day went abroad with my gun and my dog, and
killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for
nothing; every creature that I killed I took off the skins and







LIFE AND AD VENTURES OF


preserved them. Coming back by the sea-shore, I saw many
sorts of sea-fowls which I did not understand; but was surprised
and almost frightened with two or three seals, which, while I was
gazing at, not well knowing what they were, got into the sea and
escaped me for that time.
Nov. 6.-After my morning walk I went to work with my table
again, and finished it, though not to my liking; nor was it long
before I learned to mend it.
Nov. 7.-Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th,
8th, 9th, ioth, and part of the 12th (for the Iith was Sunday)
I took wholly up to make me a chair, and with much ado brought
it to a tolerable shape, but never to please me; and even in the
making I pulled it in pieces several times.
Note.-I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for, omitting my
mark for them on my post, I forgot which was which.
Nov. 13.-This day it rained, which refreshed me exceedingly,
and cooled the earth; but it was accompanied with terrible
thunder and lightning, which frightened me dreadfully, for fear of
my powder. As soon as it was over I resolved to separate my
stock of powder into as many little parcels as possible, that it
might not be in danger.
Nov. 14, 15, 16.-These three days I spent in making little
square chests or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or two
pounds at most, of powder; and so, putting the powder in, I
stowed it in places as secure and remote from one another as
possible. On one of these three days I killed a large bird that
was good to eat, but I knew not what to call it.
Nov. 17.-This day I began to dig behind my tent into the
rock to make room for my further conveniency.
Note.-Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work-viz.,
a pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow or basket; so I desisted
from my work and began to consider how to supply that want,
and make me some tools. As for the pickaxe, I made use of the
iron crows, which were proper enough, though heavy; but the
next thing was a shovel or spade; this was so absolutely necessary,







ROBINSON CRUSOE.


that, indeed, I could do nothing effectually without it; but what
kind of one to make I knew not.
Nov. i8.-The next day, in searching the woods, I found a tree
of that wood, or like it, which in the Brazils they call the iron-
tree, for its exceeding hardness. Of this, with great labour, and
almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece, and brought it home, too,
with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy. The excessive
hardness of the wood, and my having no other way, made me a
long while upon this machine, for I worked it effectually by little
and little into the form of a shovel or spade; the handle exactly
shaped like ours in England, only that the board part having no
iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not last me so long; how-
ever, it served well enough for the uses which I had occasion to
put it to; but never was a shovel, I believe, made after that
fashion, or so long in making.
I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket or a wheelbarrow.
A basket I could not make by any means, having no such things
as twigs that would bend to make wicker-ware-at least, none yet
found out; and as to a wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make all
but the wheel, but that I had no notion of; neither did I know
how to go about it; besides, I had no possible way to make the
iron gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the wheel to run in; so I
gave it over, and so, for carrying away the earth which I dug out
of the cave I made me a thing like a hod which the labourers
carry mortar in when they serve the bricklayers. This was not so
difficult to me as the making the shovel; and yet this and the
shovel, and the attempt which I made in vain to make a wheel-
barrow, took me up no less than four days-I mean always
excepting my morning walk with my gun, which I seldom failed,
and very seldom failed also bringing home something fit to eat.
Nov. 23.-My other work having now stood still, because of
my making these tools, when they were finished I went on, and
working every day, as my strength and time allowed, I spent
eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening my cave, that
it might hold my goods commodiously.







LIFE AND AD VENTURES OF


Note.-During all this time I worked to make this room or
cave spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse or
magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar. As for my
lodging, I kept to the tent; except that sometimes, in the wet
season of the year, it rained so hard that I could not keep myself
dry, which caused me afterwards to cover all my place within my
pale with long poles, in the form of rafters, leaning against the
rock, and load them with flags and large leaves of trees, like a
thatch.
December o10.-I began now to think my cave or vault finished,
when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great
quantity of earth fell down from the top on one side; so much
that, in short, it frighted me, and not without reason too, for if I
had been under it I had never wanted a grave-digger. I had
now a great deal of work to do over again, for I had the loose
earth to carry out; and, which was of more importance, I had the
ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no more would come
down.
Dec. i i.-This day I went to work with it accordingly, and got
two shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with two pieces of
boards across over each post; this I finished the next day; and
setting more posts up with boards, in about a week more I had
the roof secured, and the posts, standing in rows, served me for
partitions to part off the house.
Dec. 17.-From this day to the 2oth I placed shelves, and
knocked up nails on the posts, to hang everything up that could
be hung up; and now I began to be in some order within doors.
Dec. 2o.-Now I carried everything into the cave, and began
to furnish my house, and set up some pieces of boards like a
dresser, to order my victuals upon; but boards began to be very
scarce with me; also, I made me another table.
Dec. 24.-Much rain all night and all day. No stirring out.
Dec. 25.-Rain all day.
Dec. 26.-No rain, and the earth much cooler than before, and
pleasanter.







ROBINSON CRUSOE.


Dec. 27.-Killed a young goat and lamed another, so that I
caught it and led it home in a string; when I had it at home I
bound and splintered up its leg, which was broke.
N.B.-I took such care of it that it lived, and the leg grew
well and as strong as ever; but by my nursing it so long it grew
tame and fed upon the little green at my door, and would not go
away. This was the first time that I entertained a thought of
breeding up some tame creatures that I might have food when
my powder and shot was all spent.
Dec. 28, 29, 30, 3I.-Great heats and no breeze, so that there
was no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food; this time
I spent in putting all my things in order within doors.
January i.-Very hot still; but I went abroad early and late
with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This
evening, going farther into the valleys which lay towards the
centre of the island, I found there were plenty of goats, though
exceedingly shy and hard to come at; however, I resolved to try
if I could not bring my dog to hunt them down.
Jan. 2.-Accordingly, the next day I went out with my dog
and set him upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they all
faced about upon the dog, and he knew his danger too well, for
he. would not come near them.
Jan. 3.-I began my fence or wall; which, being still jealous of
my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very thick
and strong.
N.B.-This wall being described before, I purposely omit what
was said in the journal; it is sufficient to observe that I was no
less time than from the 2nd of January to the 14th of April
working, finishing, and perfecting this wall, though it was no
more than about twenty-four yards in length, being a half-circle
from one place in the rock to another place, about eight yards
from it, the door of the cave being in the centre behind it.
All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me many
days, nay, sometimes weeks together; but I thought I should
never be perfectly secure till this wall was finished; and it is







LIFE AND AD VENTURES OF


scarce credible what inexpressible labour everything was done
with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods and driving
them into the ground; for I made them much bigger than I needed
to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double-fenced,
with a turf wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that if any
people were to come on shore there they would not perceive any-
thing like a habitation; and it was very well I did so, as may be
observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable occasion.
During this time I made my rounds in the woods for game every
day when the rain permitted me, and made frequent discoveries in
these walks of something or other to my advantage; particularly,
I found a kind of wild pigeons, which build, not as wood-pigeons
in a tree, but rather as house-pigeons, in the holes of the rocks;
and taking some young ones, I endeavoured to breed them up
tame, and did so; but when they grew older they flew away, which
perhaps was at first for want of feeding them, for I had nothing to
give them; however, I frequently found their nests, and got their
young ones, which were very good meat. And now, in the man-
aging my household affairs, I found myself wanting in many
things, which I thought at first it was impossible for me to make;
as, indeed, with some of them it was; for instance, I could never
make a cask to be hooped. I had a small runlet or two, as I
observed before; but I could never arrive at the capacity of
making one by them, though I spent many weeks about it; I
could neither put in the heads nor join the staves so true to one
another as to make them hold water; so I gave that also over. In
the next place, I was at a great loss for candles; so that as soon
as ever it was dark, which was generally by seven o'clock, I was
obliged to go to bed. I remembered the lump of bees-wax with
which I made candles in my African adventure; but I had none
of that now; the only remedy I had was that when I had killed a
goat I saved the tallow, and with a little dish made of clay, which
I baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum, I
made me a lamp; and this gave me light, though not a clear,







ROBINSON CR USOE.


steady light, like a candle. In the middle of all my labours it
happened that, rummaging my things, I found a little bag, which,
as I hinted before, had been filled with corn for the feeding of
poultry-not for this voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the
ship came from Lisbon. The little remainder of corn that had
been in the bag was all devoured by the rats, and I saw nothing
in the bag but husks and dust; and being willing to have the bag
for some other use (I think it was to put powder in, when I divided
it for fear of the lightning, or some such use), I shook the husks
of corn out of it on one side of my fortification, under the rock.
It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned that I
threw this stuff away, taking no notice, and not so much as remem-
bering that I had thrown anything there, when, about a month
after, or thereabouts, I saw some few stalks of something green
shooting out of the ground, which I fancied might be some plant I
had not seen; but I was surprised and perfectly astonished when,
after a little longer time, I saw about ten or twelve ears come out,
which were perfect green barley, of the same kind as our European
-nay, as our English barley.
It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of my
thoughts on this occasion. I had hitherto acted upon no religious
foundation at all; indeed, I had very few notions of religion in my
head, nor had entertained any sense of anything that had befallen
me otherwise than as chance, or, as we lightly say, what pleases
God, without so much as inquiring into the end of Providence in
these things, or His order in governing events for the world. But
after I saw barley grow there, in a climate which I knew was not
proper for corn, and especially that I knew not how it came there,
it started me strangely, and I began to suggest that God had
miraculously caused His grain to grow without any help of seed
sown, and that it was so directed'purely for my sustenance on that
wild, miserable place.
This touched my heart a little and brought tears out of my eyes,
and I began to bless myself that such a prodigy of nature should
happen upon my account; and this was the more strange to me,







LIFE AND AD VENTURES OF


because I saw near it still, all along by the side of the rock,
some other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks of rice, and
which I knew, because I had seen it grow in Africa when I was
ashore there.
I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence for
my support, but not doubting that there was more in the place, I
went all over that part of the island where I had been before,
peering in every corner and under every rock to seek for more of
it, but I could not find any. At last it occurred to my thoughts
that I shook a bag of chickens' meat out in that place; and then
the wonder began to cease; and I must confess my religious
thankfulness to God's providence began to abate, too, upon the
discovering that all this was nothing but what was common;
though I ought to have been as thankful for so strange and un--
foreseen a providence as if it had been miraculous; for it was
really the work of Providence to me that should order or appoint
that ten or twelve grains of corn should remain unspoiled, when
the rats had destroyed all the rest, as if it had been dropped from
heaven; as also, that I should throw it out in that particular
place, where, it being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang up
immediately; whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere else at that
time, it had been burnt up and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in
their season, which was about the end of June; and laying up
every corn, I resolved to sow them all again, hoping in time to
have some quantity sufficient to supply me with bread. But it
was not till the fourth year that I could allow myself the least
grain of this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly, as I shall
say afterwards, in its order; for I lost all that I sowed the first
season by not observing the proper time; for I sowed it just
before the dry season, so that it never came up at all, at least not
as it would have done; of which in its place.
Besides this barley there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks
of rice, which I preserved with the same care and for the same use,
or to the same purpose-to make me bread, or rather food; for I







ROBINSON CRUSOE.


found ways to cook it without baking, though I did that also after
some time.
But to return to my Journal-
I worked excessive hard these three or four months to get my
wall done; and the i4th of April I closed it up, contriving to go
into it, not by a door but over the wall by a ladder, that there
might be no sign on the outside of my habitation.
April 16.-I finished the ladder; so I went up the ladder to the
top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it down in the inside.
This was a complete enclosure to me; for within I had room
enough, and nothing could come at me from without, unless it
could first mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished I had almost-had
all my labour overthrown at once, and myself killed. The case
was thus: As I was busy in the inside behind my tent, just at the
entrance into my cave, I was terribly frighted with a most dread-
ful, surprising thing indeed; for all on a sudden I found the earth
come crumbling down from the roof of my cave, and from the edge
of the hill over my head, and two of the posts I had set up in the
cave cracked in a frightful manner. I was heartily scared, but
thought nothing of what was really the cause, only thinking that
the top of my cave was fallen in, as some of it had done before;
and for fear I should be buried in it I ran forward to my ladder,
and not thinking myself safe there neither, I got over my wall for
fear of the pieces of the hill, which I expected might roll down
upon me. I had no sooner stepped down upon the firm ground
than I plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake; for the ground I
stood on shook three times at about eight minutes' distance, with
three such shocks as would have overturned the strongest building
that could be supposed to have stood on the earth; and a great
piece of the top of a rock which stood about half-a-mile from me
next the sea fell down with such a terrible noise as I never heard
in all my life. I perceived also the very sea was put into violent
motion by it; -and I believe the shocks were stronger under the
water than on the island.







LIFE AND AD VENTURES OF


I was so much amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the
like, nor discoursed with any one that had, that I was like one dead
or stupefied; and the motion of the earth made my stomach sick,
like one that was tossed at sea; but the noise of the falling of the
rock awaked me, as it were, and rousing me from the stupefied
condition I was in, filled me with horror; and I thought of nothing
then but the hill falling upon my tent and all my household goods,
and burying all at once; and this sunk my very soul within me a
second time.
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some time,
I began to take courage; and yet I had not heart enough to go
over my wall again for fear .of being buried alive, but sat still upon
the ground greatly cast down and disconsolate, not knowing what
to do. All this while I had not the least serious religious thought;
nothing but the common Lord have mercy upon me !" and when
it was over that went away too.
While I sat thus I found the air overcast and grow cloudy, as if
it would rain. Soon after that the wind arose by little and little,
so that in less than half-an-hour it blew a most dreadful hurricane,
the sea was all on a sudden covered over with foam and froth; the
shore was covered with the breach of the water; the trees were
torn up by the roots; and a terrible storm it was. This held about
three hours, and.then began to abate; and in two hours more it
was quite calm, and began to rain very hard. All this while I sat
upon the ground very much terrified and dejected; when on a
sudden it came into my thoughts that these winds and rains being
the consequences of the earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent
and over, and I might venture into my cave again. With this
thought my spirits began to revive; and the rain also helping to
persuade me, I went in and sat down in my tent. But the rain was
so violent that my tent was ready to be beaten down with it; and
I was forced to go into my cave, though very much afraid and
uneasy, for fear it should fall on my head. This violent rain forced
me to a new work-viz., to cut a hole through my new fortification,
like a sink, to let the water go out, which would else have flooded






ROBINSON CRUSOE. 79

my cave. After I had been in my cave for some time, and found
still no more shocks of the earthquake follow, I began to be more
composed. And now, to support my spirits, which indeed wanted
it very much,' I went to my little store and took a small sup of
rum; which, however, I did then and always very sparingly,
knowing I could have no more when that was gone. It continued
raining all that night and great part of the next day, so that I could
not stir abroad; but my mind being more composed, I began to
think of what I had best do; concluding that if the island was
subject to these earthquakes, there would be no living for me in a
cave, but I must consider of building a little hut in an open place,
which I might surround with a wall, as I had done here, and so
make myself secure from wild beasts or men; for I concluded if I
stayed where I was, I should certainly, one time or other, be buried
alive.
With these thoughts I resolved to remove my tent from the
place where it stood, which was just under the hanging precipice
of the hill, and which, if it should be shaken again, would cer-
tainly fall upon my tent; and I spent the two next days, being
the 19th and 20th of April, in contriving where and how to
remove my habitation. The fear of being swallowed up alive
made me that I never slept in quiet; and yet the apprehension of
lying abroad without any fence was almost equal to it; but still,
when I looked about, and saw how everything was put in order,
how pleasantly concealed I was, and how safe from danger, it
made me very loath to remove. In the meantime it occurred to
me that it would require a vast deal of time for me to do this, and
that I must be contented to venture where I was till I had formed
a camp for myself, and had secured it so as to remove to it. So
with this resolution I composed myself for a time, and resolved
that I would go to work with all speed to build me a wall with
piles and cables, etc., in a circle as before, and set my tent up in
it when it was finished, but that I would venture to stay where I
was till it was finished and fit to remove. This was the z2st.
April 22.-The next morning I began to consider of means to







LIFE AND AD VENTURES OF


put this resolve into execution, but I was at a great loss about my
tools. I had three large axes and abundance of hatchets (for we
carried the hatchets for traffic with the Indians), but with much
chopping and cutting knotty, hard wood they were all full of
notches, and dull; and though I had a grindstone, I could not
turn it and grind my tools too. This cost me as much thought as
a statesman would have bestowed upon a grand point of politics,
or a judge upon the life and death of a man. At length I con-
trived a wheel with a string, to turn it with my foot, that I might
have both my hands at liberty.
Note.-I had never seen any such thing in England, or at
least not to take notice how it was done, though since I have
observed it is very common there; besides that, my grindstone
was very large and heavy. This machine cost me a full week's
work to bring it to perfection.
April 28, 29.-These two whole days I took up in grinding
my tools, my machine for turning my grindstone performing very
welL
April 30.-Having perceived my bread had been low a great
while now I took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one biscuit
cake a day, which made my heart very heavy.
May i.-In the morning, looking towards the sea-side, the tide
being low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary,
and it looked like a cask; when I came to it I found a small
barrel and two or three pieces of the wreck of the ship, which
were driven on shore by the late hurricane; and looking towards
the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher out of the water
than it used to do. I examined the barrel which was driven on
shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder; but it had
taken water, and the powder was caked as hard as a stone; how-
ever, I rolled it farther on shore for the present, and went on
upon the sands as near as I could to the wreck of the ship to
look for more.







ROBINSON CRUSOE.


CHAPTER VI.

Observe the ship driven farther aground by the late storm-Procure a vast
quantity of necessaries from the wreck-Catch a large turtle-I fall ill of
a fever and ague-Terrible dream, and serious reflections thereupon-
Find a Bible in one of the seamen's chests thrown ashore, the reading
whereof gives me great comfort.

WHEN I came down to the ship I found it strangely removed.
The forecastle, which lay before buried in sand, was heaved up at
least six feet, and the stem, which was broke in pieces and parted
from the rest by the force of the sea soon after I had left rummag-
ing her, was tossed, as it were, up, and cast on one side; and the
sand was thrown so high on that side next her stern, that whereas
there was a great place of water before, so that I could not come
within a quarter of a mile of the wreck without swimming, I could
now walk quite up to her when the tide was out. I was surprised
with this at first, but soon concluded it must be done by the
earthquake; and as by this violence the ship was more broke
open than formerly, so many things came daily on shore which
the sea had loosened, and which the winds and water rolled by
degrees to the land.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing
my habitation, and I busied myself mightily, that day especially,
in searching whether I could make any way into the ship; but I
found nothing was to be expected of that kind, for all the inside
of the ship was choked up with sand. However, as I had learned
not to despair of anything, I resolved to pull everything to pieces
that I could of the ship, concluding that everything I could get
from her would be of some use or other to me.
May 3.-I began with my saw and cut a piece of a beam
through, which I thought held some of the upper part or quarter-
deck together, and when I had cut it through I cleared away the
sand as well as I could from the side which lay highest; but the
tide coming in, I was obliged to give over for that time.







LIFE AND AD VENTURES OF


May 4.-I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst
eat of, till I was weary of my sport; when, just going to leave off,
I caught a young dolphin. I had made me a long line of some
rope-yarn, but I had no hooks; yet I frequently caught fish
enough, as much as I cared to eat; all which I dried in the sun,
and ate them dry.
May 5.-Worked on the wreck; cut another beam asunder,
and brought three great fir planks off from the decks, which I
tied together and made to float on shore when the tide of flood
came on.
May 6.-Worked on the wreck; got several iron bolts out of
her and other pieces of iron-work. Worked very hard, and came
home very much tired, and had thoughts of giving it over.
May 7.-Went to the wreck again, not with an intent to work,
but found the weight of the wreck had broke itself down, the
beams being cut; that several pieces of the ship seemed to lie
loose, and the inside of the hold lay so open that I could see into
it; but it was almost full of water and sand.
May 8.-Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to wrench
up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the water or sand. I
wrenched open two planks, and brought them on shore also with
the tide. I left the iron crow in the wreck for next day.
May 9.-Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way into
the body of the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened them
with the crow, but could not break them up. I felt also a roll of
English lead, and could stir it, but it was too heavy to remove.
May 10-14.-Went every day to the wreck; and got a great
many pieces of timber, and boards, or plank, and two or three
hundredweight of iron.
May 15.-I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a
piece off the roll of lead by placing the edge of one hatchet and
driving it with the other; but as it lay about a foot and a half in
the water, I could not make any blow to drive the hatchet.
May z6.-It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck
appeared more broken by the force of the water; but I stayed so







ROBINSON CRUSOE.


long in the woods to get pigeons for food that the tide prevented
my going to the wreck that day.
Mfay 17.-I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore at a
great distance, near two miles off me, but resolved to see what
they were, and found it was a piece of the head, but too heavy
for me to bring away.
May 24.-Every day to this day I worked on the wreck; and
with hard labour I loosened some things so much with the crow
that the first blowing tide several casks floated out, and two of
the seamen's chests; but the wind blowing from the shore,
nothing came to land that day but pieces of timber and a hogs-
head which had some Brazil pork in it; but the salt water and
the sand had spoiled it. I continued this work every day to the
15th of June, except the time necessary to get food, which I
always appointed, during this part of my employment, to be when
the tide was up, that I might be ready when it was ebbed out;
and by this time I had got timber and plank and iron-work
enough to have built a good boat, if I had known how; and also
I got, at several times and in several pieces, near one hundred-
weight of the sheet-lead.
June 16.-Going down to the sea-side, I found a large tortoise
or turtle. This was the first I had seen, which, it seems, was
only my misfortune, not any defect of the place, or scarcity; for
had I happened to be on the other side of the island, I might
have had hundreds of them every day, as I found afterwards; but
perhaps had paid dear enough for them.
June 17.-I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her three-
score eggs; and her flesh was to me, at that time, the most
savoury and pleasant that ever I tasted in my life, having had no
flesh but of goats and fowls since I landed in this horrid place.
June x8.-Rained all day, and I stayed within. I thought at
this time the rain felt cold, and I was something chilly; which
I knew was not usual in that latitude.
June 19.-Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been
cold.







LIFE AND AD VENTURES OF


June 20o.-No rest all night; violent pains in my head, and
feverish.
June 2 r.-Very ill; frighted almost to death with the apprehen-
sions of my sad condition-to be sick and no help. Prayed
to God for the first time since the storm off Hull, but scarce
knew what I said, or why, my thoughts being all confused.
June 22.-A little better; but under dreadful apprehensions of
sickness.
June 23.-Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a
violent headache.
June 24.-Much better.
June 25.-An ague very violent; the fit held me seven hours;
cold fit and hot, with faint sweats after it.
June 26.-Better; and having no victuals to eat, took my gun,
but found myself very weak. However, I killed a she-goat, and
with much difficulty got it home and broiled some of it, and ate.
I would fain have stewed it and made some broth, but had no
pot.
June 27.-The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all day,
and neither ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for thirst; but
so weak I had not strength to stand up, or to get myself any
water to drink. Prayed to God again, but was light-beaded; and
when I was not, I was so ignorant that I knew not what to say;
only I lay and cried, "Lord, look upon me! Lord, pity me!
Lord, have mercy upon me!" I suppose I did nothing else for
two or three hours; till, the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and did
not wake till far in the night. When I awoke I found myself
much refreshed, but weak and exceeding thirsty. However, as I
had no water in my habitation, I was forced to lie till morning,
and went to sleep again. In this second sleep I had this terrible
dream:-I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on the out-
side of my wall, where I sat when the storm blew after the earth-
-quake, and that I saw a man descend from a great black cloud,
in a bright flame of fire, and light upon the ground. He was all
over as bright as a flame, so that I could but just bear to look







ROBINSON CR SOE.


towards him; his countenance was most inexpressibly dreadful,
impossible for words to describe. When he stepped upon the
ground with his feet, I thought the earth trembled, just as it had
done before in the earthquake, and all the air looked, to my
apprehension, as if it had been filled with flashes of fire. He was
no sooner landed upon the earth but he moved forward towards
me, with a long spear or weapon in his hand, to kill me; and
when he came to a rising ground, at some distance, he spoke to
me-or I heard a voice so terrible that it is impossible to express
the terror of it. All that I can say I understood was this:
"Seeing all these things have not brought thee to repentance,
now thou shalt die;" at which words I thought he lifted up the
spear that was in his hand to kill me.
No one that shall ever read this account will expect that I
should be able to describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible
vision. I mean, that even while it was a dream, I even dreamed
of those horrors. Nor is it any more possible to describe the
impression that remained upon my mind when I awaked and
found it was but a dream.
I had, alas! no divine knowledge. What I had received by
the good instruction of my father was then worn out by an
uninterrupted series, for eight years, of seafaring wickedness,
and a constant conversation with none but such as were, like
myself, wicked and profane to the last degree. I do not remem-
ber that I had in all that time one thought that so much as
tended either to looking upwards towards God, or inwards towards
a reflection upon my own ways; but a certain stupidity of soul,
without desire of good or conscious of evil, had entirely over-
whelmed me; and I was all that the most hardened, unthinking,
wicked creature among our common sailors can be supposed
to be; not having the least sense, either of the fear of God in
danger, or of thankfulness to God in deliverance.
In the relating what is already past of my story, this will be the
more easily believed when I shall add that, through all the variety
of miseries that had to this day befallen me, I never had so much






LIFE AND AD VENTURES OF


as one thought of it being the hand of God, or that it was a just
punishment for my sin-my rebellious behaviour against my father
-or my present sins, which were great-or so much as a punish-
ment for the general course of my wicked life. When I was on
the desperate expedition on the desert shores of Africa I never
had so much as one thought of what would become of me, or one
wish to God to direct me whither I should go, or to keep me from
the danger which apparently surrounded me, as well from voracious
creatures as cruel savages. But I was merely thoughtless of a God
or a Providence, acted like a mere brute, from the principles of
nature, and by the dictates of common-sense only, and, indeed,
hardly that. When I was delivered and taken up at sea by the
Portuguese captain, well used, and dealt justly and honourably
with, as well as charitably, I had not the least thankfulness in my
thoughts. When again I was shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger
of drowning on this island, I was as far from remorse or looking
on it as a judgment. I only said to myself often that I was an
unfortunate dog, and born to be always miserable.
It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found all my
ship's crew drowned and myself spared, I was surprised with a
kind of ecstasy, and some transports of soul, which, had the grace
of God assisted, might have come up to true thankfulness; but
it ended where it began, in a mere common flight of joy, or, as
I may say, being glad I was alive, without the least reflection
upon the distinguished goodness of the hand which had preserved
me, and had singled me out to be preserved when all the rest
were destroyed, or an inquiry why Providence had been thus
merciful unto me. Even just the same common sort of joy
which seamen generally have after they are got safe ashore from
a shipwreck, which they drown all in the next bowl of punch, and
forget almost as soon as it is over; and all the rest of my life was
like it. Even when I was afterwards, on due consideration, made
sensible of my condition, how I was cast on this dreadful place,
out of the reach of human kind, out of all hope of relief or
prospect of redemption, as soon as I saw but a prospect of




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