• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Half Title
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Part I
 Part II
 Advertising






Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074450/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: iv, 446, 2 p., 16 leaves of plates : ill. ; 20 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Brock, C. E ( Charles Edmund ), 1870-1938 ( Illustrator )
Service & Paton ( Publisher )
Ballantyne, Hanson & Co ( Printer )
Ballantyne Press ( Printer )
Publisher: Service & Paton
Place of Publication: London (5 Henrietta Street Covent Garden)
Manufacturer: Ballantyne, Hanson & Co., at the Ballantyne Press
Publication Date: [1899?]
 Subjects
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1864   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1899   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel Defoe ; with 16 illustrations by C. E. Brock.
General Note: Spine title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: "C.E. Brock, 1898; copyright, Service & Paton, 1899"--Front.
General Note: As described in Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe, 781, except that half title in this copy is printed on a separate leaf and Lovett copy has half title printed on recto of front.
General Note: Publisher's advertisement for "The illustrated English library" (2 p.) at end, in which this title is included.
General Note: Contains parts 1 and 2.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074450
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001814106
oclc - 30836221
notis - AJN8011

Table of Contents
    Half Title
        Half Title
    Frontispiece
        Frontispiece
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    List of Illustrations
        Page iv
    Part I
        Page 5
        Start in Life
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
        Slavery and escape
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 20a
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
        Wrecked on a desert island
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 34a
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
        First weeks on the island
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 42a
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
        Builds a house
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
        Ill and conscience-stricken
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
        Agricultural experience
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
        Surveys his position
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Page 95
        Makes a boat
            Page 96
            Page 97
            Page 98
            Page 99
            Page 100
            Page 101
            Page 102
            Page 103
            Page 104
            Page 105
            Page 106
            Page 107
            Page 108
        Tames goats
            Page 109
            Page 110
            Page 111
            Page 112
            Page 113
            Page 114
            Page 115
            Page 116
            Page 117
            Page 118
        Finds print of man's foot on the sand
            Page 119
            Page 120
            Page 121
            Page 122
            Page 123
            Page 124
            Page 125
            Page 126
            Page 127
            Page 127
            Page 128
        A cave retreat
            Page 129
            Page 130
            Page 131
            Page 132
            Page 133
            Page 134
            Page 135
            Page 136
            Page 137
            Page 138
            Page 139
            Page 140
            Page 141
            Page 142
        Wreck of a Spanish ship
            Page 143
            Page 144
            Page 145
            Page 146
            Page 147
            Page 148
            Page 149
            Page 150
            Page 151
            Page 152
            Page 153
        A dream realised
            Page 154
            Page 155
            Page 156
            Page 157
            Page 158
            Page 159
            Page 160
            Page 160a
            Page 161
            Page 162
            Page 163
            Page 164
            Page 165
            Page 166
        Friday's education
            Page 167
            Page 168
            Page 168a
            Page 169
            Page 170
            Page 171
            Page 172
            Page 173
            Page 174
            Page 175
            Page 176
            Page 177
            Page 178
        Rescue of prisoners from cannibals
            Page 179
            Page 180
            Page 181
            Page 182
            Page 183
            Page 184
            Page 185
            Page 186
            Page 187
            Page 188
            Page 189
            Page 190
            Page 191
            Page 192
        Visit of mutineers
            Page 193
            Page 194
            Page 195
            Page 196
            Page 197
            Page 198
            Page 199
            Page 200
            Page 200a
            Page 201
            Page 202
            Page 203
            Page 204
        The ship recovered
            Page 205
            Page 206
            Page 206a
            Page 207
            Page 208
            Page 209
            Page 210
            Page 211
            Page 212
            Page 213
            Page 214
            Page 215
            Page 216
            Page 217
            Page 218
        Return to England
            Page 219
            Page 220
            Page 221
            Page 222
            Page 223
            Page 224
            Page 225
            Page 226
            Page 227
            Page 228
            Page 229
            Page 230
        Fight between Friday and a bear
            Page 231
            Page 232
            Page 233
            Page 234
            Page 235
            Page 236
            Page 237
            Page 238
            Page 239
            Page 240
            Page 241
    Part II
        Page 242
        Evisits island
            Page 242
            Page 243
            Page 244
            Page 245
            Page 246
            Page 247
            Page 248
            Page 249
            Page 250
            Page 251
            Page 252
            Page 253
            Page 254
            Page 255
            Page 256
            Page 257
        Intervening history of colony
            Page 258
            Page 259
            Page 260
            Page 261
            Page 262
            Page 263
            Page 264
            Page 265
            Page 266
            Page 267
            Page 268
            Page 269
            Page 270
            Page 271
        Fight with cannibals
            Page 272
            Page 273
            Page 274
            Page 274a
            Page 275
            Page 276
            Page 277
            Page 278
            Page 279
            Page 280
            Page 281
            Page 282
            Page 283
        Renewed invasion of savages
            Page 284
            Page 284a
            Page 285
            Page 286
            Page 287
            Page 288
            Page 289
            Page 290
            Page 291
            Page 292
            Page 293
            Page 294
            Page 295
            Page 296
            Page 296a
            Page 297
            Page 298
            Page 299
            Page 300
            Page 301
            Page 302
            Page 303
        A great victory
            Page 304
            Page 305
            Page 306
            Page 307
            Page 308
            Page 309
            Page 310
            Page 311
            Page 312
            Page 313
            Page 314
        The French clergyman's counsel
            Page 315
            Page 316
            Page 317
            Page 318
            Page 319
            Page 320
            Page 321
            Page 322
            Page 323
            Page 324
            Page 325
            Page 326
            Page 327
            Page 328
            Page 329
            Page 330
            Page 331
            Page 332
            Page 333
            Page 334
            Page 335
            Page 336
            Page 337
            Page 338
            Page 338a
            Page 339
            Page 340
        Conversation betwixt Will Atkins and his wife
            Page 341
            Page 342
            Page 343
            Page 344
            Page 345
            Page 346
            Page 347
            Page 348
            Page 349
            Page 350
            Page 351
        Sails from the island for the Brazils
            Page 352
            Page 353
            Page 354
            Page 355
            Page 356
            Page 357
            Page 358
            Page 359
            Page 360
            Page 361
            Page 362
            Page 363
            Page 364
        Dreadful occurrences in Madacascar
            Page 365
            Page 366
            Page 367
            Page 368
            Page 369
            Page 370
            Page 371
            Page 372
            Page 373
            Page 374
            Page 375
            Page 376
            Page 377
        He is left on shore
            Page 378
            Page 379
            Page 380
            Page 381
            Page 382
            Page 383
            Page 384
        Warned of danger by a countryman
            Page 385
            Page 386
            Page 387
            Page 388
            Page 389
            Page 390
            Page 391
            Page 392
            Page 393
        The carpenter's whimsical contrivance
            Page 394
            Page 394a
            Page 395
            Page 396
            Page 397
            Page 398
            Page 399
            Page 400
            Page 401
            Page 402
        Arrival in China
            Page 403
            Page 404
            Page 405
            Page 406
            Page 407
            Page 408
            Page 409
            Page 410
            Page 411
            Page 412
            Page 412a
            Page 413
        Attacked by Tartars
            Page 414
            Page 415
            Page 416
            Page 417
            Page 418
            Page 419
            Page 420
            Page 420a
            Page 421
        Description of an idol, which they destroy
            Page 422
            Page 423
            Page 424
            Page 425
            Page 426
            Page 427
            Page 428
            Page 429
            Page 430
            Page 431
            Page 432
            Page 433
            Page 434
        Safe arrival in England
            Page 435
            Page 436
            Page 437
            Page 438
            Page 439
            Page 440
            Page 441
            Page 442
            Page 443
            Page 444
            Page 445
            Page 446
    Advertising
        Page 447
        Page 448
Full Text
















THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
OF


ROBINSON


CRUSOE

























~I -
Ar /

' '


*ib ^st I *


ifo d. i r ^
'froigise or f0Buri '


Copyright, Service & Palon, 1899.


-Page 70


- Q -1l lf
--x^-i-i; 1

^\!?*li~lH'^^-2^'


;- 7t~







THE


LIFE AND ADVENTURES

OF


ROBINSON CRUSOE



BY


DANIEL DEFOE



WITH SIXTEEN ILLUSTRATIONS BY
C. E. BROCK








3onbon
SERVICE & PATON
5 HENRIETTA STREET
COVENT GARDEN































The Illustrations
in this Volume are the copyright of
SERVICE & PATON, London













CONTENTS


OHAP. PART I
I. START IN LIFE
II. SLAVERY AND ESCAPE
III. WRECKED ON A DESERT ISLAND
IV. FIRST WEEKS ON THE ISLAND
V. BUILDS A HOUSE .
VI. ILL AND CONSCIENCE-STRICKEN.
VII. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIENCE
VIII. SURVEYS HIS POSITION
IX. MAKES A BOAT .
X. TAMES GOATS .
XI. FINDS PRINT OF MAN S FOOT ON THE SAND
XII. A CAVE RETREAT .
XIII. WRECK OF A SPANISH SHIP
XIV. A DREAM REALIZED. .
XV. FRIDAY'S EDUCATION
XVI. RESCUE OF PRISONERS FROM CANNIBALS
XVII. VISIT OF MUTINEERS .
XVIII. THE SHIP RECOVERED
XIX. RETURN TO ENGLAND
XX. FIGHT BETWEEN FRIDAY AND A BEAR


XXI.
XXII.
XXIII.
XXIV.
XXV.
XXVI.
XXVII.
XXVIII.
XXIX.
XXX.
XXXI.
XXXII.
XXXIII.
XXXIV.
XXXV.
XXXVI.


PAGI
S 18
6
16
S 26
41
68
S68
S79
87
S 96
S109
119
129
S143
S 154
S167
S179
193
S205
S219
S231


PART II
REVISITS ISLAND 242
INTERVENING HISTORY OF COLONY 258
FIGHT WITH CANNIBALS 272
RENEWED INVASION OF SAVAGES 284
A GREAT VICTORY 304
THE FRENCH CLERGYMAN'S COUNSEL. 315
CONVERSATION BETWIXT WILL ATKINS AND HIS WIFE .341
SAILS FROM THE ISLAND FOR THE BRAZILS 362
DREADFUL OCCURRENCES IN MADAGASCAR 365
HE IS LEFT ON SHORE 378
WARNED OF DANGER BY A COUNTRYMAN 385
THE CARPENTER'S WHIMSICAL CONTRIVANCE 394
ARRIVAL IN CHINA 403
ATTACKED BY TARTARS 414
DESCRIPTION OF AN IDOL, WHICH THEY DESTROY 422
SAFE ARRIVAL IN ENGLAND 43
iii















LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

BY C. E. BROCK


I FOUND A LARGE TORTOISE OR TURTLE. Frontispiece

PAGE
SIF YOU COME NEAR THE BOAT I'LL SHOOT YOU THROUGH THE
HEAD 21

THEY CAME TO MAKE A SECRET PROPOSAL TO ME 34

I TIED FOUR OF THEM TOGETHER IN THE FORM OF A RAFT 42

I CAME TO MEASURE THE MARK WITH MY OWN FOOT 127

I KNOCKED HIM DOWN WITH TIE STOCK OF MY PIECE 161

THIS FRIDAY ADMIRED VERY MUCH 169

" WHAT ARE YE, GENTLEMEN ? 201

FIRED A VOLLEY OF THEIR SMALL ARMS 207

THEY LEFT NOT THE LEAST STICK STANDING 274

KNOCKED THE BRUTE DOWN 285

THEY WERE SEIZED UPON AND BOUND 297

WE SAW HIM TAKE OUT HIS HANDKERCHIEF AND WIPE HER
EYES 339

LEAPED BOTH INTO THE SEA 395

ONE FED THE SQUIRE WITH A SPOON 412

SHOT HIM INTO THE HEAD 421












THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE


PART I

CHAPTER I
START IN LIFE
I WAS born in tne year 1632, in the city of York, of a good
family, though not of that country, my father being a foreigner
of Bremen, who settled first at Hull. He got a good estate by
merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York,
from whence he had married my mother, whose relations were
named Robinson, a very good family in that country, and from
whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but, by the usual cor-
ruption of words in England, we are now called-nay, we call
ourselves and write our name-Crusoe; and so my companions
always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel
to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded
by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle
near Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What became of my second
brother I never knew, any more than my father or mother knew
what became of me.
Being the third son of the family and not bred to any trade,
my head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts.
My father, who was very ancient, had given me a competent
share of learning, as far as house-education and a country free
school generally go, and designed me for the law; but I would
be satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and my inclination
to this led me so strongly against the will, nay, the commands
of my father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of
5












THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE


PART I

CHAPTER I
START IN LIFE
I WAS born in tne year 1632, in the city of York, of a good
family, though not of that country, my father being a foreigner
of Bremen, who settled first at Hull. He got a good estate by
merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York,
from whence he had married my mother, whose relations were
named Robinson, a very good family in that country, and from
whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but, by the usual cor-
ruption of words in England, we are now called-nay, we call
ourselves and write our name-Crusoe; and so my companions
always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel
to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded
by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle
near Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What became of my second
brother I never knew, any more than my father or mother knew
what became of me.
Being the third son of the family and not bred to any trade,
my head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts.
My father, who was very ancient, had given me a competent
share of learning, as far as house-education and a country free
school generally go, and designed me for the law; but I would
be satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and my inclination
to this led me so strongly against the will, nay, the commands
of my father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of
5






LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


my mother and other friends, that there seemed to be something
fatal in that propensity of nature, tending directly to the life of
misery which was to befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and ex-
cellent counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He
called me one morning into his chamber, where he was confined
by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with me upon this
subject. He asked me what reasons, more than a mere wander-
ing inclination, I had for leaving my father's house and my
native country, where I might be well introduced, and had a
prospect of raising my fortune by application and industry, with
a life of ease and pleasure. He told me it was men of desperate
fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring, superior fortunes on the
other, who went abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise,
and make themselves famous in undertakings of a nature out of
the common road; that these things were all either too far above
me or too far below me; that mine was the middle state, or
what might be called the upper station of low life, which he
had found, by long experience, was the best state in the world,
the most suited to human happiness, not exposed to the miseries
and hardships, the labour and sufferings of the mechanic part of
mankind, and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition,
and envy of the upper part of mankind. He told me I might
judge of the happiness of this state by this one thing-viz. that
this was the state of life which all other people envied; that
kings have frequently lamented the miserable consequence of
being born to great things, and wished they had been placed
in the middle of the two extremes, between the mean and the
great; that the wise man gave his testimony to this, as the
standard of felicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty
nor riches.
He bade me observe it, and I should always find that the
calamities of life were shared among the upper and lower part
of mankind, but that the middle station had the fewest disasters,
and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes as the higher or
lower part of mankind; nay, they were not subjected to so many
distempers and uneasinesses, either of body or mind, as those
were who, by vicious living, luxury, and extravagances on the
one hand, or by hard labour, want of necessaries, and mean or
insufficient diet on the other hand, bring distemper upon them-
selves by the natural consequences of their way of living; that
the middle station of life was calculated for all kind of virtue
and all kind of enjoyments; that peace and plenty were the
handmaids of a middle fortune; that temperance, moderation,






ROBINSON CRUSOE


quietness, health, society, all agreeable diversions, and all desir-
able pleasures, were the blessings attending the middle station
of life; that this way men went silently and smoothly through
the world, and comfortably out of it, not embarrassed with the
labours of the hands or of the head, not sold to a life of slavery
for daily bread, nor harassed with perplexed circumstances,
which rob the soul of peace and the body of rest, nor enraged
with the passion of envy, or the secret burning lust of ambition
for great things; but, in easy circumstances, sliding gently
through the world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of living,
without the bitter; feeling that they are happy, and learning by
every day's experience to know it more sensibly.
After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affection-
ate manner, not to play the young man, nor to precipitate
myself into miseries which nature, and the station of life I was
born in, seemed to have provided against; that I was under no
necessity of seeking my bread; that he would do well for me,
and endeavour to enter me fairly into the station of life which
he had just been recommending to me; and that if I was not
very easy and happy in the world, it must be my mere fate or
fault that must hinder it; and that he should have nothing to
answer for, having thus discharged his duty in warning me
against measures which he knew would be to my hurt; in a
word, that as he would do very kind things for me if I would
stay and settle at home as he directed, so he would not have so
much hand in my misfortunes as to give me any encouragement
to go away; and to close all, he told me I had my elder brother
for an example, to whom he had used the same earnest persua-
sions to keep him from going into the Low Country wars, but
could not prevail, his young desires prompting him to run into
the army, where he was killed; and though he said he would
not cease to pray for me, yet he would venture to say to me,
that if I did take this foolish step, God would not bless me,
and I should have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having
neglected his counsel, when there might be none to assist in
my recovery.
I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly
prophetic, though I suppose my father did not know it to be so
himself-I say, I observed the tears run down his face very
plentifully, especially when he spoke of my brother who was
killed; and that when he spoke of my having leisure to repent,
and none to assist me, he was so moved that he broke off the
discourse, and told me his heart was so full he could say no
more to me.






LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


I was sincerely affected with this discourse, and, indeed, who
could be otherwise ? and I resolved not to think of going abroad
any more, but to settle at home according to my father's desire.
But alas! a few days wore it all off; and, in short, to prevent
any of my father's further importunities, in a few weeks after
I resolved to run quite away from him. However, I did not act
quite so hastily as the first heat of my resolution prompted; but
I took my mother at a time when I thought her a little more
pleasant than ordinary, and told her that my thoughts were so
entirely bent upon seeing the world that I should never settle
to anything with resolution enough to go through with it, and
my father had better give me his consent than force me to go
without it; that I was now eighteen years old, which was too
late to go apprentice to a trade or clerk to an attorney; that I
was sure if I did I should never serve out my time, but I should
certainly run away from my master before my time was out,
and go to sea; and if she would speak to my father to let me
go one voyage abroad, if I came home again, and did not
like it, I would go no more; and I would promise, by a double
diligence, to recover the time that I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion; she told me she
knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any
such subject; that he knew too well what was my interest to
give his consent to anything so much for my hurt; and that she
wondered how I could think of any such thing after the dis-
course I had had with my father, and such kind and tender
expressions as she knew my father had used to me; and that,
in short, if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me ; but
I might depend I should never have their consent to it; that
for her part she would not have so much hand in my destruc-
tion; and I should never have it to say that my mother was
willing when my father was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet I
heard afterwards that she reported all the discourse to him,
and that my father, after showing a great concern at it, said
to her, with a sigh, That boy might be happy if he would
stay at home; but if he goes abroad, he will be the most
miserable wretch that ever was born: I can give no consent
to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose,
though, in the meantime, I continued obstinately deaf to all
proposals of settling to business, and frequently expostulated
with my father and mother about their being so positively de-
termined against what they knew my inclinations prompted me






ROBINSON CRUSOE


to. But being one day at Hull, where I went casually, and
without any purpose of making an elopement at that time; but,
I say, being there, and one of my companions being about to
sail to London in his father's ship, and prompting me to go
with them with the common allurement of seafaring men, that
it should cost me nothing for my passage, I consulted neither
father nor mother any more, nor so much as sent them word of
it; but leaving them to hear of it as they might, without asking
God's blessing or my father's, without any consideration of cir-
cumstances or consequences, and in an ill hour, God knows,
on the 1st of September 1651, I went on board a ship bound
for London. Never any young adventurer's misfortunes, I
believe, began sooner, or continued longer than mine. The ship
was no sooner out of the Humber than the wind began to blow
and the sea to rise in a most frightful manner; and, as I had
never been at sea before, I was most inexpressibly sick in body
and terrified in mind. I began now seriously to reflect upon
what I had done, and how justly I was overtaken by the judg-
ment of Heaven for my wicked leaving my father's house, and
abandoning my duty. All the good counsels of my parents, my
father's tears and my mother's entreaties, came now fresh into
my mind; and my conscience, which was not yet come to the
pitch of hardness to which it has since, reproached me with
the contempt of advice, and the breach of my duty to God and
my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very
high, though nothing like what I have seen many times since;
no, nor what I saw a few days after; but it was enough to affect
me then, who was but a young sailor, and had never known
anything of the matter. I expected every wave would have
swallowed us up, and that every time the ship fell down, as I
thought it did, in the trough or hollow of the sea, we should
never rise more; in this agony of mind, I made many vows and
resolutions, that if it would please God to spare my life in this
one voyage, if ever I got once my foot upon dry land again, I
would go directly home to my father, and never set it into a
ship again while I lived; that I would take his advice, and
never run myself into such miseries as these any more. Now I
saw plainly the goodness of his observations about the middle
station of life, how easy, how comfortably he had lived all his
days, and never had been exposed to tempests at sea or troubles
on shore; and I resolved that I would, like a true repenting
prodigal, go home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the






LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


storm lasted, and indeed some time after; but the next day the
wind was abated, and the sea calmer, and I began to be a little
inured to it: however, I was very grave for all that day, being
also a little sea-sick still; but towards night the weather cleared
up, the wind was quite over, and a charming fine evening
followed; the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the
next morning; and having little or no wind, and a smooth sea,
the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most
delightful that ever I saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick,
but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was
so rough and terrible the day before, and could be so calm and
so pleasant in so little a time after. And now, lest my good
resolutions should continue, my companion, who had enticed me
away, comes to me; "Well, Bob," says he, clapping me upon
the shoulder, "how do you do after it? I warrant you were
frighted, wer'n't you, last night, when it blew but a capful of
wind ?" "A capful d'you call it ?" said I; "'twas a terrible
storm." "A storm, you fool you," replies he; "do you call that
a storm ? why, it was nothing at all; give us but a good ship
and sea-room, and we think nothing of such a squall of wind as
that; but you're but a fresh-water sailor, Bob. Come, let us
make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that; d'ye see what
charming weather 'tis now ?" To make short this sad part of
my story, we went the way of all sailors; the punch was made,
and I was made half drunk with it: and in that one night's
wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon
my past conduct, all my resolutions for the future. In a word,
as the sea was returned to its smoothness of surface and settled
calmness by the abatement of that storm, so the hurry of my
thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions of being
swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and the current of
my former desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and
promises that I" made in my distress. I found, indeed, some
intervals of reflection ; and the serious thoughts did, as it were,
endeavour to return again sometimes; but I shook them off,
and roused myself from them as it were from a distemper,
and applying myself to drinking and company, soon mastered
the return of those fits-for so I called them; and I had in
five or six days got as complete a victory over conscience as
any young fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it
could desire. But I was to have another trial for it still; and
Providence, as in such cases generally it does, resolved to
leave me entirely without excuse; for if I would not take this






ROBINSON CRUSOE


for a deliverance, the next was to be such a one as the worst
and most hardened wretch among us would confess both the
danger and the mercy of.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth
Roads; the wind having been contrary and the weather calm,
we had made but little way since the storm. Here we were
obliged to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind con-
tinuing contrary-viz. at south-west-for seven or eight days,
during which time a great many ships from Newcastle came into
the same Roads, as the common harbour where the ships might
wait for a wind for the river.
We had not, however, rid here so long but we should have
tided it up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh, and after
we had lain four or five days, blew very hard. However, the
Roads being reckoned as good as a harbour, the anchorage good,
and our ground-tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned,
and not in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent the time
in rest and mirth, after the manner of the sea; but the eighth
day, in the morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands
at work to strike our topmasts, and make everything snug and
close, that the ship might ride as easy as possible. By noon the
sea went very high indeed, and our ship rode forecastle in,
shipped several seas, and we thought once or twice our anchor
had come home; upon which our master ordered out the sheet-
anchor, so that we rode with two anchors ahead, and the cables
veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began
to see terror and amazement in the faces even of the seamen
themselves. The master, though vigilant in the business of
preserving the ship, yet as he went in and out of his cabin by
me, I could hear him softly to himself say, several times, Lord
be merciful to us! we shall be all lost! we shall be all undone "
and the like. During these first hurries I was stupid, lying still
in my cabin, which was in the steerage, and cannot describe
my temper: I could ill resume the first penitence which I had
so apparently trampled upon and hardened myself against: I
thought the bitterness of death had been past, and that this
would be nothing like the first; but when the master himself
came by me, as I said just now, and said we should be all lost,
I was dreadfully frighted. I got up out of my cabin and looked
out; but such a dismal sight I never saw: the sea ran mountains
high, and broke upon us every three or four minutes; when I
could look about, I could see nothing but distress round us;
two ships that rode near us, we found, had cut their masts by






LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


the board, being deep laden; and our men cried out that a ship
which rode about a mile ahead of us was foundered. Two
more ships, being driven from their anchors, were run out
of the Roads to sea, at all adventures, and that with not a
mast standing. The light ships fared the best, as not so much
labouring in the sea; but two or three of them drove, and
came close by us, running away with only their spritsail out
before the wind.
Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master
of our ship to let them cut away the fore-mast, which he was
very unwilling to do; but the boatswain protesting to him that
if he did not the ship would founder, he consented; and when
they had cut away the fore-mast, the main-mast stood so loose,
and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut that away
also, and make a clear deck.
Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at all
this, who was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a
fright before at but a little. But if I can express at this dis-
tance the thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in ten-
fold more horror of mind upon account of my former convictions,
and the having returned from them to the resolutions I had
wickedly taken at first, than I was at death itself; and these,
added to the terror of the storm, put me into such a condition
that I can by no words describe it. But the worst was not
come yet; the storm continued with such fury that the seamen
themselves acknowledged they had never seen a worse. We
had a good ship, but she was deep laden, and wallowed in the
sea, so that the seamen every now and then cried out she would
founder. It was my advantage, in one respect, that I did not
know what they meant by founder till I inquired. However,
the storm was so violent that I saw, what is not often seen,
the master, the boatswain, and some others more sensible than
the rest, at their prayers, and expecting every moment when the
ship would go to the bottom. In the middle of the night, and
under all the rest of our distresses, one of the men that had
been down to see cried out we had sprung a leak; another said
there was four feet water in the hold. Then all hands were
called to the pump. At that word, my heart, as I thought, died
within me: and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed where
I sat, into the cabin. However, the men roused me, and told
me that I, that was able to do nothing before, was as well able
to pump as another; at which I stirred up and went to the
pump, and worked very heartily. While this was doing the
master, seeing some light colliers, who, not able to ride out the






ROBINSON CRUSOE


storm, were obliged to slip and run away to sea, and would
come near us, ordered to fire a gun as a signal of distress. I,
who knew nothing what they meant, thought the ship had
broken, or some dreadful thing happened. In a word, I was so
surprised that I fell down in a swoon. As this was a time when
everybody had his own life to think of, nobody minded me, or
what was become of me; but another man stepped up to the
pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot, let me lie, think-
ing I had been dead; and it was a great while before I came
to myself.
We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it was
apparent that the ship would founder; and though the storm
began to abate a little, yet it was not possible she could swim till
we might run into any port; so the master continued firing guns
for help; and a light ship, who had rid it out just ahead of us,
ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the utmost hazard
the boat came near us; but it was impossible for us to get on
board, or for the boat to lie near the ship's side, till at last the
men rowing very heartily, and venturing their lives to save
ours, our men cast them a rope over the stern with a buoy to
it, and then veered it out a great length, which they, after
much labour and hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them
close under our stern, and got all into their boat. It was
to no purpose for them or us, after we were in the boat, to
think of reaching their own ship; so all agreed to let her
drive, and only to pull her in towards shore as much as we
could; and our master promised them, that if the boat was
staved upon shore, he would make it good to their master: so
partly rowing and partly driving, our boat went away to the
northward, sloping towards the shore almost as far as Winterton
Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our
ship till we saw her sink, and then I understood for the first
time what was meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I must
acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up when the seamen
told me she was sinking; for from the moment that they rather
put me into the boat than that I might be said to go in,
my heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly with fright,
partly with horror of mind, and the thoughts of what was yet
before me.
While we were in this condition-the men yet labouring at
the oar to bring the boat near the shore-we could see (when,
our boat mounting the waves, we were able to see the shore)
a great many people running along the strand to assist us when

*






LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


we should come near; but we made but slow way towards the
shore; nor were we able to reach the shore till, being past the
lighthouse at Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward
towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a little the violence
of the wind. Here we got in, and, though not without much
difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked afterwards on foot to
Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were used with great
humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town, who assigned
us good quarters, as by particular merchants and owners of ships,
and had money given us sufficient to carry us either to London
or back to Hull as we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and
have gone home, I had been happy, and my father, as in our
blessed Saviour's parable, had even killed the fatted calf for me;
for hearing the ship I went away in was cast away in Yarmouth
Roads, it was a great while before he had any assurances that I
was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that
nothing could resist; and though I had several times loud calls
from my reason and my more composed judgment to go home,
yet I had no power to do it. I know not what to call this, nor
will I urge that it is a secret overruling decree, that hurries us
on to be the instruments of our own destruction, even though
it be before us, and that we rush upon it with our eyes open.
Certainly, nothing but some such decreed unavoidable misery,
which it was impossible for me to escape, could have pushed me
forward against the calm reasoning and persuasions of my most
retired thoughts, and against two such visible instructions as I
had met with in my first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who
was the master's son, was now less forward than I. The first
time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which was not
till two or three days, for we were separated in the town to
several quarters; I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared his
tone was altered; and, looking very melancholy, and shaking
his head, he asked me how I did, and telling his father who I
was, and how I had come this voyage only for a trial, in order to
go further abroad, his father, turning to me with a very grave
and concerned tone, Young man," says he, you ought never
to go to sea any more; you ought to take this for a plain and
visible token that you are not to be a seafaring man." "Why,
sir," said I, "will you go to sea no more?" "That is another
case," said he; "it is my calling, and therefore my duty; but as
you made this voyage on trial, you see what a taste Heaven has






ROBINSON CRUSOE


given you of what you are to expect if you persist. Perhaps
this has all befallen us on your account, like Jonah in the ship
of Tarshish. Pray," continues he, "what are you; and on what
account did you go to sea ?" Upon that I told him some of my
story; at the end of which he burst out into a strange kind of
passion: "What had I done," says he, "that such an unhappy
wretch should come into my ship? I would not set my foot in
the same ship with thee again for a thousand pounds." This
indeed was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits, which were yet
agitated by the sense of his loss, and was farther than he could
have authority to go. However, he afterwards talked very
gravely to me, exhorting me to go back to my father, and not
tempt Providence to my ruin, telling me I might see a visible
hand of Heaven against me. "And, young man," said he, "de-
pend upon it, if you do not go back, wherever you go, you will
meet with nothing but disasters and disappointments, till your
father's words are fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I saw
him no more; which way he went I knew not. As for me,
having some money in my pocket, I travelled to London by
land; and there, as well as on the road, had many struggles
with myself what course of life I should take, and whether I
should go home or to sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered
to my thoughts, and it immediately occurred to me how I should
be laughed at among the neighbours, and should be ashamed to
see, not my father and mother only, but even everybody else;
from whence I have since often observed, how incongruous and
irrational the common temper of mankind is, especially of youth,
to that reason which ought to guide them in such cases-viz.
that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent;
not ashamed of the action for which they ought justly to be
esteemed fools, but are ashamed of the returning, which only
can make them be esteemed wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain
what measures to take, and what course of life to lead. An
irresistible reluctance continued to going home; and as I stayed
away a while, the remembrance of the distress I had been in
wore off, and as that abated, the little motion I had in my
desires to return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside
the thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.






LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


CHAPTER II
SLAVERY AND ESCAPE

THAT evil influence which carried me first away from my
father's house-which hurried me into the wild and in-
digested notion of raising my fortune, and that impressed those
conceits so forcibly upon me as to make me deaf to all good
advice, and to the entreaties and even the commands of my
father-I say, the same influence, whatever it was, presented the
most unfortunate of all enterprises to my view; and I went on
board a vessel bound to the coast of Africa; or, as our sailors
vulgarly called it, a voyage to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I did
not ship myself as a sailor; when, though I might indeed have
worked a little harder than ordinary, yet at the same time I
should have learnt the duty and office of a fore-mast man, and
in time might have qualified myself for a mate or lieutenant, if
not for a master. But as it was always my fate to choose for the
worse, so I did here; for having money in my pocket and good
clothes upon my back, I would always go on board in the habit
of a gentleman; and so I neither had any business in the ship,
nor learned to do any.
It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in
London, which does not always happen to such loose and mis-
guided young fellows as I then was; the devil generally not
omitting to lay some snare for them very early; but it was not
so with me. I first got acquainted with the master of a ship
who had been on the coast of Guinea; and who, having had very
good success there, was resolved to go again. This captain taking
a fancy to my conversation, which was not at all disagreeable
at that time, hearing me say I had a mind to see the world, told
me if I would go the voyage with him I should be at no expense;
I should be his messmate and his companion; and if I could
carry anything with me, I should have all the advantage of it
that the trade would admit; and perhaps I might meet with
some encouragement.
I embraced the offer; and entering into a strict friendship
with this captain, who was an honest, plain-dealing man, I went
the voyage with him, and carried a small adventure with me,
which, by the disinterested honesty of my friend the captain, I
increased very considerably; for I carried about 40 in such
toys and trifles as the captain directed me to buy. These 40 I






ROBINSON CRUSOE


had mustered together by the assistance of some of my relations
whom I corresponded with; and who, I believe, got my father,
or at least my mother, to contribute so much as that to my first
adventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in
all my adventures, which I owe to the integrity and honesty of
my friend the captain; under whom also I got a competent
knowledge of the mathematics and the rules of navigation,
learned how to keep an account of the ship's course, take an
observation, and, in short, to understand some things that were
needful to be understood by a sailor; for, as he took delight to
instruct me, I took delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage
made me both a sailor and a merchant; for I brought home five
pounds nine ounces of gold-dust for my adventure, which yielded
me in London, at my return, almost 300; and this filled me
with those aspiring thoughts which have since so completed
my ruin.
Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too; particularly,
that I was continually sick, being thrown into a violent calenture
by the excessive heat of the climate ; our principal trading being
upon the coast, from latitude of 15 degrees north even to the
line itself.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my
great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go
the same voyage again, and I embarked in the same vessel with
one who was his mate in the former voyage, and had now got the
command of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage that
ever man made; for though I did not carry quite 100 of my
new-gained wealth, so that I had 200 left, which I had lodged
with my friend's widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell into
terrible misfortunes. The first was this: our ship making her
course towards the Canary Islands, or rather between those
Islands and the African shore, was surprised in the grey of the
morning by a Turkish rover of Sallee, who gave chase to us with
all the sail she could make. We crowded also as much canvas
as our yards would spread, or our masts carry, to get clear; but
finding the pirate gained upon us, and would certainly come up
with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight; our ship having
twelve guns, and the rogue eighteen. About three in the after-
noon he came up with us, and bringing to, by mistake, just
athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as he intended,
we brought eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured
in a broadside upon him, which made him sheer off again, after
returning our fire, and pouring in also his small shot from near






LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


two hundred men which he had on board. However, we had
not a man touched, all our men keeping close. He prepared to
attack us again, and we to defend ourselves. But laying us on
board the next time upon our other quarter, he entered sixty
men upon our decks, who immediately fell to cutting and hack-
ing the sails and rigging. We plied them with small shot, half-
pikes, powder-chests, and such like, and cleared our deck of them
twice. However, to cut short this melancholy part of our story,
our ship being disabled, and three of our men killed, and eight
wounded, we were obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners
into Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I appre-
hended; nor was I carried up the country to the emperor's
court, as the rest of our men were, but was kept by the captain
of the rover as his proper prize, and made his slave, being
young and nimble, and fit for his business. At this surprising
change of my circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable
slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed; and now I looked back
upon my father's prophetic discourse to me, that I should be
miserable and have none to relieve me, which I thought was
now so effectually brought to pass that I could not be worse; for
now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone
without redemption ; but, alas this was but a taste of the misery
I was to go through, as will appear in the sequel of this story.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house,
so I was in hopes that he would take me with him when he went
to sea again, believing that it would some time or other be his
fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portugal man-of-war; and that
then I should be set at liberty. But this hope of mine was soon
taken away; for when he went to sea, he left me on shore to
look after his little garden, and do the common drudgery of
slaves about his house; and when he came home again from his
cruise, he ordered me to lie in the cabin to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I
might take to effect it, but found no way that had the least proba-
bility in it; nothing presented to make the supposition of it
rational; for I had nobody to communicate it to that would
embark with me-no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or
Scotchman there but myself; so that for two years, though I
often pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had the
least encouraging prospect of putting it in practice.
After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself,
which put the old thought of making some attempt for my liberty
again in my head. My patron lying at home longer than usual






ROBINSON CRUSOE


without fitting out his ship, which, as I heard, was for want of
money, he used constantly, once or twice a week, sometimes
oftener if the weather was fair, to take the ship's pinnace and
go out into the road a-fishing; and as he always took me and
young Maresco with him to row the boat, we made him very
merry, and I proved very dexterous in catching fish; insomuch
that sometimes he would send me with a Moor, one of his kins-
men, and the youth-the Maresco, as they called him-to catch
a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a calm morning,
a fog rose so thick that, though we were not half a league from
the shore, we lost sight of it; and rowing we knew not whither
or which way, we laboured all day, and all the next night; and
when the morning came, we found we had pulled off to sea
instead of pulling in for the shore; and that we were at least
two leagues from the shore. However, we got well in again,
though with a great deal of labour and some danger; for the
wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morning; but we were
all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more
care of himself for the future; and having lying by him the long-
boat of our English ship that he had taken, he resolved he would
not go a-fishing any more without a compass and some provision;
so he ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also was an English
slave, to build a little state-room, or cabin, in the middle of the
long-boat, like that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it
to steer, and haul home the main-sheet; the room before for a
hand or two to stand and work the sails. She sailed with what
we call a shoulder-of-mutton sail; and the boom jibed over the
top of the cabin, which lay very snug and low, and had in it
room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table to eat on,
with some small lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor as
he thought fit to drink; and his bread, rice, and coffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing; and as I was
most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without me.
It happened that he had appointed to go out in this boat, either
for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors of some distinc-
tion in that place, and for whom he had provided extraordinarily,
and had, therefore, sent on board the boat overnight a larger
store of provisions than ordinary; and had ordered me to get
ready three fusees with powder and shot, which were on board
his ship, for that they designed some sport of fowling as well as
fishing.
I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the next







LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


morning with the boat washed clean, her ancient and pendants
out, and everything to accommodate his guests; when by-and-by
my patron came on board alone, and told me his guests had put
off going, from some business that fell out, and ordered me, with
the man and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat and catch
them some fish, for that his friends were to sup at his house, and
commanded that as soon as I got some fish I should bring it
home to his house; all which I prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into
my thoughts, for now I found I was likely to have a little ship at
my command; and my master being gone, I prepared to furnish
myself, not for fishing business, but for a voyage ; though I knew
not, neither did I so much as consider, whither I should steer-
anywhere to get out of that place was my desire.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this
Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board ; for I told
him we must not presume to eat of our patron's bread. He said
that was true; so lie brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit,
and three jars of fresh water, into the boat. I knew where my
patron's case of bottles stood, which it was evident, by the make,
were taken out of some English prize, and I conveyed them
into the boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had been
there before for our master. I conveyed also a great lump of
beeswax into the boat, which weighed about half a hundred-
weight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and
a hammer, all of which were of great use to us afterwards,
especially the wax, to make candles. Another trick 1 tried upon
him, which lie innocently came into also : his name was Ismael,
which they call Muley, or Moely ; so I called to him--" Moely,"
said I, "our patron's guns are on board the boat; can you not
get a little powder and shot ? It may be we may kill some
alcamies (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know he
keeps the gunner's stores in the ship." Yes," says he, I'll
bring some ;" and accordingly lie brought a great leather pouch,
which held a pound and a half of powder, or rather more;
and another with shot, that had five or six pounds, with some
bullets, and put all into the boat. At the same time I had
found some powder of my master's in the great cabin, with which
I filled one of the large bottles in the case, which was almost
empty, pouring what was in it into another; and thus furnished
with everything needful, we sailed out of the port to fish. The
castle, which is at the entrance of the port, knew who we were,
and took no notice of us; and we were not above a mile out of
the port before we hauled in our sail and set us down to fish.


















































-pya Com '4~~"**4~


i11 J Se, vice & Iiato?, ,.,gg.





ROBINSON CRUSOE


The wind blew from the N.N.E., which was contrary to my
desire, for had it blown southerly I had been sure to have made
the coast of Spain, and at least reached to the bay of Cadiz; but
my resolutions were, blow which way it would, I would be gone
from that horrid place where I was, and leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and caught nothing-for when
I had fish on my hook I would not pull them up, that he might
not see them-I said to the Moor, "This will not do; our master
will not be thus served; we must stand farther off." He, think-
ing no harm, agreed, and being in the head of the boat, set the
sails; and, as I had the helm, I ran the boat out near a league
farther, and then brought her to, as if I would fish; when,
giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor
was, and making as if I stooped for something behind him, I
took him by surprise with my arm under his waist, and tossed
him clear overboard into the sea. He rose immediately, for he
swam like a cork, and called to me, begged to be taken in, told
me he would go all over the world with me. He swam so
strong after the boat that he would have reached me very
quickly, there being but little wind; upon which I stepped into
the cabin, and fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented it
at him, and told him I had done him no hurt, and if he would
be quiet I would do him none: "But," said I, "you swim well
enough to reach to the shore, and the sea is calm; make the
best of your way to shore, and I will do you no harm; but if
you come near the boat I'll shoot you through the head, for
I am resolved to have my liberty;" so he turned himself about,
and swam for the shore, and I make no doubt but he reached it
with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me,
and have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust
him. When he was gone, I turned to the boy, whom they
called Xury, and said to him, "Xury, if you will be faithful to
me, I'll make you a great man; but if you will not stroke your
face to be true to me "-that is, swear by Mahomet and his
father's beard-" I must throw you into the sea too." The boy
smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently that I could not
distrust him, and swore to be faithful to me, and go all over the
world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood
out directly to sea with ,the boat, rather stretching to windward,
that they might think me gone towards the Straits' mouth (as
indeed any one that had been in their wits must have been
supposed to do): for who would have supposed we were sailed





LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


on to the southward, to the truly Barbarian coast, where whole
nations of negroes were sure to surround us with their canoes
and destroy us; where we could not go on shore but we should
be devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless savages of
human kind.
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my
course, and steered directly south and by east, bending my
course a little towards the east, that I might keep in with the
shore; and having a fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth, quiet
sea, I made such sail that I believe by the next day, at three
o'clock in the afternoon, when I first made the land, I could not
be less than one hundred and fifty miles south of Salee; quite
beyond the Emperor of Morocco's dominions, or indeed of any
other king thereabouts, for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken of the Moors, and the
dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that I
would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor; the wind
continuing fair till I had sailed in that manner five days; and
then the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also that
if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would now
give over; so I ventured to make to the coast, and came to an
anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew not what, nor
where, neither what latitude, what country, what nation, or
what river. I neither saw, nor desired to see any people; the
principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came into this
creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it
was dark, and discover the country ; but as soon as it was quite
dark, we heard such dreadful noises of the barking, roaring, and
howling of wild creatures, of we knew not what kinds, that the
poor boy was ready to die with fear, and begged of me not to
go on shore till day. "Well, Xury," said I, "then I won't; but
it may be that we may see men by day, who will be as bad to
us as those lions." "Then we give them the shoot gun," says
Xury, laughing, "make them run wey." Such English Xury
spoke by conversing among us slaves. However, I was glad to
see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram (out of our
patron's case of bottles) to cheer him up. After all, Xury's
advice was good, and I took it; we dropped our little anchor,
and lay still all night; I say still, for we slept none; for in two
or three hours we saw vast great creatures (we knew not what
to call them) of many sorts, come down to the sea-shore and
run into the water, wallowing and washing themselves for the
pleasure of cooling themselves; and they made such hideous
cowlings and yelling, that I never indeed heard the like.





ROBINSON CRUSOE


Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but
we were both more frighted when we heard one of these mighty
creatures come swimming towards our boat; we could not see
him, but we might hear him by his blowing to be a monstrous
huge and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion, and it might
be so for aught I know; but poor Xury cried to me to weigh
the anchor and row away; "No," says I, "Xury; we can slip
our cable, with the buoy to it, and go off to sea; they cannot
follow us far." I had no sooner said so, but I perceived the
creature (whatever it was) within two oars' length, which some-
thing surprised me; however, I immediately stepped to the
cabin door, and taking up my gun, fired at him; upon which he
immediately turned about and swam towards the shore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises, and hideous
cries and howling that were raised, as well upon the edge of
the shore as higher within the country, upon the noise or report
of the gun, a thing I have some reason to believe those creatures
had never heard before: this convinced me that there was no
going on shore for us in the night on that coast, and how to
venture on shore in the day was another question too; for to
have fallen into the hands of any of the savages had been as bad
as to have fallen into the hands of the lions and tigers; at least
we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore some-
where or other for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat;
when and where to get to it was the point. Xury said, if I
would let him go on shore with one of the jars, he would find
if there was any water, and bring some to me. I asked him
why he would go? why I should not go, and he stay in the
boat? The boy answered with so much affection as made me
love him ever after. Says he, "If wild mans come, they eat
me, you go wey." "Well, Xury," said I, "we will both go, and
if the wild mans come, we will kill them, they shall eat neither
of us." So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a dram
out of our patron's case of bottles which I mentioned before;
and we hauled the boat in as near the shore as we thought was
proper, and so waded on shore, carrying nothing but our arms
and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the
coming of canoes with savages down the river; but the boy
seeing a low place about a mile up the country, rambled to it,
and by-and-by I saw him come running towards me. I thought
he was pursued by some savage, or frighted with some wild
beast, and I ran forward towards him to help him; but when





LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


I came nearer to him I saw something hanging over his
shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot, like a hare,
but different in colour, and longer legs: however, we were very
glad of it, and it was very good meat; but the great joy that
poor Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good water
and seen no wild mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains
for water, for a little higher up the creek where we were we
found the water fresh when the tide was out, which flowed but
a little way up; so we filled our jars, and feasted on the hare
we had killed, and prepared to go on our way, having seen no
footsteps of any human creature in that part of the country.
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very
well that the islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verde
Islands also, lay not far off from the coast. But as I had no
instruments to take an observation to know what latitude we
were in, and not exactly knowing, or at least remembering,
what latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for them,
or when to stand off to sea towards them; otherwise I might
now easily have found some of these islands. But my hope was,
that if I stood along this coast till I came to that part where the
English traded, I should find some of their vessels upon their
usual design of trade, that would relieve and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was
must be that country which, lying between the Emperor of
Morocco's dominions and the negroes, lies waste and unin-
habited, except by wild beasts ; the negroes having abandoned it
and gone farther south for fear of the Moors, and the Moors not
thinking it worth inhabiting by reason of its barrenness; and
indeed, both forsaking it because of the prodigious number of
tigers, lions, leopards, and other furious creatures which harbour
there; so that the Moors use it for their hunting only, where
they go like an army, two or three thousand men at a time;
and indeed for near a hundred miles together upon this coast
we saw nothing but a waste, uninhabited country by day, and
heard nothing but cowlings and roaring of wild beasts by
night.
Once or twice in the daytime I thought I saw the Pico of
Teneriffe, being the high top of the Mountain Teneriffe in the
Canaries, and had a great mind to venture out, in hopes of
reaching thither; but having tried twice, I was forced in again
by contrary winds, the sea also going too high for my little
vessel; so I resolved to pursue my first design, and keep along
the shore.






ROBINSON CRUSOE


Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we
had left this place; and once in particular, being early in the
morning, we came to an anchor under a little point of land,
which was pretty high; and the tide beginning to flow, we lay
still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about him
than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me that
we had best go farther off the shore; "For," says he, "look,
yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock,
fast asleep." I looked where he pointed, and saw a dreadful
monster indeed, for it was a terrible, great lion that lay on the
side of the shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill that
hung as it were a little over him. "Xury," says I, "you shall
go on shore and kill him." Xury looked frighted, and said,
"Me kill! he eat me at one mouth !"-one mouthful he meant.
However, I said no more to the boy, but bade him lie still, and
I took our biggest gun, which was almost musket-bore, and
loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with two slugs, and
laid it down; then I loaded another gun with two bullets; and
the third (for we had three pieces) I loaded with five smaller
bullets. I took the best aim I could with the first piece to
have shot him in the head, but he lay so with his leg raised a
little above his nose, that the slugs hit his leg about the knee
and broke the bone. He started up, growling at first, but
finding his leg broken, fell down again; and then got upon
three legs, and gave the most hideous roar that ever I heard.
I was a little surprised that I had not hit him on the head;
however, I took up the second piece immediately, and though
he began to move off, fired again, and shot him in the head, and
had the pleasure to see him drop and make but little noise, but
lie struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and would have
me let him go on shore. "Well, go," said I: so the boy
jumped into the water, and taking a little gun in one hand,
swam to shore with the other hand, and coming close to the
creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him
in the head again, which despatched him quite.
This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I was
very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a
creature that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury said
he would have some of him; so he comes on board, and asked
me to give him the hatchet. "For what, Xury?" said I. "Me
cut off his head," said he. However, Xury could not cut off his
head, but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him, and it was
a monstrous great one.
I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him





LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


might, one way or other, be of some value to us; and I resolved
to take off his skin if I could. So Xury and I went to work
with him; but Xury was much the better workman at it, for I
knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us both up the
whole day, but at last we got off the hide of him, and spreading
it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two
days' time, and it afterwards served me to lie upon.



CHAPTER III
WRECKED ON A DESERT ISLAND
AFTER this stop, we made on to the southward continually
for ten or twelve days, living very sparingly on our pro-
visions, which began to abate very much, and going no oftener
to the shore than we were obliged to for fresh water. My
design in this was to make the river Gambia or Senegal, that is
to say anywhere about the Cape de Verde, where I was in hopes
to meet with some European ship; and if I did not, I knew not
what course I had to take, but to seek for the islands, or perish
there among the negroes. I knew that all the ships from
Europe, which sailed either to the coast of Guinea or to Brazil,
or to the East Indies, made this cape, or those islands; and, in
a word, I put the whole of my fortune upon this single point,
either that I must meet with some ship or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as
I have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited; and in
two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand upon
the shore to look at us; we could also perceive they were quite
black and naked. I was once inclined to have gone on shore to
them ; but Xury was my better counsellor, and said to me, No
go, no go." However, I hauled in nearer the shore that I might
talk to them, and I found they ran along the shore by me a good
way. I observed they had no weapons in their hand, except one,
who had a long slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and
that they could throw them a great way with good aim; so I
kept at a distance, but talked with them by signs as well as I
could; and particularly made signs for something to eat: they
beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they would fetch me some
meat. Upon this I lowered the top of my sail and lay by, and
two of them ran up into the country, and in less than half-an-
hour came back, and brought with them two pieces of dried






ROBINSON CRUSOE


flesh and some corn, such as is the produce of their country; but we
neither knew what the one or the other was; however, we were
willing to accept it, but how to come at it was our next dispute, for
I would not venture on shore to them, and they were as much
afraid of us; but they took a safe way for us all, for they brought
it to the shore and laid it down, and went and stood a great way
off till we fetched it on board, and then came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to
make them amends; but an opportunity offered that very instant
to oblige them wonderfully; for while we were lying by the
shore came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the other (as we
took it) with great fury from the mountains towards the sea;
whether it was the male pursuing the female, or whether they
were in sport or in rage, we could not tell, any more than we
could tell whether it was usual or strange, but I believe it was
the latter; because, in the first place, those ravenous creatures
seldom appear but in the night; and, in the second place, we
found the people terribly frighted, especially the women. The
man that had the lance or dart did not fly from them, but the
rest did; however, as the two creatures ran directly into the
water, they did not offer to fall upon any of the negroes, but
plunged themselves into the sea, and swam about, as if they had
come for their diversion; at last one of them began to come
nearer our boat than at first I expected; but I lay ready for
him, for I had loaded my gun with all possible expedition, and
bade Xury load both the others. As soon as he came 'fairly
within my reach, I fired, and shot him directly in the head; im-
mediately he sank down into the water, but rose instantly, and
plunged up and down, as if he were struggling for life, and so
indeed he was; he immediately made to the shore; but between
the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the
water, he died just before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor
creatures at the noise and fire of my gun; some of them were
even ready to die for fear, and fell down as dead with the very
terror; but when they saw the creature dead, and sunk in the
water, and that I made signs to them to come to the shore, they
took heart and came, and began to search for the creature. I
found him by his blood staining the water; and by the help of
a rope, which I slung round him, and gave the negroes to haul,
they dragged him on shore, and found that it was a most curious
leopard, spotted, and fine to an admirable degree; and the
negroes held up their hands with admiration, to think what it
was I had killed him with.





LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the
noise of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to the
mountains from whence they came ; nor could I, at that distance,
know what it was. I found quickly the negroes wished to eat
the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have them take it
as a favour from me ; which, when I made signs to them that
they might take him, they were very thankful for. Immediately
they fell to work with him ; and though they had no knife, yet,
with a sharpened piece of wood, they took off his skin as readily,
and much more readily, than we could have done with a knife.
They offered me some of the flesh, which I declined, pointing
out that I would give it them; but made signs for the skin,
which they gave me very freely, and brought me a great deal
more of their provisions, which, though I did not understand,
yet I accepted. I then made signs to them for some water, and
held out one of my jars to them, turning it bottom upward, to
show that it was empty, and that I wanted to have it filled.
They called immediately to some of their friends, and there
came two women, and brought a great vessel made of earth, and
burnt, as I supposed, in the sun ; this they set down to me, as
before, and I sent Xury on shore with my jars, and filled them
all three. The women were as naked as the men.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and
water; and leaving my friendly negroes, I made forward for
about eleven days more, without offering to go near the shore,
till I saw the land run out a great length into the sea, at about
the distance of four or five leagues before me; and the sea being
very calm, I kept a large offing to make this point. At length,
doubling the point, at about two leagues from the land, I saw
plainly land on the other side, to seaward; then I concluded, as
it was most certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verde, and
those the islands called, from thence, Cape de Verde Islands.
However, they were at a great distance, and I could not well
tell what I had best to do ; for if I should be taken with a fresh
of wind, I might neither reach one or other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the
cabin and sat down, Xurv having the helm; when, on a sudden,
the boy cried out, Master, master, a ship with a sail !" and the
foolish boy was frighted out of his wits, thinking it must needs
be some of his master's ships sent to pursue us, but I knew we
were far enough out of their reach. I jumped out of the cabin,
and immediately saw, not only the ship, but that it was a
Portuguese ship; and, as I thought, was bound to the coast of
Guinea, for negroes. But, when I observed the course she






ROBINSON CRUSOE


steered, I was soon convinced they were bound some other way,
and did not design to come any nearer to the shore; upon which
I stretched out to sea as much as I could, resolving to speak
with them if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able
to come in their way, but that they would be gone by before I
could make any signal to them : but after I had crowded to the
utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems, saw by the help of
their glasses that it was some European boat, which they sup-
posed must belong to some ship that was lost; so they shortened
sail to let me come up. I was encouraged with this, and as I had
my patron's ancient on board, I made a waft of it to them, for I
signal of distress, and fired a gun, both which they saw; for they
told me they saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun.
Upon these signals they very kindly brought to, and lay by for
me; and in about three hours' time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and
in French, but I understood none of them; but at last a Scotch
sailor, who was on board, called to me : and I answered him, and
told him I was an Englishman, that I had made my escape out
of slavery from the Moors, at Sallee; they then bade me come
on board, and very kindly took me in, and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will believe,
that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable
and almost hopeless condition as I was in; and I immediately
offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a return for my
deliverance; but he generously told me he would take nothing
from me, but that all I had should be delivered safe to me when
I came to the Brazils. "For," says he, "I have saved your life
on no other terms than I would be glad to be saved myself: and
it may, one time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same
condition. Besides," said he, "when I carry you to the Brazils,
so great a way from your own country, if I should take from you
what you have, you will be starved there, and then I only take
away that life I have given. No, no," says he : Seignior Inglese"
(Mr. Englishman), I will carry you thither in charity, and those
things will help to buy your subsistence there, and your passage
home again."
As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the
performance to a tittle; for he ordered the seamen that none
should touch anything that I had: then he took everything into
his own possession, and gave me back an exact inventory of
them, that I might have them, even to my three earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw, and






LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


told me he would buy it of me for his ship's use; and asked me
what I would have for it ? I told him he had been so generous
to me in everything that I could not offer to make any price of
the boat, but left it entirely to him: upon which he told me he
would give me a note of hand to pay me eighty pieces of eight
for it at Brazil; and when it came there, if any one offered to give
more, he would make it up. He offered me also sixty pieces of
eight more for my boy Xury, which I was loth to take; not that
I was unwilling to let the captain have him, but I was very loth
to sell the poor boy's liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully
in procuring my own. However, when I let him know my
reason, he owned it to be just, and offered me this medium,
that he would give the boy an obligation to set him free in ten
years, if he turned Christian: upon this, and Xury saying he was
willing to go to him, I let the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived
in the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints' Bay, in about
twenty-two days after. And now I was once more delivered
from the most miserable of all conditions of life ; and what to
do next with myself I was to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me I can never
enough remember : he would take nothing of me for my passage,
gave me twenty ducats for the leopard's skin, and forty for the
lion's skin, which I had in my boat, and caused everything I
had in the ship to be punctually delivered to me; and what I
was willing to sell he bought of me, such as the case of bottles,
two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of beeswax-for I
had made candles of the rest: in a word, I made about two
hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo; and with
this stock I went on shore in the Brazils.
I had not been long here before I was recommended to the
house of a good honest man like himself, who had an higenio, as
they call it (that is, a plantation and a sugar-house). I lived
with him some time, and acquainted myself by that means
with the manner of planting and making of sugar; and seeing
how well the planters lived, and how they got rich suddenly, I
resolved, if I could get a licence to settle there, I would turn
planter among them: resolving in the meantime to find out
some way to get my money, which I had left in London,
remitted to me. To this purpose, getting a kind of letter of
naturalisation, I purchased as much land that was uncured as
my money would reach, and formed a plan for my plantation
and settlement; such a one as might be suitable to the stock
which I proposed to myself to receive from England.





ROBINSON CRUSOE


I had a neighbour, a Portuguese, of Lisbon, but born of Eng-
lish parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such circum-
stances as I was. I call him my neighbour, because his plantation
lay next to mine, and we went on very sociably together. My
stock was but low, as well as his; and we rather planted for food
than anything else, for about two years. However, we began to
increase, and our land began to come into order; so that the
third year we planted some tobacco, and made each of us a large
piece of ground ready for planting canes in the year to come.
But we both wanted help; and now I found, more than before,
I had done wrong in parting with my boy Xury.
But, alas for me to do wrong that never did right, was no
great wonder. I had no remedy but to go on: I had got into
an employment quite remote to my genius, and directly con-
trary to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my
father's house, and broke through all his good advice. Nay, I
was coming into the very middle station, or upper degree of
low life, which my father advised me to before, and which, if I
resolved to go on with, I might as well have stayed at home,
and never have fatigued myself in the world as I had done; and
I used often to say to myself, I could have done this as well
in England, among my friends, as have gone five thousand miles
off to do it among strangers and savages, in a wilderness, and at
such a distance as never to hear from any part of the world that
had the least knowledge of me.
In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the
utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with, but now and
then this neighbour; no work to be done, but by the labour of
my hands; and I used to say, I lived just like a man cast away
upon some desolate island, that had nobody there but himself.
But how just has it been-and how should all men reflect, that
when they compare their present conditions with others that are
worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the exchange, and be
convinced of their former felicity by their experience-I say,
how just has it been, that the truly solitary life I reflected on,
in an island of mere desolation, should be my lot, who had so
often unjustly compared it with the life which I then led, in
which, had I continued, I had in all probability been exceeding
prosperous and rich.
I was in some degree settled in my measures for carrying on
the plantation before my kind friend, the captain of the ship
that took me up at sea, went back-for the ship remained there, in
providing his lading and preparing for his voyage, nearly three
onths-when, telling him what little stock I had left behind me
C






LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


in London, he gave me this friendly and sincere advice:-
" Seignior Inglese," says he (for so he always called me), if you
will give me letters, and a procuration in form to me, with
orders to the person who has your money in London to send your
effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct, and in such
goods as are proper for this country, I will bring you the produce
of them, God willing, at my return; but, since human affairs are
all subject to changes and disasters, I would have you give orders
but for one hundred pounds sterling, which, you say, is half your
stock, and let the hazard be run for the first; so that, if it come
safe, you may order the rest the same way, and, if it miscarry, you
may have the other half to have recourse to for your supply."
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I
could not but be convinced it was the best course I could take;
so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman with whom
I had left my money, and a procuration to the Portuguese
captain, as he desired.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all my
adventures-my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the
Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity of his behaviour, and
what condition I was now in, with all other necessary directions
for my supply; and when this honest captain came to Lisbon,
he found means, by some of the English merchants there, to
send over, not the order only, but a full account of my story to
a merchant in London, who represented it effectually to her;
whereupon she not only delivered the money, but out of her
own pocket sent the Portugal captain a very handsome present
for his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in
English goods, such as the captain had written for, sent them
directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me
to the Brazils; among which, without my direction (for I was
too young in my business to think of them), he had taken care
to have all sorts of tools, ironwork, and utensils necessary for my
plantation, and which were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived I thought my fortune made, for I was
surprised with the joy of it; and my good steward, the captain,
had laid out the five pounds, which my friend had sent him for
a present for himself, to purchase and bring me over a servant,
under bond for six years' service, and would not accept of any
consideration, except a little tobacco, which I would have him
accept, being of my own produce.
Neither was this all; for my goods being all English manufac-
ture, such as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable





ROBINSON CRUSOE


and desirable in the country, I found means to sell them to a
very great advantage; so that I might say I had more than four
times the value of my first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond
my poor neighbour-I mean in the advancement of my planta-
tion; for the first thing I did, I bought me a negro slave, and
an European servant also-I mean another besides that which
the captain brought me from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means of
our greatest adversity, so it was with me. I went on the next
year with great success in my plantation: I raised fifty great
rolls of tobacco on my own ground more than I had disposed of
for necessaries among my neighbours; and these fifty rolls,
being each of above a hundredweight, were well cured, and laid
by against the return of the fleet from Lisbon: and now increas-
ing in business and wealth, my head began to be full of projects
and undertakings beyond my reach; such as are, indeed, often
the ruin of the best heads in business. Had I continued in the
station I was now in, I had room for all the happy things to
have yet befallen me for which my father so earnestly recom-
mended a quiet, retired life, and of which he had so sensibly
described the middle station of life to be full of; but other things
attended me, and I was still to be the wilful agent of all my own
miseries; and particularly, to increase my fault, and double the
reflections upon myself, which in my future sorrows I should have
leisure to make, all these miscarriages were procured by my ap-
parent obstinate adhering to my foolish inclination of wandering
abroad, and pursuing that inclination, in contradiction to the
clearest views of doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of
those prospects, and those measures of life, which nature and
Providence concurred to present me with, and to make my duty.
As I had once done thus in my breaking away from my
parents, so I could not be content now, but I must go and leave
the happy view I had of being a rich and thriving man in my
new plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of
rising faster than the nature of the thing admitted; and thus I
cast myself down again into the deepest gulf of human misery
that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent with life
and a state of health in the world.
To come, then, by the just degrees to the particulars of this
part of my story. You may suppose, that having now lived
almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and
prosper very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned
the language, but had contracted acquaintance and friendship
among my fellow-plalters, as well as among the merchants at St.






LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


Salvador, which was our port; and that, in my discourses among
them, I had frequently given them an account of my two voyages
to the coast of Guinea : the manner of trading with the negroes
there, and how easy it was to purchase upon the coast for trifles
-such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and
the like-not only gold-dust, Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, &c.,
but negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these
heads, but especially to that part which related to the buying of
negroes, which was a trade at that time, not only not far entered
into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on by assientos, or
permission of the kings of Spain and Portugal, and engrossed in
the public stock: so that few negroes were bought, and those
excessively dear.
It happened, being in company with some merchants and
planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very
earnestly, three of them came to me next morning, and told me
they had been musing very much upon what I had discoursed
with them of the last night, and they came to make a secret pro-
posal to me; and, after enjoining me to secrecy, they told me that
they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that they had
all plantations as well as I, and were straitened for nothing so
much as servants ; that as it was a trade that could not be carried
on, because they could not publicly sell the negroes when they
came home, so they desired to make but one voyage, to bring the
negroes on shore privately, and divide them among their own
plantations; and, in a word, the question was whether I would go
their supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading part upon the
coast of Guinea; and they offered me that I should have my equal
share of the negroes, without providing any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been
made to any one that had not had a settlement and a plantation
of his own to look after, which was in a fair way of coming to be
very considerable, and with a good stock upon it; but for me,
that was thus entered and established, and had nothing to do
but to go on as I had begun, for three or four years more, and
to have sent for the other hundred pounds from England; and
who in that time, and with that little addition, could scarce have
failed of being worth three or four thousand pounds sterling,
and that increasing too-for me to think of such a voyage was
the most preposterous thing that ever man in such circumstances
could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more
resist the offer than I could restrain my first rambling designs

















\ ~LL


-Z -


j\~ecre~b~v-o(""as~J


Se~tvie & Padon,






ROBINSON CRUSOE


when my father's good counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I
told them I would go with all my heart, if they would undertake
to look after my plantation in my absence, and would dispose of
it to such as I should direct, if I miscarried. This they all en-
gaged to do, and entered into writings or covenants to do so ; and
I made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and effects in
case of my death, making the captain of the ship that had saved
my life, as before, my universal heir, but obliging him to dispose of
my effects as I had directed in my will; one half of the produce
being to himself, and the other to be shipped to England.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects and
to keep up my plantation. Had I used half as much prudence to
have looked into my own interest, and have made a judgment of
what I ought to have done and not to have done, I had certainly
never gone away from so prosperous an undertaking, leaving all
the probable views of a thriving circumstance, and gone upon a
voyage to sea, attended with all its common hazards, to say nothing
of the reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my
fancy rather than my reason; and, accordingly, the ship being
fitted out, and the cargo furnished, and all things done, as by
agreement, by my partners in the voyage, I went on board in an
evil hour, the 1st September 1659, being the same day eight
years that I went from my father and mother at Hull, in order to
act the rebel to their authority, and the fool to my own interests.
Our ship was about one hundred and, twenty tons burden,
carried six guns and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy,
and myself. We had on board no large cargo of goods, except
of such toys as were fit for our trade with the negroes, such as
beads, bits of glass, shells, and other trifles, especially little
looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.
The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to
the northward upon our own coast, with design to stretch over
for the African coast when we came about ten or twelve degrees
of northern latitude, which, it seems, was the manner of course
in those days. We had very good weather, only excessively hot,
all the way upon our own coast, till we came to the height of
Cape St. Augustino; from whence, keeping further off at sea,
we lost sight of land, and steered as if we were bound for the
isle Fernando de Noronha, holding our course N.E. by N., and
leaving those isles on the east. In this course we passed the
line in about twelve days' time, and were, by our last observation,
in seven degrees twenty-two minutes northern latitude, when a
violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge.






LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


It began from the south-east, came about to the north-west, and
then settled in the north-east; from whence it blew in such a
terrible manner, that for twelve days together we could do
nothing but drive, and, scudding away before it, let it carry us
whither fate and the fury of the winds directed ; and, during
these twelve days, I need not say that I expected every day to
be swallowed tup; nor, indeed, did any in the ship expect
to save their lives.
In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one
of our men die of the calenture, and one man and the boy
washed overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather abating
a little, the master made an observation as well as he could, and
found that he was in about eleven degrees north latitude, but
that he was twenty-two degrees of longitude difference west
from Cape St. Augustino; so that he found he was upon the
coast of Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river
Amazon, toward that of the river Orinoco, commonly called
the Great River; and began to consult with me what course he
should take, for the ship was leaky, and very much disabled, and
he was going directly back to the coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that; and looking over the charts of
the sea-coast of America with him, we concluded there was no
inhabited country for us to have recourse to till we came within
the circle of the Caribbee Islands, and therefore resolved to
stand away for Barbadoes; which, by keeping off at sea, to avoid
the indraft of the Bay or Gulf of Mexico, we might easily per-
form, as we hoped, in about fifteen days' sail; whereas we could
not possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa without
some assistance both to our ship and to ourselves.
With this design we changed our course, and steered away
N.W. by W., in order to reach some of our English islands,
where I hoped for relief. But our voyage was otherwise deter-
mined; for, being in the latitude of twelve degrees eighteen
minutes, a second storm came upon us, which carried us away
with the same impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of the
way of all human commerce, that, had all our lives been saved
as to the sea, we were rather in danger of being devoured by
savages than ever returning to our own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our
men early in the morning cried out, "Land!" and we had no
sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing
whereabouts in the world we were, than the ship struck upon
a sand, and in a moment her motion being so stopped, the sea
broke over her in such a manner that we expected we should






ROBINSON CRUSOE


all have perished immediately; and we were immediately driven
into our close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam and
spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like con-
dition to describe or conceive the consternation of men in such
circumstances. We knew nothing where we were, or upon what
land it was we were driven-whether an island or the main,
whether inhabited or not inhabited. As the rage of the wind
was still great, though rather less than at first, we could not so
much as hope to have the ship hold many minutes without
breaking into pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of miracle,
should turn immediately about. In a word, we sat looking
upon one another, and expecting death every moment, and
every man, accordingly, preparing for another world; for there
was little or nothing more for us to do in this. That which was
our present comfort, and all the comfort we had, was that,
contrary to our expectation, the ship did not break yet, and
that the master said the wind began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate,
yet the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking
too fast for us to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful
condition indeed, and had nothing to do but to think of saving
our lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our stern just
before the storm, but she was first staved by dashing against
the ship's rudder, and in the next place she broke away, and
either sunk or was driven off to sea; so there was no hope from
her. We had another boat on board, but how to get her off into
the sea was a doubtful thing. However, there was no time to
debate, for we fancied that the ship would break in pieces every
minute, and some told us she was actually broken already.
In this distress the mate of our vessel laid hold of the boat,
and with the help of the rest of the men got her slung over
the ship's side; and getting all into her, let go, and committed
ourselves, being eleven in number, to God's mercy and the
wild sea; for though the storm was abated considerably, yet
the sea ran dreadfully high upon the shore, and might be well
called den wild zee, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all saw
plainly that the sea went so high that the boat could not live,
and that we should be inevitably drowned. As to making sail,
we had none, nor if we had could we have done anything with
Sit; so we worked at the oar towards the land, though with
Heavy hearts, like men going to execution; for we all knew
that when the boat came near the shore she would be dashed in






LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


a thousand pieces by the breach of the sea. However, we com-
mitted our souls to God in the most earnest manner; and the
wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened our destruction
with our own hands, pulling as well as we could towards land.
What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep or
shoal, we knew not. The only hope that could rationally give
us the least shadow of expectation was, if we might find some
bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where by great chance
we might have run our boat in, or got under the lee of the land,
and perhaps made smooth water. But there was nothing like
this appeared; but as we made nearer and nearer the shore,
the land looked more frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven about a league and a half,
as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling
astern of us, and plainly bade us expect the coup de grdcc. It took
us with such a fury, that it overset the boat at once ; and separating
us as well from the boat as from one another, gave us no time to
say, 0 God !" for we were all swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt
when I sank into the water; for though I swam very well,
yet I could not deliver myself from the waves so as to draw
breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather carried me, a
vast way on towards the shore, and having spent itself, went
back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but half dead with
the water I took in. I had so much presence of mind, as well
as breath left, that seeing myself nearer the mainland than I
expected, I got upon my feet, and endeavoured to make on
towards the land as fast as I could before another wave should
return and take me up again; but I soon found it was impossible to
avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great hill,
and as furious as an enemy, which I had no means or strength
to contend with: my business was to hold my breath, and raise
myself upon the water if I could; and so, by swimming, to pre-
serve my breathing, and pilot myself towards the shore, if possible,
my greatest concern now being that the sea, as it would carry me
a great way towards the shore when it came on, might not carry
me back again with it when it gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again buried me at once twenty
or thirty feet deep in its own body, and I could feel myself
carried with a mighty force and swiftness towards the shore a
very great way; but I held my breath, and assisted myself to
swim still forward with all my might. I was ready to burst with
holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising up, so, to my
immediate relief, I found my head and hands shoot out above






ROBINSON CRUSOE


the surface of the water; and though it was not two seconds of
time that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave
me breath, and new courage. I was covered again with water
a good while, but not so long but I held it out; and finding the
water had spent itself, and began to return, I struck forward
against the return of the waves, and felt ground again with my
feet. I stood still a few moments to recover breath, and till the
waters went from me, and then took to my heels and ran with
what strength I had further towards the shore. But neither
would this deliver me from the fury of the sea, which came
pouring in after me again; and twice more I was lifted up by the
waves and carried forward as before, the shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well-nigh been fatal to me, for
the sea having hurried me along as before, landed me, or rather
dashed me, against a piece of rock, and that with such force, that
it left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own deliver-
ance; for the blow taking my side and breast, beat the breath
as it were quite out of my body; and had it returned again
immediately, I must have been strangled in the water; but I
recovered a little before the return of the waves, and seeing I
should be covered again with the water, I resolved to hold fast
by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath, if possible, till
the wave went back. Now, as the waves were not so high as at
first, being nearer land, I held my hold till the wave abated, and
then fetched another run, which brought me so near the shore
that the next wave, though it went over me, yet did not so
swallow me up as to carry me away; and the next run I took, I
got to the mainland, where, to my great comfort, I clambered
up the cliffs of the shore and sat me down upon the grass, free
from danger and quite out of the reach of the water.
I was now landed and safe on shore, and began to look up and
thank God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there was
some minutes before scarce any room to hope. I believe it is im-
possible to express, to the life, what the ecstasies and transports
of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I may say, out of the very
grave: and I do not wonder now at the custom, when a male-
factor, who has the halter about his neck, is tied up, and just
going to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought to him-I say,
I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon with it, to let him
blood that very moment they tell him of it, that the surprise may
not drive the animal spirits from the heart and overwhelm him.
"For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first."
I walked about on the shore lifting up my hands, and my






LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


whole being, as I may say, wrapped up in a contemplation of my
deliverance; making a thousand gestures and motions, which I
cannot describe; reflecting upon all my comrades that were
drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved but myself;
for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign of
them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that
were not fellows.
I cast my eye to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and
froth of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far
off; and considered, Lord how was it possible I could get on
shore ?
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my
condition, I began to look round me, to see what kind of place
I was in, and what was next to be done; and I soon found my
comforts abate, and that, in a word, I had a dreadful deliverance;
for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor anything either
to eat or drink to comfort me; neither did I see any prospect
before me but that of perishing with hunger or being devoured
by wild beasts; and that which was particularly afflicting to me
was, that I had no weapon, either to hunt and kill any creature
for my sustenance, or to defend myself against any other creature
that might desire to kill me for theirs. In a word, I had nothing
about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a
box. This was all my provisions; and this threw me into such
terrible agonies of mind, that for a while I ran about like a
madman. Night coming upon me, I began with a heavy heart to
consider what would be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts
in that country, as at night they always come abroad for their
prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time was
to get up into a thick bushy tree like a fir, but thorny, which
grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all night, and consider
the next day what death I should die, for as yet I saw no prospect
of life. I walked about a furlong from the shore, to see if I could
find any fresh water to drink, which I did, to my great joy; and
having drank, and put a little tobacco into my mouth to prevent
hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured
to place myself so that if I should sleep I might not fall. And
having cut me a short stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I
took up my lodging; and having been excessively fatigued, I
fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could
have done in my condition, and found myself more refreshed
with it than, I think, I ever was on such an occasion.






ROBINSON CRUSOE


CHAPTER IV
FIRST WEEKS ON THE ISLAND
W HEN I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the
storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as
before. But that which surprised me most was, that the ship was
lifted off in the night from the sand where she lay by the swelling
of the tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock which I
at first mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the wave
dashing me against it. This being within about a mile from the
shore where I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I
wished myself on board, that at least I might save some necessary
things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked
about me again, and the first thing I found was the boat, which
lay, as the wind and the sea had tossed her up, upon the land,
about two miles on my right hand. I walked as far as I could
upon the shore to have got to her; but found a neck or inlet of
water between me and the boat which was about half-a-mile
broad; so I came back for the present, being more intent upon
getting at the ship, where I hoped to find something for my
present subsistence.
A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the tide
ebbed so far out that I could come within a quarter of a mile of
the ship. And here I found a fresh renewing of my grief; for I
saw evidently that if we had kept on board we had been all safe
-that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had not been
so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort and
company as I now was. This forced tears to my eyes again; but
as there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to
the ship; so I pulled off my clothes-for the weather was hot to
extremity-and took the water. But when I came to the ship
my difficulty was still greater to know how to get on board; for,
as she lay aground, and high out of the water, there was nothing
within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and
the second time I spied a small piece of rope, which I wondered
I did not see at first, hung down by the fore-chains so low, as
that with great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help of that
rope I got up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that
the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her hold,
but that she lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather
earth, that her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head






LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


low, almost to the water. By this means all her quarter was free,
and all that was in that part was dry; for you may be sure my
first work was to search, and to see what was spoiled and what
was free. And, first, I found that all the ship's provisions were
dry and untouched by the water, and being very well disposed to
eat, I went to the bread-room and filled my pockets with biscuit,
and ate it as I went about other things, for I had no time to lose.
I also found some rum in the great cabin, of which I took a large
dram, and which I had, indeed, need enough of to spirit me for
what was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat to
furnish myself with many things which 1 foresaw would be very
necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had;
and this extremity roused my application. We had several spare
yards, and two or three large spars of wood, and a spare top-
mast or two in the ship; I resolved to fall to work with these,
and I flung as many of them overboard as I could manage for
their weight, tying every one with a rope, that they might not
drive away. When this was done I went down the ship's side,
and pulling them to me, I tied four of them together at both
ends as well as I could, in the form of a raft, and laying two or
three short pieces of plank upon them crossways, I found I could
walk upon it very well, but that it was not able to bear any great
weight, the pieces being too light. So I went to work, and with
a carpenter's saw I cut a spare topmast into three lengths, and
added them to my raft, with a great deal of labour and pains.
But the hope of furnishing myself with necessaries encouraged
me to go beyond what I should have been able to have done
upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight.
My next care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what
I laid upon it from the surf of the sea; but I was not long con-
sidering this. I first laid all the planks or boards upon it that I
could get, and having considered well what I most wanted, I
got three of the seamen's chests, which I had broken open,
and emptied, and lowered them down upon my raft; the first
of these I filled with provisions-viz. bread, rice, three Dutch
cheeses, five pieces of dried goat's flesh (which we lived much
upon), and a little remainder of European corn, which had been
laid by for some fowls which we brought to sea with us, but
the fowls were killed. There had been some barley and wheat
together; but, to my great disappointment, I found afterwards
that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found
several cases of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which were






































































-----------


IJ~b~d Wr ~Bem bsad~er 71


C~y,ihi, S & Plo ;, ,, i: 189.





ROBINSON CRUSOE


some cordial waters; and, in all, about five or six gallons of rack.
These I stowed by themselves, there being no need to put them
into the chest, nor any room for them. While I was doing this,
I found the tide begin to flow, though very calm; and I had
the mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I
had left on the shore, upon the sand, swim away. As for my
breeches, which were only linen, and open-kneed, I swam on
board in them and my stockings. However, this set me on
rummaging for clothes, of which I found enough, but took no
more than I wanted for present use, for I had other things which
my eye was more upon-as, first, tools to work with on shore.
And it was after long searching that I found out the carpenter's
chest, which was, indeed, a very useful prize to me, and much
more valuable than a ship-load of gold would have been at that
time. I got it down to my raft, whole as it was, without losing
time to look into it, for I knew in general what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were
two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols.
These I secured first, with some powder-horns and a small bag
of shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there were three
barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where our gunner
had stowed them; but with much search I found them, two of
them dry and good, the third had taken water. Those two I
got to my raft, with the arms. And now I thought myself pretty
well freighted, and began to think how I should get to shore
with them, having neither sail, oar, nor rudder; and the least
capful of wind would have overset all my navigation.
I had three encouragements--st, a smooth, calm sea; 2ndly,
the tide rising, and setting in to the shore; Srdly, what little
wind there was blew me towards the land. And thus, having
found two or three broken oars belonging to the boat-and,
besides the tools which were in the chest, I found two saws, an
axe, and a hammer; with this cargo I put to sea. For a mile or
thereabouts my raft went very well, only that I found it drive a
little distant from the place where I had landed before; by which
I perceived that there was some indraft of the water, and con-
sequently I hoped to find some creek or river there, which I
might make use of as a port to get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a little
opening of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide set
into it; so I guided my raft as well as I could, to keep in the
middle of the stream.
But here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck, which,
if I had, I think verily would have broken my heart; for, knowing





LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


nothing of the coast, my raft ran aground at one end of it upon
a shoal, and not being aground at the other end, it wanted but
a little that all my cargo had slipped off towards the end that was
afloat, and so fallen into the water. I did my utmost, by setting
my back against the chests, to keep them in their places, but
could not thrust off the raft with all my strength; neither durst
I stir from the posture I was in; but holding up the chests with
all my might, I stood in that manner near half-an-hour, in which
time the rising of the water brought me a little more upon a
level; and a little after, the water still rising, my raft floated
again, and I thrust her off with the oar I had into the channel,
and then driving up higher, I at length found myself in the
mouth of a little river, with land on both sides, and a strong
current of tide running up. I looked on both sides for a proper
place to get to shore, for I was not willing to be driven too
high up the river : hoping in time to see some ships at sea, and
therefore resolved to place myself as near the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek,
to which with great pain and difficulty I guided my raft, and at
last got so near that, reaching ground with my oar, I could
thrust her directly in. But here I had like to have dipped all
my cargo into the sea again; for that shore lying pretty steep-
that is to say sloping-there was no place to land, but where
one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie so high, and the
other sink lower, as before, that it would endanger my cargo
again. All that I could do was to wait till the tide was at the
highest, keeping the raft with my oar like an anchor, to hold
the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground, which
I expected the water would flow over; and so it did. As soon
as I found water enough-for my raft drew about a foot of water
-I thrust her upon that flat piece of ground, and there fastened
or moored her, by sticking my two broken oars into the ground,
one on one side, near one end, and one on the other side near
the other end; and thus I lay till the water ebbed away, and
left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper
place for my habitation, and where to stow my goods to secure
them from whatever might happen. Where I was, I yet knew
not; whether on the continent or on an island; whether in-
habited or not inhabited ; whether in danger of wild beasts or
not. There was a hill not above a mile from me, which rose up
very steep and high, and which seemed to overtop some other
hills, which lay as in a ridge from it northward. I took out one
of the fowling pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn of





ROBINSON CRUSOE


powder; and thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to the top
of that hill, where, after I had with great labour and difficulty
got to the top, I saw my fate, to my great affliction-viz. that I
was in an island environed every way with the sea : no land to be
seen except some rocks, which lay a great way off; and two small
islands, less than this, which lay about three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw
good reason to believe, uninhabited except by wild beasts, of
whom, however, I saw none. Yet I saw abundance of fowls, but
knew not their kinds; neither when I killed them could I tell
what was fit for food, and what not. At my coming back, I shot
at a great bird which I saw sitting upon a tree on the side of a
great wood. I believe it was the first gun that had been fired
there since the creation of the world. I had no sooner fired,
than from all parts of the wood there arose an innumerable
number of fowls, of many sorts, making a confused screaming
and crying, and every one according to his usual note, but not
one of them of any kind that I knew. As for the creature I
killed, I took it to be a kind of hawk, its colour and beak re-
sembling it, but it had no talons or claws more than common.
Its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and
fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the
rest of that day. What to do with myself at night I knew not,
nor indeed where to rest, for I was afraid to lie down on the
ground, not knowing but some wild beast might devour me,
though, as I afterwards found, there was really no need for
those fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round with
the chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and made a
kind of hut for that night's lodging. As for food, I yet saw not
which way to supply myself, except that I had seen two or three
creatures like hares run out of the wood where I shot the fowl.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many
things out of the ship which would be useful to me, and par-
ticularly some of the rigging and sails, and such other things as
might come to land; and I resolved to make another voyage on
board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that the first storm
that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I resolved to
set all other things apart till I had got everything out of the
ship that I could get. Then I called a council-that is to say,
in my thoughts-whether I should take back the raft; but this
appeared impracticable: so I resolved to go as before, when the
ide was down; and I did so, only that I stripped before I went





LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


from my hut, having nothing on but my chequered shirt, a pair
of linen drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft;
and, having had experience of the first, I neither made this so
unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought away several
things very useful to me; as first, in the carpenter's stores I
found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great screw-
jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and, above all, that most useful
thing called a grindstone. All these I secured, together with
several things belonging to the gunner, particularly two or three
iron crows, and two barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets,
another fowling-piece, with some small quantity of powder
more; a large bagful of small shot, and a great roll of sheet-
lead; but this last was so heavy, I could not hoist it up to get
it over the ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes that I could
find, and a spare fore-topsail, a hammock, and some bedding;
and with this I loaded my second raft, and brought them all
safe on shore, to my very great comfort.
I was under some apprehension, during my absence from the
land, that at least my provisions might be devoured on shore:
but when I came back I found no sign of any visitor; only there
sat a creature like a wild cat upon one of the chests, which,
when I came towards it, ran away a little distance, and then
stood still. She sat very composed and unconcerned, and looked
full in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with me.
I presented my gun at her, but, as she did not understand it,
she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer to stir
away; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit, though, by the
way, I was not very free of it, for my store was not great: how-
ever, I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled at it,
and ate it, and looked (as if pleased) for more; but I thanked
her, and could spare no more: so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore-though I was fain to
open the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for they
were too heavy, being large casks-I went to work to make me
a little tent with the sail and some poles which I cut for that
purpose: and into this tent I brought everything that I knew
would spoil either with rain or sun; and I piled all the empty
chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from
any sudden attempt, either from man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with
some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end without;
and spreading one of the beds upon the ground, laying my two





ROBINSON CRUSOE


pistols just at my head, and my gun at length by me, I went to
bed for the first time, and slept very quietly all night, for I was
very weary and heavy; for the night before I had slept little,
and had laboured very hard all day to fetch all those things
from the ship, and to get them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was
laid up, I believe, for one man: but I was not satisfied still, for
while the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought I ought to
get everything out of her that I could: so every day at low
water I went on board, and brought away something or other;
but particularly the third time I went I brought away as much of
the rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes and rope-twine
I could get, with a piece of spare canvas, which was to mend the
sails upon occasion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder. In a word,
I brought away all the sails, first and last; only that I was fain to
cut them in pieces, and bring as much at a time as I could, for
they were no more useful to be sails, but as mere canvas only.
But that which comforted me more still, was, that last of all,
after I had made five or six such voyages as these, and thought
I had nothing more to expect from the ship that was worth my
meddling with-I say, after all this, I found a great hogshead of
bread, three large runlets of rum, or spirits, a box of sugar, and
a barrel of fine flour; this was surprising to me, because I had
given over expecting any more provisions, except what was spoiled
by the water. I soon emptied the hogshead of the bread, and
wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I
cut out; and, in a word, I got all this safe on shore also.
The next day I made another voyage, and now, having plun-
dered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I began
with the cables. Cutting the great cable into pieces, such as I
could move, I got two cables and a hawser on shore, with all the
ironwork I could get; and having cut down the spritsail-yard,
and the mizzen-yard, and everything I could, to make a large raft,
I loaded it with all these heavy goods, and came away. But my
good luck began now to leave me; for this raft was so unwieldy,
and so overladen, that, after I had entered the little cove where
I had landed the rest of my goods, not being able to guide it so
handily as I did the other, it overset, and threw me and all my
cargo into the water. As for myself, it was no great harm, for I
was near the shore; but as to my cargo, it was a great part of it
lost, especially the iron, which I expected would have been of
great use to me; however, when the tide was out, I got most of
the pieces of the cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with
infinite labour; for I was fain to dip for it into the water, a work






LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


which fatigued me very much. After this, I went every day on
board, and brought away what I could get.
I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven
times on board the ship, in which time I had brought away all
that one pair of hands could well be supposed capable to bring;
though I believe verily, had the calm weather held, I should
have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece. But pre-
paring the twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind began
to rise: however, at low water I went on board, and though I
thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectually that nothing
more could be found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers in
it, in one of which I found two or three razors, and one pair of
large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good knives and forks :
in another I found about thirty-six pounds value in money-
some European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some
gold, and some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money: "0 drug!"
said I, aloud, "what art thou good for? Thou art not worth to
me-no, not the taking off the ground ; one of those knives is
worth all this heap; I have no manner of use for thee-e'en
remain where thou art, and go to the bottom, as a creature whose
life is not worth saving." However, upon second thoughts I
took it away; and wrapping all this in a piece of canvas, I began
to think of making another raft; but while I was preparing this,
I found the sky overcast, and the wind began to rise, and in a
quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore. It pre-
sently occurred to me that it was in vain to pretend to make a
raft with the wind off shore; and that it was my business to be
gone before the tide of flood began, otherwise I might not be
able to reach the shore at all. Accordingly, I let myself down
into the water, and swam across the channel, which lay between
the ship and the sands, and even that with difficulty enough,
partly with the weight of the things I had about me, and partly
the roughness of the water; for the wind rose very hastily, and
before it was quite high water it blew a storm.
But I had got home to my little tent, where I lay, with all my
wealth about me, very secure. It blew very hard all night, and
in the morning, when I looked out, behold, no more ship was to
seen! I was a little surprised, but recovered myself with the
satisfactory reflection that I had lost no time, nor abated any
diligence, to get everything out of her that could be useful to
me; and that, indeed, there was little left in her that I was able
to bring away, if I had had more time.
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything






ROBINSON CRUSOE


out of her, except what might drive on shore from her wreck;
as, indeed, divers pieces of her afterwards did; but those things
were of small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing
myself against either savages, if any should appear, or wild
beasts, if any were in the island; and I had many thoughts of
the method how to do this, and what kind of dwelling to make
-whether I should make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon
the earth; and, in short, I resolved upon both; the manner
and description of which, it may not be improper to give an
account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not fit for my settlement,
because it was upon a low, moorish ground, near the sea, and I
believed it would not be wholesome, and more particularly
because there was no fresh water near it; so I resolved to find
a more healthy and more convenient spot of ground.
I consulted several things in my situation, which I found
would be proper for me: 1st, health and fresh water, I just now
mentioned; 2ndly, shelter from the heat of the sun; 3rdly,
security from ravenous creatures, whether man or beast; 4thly,
a view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight, I might not
lose any advantage for my deliverance, of which I was not willing
to banish all my expectation yet.
In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on
the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was
steep as a house-side, so that nothing could come down upon me
from the top. On the one side of the rock there was a hollow
place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or door of a cave;
but there was not really any cave or way into the rock at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I
resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above a hundred
yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a green before
my door; and, at the end of it, descended irregularly every way
down into the low ground by the seaside. It was on the N.N.W.
side of the hill; so that it was sheltered from the heat every
day, till it came to a W. and by S. sun, or thereabouts, which, in
those countries, is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent I drew a half-circle before the hollow
place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter from
the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter from its beginning
and ending.
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving
them into the ground till they stood very firm like piles, the
biggest end being out of the ground above five feet and a-half,






LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


and sharpened on the top. The two rows did not stand above
six inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship,
and laid them in rows, one upon another, within the circle,
between these two rows of stakes, up to the top, placing other
stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two feet and a
half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong, that
neither man nor beast could get into it or over it. This cost me
a great deal of time and labour, especially to cut the piles in the
woods, bring them to the place, and drive them into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but
by a short ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when I was
in, I lifted over after me; and so I was completely fenced in and
fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and consequently slept
secure in the night, which otherwise I could not have done;
though, as it appeared afterwards, there was no need of all this
caution from the enemies that I apprehended danger from.
Into this fence or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all
my riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which
you have the account above; and I made a large tent, which to
preserve me from the rains that in one part of the year are very
violent there, I made double-one smaller tent within, and one
larger tent above it; and covered the uppermost with a large
tarpaulin, which I had saved among the sails.
And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had
brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very
good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that
would spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all my goods,
I made up the entrance, which till now I had left open, and so
passed and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock,
and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down out
through my tent, I laid them up within my fence, in the nature
of a terrace, so that it raised the ground within about a foot and
a half; and thus I made me a cave, just behind my tent, which
served me like a cellar to my house.
It cost me much labour and many days before all these things
were brought to perfection; and therefore I must go back to
some other things which took up some of my thoughts. At the
same time it happened, after I had laid my scheme for the setting
up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain falling from
a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened, and
after that a great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it.






ROBINSON CRUSOE


I was not so much surprised with the lightning as I was with the
thought which darted into my mind as swift as the ligntning itself
-Oh, my powder! My very heart sank within me when I
thought that, at one blast, all my powder might be destroyed;
on which, not my defence only, but the providing my food, as
I thought, entirely depended. I was nothing near so anxious
about my own danger, though, had the powder took fire, I
should never have known who had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm
was over I laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying,
and applied myself to make bags and boxes, to separate the
powder, and to keep it a little and a little in a parcel, in the hope
that whatever might come, it might not all take fire at once; and
to keep it so apart that it should not be possible to make one
part fire another. I finished this work in about a fortnight; and
I think my powder, which in all was about two hundred and forty
pounds weight, was divided in not less than a hundred parcels.
As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not apprehend any
danger from that; so I placed it in my new cave, which, in my
fancy, I called my kitchen; and the rest I hid up and down in
holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking
very carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out once
at least every day with my gun, as well to divert myself as to see
if I could kill anything fit for food; and, as near as I could, to
acquaint myself with what the island produced. The first time
I went out, I presently discovered that there were goats in the
island, which was a great satisfaction to me; but then it was
attended with this misfortune to me-viz. that they were so shy,
so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the most difficult thing
in the world to come at them; but I was not discouraged at this,
not doubting but I might now and then shoot one, as it soon
happened; for after I had found their haunts a little, I laid wait
in this manner for them: I observed if they saw me in the
valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would run away,
as in a terrible fright; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and
I was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence I
concluded that, by the position of their optics, their sight was so
directed downward that they (lid not readily see objects that were
above them; so afterwards I took this method-I always climbed
the rocks first, to get above them, and then had frequently a
fair mark.
The first shot I made among these creatures, I killed a she-
goat, which had a little kid by her, which she gave suck to, which






LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


grieved me heartily; for when the old one fell, the kid stood stock
still by her, till I came and took her up; and not only so, but
when I carried the old one with me, upon my shoulders, the kid
followed me quite to my enclosure ; upon which I laid down the
dam, and took the kid in my arms, and carried it over my pale,
in hopes to have bred it up tame; but it would not eat; so I
was forced to kill it and eat it myself. These two supplied me
with flesh a great while, for I ate sparingly, and saved my pro-
visions, my bread especially, as much as possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary
to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn ; and what
I did for that, and also how I enlarged my cave, and what con-
veniences I made, I shall give a full account of in its place ; but I
must now give some little account of myself, and of my thoughts
about living, which, it may well be supposed, were not a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as I was not cast
away upon that island without being driven, as is said, by a
violent storm, quite out of the course of our intended voyage, and
a great way, viz. some hundreds of leagues, out of the ordinary
course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason to consider it
as a determination of Heaven, that in this desolate place, and in
this desolate manner, I should end my life. The tears would run
plentifully down my face when I made these reflections; and some-
times I would expostulate with myself why Providence should
thus completely ruin His creatures, and render them so absolutely
miserable; so without help, abandoned, so entirely depressed,
that it could hardly be rational to be thankful for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to check these
thoughts, and to reprove me ; and particularly one day, walking
with my gun in my hand by the seaside, I was very pensive upon
the subject of my present condition, when reason, as it were,
expostulated with me the other way, thus: Well, you are in a
desolate condition, it is true ; but, pray remember, where are the
rest of you? Did not you come eleven of you in the boat ?
Where are the ten ? Why were they not saved, and you lost ?
Why were you singled out ? Is it better to be here or there ?"
And then I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be considered
with the good that is in them, and with what worse attends them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished for my
subsistence, and what would have been my case if it had not
happened (which was a hundred thousand to one) that the ship
floated from the place where she first struck, and was driven so
near to the shore that I had time to get all these things out of
her; what would have been my case, if I had been forced to have






ROBINSON CRUSOE


lived in the condition in which I at first came on shore, without
necessaries of life, or necessaries to supply and procure them ?
" Particularly," said I, aloud (though to myself), what should I
have done without a gun, without ammunition, without any tools
to make anything, or to work with, without clothes, bedding,
a tent, or any manner of covering?" and that now I had all
these to sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to provide
myself in such a manner as to live without my gun, when my
ammunition was spent: so that I had a tolerable view of subsist-
ing, without any want, as long as I lived; for I considered from
the beginning how I would provide for the accidents that might
happen, and for the time that was to come, even not only after
my ammunition should be spent, but even after my health and
strength should decay.
I confess I had not entertained any notion of my ammunition
being destroyed at one blast-I mean my powder being blown
up by lightning; and this made the thoughts of it so surprising
to me, when it lightened and thundered, as I observed just now.
And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene
of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world
before, I shall take it from its beginning, and continue it in its
order. It was by my account the 30th of September, when, in
the manner as above said, I first set foot upon this horrid island ;
when the sun, being to us in its autumnal equinox, was almost over
my head; for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in the
latitude of nine degrees twenty-two minutes north of the line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into
my thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time for want of
books, and pen and ink, and should even forget the Sabbath
days; but to prevent this, I cut with my knife upon a large post,
in capital letters--and making it into a great cross, I set it up on
the shore where I first landed-" I came on shore here on the
30th September 1659."
Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a notch with
my knife, and every seventh notch was as long again as the rest,
and every first day of the month as long again as that long one;
and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly
reckoning of time.
In the next place, we are to observe that among the many
things which I brought out of the ship, in the several voyages
which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got several things of
less value, but not at all less useful to me, which I omitted setting
down before; as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper, several
parcels in the captain's, mate's, gunner's, and carpenter's keep-






LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


ing; three or four compasses, some mathematical instruments,
dials, perspectives, charts, and books of navigation, all which I
huddled together, whether I might want them or no; also, I
found three very good Bibles, which came to me in my cargo
from England, and which I had packed up among my things;
some Portuguese books also; and among them two or three
Popish prayer-books, and several other books, all which I care-
fully secured. And I must not forget that we had in the ship a
dog and two cats, of whose eminent history I may have occasion to
say something in its place; for I carried both the cats with me; and
as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship of himself, and swam
on shore to me the day after I went on shore with my first cargo,
and was a trusty servant to me many years; I wanted nothing
that he could fetch me, nor any company that he could make up
to me; I only wanted to have him talk to me, but that would not
do. As I observed before, I found pens, ink, and paper, and I
husbanded them to the utmost; and I shall show that while my
ink lasted, I kept things very exact, but after that was gone I could
not, for I could not make any ink by any means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwith-
standing all that I had amassed together; and of these, ink was
one ; as also a spade, pickaxe, and shovel, to dig or remove the
earth ; needles, pins, and thread; as for linen, I soon learned to
want that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily; and
it was near a whole year before I had entirely finished my little
pale, or surrounded my habitation. The piles, or stakes, which
were as heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in cutting
and preparing in the woods, and more, by far, in bringing home;
so that I spent sometimes two days in cutting and bringing home
one of those posts, and a third day in driving it into the ground;
for which purpose I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last
bethought myself of one of the iron crows; which, however,
though I found it, made driving those posts or piles very laborious
and tedious work. But what need I have been concerned at the
tediousness of anything I had to do, seeing I had time enough
to do it in ? nor had I any other employment, if that had been
over, at least that I could foresee, except the ranging the island
to seek for food, which I did, more or less, every day.
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the circum-
stances I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of my affairs in
writing, not so much to leave them to any that were to come after
me-for I was likely to have but few heirs-as to deliver my
thoughts from daily poring over them, and afflicting my mind; and






ROBINSON CRUSOE


as my reason began now to master my despondency, I began to
comfort myself as well as I could, and to set the good against the
evil, that I might have something to distinguish my case from
worse; and I stated very impartially, like debtor and creditor,
the comforts I enjoyed against the miseries I suffered, thus:-


Evil.
I am cast upon a horrible,
desolate island, void of all hope
of recovery.
I am singled out and separ-
ated, as it were, from all the
world, to be miserable.



I am divided from mankind
-a solitaire; one banished
from human society.
I have not clothes to cover
me.

I am without any defence,
or means to resist any violence
of man or beast.


I have no soul to speak to
or relieve me.


Good.
But I am alive; and not
drowned, as all my ship's com-
pany were.
But I am singled out, too,
from all the ship's crew, to be
spared from death; and He
that miraculously saved me
from death can deliver me
from this condition.
But I am not starved, and
perishing on a barren place,
affording no sustenance.
But I am in a hot climate,
where, if I had clothes, I
could hardly wear them.
But I am cast on an island
where I see no wild beasts to
hurt me, as I saw on the coast
of Africa; and what if I had
been shipwrecked there ?
But God wonderfully sent
the ship in near enough to the
shore, that I have got out as
many necessary things as will
either supply my wants or en-
able me to supply myself, even
as long as I live.


Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony that there
was scarce any condition in the world so miserable but there was
something negative or something positive to be thankful for in it;
and let this stand as a direction from the experience of the most
miserable of all conditions in this world : that we may always find
in it something to comfort ourselves from, and to set, in the de-
scription of good and evil, on the credit side of the account.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition,
and given over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship-I






LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


say, giving over these things, I began to apply myself to arrange
my way of living, and to make things as easy to me as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was a tent under
the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts and
cables : but I might now rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind
of wall up against it of turfs, about two feet thick on the outside ;
and after some time (I think it was a year and a half) I raised
rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched or covered it
with boughs of trees, and such things as I could get, to keep out
the rain; which I found at some times of the year very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this
pale, and into the cave which I had made behind me. But I must
observe, too, that at first this was a confused heap of goods, which,
as they lay in no order, so they took up all my place; I had no
room to turn myself: so I set myself to enlarge my cave, and
work farther into the earth ; for it was a loose sandy rock, which
yielded easily to the labour I bestowed on it: and so when I
found I was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways,
to the right hand, into the rock; and then, turning to the right
again, worked quite out, and made me a door to come out on the
outside of my pale or fortification. This gave me not only egress
and regress, as it was a back way to my tent and to my storehouse,
but gave me room to store my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary
things as I found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a
table; for without these I was not able to enjoy the few
comforts I had in the world ; I could not write or eat, or do
several things, with so much pleasure without a table: so I
went to work. And here I must needs observe, that as reason
is the substance and origin of the mathematics, so by stating
and squaring everything by reason, and by making the most
rational judgment of things, every man may be, in time, master
of every mechanic art. I had never handled a tool in my life;
and yet, in time, by labour, application, and contrivance, I
found at last that I wanted nothing but I could have made it,
especially if I had had tools. However, I made abundance of
things, even without tools; and some with no more tools than
an adze and a hatchet, which perhaps were never made that
way before, and that with infinite labour. For example, if I
wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree, set
it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either side with my
axe, till I brought it to be thin as a plank, and then dub it
smooth with my adze. It is true, by this method I could make
but one board out of a whole tree; but this I had no remedy






ROBINSON CRUSOE


for but patience, any more than I had for the prodigious deal
of time and labour which it took me up to make a plank or
board : but my time or labour was little worth, and so it was as
well employed one way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above,
in the first place; and this I did out of the short pieces of
boards that I brought on my raft from the ship. But when I
had wrought out some boards as above, I made large shelves, of
the breadth of a foot and a half, one over another all along one
side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and ironwork on;
and, in a word, to separate everything at large into their places,
that I might come easily at them. I knocked pieces into the
wall of the rock to hang my guns and all things that would
hang up; so that, had my cave been to be seen, it looked like
a general magazine of all necessary things; and I had every-
thing so ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me
to see all my goods in such order, and especially to find my
stock of all necessaries so great.
And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every day's
employment; for, indeed, at first I was in too much hurry, and
not only hurry as to labour, but in too much discomposure of
mind; and my journal would have been full of many dull things;
for example, I must have said thus: "Sept. 30th.-After I had
got to shore, and had escaped drowning, instead of being thank-
ful to God for my deliverance, having first vomited, with the
great quantity of salt water which had got into my stomach, and
recovering myself a little, I ran about the shore wringing my
hands and beating my head and face, exclaiming at my misery,
and crying out,' I was undone, undone !' till, tired and faint,
I was forced to lie down on the ground to repose, but durst not
sleep for fear of being devoured."
Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship,
and got all that I could out of her, yet I could not forbear
getting up to the top of a little mountain and looking out to sea,
in hopes of seeing a ship; then fancy at a vast distance I spied
a sail, please myself with the hopes of it, and then after looking
steadily, till I was almost blind, lose it quite, and sit down and
weep like a child, and thus increase my misery by my folly.
But having gotten over these things in some measure, and
having settled my household staff and habitation, made me a table
and a chair, and all as handsome about me as I could, I began to
keep my journal; of which I shall here give you the copy (though
in it will be told all these particulars over again) as long as it
lasted; for having no more ink, I was forced to leave it off.






LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


CHAPTER V
BUILDS A IlOUSEl

THE JOURNAL
SEPTEMBER 30, 6I(i5.-I, poor miserable Robinson Crusoe,
being shipwrecked during a dreadful storm in the ofling,
came on shore on this dismal, unfortunate island, which 1 called
"The Island of Despair "; all the rest of the ship's company
being drowned, and myself almost dead.
All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at the
dismal circumstances I was brought to-viz. I had neither food,
house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to; and in despair of
any relief, saw nothing but death before nme-either that I
should be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or
starved to death for want of food. At the approach of night
I slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures; but slept soundly,
though it rained all night.
October 1.-In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the
ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven on shore
again much nearer the island ; which, as it was some comfort, on
one hand-for, seeing her set upright, and not broken to pieces,
I hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board, and get some
food and necessaries out of her for my relief--so, on the other
hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades, who, I
imagined, if we had all stayed on board, might have saved the
ship, or, at least, that they would not have been all drowned,
as they were; and that, had the men been saved, we might
perhaps have built us a boat out of the ruins of the ship to
have carried us to some other part of the world. I spent great
part of this day in perplexing myself on these things; but at
length, seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as near
as I could, and then swam on board. This day also it continued
raining, though with no wind at all.
From the 1st of October to the 24th.-All these days entirely
spent in many several voyages to get all I could out of the ship,
which I brought on shore every tide of flood upon rafts. Much
rain also in the days, though with some intervals of fair weather;
but it seems this was the rainy season.
Oct. 20.-I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got upon
it; but, being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly heavy,
I recovered many of them when the tide was out.
Oct. 25.-It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of






ROBINSON CRUSOE


wind; during which time the ship broke in pieces, the wind
blowing a little harder than before, and was no more to be seen,
except the wreck of her, and that only at low water. I spent
this day in covering and securing the goods which I had saved,
that the rain might not spoil them.
Oct. 26.-I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out
a place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself
from any attack in the night, either from wild beasts or men.
Towards night, I fixed upon a proper place, under a rock, and
marked out a semicircle for my encampment; which I resolved
to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification, made of double
piles, lined within with cables, and without with turf.
From the 26th to the 30th I worked very hard in carrying all
my goods to my new habitation, though some part of the time
it rained exceedingly hard.
The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with my
gun, to seek for some food, and discover the country; when I
killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me home, which I after-
wards killed also, because it would not feed.
November 1.-I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there
for the first night; making it as large as I could, with stakes
driven in to swing my hammock upon.
Nov. 2.-I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces of
timber which made my rafts, and with them formed a fence
round me, a little within the place I had marked out for my
fortification.
Nov. 3.-I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like
ducks, which were very good food. In the afternoon went to
work to make me a table.
Nov. 4.-This morning I began to order my times of work, of
going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion-
viz. every morning I walked out with my gun for two or three
hours, if it did not rain; then employed myself to work till
about eleven o'clock; then eat what I had to live on; and from
twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the weather being excessively
hot; and then, in the evening, to work again. The working
part of this day and of the next were wholly employed in making
my table, for I was yet but a very sorry workman, though time
and necessity made me a complete natural mechanic soon after,
as I believe they would do any one else.
Nov. 5.-This day went abroad with my gun and my dog, and
killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for
nothing; every creature that I killed I took off the skins and
preserved them. Coming back by the sea-shore, I saw many






LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


sorts of sea-fowls, which I did not understand; but was surprised,
and almost frightened, with two or three seals, which, while I
was gazing at, not well knowing what they were, got into the
sea, and escaped me for that time.
Nov. 6.-After my morning walk I went to work with my
table again, and finished it, though not to my liking; nor was it
long before I learned to mend it.
Nov. 7.-Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th,
8th, 9th, 10th, and part of the 12th (for the llth was Sunday) I
took wholly up to make me a chair, and with much ado brought
it to a tolerable shape, but never to please me; and even in the
making I pulled it in pieces several times.
Note.-I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for, omitting
my mark for them on my post, I forgot which was which.
Nov. 13.-This day it rained, which refreshed me exceedingly,
and cooled the earth; but it was accompanied with terrible
thunder and lightning, which frightened me dreadfully, for fear
of my powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved to separate
my stock of powder into as many little parcels as possible, that
it might not be in danger.
Nov. 14, 15, 16..-These three days I spent in making little
square chests, or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or two
pounds at most, of powder; and so, putting the powder in, I
stowed it in places as secure and remote from one another as
possible. On one of these three days I killed a large bird that
was good to eat, but 1 knew not what to call it.
Nov. 17.-This day I began to dig behind my tent into the
rock, to make room for my further conveniency.
Note.-Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work-
viz. a pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow or basket; so I de-
sisted from my work, and began to consider how to supply that
want, and make me some tools. As for the pickaxe, I made use
of the iron crows, which were proper enough, though heavy;
but the next thing was a shovel or spade; this was so absolutely
necessary, that, indeed, I could do nothing effectually without
it; but what kind of one to make I knew not.
Nov. 1 8.-The next day, in searching the woods, I found a tree
of that wood, or like it, which in the Brazils they call the iron-
tree, for its exceeding hardness. Of this, with great labour, and
almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece, and brought it home, too,
with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy. The excessive
hardness of the wood, and my having no other way, made me a
long while upon this machine, for I worked it effectually by little
and little into the form of a shovel or spade; the handle exactly





ROBINSON CRUSOE


shaped like ours in England, only that the board part having no
iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not last me so long; however,
it served well enough for the uses which I had occasion to put
it to; but never was a shovel, I believe, made after that fashion,
or so long in making.
I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket or a wheelbarrow.
A basket I could not make by any means, having no such things
as twigs that would bend to make wicker-ware-at least, none
yet found out; and as to a wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make
all but the wheel; but that I had no notion of; neither did I know
how to go about it; besides, I had no possible way to make the
iron gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the wheel to run in; so
I gave it over, and so, for carrying away the earth which I dug
out of the cave, I made me a thing like a hod which the labourers
carry mortar in when they serve the bricklayers. This was not
so difficult to me as the making the shovel; and yet this and the
shovel, and the attempt which I made in vain to make a wheel-
barrow, took me up no less than four days-I mean always except-
ing my morning walk with my gun, which I seldom failed, and
very seldom failed also bringing home something fit to eat.
Nov. 23.-My other work having now stood still, because of
my making these tools, when they were finished I went on, and
working every day, as my strength and time allowed, I spent
eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening my cave, that
it might hold my goods commodiously.
Note.-During all this time I worked to make this room or
cave spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse or maga-
zine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar. As for my lodging,
1 kept to the tent; except that sometimes, in the wet season
of the year, it rained so hard that I could not keep myself dry,
which caused me afterwards to cover all my place within my pale
with long poles, in the form of rafters, leaning against the rock,
and load them with flags and large leaves of trees, like a thatch.
December 10.-I began now to think my cave or vault finished,
when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great
quantity of earth fell down from the top on one side; so much
that, in short, it frighted me, and not without reason, too, for if I
had been under it, I had never wanted a gravedigger. I had now
a great deal of work to do over again, for I had the loose earth to
carry out; and, which was of more importance, I had the ceiling
to prop up, so that I might be sure no more would come down.
Dec. 11.-This day I went to work with it accordingly, and got
two shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with two pieces
of boards across over each post; this I finished the next day;





LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


and setting more posts up with boards, in about a week more I
had the roof secured, and the posts, standing in rows, served me
for partitions to part off the house.
Dec. 17.-From this day to the 20th I placed shelves, and
knocked up nails on the posts, to hang everything up that could
be hung up; and now I began to be in some order within doors.
Dec. 20.-Now I carried everything into the cave, and began
to furnish my house, and set up some pieces of boards like a
dresser, to order my victuals upon; but boards began to be very
scarce with me; also, I made me another table.
Dec. 24.-Much rain all night and all day. No stirring out.
Dec. 25.-Rain all day.
Dec. 26.-No rain, and the earth much cooler than before, and
pleasanter.
Dec. 27.-Killed a young goat, and lamed another, so that I
caught it and led it home in a string; when I had it at home, I
bound and splintered up its leg, which was broke.
N.B.-I took such care of it that it lived, and the leg grew
well and as strong as ever; but, by my nursing it so long, it grew
tame, and fed upon the little green at my door, and would not
go away. This was the first time that I entertained a thought
of breeding up some tame creatures, that I might have food when
my powder and shot was all spent.
Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31.-Great heats, and no breeze, so that there
was no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food; this time
I spent in putting all my things in order within doors.
January 1.-Very hot still: but I went abroad early and late
with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This even-
ing, going farther into the valleys which lay towards the centre
of the island, I found there were plenty of goats, though exceed-
ingly shy, and hard to come at; however, I resolved to try if I
could not bring my dog to hunt them down.
Jan. 2.-Accordingly, the next day I went out with my dog,
and set him upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they all
faced about upon the dog, and he knew his danger too well, for
he would not come near them.
Jan. 3.-I began my fence or wall; which, being still jealous
of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very thick
and strong.
N.B.-This wall being described before, I purposely omit what
was said in the journal; it is sufficient to observe, that I was no
less time than from the 2nd of January to the 14th of April work-
ing, finishing, and perfecting this wall, though it was no more
than about twenty-four yards in length, being a half-circle from







ROBINSON CRUSOE


one place in the rock to another place, about eight yards from it,
the door of the cave being in the centre behind it.
All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me
many days, nay, sometimes weeks together; but I thought I
should never be perfectly secure till this wall was finished; and
it is scarce credible what inexpressible labour everything was
done with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods and
driving them into the ground; for I made them much bigger
than I needed to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double fenced,
with a turf wall raised up close to it, I perceived myself that if
any people were to come on shore there, they would not perceive
anything like a habitation; and it was very well I did so, as may
be observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable occasion.
During this time I made my rounds in the woods for game
every day when the rain permitted me, and made frequent dis-
coveries in these walks of something or other to my advantage;
particularly, I found a kind of wild pigeons, which build, not as
wood-pigeons in a tree, but rather as house-pigeons, in the holes
of the rocks; and taking some young ones, I endeavoured to
breed them up tame, and did so; but when they grew older they
flew away, which perhaps was at first for want of feeding them,
for I had nothing to give them; however, I frequently found
their nests, and got their young ones, which were very good meat.
And now, in the managing my household affairs, I found myself
wanting in many things, which I thought at first it was impos-
sible for me to make; as, indeed, with some of them it was:
for instance, I could never make a cask to be hooped. I had
a small runlet or two, as I observed before; but I could never
arrive at the capacity of making one by them, though I spent
many weeks about it; I could neither put in the heads, or join
the staves so true to one another as to make them hold water;
so I gave that also over. In the next place, I was at a great loss
for candles; so that as soon as ever it was dark, which was
generally by seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I re-
membered the lump of beeswax with which I made candles in
my African adventure; but I had none of that now; the only
remedy I had was, that when I had killed a goat I saved the
tallow, and with a little dish made of clay, which I baked in the
sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum, I made me a lamp;
and this gave me light, though not a clear, steady light, like a
candle. In the middle of all my labours it happened that, rum-
maging my things, I found a little bag which, as I hinted before,
had been filled with corn for the feeding of poultry-not for this






LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the ship came from Lisbon.
The little remainder of corn that had been in the bag was all
devoured by the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but husks
and dust; and being willing to have the bag for some other use
(I think it was to put powder in, when I divided it for fear of the
lightning, or some such use), I shook the husks of corn out of it
on one side of my fortification, under the rock.
It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned that
I threw this stuff away, taking no notice, and not so much as
remembering that I had thrown anything there, when, about a
month after, or thereabouts, I saw some few stalks of something
green shooting out of the ground, which I fancied might be
some plant I had not seen; but I was surprised, and perfectly
astonished, when, after a little longer time, I saw about ten or
twelve ears come out, which were perfect green barley, of the
same kind as our European-nay, as our English barley.
It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of
my thoughts on this occasion. I had hitherto acted upon no
religious foundation at all; indeed, I had very few notions of
religion in my head, nor had entertained any sense of anything
that had befallen me otherwise than as chance, or, as we lightly
say, what pleases God, without so much as inquiring into the end
of Providence in these things, or His order in governing events
for the world. But after I saw barley grow there, in a climate
which I knew was not proper for corn, and especially that I knew
not how it came there, it startled me strangely, and I began to
suggest that God had miraculously caused His grain to grow
without any help of seed sown, and that it was so directed purely
for my sustenance on that wild, miserable place.
This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my
eyes, and I began to bless myself that such a prodigy of nature
should happen upon my account; and this was the more strange
to me, because I saw near it still, all along by the side of the
rock, some other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks of
rice, and which I knew, because I had seen it grow in Africa
when I was ashore there.
I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence
for my support, but not doubting that there was more in the place,
I went all over that part of the island, where I had been before,
peering in every corner, and under every rock, to see for more of
it, but I could not find any. At last it occurred to my thoughts
that I shook a bag of chickens' meat out in that place; and then
the wonder began to cease; and I must confess my religious
thankfulness to God's providence began to abate, too, upon the






ROBINSON CRUSOE


discovering that all this was nothing but what was common;
though I ought to have been as thankful for so strange and
unforeseen a providence as if it had been miraculous; for it was
really the work of Providence to me, that should order or appoint
that ten or twelve grains of corn should remain unspoiled, when
the rats had destroyed all the rest, as if it had been dropped from
heaven; as also, that I should throw it out in that particular
place, where, it being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang up
immediately; whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere else at that
time, it had been burnt up and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in
their season, which was about the end of June; and, laying up
every corn, I resolved to sow them all again, hoping in time to
have some quantity sufficient to supply me with bread. But it
was not till the fourth year that I could allow myself the least
grain of this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly, as I shall
say afterwards, in its order; for I lost all that I sowed the first
season by not observing the proper time; for I sowed it just
before the dry season, so that it never came up at all, at least
not as it would have done; of which in its place.
Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty
stalks of rice, which I preserved with the same care and for the
same use, or to the same purpose-to make me bread, or rather
food; for I found ways to cook it without baking, though I did
that also after some time.
But to return to my Journal.
I worked excessive hard these three or four months to get
my wall done; and the 14th of April I closed it up, contriving
to go into it, not by a door but over the wall, by a ladder, that
there might be no sign on the outside of my habitation.
April 16.-I finished the ladder; so I went up the ladder to
the top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it down in the
inside. This was a complete enclosure to me; for within I had
room enough, and nothing could come at me from without,
unless it could first mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished I had almost
had all my labour overthrown at once, and myself killed. The
case was thus: As I was busy in the inside, behind my tent, just
at the entrance into my cave, I was terribly frighted with a most
dreadful, surprising thing indeed; for all on a sudden I found
the earth come crumbling down from the roof of my cave, and
from the edge of the hill over my head, and two of the posts I
had set up in the cave cracked in a frightful manner. I was
heartily scared; but thought nothing of what was really the






LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


cause, only thinking that the top of my cave was fallen in, as
some of it had done before : and for fear I should be buried in it
I ran forward to my ladder, and not thinking myself safe there
neither, I got over my wall for fear of the pieces of the hill,
which I expected might roll down upon me. I had no sooner
stepped down upon the firm ground, than I plainly saw it was a
terrible earthquake ; for the ground I stood on shook three times
at about eight minutes' distance, with three such shocks as would
have overturned the strongest building that could be supposed
to have stood on the earth; and a great piece of the top of a
rock which stood about half a mile from me next the sea fell
down with such a terrible noise as I never heard in all my life.
I perceived also the very sea was put into violent motion by it;
and I believe the shocks were stronger under the water than on
the island.
I was so much amazed with the thing itself, having never felt
the like, nor discoursed with any one that had, that I was like
one dead or stupefied; and the motion of the earth made my
stomach sick, like one that was tossed at sea; but the noise of
the falling of the rock awakened me, as it were, and rousing me
from the stupefied condition I was in, filled me with horror; and
I thought of nothing then but the hill falling upon my tent and
all my household goods, and burying all at once; and this sunk
my very soul within me a second time.
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some
time, I began to take courage; and yet I had not heart enough
to go over my wall again, for fear of being buried alive, but sat
still upon the ground greatly cast down and disconsolate, not
knowing what to do. All this while I had not the least serious
religious thought; nothing but the common Lord have mercy
upon me !" and when it was over that went away too.
While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow cloudy, as
if it would rain. Soon after that the wind arose by little and
little, so that in less than half-an-hour it blew a most dreadful
hurricane; the sea was all on a sudden covered over with foam
and froth ; the shore was covered with the breach of the water;
the trees were torn up by the roots, and a terrible storm it was.
This held about three hours, and then began to abate; and in two
hours more it was quite calm, and began to rain very hard. All
this while I sat upon the ground very much terrified and de-
jected ; when on a sudden it came into my thoughts, that these
winds and rain being the consequences of the earthquake, the
earthquake itself was spent and over, and I might venture into
my cave again. With this thought my spirits began to revive






ROBINSON CRUSOE


and the rain also helping to persuade me, I went in and sat
down in my tent. But the rain was so violent that my tent was
ready to be beaten down with it; and I was forced to go into
my cave, though very much afraid and uneasy, for fear it should
fall on my head. This violent rain forced me to a new work-
viz. to cut a hole through my new fortification, like a sink, to
let the water go out, which would else have flooded my cave.
After I had been in my cave for some time, and found still no
more shocks of the earthquake follow, I began to be more com-
posed. And now, to support my spirits, which indeed wanted it
very much, I went to my little store, and took a small sup of
rum; which, however, I did then and always very sparingly,
knowing I could have no more when that was gone. It con-
tinued raining all that night and great part of the next day, so
that I could not stir abroad; but my mind being more composed,
I began to think of what I had best do; concluding that if the
island was subject to these earthquakes, there would be no living
for me in a cave, but I must consider of building a little hut in
an open place which I might surround with a wall, as I had done
here, and so make myself secure from wild beasts or men; for I
concluded, if I stayed where I was, I should certainly one time
or other be buried alive.
With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent from the
place where it stood, which was just under the hanging precipice
of the hill; and which, if it should be shaken again, would
certainly fall upon my tent; and I spent the two next days, being
the 19th and 20th of April, in contriving where and how to remove
my habitation. The fear of being swallowed up alive made me
that I never slept in quiet; and yet the apprehension of lying
abroad without any fence was almost equal to it; but still, when
I looked about, and saw how everything was put in order, how
pleasantly concealed I was, and how safe from danger, it made me
very loath to remove. In the meantime it occurred to me that
it would require a vast deal of time for me to do this, and that I
must be contented to venture where I was, till I had formed a
camp for myself, and had secured it so as to remove to it. So
with this resolution I composed myself for a time, and resolved
that I would go to work with all speed to build me a wall with
piles and cables, &c., in a circle, as before, and set my tent up in
it when it was finished; but that I would venture to stay where
I was till it was finished, and fit to remove. This was the 21st.
April 22.-The next morning I began to consider of means to
put this resolve into execution; but I was at a great loss about
my tools. I had three large axes, and abundance of hatchets (for






LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


we carried the hatchets for traffic with the Indians); but with
much chopping and cutting knotty hard wood, they were all full
of notches, and dull; and though I had a grindstone, I could not
turn it and grind my tools too. This cost me as much thought
as a statesman would have bestowed upon a grand point of
politics, or a judge upon the life and death of a man. At length
I contrived a wheel with a string, to turn it with my foot, that I
might have both my hands at liberty. Note.-I had never seen
any such thing in England, or at least, not to take notice how it
was done, though since I have observed it is very common there;
besides that, my grindstone was very large and heavy. This
machine cost me a full week's work to bring it to perfection.
April 28, 29.-These two whole days I took up in grinding
my tools, my machine for turning my grindstone performing
very well.
April 30.-Having perceived my bread had been low a great
while, now I took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one
biscuit cake a day, which made my heart very heavy.
May 1.-In the morning, looking towards the sea side, the tide
being low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary,
and it looked like a cask; when I came to it, I found a small
barrel, and two or three pieces of the wreck of the ship, which
were driven on shore by the late hurricane; and looking towards
the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher out of the
water than it used to do. I examined the barrel which was
driven on shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder; but
it had taken water, and the powder was caked as hard as a stone;
however, I rolled it farther on shore for the present, and went on
upon the sands, as near as I could to the wreck of the ship, to
look for more.


CHAPTER VI
ILL AND CONSCIENCE-STRICKEN
W HEN I came down to the ship I found it strangely removed.
The forecastle, which lay before buried in sand, was heaved
up at least six feet, and the stern, which was broke in pieces and
parted from the rest by the force of the sea, soon after I had left
rummaging her, was tossed as it were up, and cast on one side;
and the sand was thrown so high on that side next her stern,
that whereas there was a great place of water before, so that I
could not come within a quarter of a mile of the wreck without





ROBINSON CRUSOE


swimming, I could now walk quite up to her when the tide was
out. I was surprised with this at first, but soon concluded it
must be done by the earthquake; and as by this violence the
ship was more broke open than formerly, so many things came
daily on shore, which the sea had loosened, and which the winds
and water rolled by degrees to the land.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing
my habitation, and I busied myself mightily, that day especially,
in searching whether I could make any way into the ship; but I
found nothing was to be expected of that kind, for all the inside
of the ship was choked up with sand. However, as I had learned
not to despair of anything, I resolved to pull everything to pieces
that I could of the ship, concluding that everything I could get
from her would be of some use or other to me.
May 3.-I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam
through, which I thought held some of the upper part or quarter-
deck together, and when I had cut it through, I cleared away
the sand as well as I could from the side which lay highest; but
the tide coming in, I was obliged to give over for that time.
May 4.-I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst
eat of, till I was weary of my sport; when, just going to leave
off, I caught a young dolphin. I had made me a long line of some
rope-yarn, but I had no hooks; yet I frequently caught fish
enough, as much as I cared to eat; all which I dried in the sun,
and ate them dry.
May 5.-Worked on the wreck; cut another beam asunder,
and brought three great fir planks off from the decks, which I
tied together, and made to float on shore when the tide of flood
came on.
May 6.-Worked on the wreck; got several iron bolts out of
her and other pieces of ironwork. Worked very hard, and came
home very much tired, and had thoughts of giving it over.
May 7.-Went to the wreck again, not with an intent to work,
but found the weight of the wreck had broke itself down, the
beams being cut; that several pieces of the ship seemed to lie
loose, and the inside of the hold lay so open that I could see into
it; but it was almost full of water and sand.
May 8.-Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to
wrench up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the water or
sand. I wrenched open two planks, and brought them on shore
also with the tide. I left the iron crow in the wreck for next
day.
May 9.-Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way into
the body of the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened them





LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


with the crow, but could not break them up. I felt also a roll of
English lead, and could stir it, but it was too heavy to remove.
May 10-14.-Went every day to the wreck; and got a great
many pieces of timber, and boards, or plank, and two or three
hundredweight of iron.
May 15.-I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a
piece off the roll of lead by placing the edge of one hatchet and
driving it with the other; but as it lay about a foot and a half
in the water, I could not make any blow to drive the hatchet.
May 16.-It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck
appeared more broken by the force of the water; but I stayed
so long in the woods, to get pigeons for food, that the tide
prevented my going to the wreck that day.
May 17.-I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore, at
a great distance, near two miles off me, but resolved to see what
they were, and found it was a piece of the head, but too heavy
for me to bring away.
May 24.-Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck; and
with hard labour I loosened some things so much with the crow,
that the first flowing tide several casks floated out, and two of
the seamen's chests; but the wind blowing from the shore,
nothing came to land that day but pieces of timber, and a
hogshead, which had some Brazil pork in it; but the salt water
and the sand had spoiled it. I continued this work every day
to the 15th of June, except the time necessary to get food,
which I always appointed, during this part of my employment,
to be when the tide was up, that I might be ready when it was
ebbed out; and by this time I had got timber and plank and
ironwork enough to have built a good boat, if I had known
how; and also I got, at several times and in several pieces, near
one hundredweight of the sheet lead.
June 16.-Going down to the seaside, I found a large tortoise
or turtle. This was the first I had seen, which, it seems, was
only my misfortune, not any defect of the place, or scarcity; for
had I happened to be on the other side of the island, I might
have had hundreds of them every day, as I found afterwards;
but perhaps had paid dear enough for them.
June 17.-I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her three-
score eggs; and her flesh was to me, at that time, the most
savoury and pleasant that ever I tasted in my life, having had no
flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I landed in this horrid place.
June 18.-Rained all day, and I stayed within. I thought at
this time the rain felt cold, and I was something chilly; which
I knew was not usual in that latitude.





ROBINSON CRUSOE


June 19.-Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been
cold.
June 20.-No rest all night; violent pains in my head, and
feverish.
June 21.-Very ill; frighted almost to death with the appre-
hensions of my sad condition-to be sick, and no help. Prayed
to God, for the first time since the storm off Hull, but scarce
knew what I said, or why, my thoughts being all confused.
June 22.-A little better; but under dreadful apprehensions
of sickness.
June 23.-Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a
violent headache.
June 24.-Much better.
June 25.-An ague very violent; the fit held me seven hours;
cold fit and hot, with faint sweats after it.
June 26.-Better; and having no victuals to eat, took my gun,
but found myself very weak. However, I killed a she-goat, and
with much difficulty got it home, and broiled some of it, and
ate. I would fain have stewed it, and made some broth, but
had no pot.
June 27.-The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all day,
and neither ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for thirst; but
so weak, I had not strength to stand up, or to get myself any
water to drink. Prayed to God again, but was light-headed;
and when I was not, I was so ignorant that I knew not what to
say; only I lay and cried, "Lord, look upon me Lord, pity me !
Lord, have mercy upon me !" I suppose I did nothing else for
two or three hours; till, the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and did
not wake till far in the night. When I awoke, I found myself
much refreshed, but weak, and exceeding thirsty. However, as
I had no water in my habitation, I was forced to lie till morning,
and went to sleep again. In this second sleep I had this terrible
dream: I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on the out-
side of my wall, where I sat when the storm blew after the
earthquake, and that I saw a man descend from a great black
cloud, in a bright flame of fire, and light upon the ground. He
was all over as bright as a flame, so that I could but just bear
to look towards him; his countenance was most inexpressibly
dreadful, impossible for words to describe. When he stepped
upon the ground with his feet, I thought the earth trembled,
just as it had done before in the earthquake, and all the air
looked, to my apprehension, as if it had been filled with flashes
of fire. He was no sooner landed upon the earth, but he moved
forward towards me, with a long spear or weapon in his hand, to






LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


kill me; and when he came to a rising ground, at some distance,
he spoke to me-or I heard a voice so terrible that it is im-
possible to express the terror of it. All that I can say I under-
stood was this: "Seeing all these things have not brought thee
to repentance, now thou shalt die;" at which words, I thought
he lifted up the spear that was in his hand to kill me.
No one that shall ever read this account will expect that I
should be able to describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible
vision. I mean, that even while it was a dream, I even dreamed
of those horrors. Nor is it any more possible to describe the
impression that remained upon my mind when I awaked, and
found it was but a dream.
I had, alas! no divine knowledge. What I had received by
the good instruction of my father was then worn out by an un-
interrupted series, for eight years, of seafaring wickedness, and
a constant conversation with none but such as were, like myself,
wicked and profane to the last degree. I do not remember that
I had, in all that time, one thought that so much as tended either
to looking upwards towards God, or inwards towards a reflection
upon my own ways; but a certain stupidity of soul, without
desire of good, or conscience of evil, had entirely overwhelmed
me; and I was all that the most hardened, unthinking, wicked
creature among our common sailors can be supposed to be; not
having the least sense, either of the fear of God in danger, or of
thankfulness to God in deliverance.
In the relating what is already past of my story, this will be
the more easily believed when I shall add, that through all the
variety of miseries that had to this day befallen me, I never had
so much as one thought of it being the hand of God, or that it
was a just punishment for my sin-my rebellious behaviour
against my father-or my present sins, which were great-or so
much as a punishment for the general course of my wicked life.
When I was on the desperate expedition on the desert shores of
Africa, I never had so much as one thought of what would be-
come of me, or one wish to God to direct me whither I should
go, or to keep me from the danger which apparently surrounded
me, as well from voracious creatures as cruel savages. But I was
merely thoughtless of a God or a Providence, acted like a mere
brute, from the principles of nature, and by the dictates of
common sense only, and, indeed, hardly that. When I was
delivered and taken up at sea by the Portugal captain, well used,
and dealt justly and honourably with, as well as charitably, I had
not the least thankfulness in my thoughts. When, again, 1 was
shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of drowning on this island,






ROBINSON CRUSOE


I was as far from remorse, or looking on it as a judgment. I only
said to myself often, that I was an unfortunate dog, and born to
be always miserable.
It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found all my
ship's crew drowned and myself spared, I was surprised with a
kind of ecstasy, and some transports of soul, which, had the grace
of God assisted, might have come up to true thankfulness; but
it ended where it began, in a mere common flight of joy, or, as
I may say, being glad I was alive, without the least reflection
upon the distinguished goodness of the hand which had preserved
me, and had singled me out to be preserved when all the rest
were destroyed, or an inquiry why Providence had been thus
merciful unto me. Even just the same common sort of joy which
seamen generally have, after they are got safe ashore from a ship-
wreck, which they drown all in the next bowl of punch, and
forget almost as soon as it is over; and all the rest of my life was
like it. Even when I was afterwards, on due consideration, made
sensible of my condition, how I was cast on this dreadful place,
out of the reach of human kind, out of all hope of relief, or
prospect of redemption, as soon as I saw but a prospect of living,
and that I should not starve and perish for hunger, all the sense
of my affliction wore off; and I began to be very easy, applied
myself to the works proper for my preservation and supply, and
was far enough from being afflicted at my condition, as a judg-
ment from heaven, or as the hand of God against me: these were
thoughts which very seldom entered my head.
The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my Journal, had
at first some little influence upon me, and began to affect me with
seriousness, as long as I thought it had something miraculous in
it; but as soon as ever that part of the thought was removed, all
the impression that was raised from it wore off also, as I have
noted already. Even the earthquake, though nothing could be
more terrible in its nature, or more immediately directing to the
invisible Power which alone directs such things, yet no sooner
was the first fright over, but the impression it had made went off
also. I had no more sense of God or His judgments-much less
of the present affliction of my circumstances being from His hand
-than if I had been in the most prosperous condition of life.
But now, when I began to be sick, and a leisurely view of the
miseries of death came to place itself before me; when my spirits
began to sink under the burden of a strong distemper, and nature
was exhausted with the violence of the fever; conscience, that
had slept so long, began to awake, and I began to reproach my-
self with my past life, in which I had so evidently, by uncommon






LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


wickedness, provoked the justice of God to lay me under un-
common strokes, and to deal with me in so vindictive a manner.
These reflections oppressed me for the second or third day of my
distemper; and in the violence, as well of the fever as of the
dreadful reproaches of my conscience, extorted some words from
me like praying to God, though I cannot say they were either a
prayer attended with desires or with hopes: it was rather the
voice of mere fright and distress. My thoughts were confused,
the convictions great upon my mind, and the horror of dying in
such a miserable condition raised vapours into my head with the
mere apprehension; and in these hurries of my soul I knew not
what my tongue might express. But it was rather exclamation,
such as, Lord, what a miserable creature am I If I should be
sick, I shall certainly die for want of help; and what will become
of me !" Then the tears burst out of my eyes, and I could say
no more for a good while. In this interval the good advice of
my father came to my mind, and presently his prediction, which
I mentioned at the beginning of this story-viz. that if I did
take this foolish step, God would not bless me, and I would have
leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected his counsel
when there might be none to assist in my recovery. "Now,"
said I, aloud, "my dear father's words are come to pass; God's
justice has overtaken me, and I have none to help or hear me.
I rejected the voice of Providence, which had mercifully put me
in a posture or station of life wherein I might have been happy
and easy; but I would neither see it myself, nor learn to know
the blessing of it from my parents. I left them to mourn over
my folly, and now I am left to mourn under the consequences of
it. I refused their help and assistance, who would have lifted
me in the world, and would have made everything easy to me;
and now I have difficulties to struggle with, too great for even
nature itself to support, and no assistance, no help, no comfort,
no advice." Then I cried out, Lord, be my help, for I am in
great distress." This was the first prayer, if I may call it so, that
I had made for many years.
But to return to my Journal.
June 28.-Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I
had had, and the fit being entirely off, I got up; and though the
fright and terror of my dream was very great, yet I considered
that the fit of the ague would return again the next day, and now
was my time to get something to refresh and support myself when
I should be ill; and the first thing I did, I filled a large square
case-bottle with water, and set it upon my table, in reach of my
bed; and to take off the chill or aguish disposition of the water,






ROBINSON CRUSOE


I put about a quarter of a pint of rum into it, and mixed them
together. Then I got me a piece of the goat's flesh and broiled
it on the coals, but could eat very little. I walked about, but
was very weak, and withal very sad and heavy-hearted under a
sense of my miserable condition, dreading the return of my dis-
temper the next day. At night I made my supper of three of
the turtle's eggs, which I roasted in the ashes, and ate, as we
call it, in the shell, and this was the first bit of meat I had ever
asked God's blessing to, that I could remember, in my whole life.
After I had eaten I tried to walk, but found myself so weak that
I could hardly carry a gun, for I never went out without that;
so I went but a little way, and sat down upon the ground, look-
ing out upon the sea, which was just before me, and very calm
and smooth. As I sat here, some such thoughts as these occurred
to me: What is this earth and sea, of which I have seen so much?
Whence is it produced? And what am I, and all the other
creatures wild and tame, human and brutal ? Whence are we?
Sure we are all made by some secret Power, who formed the
earth and sea, the air and sky. And who is that? Then it
followed most naturally, it is God that has made all. Well, but
then it came on strangely, if God has made all these things, He
guides and governs them all, and all things that concern them;
for the Power that could make all things must certainly have
power to guide and direct them. If so, nothing can happen in
the great circuit of His works, either without His knowledge or
appointment.
And if nothing happens without His knowledge, He knows
that I am here, and am in this dreadful condition; and if nothing
happens without His appointment, He has appointed all this to
befall me. Nothing occurred to my thought to contradict any
of these conclusions, and therefore it rested upon me with the
greater force, that it must needs be that God had appointed all
this to befall me; that I was brought into this miserable circum-
stance by His direction, He having the sole power, not of me
only, but of everything that happened in the world. Immedi-
ately it followed: Why has God done this to me ? What have
I done to be thus used? My conscience presently checked me
in that inquiry, as if I had blasphemed, and methought it spoke
to me like a voice: Wretch dost thou ask what thou hast done?
Look back upon a dreadful misspent life, and ask thyself what
thou hast not done ? Ask, why is it that thou wert not long ago
destroyed? Why wert thou not drowned in Yarmouth Roads;
killed in the fight when the ship was taken by the Sallee man-
of-war; devoured by the wild beasts on the coast of Africa; or






LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


drowned here, when all the crew perished but thyself? Dost thou
ask, what have I done ?" I was struck dumb with these reflec-
tions, as one astonished, and had not a word to say-no, not to
answer to myself, but rose up pensive and sad, walked back to
my retreat, and went up over my wall, as if I had been going
to bed; but my thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I had no
inclination to sleep; so I sat down in my chair, and lighted my
lamp, for it began to be dark. Now, as the apprehension of
the return of my distemper terrified me very much, it occurred
to my thought that the Brazilians take no physic but their
tobacco for almost all distempers, and I had a piece of a roll of
tobacco in one of the chests, which was quite cured, and some
also that was green, and not quite cured.
I went, directed by Heaven no doubt; for in this chest I found
a cure both for soul and body. I opened the chest, and found
what I looked for, the tobacco; and as the few books I had
saved lay there too, I took out one of the Bibles which I men-
tioned before, and which to this time I had not found leisure
or inclination to look into. I say, I took it out, and brought
both that and the tobacco with me to the table. What use to
make of the tobacco I knew not, in my distemper, or whether
it was good for it or no: but I tried several experiments with
it, as if I was resolved it should hit one way or other. I first
took a piece of leaf, and chewed it in my mouth, which, indeed,
at first almost stupefied my brain, the tobacco being green and
strong, and that I had not been much used to. Then I took
some and steeped it an hour or two in some rum, and resolved
to take a dose of it when I lay down; and lastly, I burnt some
upon a pan of coals, and held my nose close over the smoke of
it as long as I could bear it, as well for the heat as almost for
suffocation. In the interval of this operation I took up the
Bible and began to read; but my head was too much disturbed
with the tobacco to bear reading, at least at that time; only,
having opened the book casually, the first words that occurred
to me were these, "Call on Me in the day of trouble, and I
will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify Me." These words
were very apt to my case, and made some impression upon my
thoughts at the time of reading them, though not so much as
they did afterwards; for, as for being delivered, the word had
no sound, as I may say, to me; the thing was so remote, so im-
possible in my apprehension of things, that I began to say, as
the children of Israel did when they were promised flesh to eat,
"Can God spread a table in the wilderness?" so I began to
say, Can God Himself deliver me from this place ? And as it






ROBINSON CRUSOE


was not for many years that any hopes appeared, this prevailed
very often upon my thoughts; but, however, the words made a
great impression upon me, and I mused upon them very often.
It grew now late, and the tobacco had, as I said, dozed my head
so much that I inclined to sleep; so I left my lamp burning in
the cave, lest I should want anything in the night, and went
to bed. But before I lay down, I did what I never had done
in all my life-I kneeled down, and prayed to God to fulfil the
promise to me, that if I called upon Him in the day of trouble,
He would deliver me. After my broken and imperfect prayer
was over, I drank the rum in which I had steeped the tobacco,
which was so strong and rank of the tobacco that I could
scarcely get it down; immediately upon this I went to bed. I
found presently it flew up into my head violently; but I fell
into a sound sleep, and waked no more till, by the sun, it must
necessarily be near three o'clock in the afternoon the next day
-nay, to this hour I am partly of opinion that I slept all the
next day and night, and till almost three the day after; for
otherwise I know not how I should lose a day out of my reckon-
ing in the days of the week, as it appeared some years after
I had done; for if I had lost it by crossing and recrossing the
line, I should have lost more than one day; but certainly I
lost a day in my account, and never knew which way. Be that,
however, one way or the other, when I awaked I found myself
exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively and cheerful; when I
got up I was stronger than I was the day before, and my stomach
better, for I was hungry; and, in short, I had no fit the next day,
but continued much altered for the better. This was the 29th.
The 30th was my well day, of course, and I went abroad with
my gun, but did not care to travel too far. I killed a sea-fowl
or two, something like a brandgoose, and brought them home,
but was not very forward to eat them; so I ate some more of
the turtle's eggs, which were very good. This evening I re-
newed the medicine, which I had supposed did me good the
day before-the tobacco steeped in rum; only I did not take
so much as before, nor did I chew any of the leaf, or hold my
head over the smoke; however, I was not so well the next
day, which was the first of July, as I hoped I should have been;
for I had a little spice of the cold fit, but it was not much.
July 2.-I renewed the medicine all the three ways; and
dosed myself with it as at first, and doubled the quantity which
I drank.
July 3.-I missed the fit for good and all, though I did not
recover my full strength for some weeks after. While I was






LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


thus gathering strength, my thoughts ran exceedingly upon this
Scripture, "I will deliver thee"; and the impossibility of my
deliverance lay much upon my mind, in bar of my ever expect-
ing it; but as I was discouraging myself with such thoughts, it
occurred to my mind that I pored so much upon my deliverance
from the main affliction, that I disregarded the deliverance I
had received, and I was as it were made to ask myself such
questions as these-viz. Have I not been delivered, and wonder-
fully too, from sickness--from the most distressed condition
that could be, and that was so frightful to me ? and what notice
had I taken of it? Had I done my part ? God had delivered
me, but I had not glorified Him-that is to say, I had not owned
and been thankful for that as a deliverance; and how could I
expect greater deliverance ? This touched my heart very much;
and immediately I knelt down and gave God thanks aloud for
my recovery from my sickness.
July 4.-In the morning I took the Bible; and beginning
at the New Testament, I began seriously to read it, and im-
posed upon myself to read a while every morning and every
night; not tying myself to the number of chapters, but long as
my thoughts should engage me. It was not long after I set
seriously to this work till I found my heart more deeply and
sincerely affected with the wickedness of my past life. The
impression of my dream revived; and the words, All these
things have not brought thee to repentance," ran seriously
through my thoughts. I was earnestly begging of God to give
me repentance, when it happened providentially, the very day,
that, reading the Scripture, I came to these words: He is
exalted a Prince and a Saviour, to give repentance and to give
remission." I threw down the book; and with my heart as
well as my hands lifted up to heaven, in a kind of ecstasy of
joy, I cried out aloud, "Jesus, thou son of David Jesus, thou
exalted Prince and Saviour! give me repentance !" This was
the first time I could say, in the true sense of the words, that I
prayed in all my life; for now I prayed with a sense of my
condition, and a true Scripture view of hope, founded on the
encouragement of the Word of God; and from this time, I may
say, I began to hope that God would hear me.
Now I began to construe the words mentioned above, Call on
Me, and I will deliver thee," in a different sense from what I had
ever done before; for then I had no notion of anything being
called deliverance, but my being delivered from the captivity I was
in; for though I was indeed at large in the place, yet the island
was certainly a prison to me, and that in the worse sense in the






,ROBINSON CRUSOE


world. But now I learned to take it in another sense: now I
looked back upon my past life with such horror, and my sins
appeared so dreadful, that my soul sought nothing of God but
deliverance from the load of guilt that bore down all my comfort.
As for my solitary life, it was nothing; I did not so much as pray
to be delivered from it or think of it; it was all of no considera-
tion in comparison to this. And I add this part here, to hint to
whoever shall read it, that whenever they come to a true sense
of things, they will find deliverance from sin a much greater
blessing than deliverance from affliction.
SBut, leaving this part, I return to my Journal.
My condition began now to be, though not less miserable as
to my way of living, yet much easier to my mind: and my
thoughts being directed, by a constant reading the Scripture
and praying to God, to things of a higher nature, I had a great
deal of comfort within, which till now I knew nothing of; also,
my health and strength returned, I bestirred myself to furnish
myself with everything that I wanted, and make my way of
living as regular as I could.
From the 4th of July to the 14th I was chiefly employed in
walking about with my gun in my hand, a little and a little at a
time, as a man that was gathering up his strength after a fit of
sickness; for it is hardly to be imagined how low I was, and to
what weakness I was reduced. The application which I made
use of was perfectly new, and perhaps which had never cured an
ague before; neither can I recommend it to any to practise, by
this experiment: and though it did carry off the fit, yet it rather
contributed to weakening me; for I had frequent convulsions in
my nerves and limbs for some time. I learned from it also this,
in particular, that being abroad in the rainy season was the most
pernicious thing to my health that could be, especially in those
rains which came attended with storms and hurricanes of wind;
for as the rain which came in the dry season was almost always
accompanied with such storms, so I found that rain was much
more dangerous than the rain which fell in September and
October.

CHAPTER VII
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIENCE
I HAD now been in this unhappy island above ten months.
All possibility of deliverance from this condition seemed to
be entirely taken from me; and I firmly believe that no human






LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


shape had ever set foot upon that place. Having now secured
my habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind, I had a great desire
to make a more perfect discovery of the island, and to see what
other productions I might find, which I yet knew nothing of.
It was on the 15th of July that I began to take a more par-
ticular survey of the island itself. I went up the creek first,
where, as I hinted, I brought my rafts on shore. I found, after
I came about two miles up, that the tide did not flow any higher,
and that it was no more than a little brook of running water, very
fresh and good; but this being the dry season, there was hardly
any water in some parts of it-at least not enough to run in any
stream, so as it could be perceived. On the banks of this brook
I found many pleasant savannahs or meadows, plain, smooth, and
covered with grass ; and on the rising parts of them, next to the
higher grounds, where the water, as might be supposed, never
overflowed, I found a great deal of tobacco, green, and growing
to a great and very strong stalk. There were divers other plants,
which I had no notion of or understanding about, that might,
perhaps, have virtues of their own, which I could not find out.
I searched for the cassava root, which the Indians, in all that
climate, make their bread of, but I could find none. I saw large
plants of aloes, but did not understand them. I saw several
sugar-canes, but wild, and, for want of cultivation, imperfect. I
contented myself with these discoveries for this time, and came
back, musing with myself what course I might take to know the
virtue and goodness of any of the fruits or plants which I should
discover, but could bring it to no conclusion; for, in short, I had
made so little observation while I was in the Brazils, that I knew
little of the plants in the field; at least, very little that might
serve to any purpose now in my distress.
The next day, the sixteenth, I went up the same way again;
and after going something further than I had gone the day
before, I found the brook and the savannahs cease, and the
country become more woody than before. In this part I found
different fruits, and particularly I found melons upon the ground,
in great abundance, and grapes upon the trees. The vines had
spread, indeed, over the trees, and the clusters of grapes were
just now in their prime, very ripe and rich. This was a surpris-
ing discovery, and I was exceeding glad of them; but I was
warned by my experience to eat sparingly of them; remembering
that when I was ashore in Barbary, the eating of grapes killed
several of our Englishmen, who were slaves there, by throwing
them into fluxes and fevers. But I found an excellent use for
these grapes; and that was, to cure or dry them in the sun, and






ROBINSON CRUSO# 81
keep them as dried grapes or raisins are kept, which I thought
would be, as indeed they were, wholesome and agreeable to eat
when no grapes could be had.
I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habita-
tion; which, by the way, was the first night, as I might say, I
had lain from home. In the night I took my first contrivance,
and got up in a tree, where I slept well; and the next morning
proceeded upon my discovery; travelling nearly four miles, as I
might judge by the length of the valley, keeping still due north,
with a ridge of hills on the south and north side of me. At the
end of this march I came to an opening, where the country
seemed to descend to the west; and a little spring of fresh
water, which issued out of the side of the hill by me, ran the
other way, that is, due east; and the country appeared so fresh,
so green, so flourishing, everything being in a constant verdure
or flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted garden. I
descended a little on the side of that delicious vale, surveying it
with a secret kind of pleasure, though mixed with my other
afflicting thoughts, to think that this was all my own; that I was
king and lord of all this country indefeasibly, and had a right of
possession; and if I could convey it, I might have it in inherit-
ance as completely as any lord of a manor in England. I saw
here abundance of cocoa trees, orange, and lemon, and citron
trees; but all wild, and very few bearing any fruit, at least not
then. However, the green limes that I gathered were not only
pleasant to eat, but very wholesome; and I mixed their juice
afterwards with water, which made it very wholesome, and very
cool and refreshing. I found now I had business enough to
gather and carry home; and I resolved to lay up a store as well
of grapes as limes and lemons, to furnish myself for the wet
season, which I knew was approaching. In order to do this, I
gathered a great heap of grapes in one place, a lesser heap in
another place, and a great parcel of limes and lemons in another
place; and taking a few of each with me, I travelled homewards;
resolving to come again, and bring a bag or sack, or what I could
make, to carry the rest home. Accordingly, having spent three
days in this journey, I came home (so I must now call my tent
and my cave); but before I got thither the grapes were spoiled;
the richness of the fruit and the weight of the juice having
broken them and bruised them, they were good for little or
nothing; as to the limes, they were good, but I could bring but
a few.
The next day, being the nineteenth, I went back, having made
me two small bags to bring home my harvest; but I was sur-






LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


prised, when coming to my heap of grapes, which were so rich
and fine when I gathered them, to find them all spread about,
trod to pieces, and dragged about, some here, some there, and
abundance eaten and devoured. By this I concluded there were
some wild creatures thereabouts, which had done this; but what
they were I knew not. However, as I found there was no laying
them up on heaps, and no carrying them away in a sack, but
that one way they would be destroyed, and the other way they
would be crushed with their own weight, I took another course;
for I gathered a large quantity of the grapes, and hung them
upon the out-branches of the trees, that they might cure and
dry in the sun; and as for the limes and lemons, I carried as
many back as I could well stand under.
When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with
great pleasure the fruitfulness of that valley, and the pleasant-
ness of the situation; the security from storms on that side of the
water, and the wood: and concluded that I had pitched upon a
place to fix my abode which was by far the worst part of the
country. Upon the whole, I began to consider of removing my
habitation, and looking out for a place equally safe as where now
I was situate, if possible, in that pleasant, fruitful part of the
island.
This thought ran long in my head, and I was exceeding fond
of it for some time, the pleasantness of the place tempting me;
but when I came to a nearer view of it, I considered that I was
now by the seaside, where it was at least possible that some-
thing might happen to my advantage, and, by the same ill fate
that brought me hither, might bring some other unhappy wretches
to the same place; and though it was scarce probable that any
such thing should ever happen, yet to enclose myself among the
hills and woods in the centre of the island was to anticipate
my bondage, and to render such an affair not only improbable,
but impossible; and that therefore I ought not by any means
to remove. However, I was so enamoured of this place, that I
spent much of my time there for the whole of the remaining
part of the month of July; and though, upon second thoughts,
I resolved not to remove, yet I built me a little kind of a bower,
and surrounded it at a distance with a strong fence, being a
double hedge, as high as I could reach, well staked and filled
between with brushwood; and here I lay very secure, sometimes
two or three nights together; always going over it with a ladder;
so that I fancied now I had my country house and my sea-coast
house; and this work took me up to the beginning of August.
I had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy my






ROBINSON CRUSOE


labour, when the rains came on, and made me stick close to my
first habitation; for though I had made me a tent like the other,
with a piece of a sail, and spread it very well, yet I had not the
shelter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave behind me
to retreat into when the rains were extraordinary.
About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my
bower, and began to enjoy myself. The 3rd of August, I found
the grapes I had hung up perfectly dried, and, indeed, were
excellent good raisins of the sun; so I began to take them down
from the trees, and it was very happy that I did so, for the rains
which followed would have spoiled them, and I had lost the best
part of my winter food; for I had above two hundred large
bunches of them. No sooner had I taken them all down, and
carried the most of them home to my cave, than it began to rain;
and from hence, which was the 14th of August, it rained, more
or less, every day till the middle of October; and sometimes so
violently, that I could not stir out of my cave for several days.
In this season I was much surprised with the increase of my
family; I had been concerned for the loss of one of my cats, who
ran away from me, or, as I thought, had been dead, and I heard
no more tidings of her till, to my astonishment, she came home
about the end of August with three kittens. This was the more
strange to me because, though I had killed a wild cat, as I called
it, with my gun, yet I thought it was quite a different kind from
our European cats; but the young cats were the same kind of
house-breed as the old one; and both my cats being females, I
thought it very strange. But from these three cats I afterwards
came to be so pestered with cats that I was forced to kill them
like vermin or wild beasts, and to drive them from my house as
much as possible.
From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain, so that I
could not stir, and was now very careful not to be much wet. In
this confinement, I began to be straitened for food: but ventur-
ing out twice, I one day killed a goat; and the last day, which
was the 26th, found a very large tortoise, which was a treat to
me, and my food was regulated thus: I ate a bunch of raisins
for my breakfast; a piece of the goat's flesh, or of the turtle, for
my dinner, broiled-for, to my great misfortune, I had no vessel
to boil or stew anything; and two or three of the turtle's eggs
for my supper.
During this confinement in my cover by the rain, I worked
daily two or three hours at enlarging my cave, and by degrees
worked it on towards one side, till I came to the outside of the
hill, and made a door or way out, which came beyond my fence






LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


or wall; and so I came in and out this way. But I was not
perfectly easy at lying so open; for, as I had managed myself
before, I was in a perfect enclosure; whereas now I thought I
lay exposed, and open for anything to come in upon me; and
yet I could not perceive that there was any living thing to fear,
the biggest creature that I had yet seen upon the island being
a goat.
Sept. 30.-I was now come to the unhappy anniversary of my
landing. I cast up the notches on my post, and found I had been
on shore three hundred and sixty-five days. I kept this day as
a solemn fast, setting it apart for religious exercise, prostrating
myself on the ground with the most serious humiliation, confess-
ing my sins to God, acknowledging His righteous judgments upon
me, and praying to Him to have mercy on me through Jesus
Christ; and not having tasted the least refreshment for twelve
hours, even till the going down of the sun, I then ate a biscuit-
cake and a bunch of grapes, and went to bed, finishing the day
as I began it. I had all this time observed no Sabbath day; for
as at first I had no sense of religion upon my mind, I had, after
some time, omitted to distinguish the weeks, by making a longer
notch than ordinary for the Sabbath day, and so did not really
know what any of the days were; but now, having cast up the
days as above, I found I had been there a year; so I divided it
into weeks, and set apart every seventh day for a Sabbath;
though I found at the end of my account I had lost a day or two
in my reckoning. A little after this, my ink began to fail me,
and so I contented myself to use it more sparingly, and to write
down only the most remarkable events of my life, without con-
tinuing a daily memorandum of other things.
The rainy season and the dry season began now to appear
regular to me, and I learned to divide them so as to provide for
them accordingly; but I bought all my experience before I had
it, and this I am going to relate was one of the most discouraging
experiments that I made.
I have mentioned that I had saved the few ears of barley and
rice, which I had so surprisingly found spring up, as I thought,
of themselves, and I believe there were about thirty stalks of
rice, and about twenty of barley; and now I thought it a proper
time to sow it, after the rains, the sun being in its southern
position, going from me. Accordingly, I dug up a piece of
ground as well as I could with my wooden spade, and dividing
it into two parts, I sowed my grain; but as I was sowing, it
casually occurred to my thoughts that I would not sow it all at
first, because I did not know when was the proper time for it, so





ROBINSON CRUSOE


I sowed about two-thirds of the seed, leaving about a handful
of each. It was a great comfort to me afterwards that I did so,
for not one grain of what I sowed this time came to anything:
for the dry months following, the earth having had no rain after
the seed was sown, it had no moisture to assist its growth, and
never came up at all till the wet season had come again, and then
it grew as if it had been but newly sown. Finding my first seed
did not grow, which I easily imagined was by the drought, I
sought for a moister piece of ground to make another trial in,
and I dug up a piece of ground near my new bower, and sowed
the rest of my seed in February, a little before the vernal
equinox; and this having the rainy months of March and April
to water it, sprung up very pleasantly, and yielded a very good
crop; but having part of the seed left only, and not daring to sow
all that I had, I had but a small quantity at last, my whole crop
not amounting to above half a peck of each kind. But by this
experiment I was made master of my business, and knew exactly
when the proper season was to sow, and that I might expect two
seed-times and two harvests every year.
While this corn was growing I made a little discovery, which
was of use to me afterwards. As soon as the rains were over,
and the weather began to settle, which was about the month of
November, I made a visit up the country to my bower, where,
though I had not been some months, yet I found all things just
as I left them. The circle or double hedge that I had made was
not only firm and entire, but the stakes which I had cut out of
some trees that grew thereabouts were all shot out and grown
with long branches, as much as a willow-tree usually shoots the
first year after lopping its head. I could not tell what tree to
call it that these stakes were cut from. I was surprised, and yet
very well pleased, to see the young trees grow; and I pruned
them, and led them up to grow as much alike as I could; and it
is scarce credible how beautiful a figure they grew into in three
years; so that though the hedge made a circle of about twenty-
five yards in diameter, yet the trees, for such I might now call
them, soon covered it, and it was a complete shade, sufficient to
lodge under all the dry season. This made me resolve to cut
some more stakes, and make me a hedge like this, in a semi-circle
round my wall (I mean that of my first dwelling), which I did;
and placing the trees or stakes in a double row, at about eight
yards distance from my first fence, they grew presently, and were
at first a fine cover to my habitation, and afterwards served for a
defence also, as I shall observe in its order.
I found now that the seasons of the year might generally be





LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


divided, not into summer and winter, as in Europe, but into the
rainy seasons and the dry seasons, which were generally thus :-
The half of February, the whole of March, and the half of
April-rainy, the sun being then on or near the equinox.
The half of April, the whole of May, June, and July, and the
half of August-dry, the sun being then to the north of the line.
The half of August, the whole of September, and the half of
October-rainy, the sun being then come back.
The half of October, the whole of November, December, and
January, and the half of February-dry, the sun being then to
the south of the line.
The rainy seasons sometimes held longer or shorter as the
winds happened to blow, but this was the general observation I
made. After I had found by experience the ill consequences
of being abroad in the rain, I took care to furnish myself with
provisions beforehand, that I might not be obliged to go out, and
I sat within doors as much as possible during the wet months.
This time I found much employment, and very suitable also to
the time, for I found great occasion for many things which I had
no way to furnish myself with but by hard labour and constant
application; particularly I tried many ways to make myself a
basket, but all the twigs I could get for the purpose proved so
brittle that they would do nothing. It proved of excellent advan-
tage to me now, that when I was a boy, I used to take great
delight in standing at a basket-maker's, in the town where my
father lived, to see them make their wicker-ware; and being,
as boys usually are, very officious to help, and a great observer
of the manner in which they worked those things, and sometimes
lending a hand, I had by these means full knowledge of the
methods of it, and I wanted nothing but the materials, when it
came into my mind that the twigs of that tree from whence I cut
my stakes that grew might possibly be as tough as the sallows,
willows, and osiers in England, and I resolved to try. Accord-
ingly, the next day I went to my country house, as I called it, and
cutting some of the smaller twigs, I found them to my purpose
as much as I could desire; whereupon I came the next time pre-
pared with a hatchet to cut down a quantity, which I soon found,
for there was great plenty of them. These I set up to dry within
my circle or hedge, and when they were fit for use I carried them
to my cave; and here, during the next season, I employed myself
in making, as well as I could, a great many baskets, both to carry
earth or to carry or lay up anything, as I had occasion; and
though I did not finish them very handsomely, yet I made them
sufficiently serviceable for my purpose; and thus, afterwards, I





ROBINSON CRUSOE


took care never to be without them; and as my wicker-ware
decayed, I made more, especially strong, deep baskets to place
my corn in, instead of sacks, when I should come to have any
quantity of it.
Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of time
about it, I bestirred myself to see, if possible, how to supply two
wants. I had no vessels to hold anything that was liquid, except
two runlets, which were almost full of rum, and some glass bottles
-some of the common size, and others which were case bottles,
square, for'the holding of water, spirits, &c. I had not so much
as a pot to boil anything, except a great kettle, which' I saved
out of the ship, and which was too big for such as I desired it-
viz. to make broth, and stew a bit of meat by itself. The second
thing I fain would have had was a tobacco-pipe, but it was im-
possible to me to make one; however, I found a contrivance for
that, too, at last. I employed myself in planting my second rows
of stakes or piles, and in this wicker-working all the summer or
dry season, when another business took me up more time than it
could be imagined I could spare.



CHAPTER VIII
SURVEYS HIS POSITION
SMENTIONED before that I had a great mind to see the
whole island, and that I had travelled up the brook, and so
on to where I built my bower, and where I had an opening quite
to the sea, on the other side of the island. I now resolved to
travel quite across to the sea-shore on that side; so, taking my
gun, a hatchet, and my dog, and a larger quantity of powder and
shot than usual, with two biscuit-cakes and a great bunch of
raisins in my pouch for my store, I began my journey. When I
had passed the vale where my bower stood, as above, I came
within view of the sea to the west, and it being a very clear day,
I fairly described land-whether an island or a continent I could
not tell; but it lay very high, extending from the W. to the
W.S.W. at a very great distance; by my guess it could not be
less than fifteen or twenty leagues off.
I could not tell what part of the world this might be, otherwise
than that I knew it must be part of America, and, as I concluded
by all my observations, must be near the Spanish dominions, and
perhaps was all inhabited by savages, where, if I had landed, I






LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


had been in a worse condition than I was now; and therefore I
acquiesced in the dispositions of Providence, which I began now
to own and to believe ordered everything for the best; I say I
quieted my mind with this, and left off afflicting myself with
fruitless wishes of being there.
Besides, after some thought upon this affair, I considered that
if this land was the Spanish coast, I should certainly, one time or
other, see some vessel pass or repass one way or other; but'if
not, then it was the savage coast between the Spanish country
and Brazils, where are found the worst of savages; for they are
cannibals, or men-eaters, and fail not to murder and devour all
the human bodies that fall into their hands.
With these considerations, I walked very leisurely forward. I
found that side of the island where I now was much pleasanter
than mine-the open or savannah fields sweet, adorned with
flowers and grass, and full of very fine woods. I saw abundance
of parrots, and fain I would have caught one, if possible, to have
kept it to be tame, and taught it to speak to me. I did, after
some painstaking, catch a young parrot, for I knocked it down
with a stick, and having recovered it, I brought it home; but it
was some years before I could made him speak; however, at
last 1 taught him to call me by name very familiarly. But
the accident that followed, though it be a trifle, will be very
diverting in its place.
I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found in the
low grounds hares (as I thought them to be) and foxes; but they
differed greatly from all the other kinds I had met with, nor
could I satisfy myself to eat them, though I killed several. But
I had no need to be venturous, for I had no want of food, and
of that which was very good too, especially these three sorts,
viz. goats, pigeons, and turtle, or tortoise, which, added to my
grapes, Leadenhall market could not have furnished a table
better than I, in proportion to the company; and though my
case was deplorable enough, yet I had great cause for thankful-
ness that I was not driven to any extremities for food, but had
rather plenty, even to dainties.
I never travelled in this journey above two miles outright in a
day, or thereabouts; but I took so many turns and re-turns to see
what discoveries I could make, that I came weary enough to the
place where I resolved to sit down all night; and then I either
reposed myself in a tree, or surrounded myself with a row of
stakes set upright in the ground, either from one tree to another,
or so as no wild creature could come at me without waking me.
As soon as I came to the sea-shore, I was surprised to see that






ROBINSON CRUSOE


I had taken up my lot on the worst side of the island, for here,
indeed, the shore was covered with innumerable turtles, whereas
on the other side .I had found but three in a year and a half.
Here was also an infinite number of fowls of many kinds, some
which I had seen, and some which I had not seen before, and
many of them very good meat, but such as I knew not the names
of, except those called penguins.
I could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very sparing
of my powder and shot, and therefore had more mind to kill a
she-goat if I could, which I could better feed on; and though
there were many goats here, more than on my side the island,
yet it was with much more difficulty that I could come near
them, the country being flat and even, and they saw me much
sooner than when I was on the hills.
I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than
mine; but yet I had not the least inclination to remove, for as I
was fixed in my habitation it became natural to me, and I seemed
all the while I was here to be as it were upon a journey, and
from home. However, I travelled along the shore of the sea
towards the east, I suppose about twelve miles, and then setting
up a great pole upon the shore for a mark, I concluded I would
go home again, and that the next journey I took should be on
the other side of the island east from my dwelling, and so round
till I came to my post again.
I took another way to come back than that I went, thinking
I could easily keep all the island so much in my view that I
could not miss finding my first dwelling by viewing the country;
but I found myself mistaken, for being come about two or three
miles, I found myself descended into a very large valley, but so
surrounded with hills, and those hills covered with wood, that I
could not see which was my way by any direction but that of the
sun, nor even then, unless I knew very well the position of the
sun at that time of the day. It happened, to my further mis-
fortune, that the weather proved hazy for three or four days
while I was in the valley, and not being able to see the sun, I
wandered about very uncomfortably, and at last was obliged to
find the seaside, look for my post, and come back the same way
I went: and then, by easy journeys, I turned homeward, the
weather being exceeding hot, and my gun, ammunition, hatchet,
and other things very heavy.
In this journey my dog surprised a young kid, and seized upon
it; and I, running in to take hold of it, caught it, and saved it
alive from the dog. I had a great mind to bring it home if I
could, for I had often been musing whether it might not be






LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


possible to get a kid or two, and so raise a breed of tame goats,
which might supply me when my powder and shot should be all
spent. I made a collar for this little creature, and with a string,
which I made of some rope-yarn, which I always carried about
me, I led him along, though with some difficulty, till I came to
my bower, and there I enclosed him and left him, for I was very
impatient to be at home, from whence I had been absent above
a month.
I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come into
my old hutch, and lie down in my hammock-bed. This little
wandering journey, without settled place of abode, had been so
unpleasant to me, that my own house, as I called it to myself,
was a perfect settlement to me compared to that; and it rendered
everything about me so comfortable, that I resolved I would
never go a great way from it again while it should be my lot to
stay on the island.
I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself after
my long journey; during which most of the time was taken up
in the weighty affair of making a cage for my Poll, who began
now to be a mere domestic, and to be well acquainted with me.
Then I began to think of the poor kid which I had penned in
within my little circle, and resolved to go and fetch it home, or
give it some food; accordingly I went, and found it where I left
it, for indeed it could not get out, but was almost starved for
want of food. I went and cut boughs of trees, and branches of
such shrubs as I could find, and threw it over, and having fed it,
1 tied it as I did before, to lead it away; but it was so tame
with being hungry, that I had no need to have tied it, for it
followed me like a dog: and as I continually fed it, the creature
became so loving, so gentle, and so fond, that it became from
that time one of my domestics also, and would never leave me
afterwards.
The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come, and
I kept the 30th of September in the same solemn manner as
before, being the anniversary of my landing on the island, having
now been there two years, and no more prospect of being de-
livered than the first day I came there. 1 spent the whole day
in humble and thankful acknowledgments of the many wonder-
ful mercies which my solitary condition was attended with, and
without which it might have been infinitely more miserable. I
gave humble and hearty thanks that God had been pleased to
discover to me that it was possible I might be more happy in
this solitary condition than I should have been in the liberty
of society, and in all the pleasures of the world; that He could





ROBINSON CRUSOE


fully make up to me the deficiencies of my solitary state, and
the want of human society, by His presence and the communi-
cations of His grace to my soul; supporting, comforting, and
encouraging me to depend upon His providence here, and hope
for His eternal presence hereafter.
It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more
happy this life I now led was, with all its miserable circum-
stances, than the wicked, cursed, abominable life I led all the
past part of my days; and now I changed both my sorrows and
my joys; my very desires altered, my affections changed their
gusts, and my delights were perfectly new from what they were
at my first coming, or, indeed, for the two years past.
Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting or for viewing
the country, the anguish of my soul at my condition would break
out upon me on a sudden, and my very heart would die within
me, to think of the woods, the mountains, the deserts I was
in, and how I was a prisoner, locked up with the eternal bars
and bolts of the ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness, without
redemption. In the midst of the greatest composure of my
mind, this would break out upon me like a storm, and make me
wring my hands and weep like a child. Sometimes it would
take me in the middle of my work, and I would immediately sit
down and sigh, and look upon the ground for an hour or two
together; and this was still worse to me, for if I could burst out
into tears, or vent myself by words, it would go off, and the
grief, having exhausted itself, would abate.
But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts: I daily
read the word of God, and applied all the comforts of it to my
present state. One morning, being very sad, I opened the Bible
upon these words, I will never, never leave thee, nor forsake
thee." Immediately it occurred that these words were to me;
why else should they be directed in such a manner, just at the
moment when I was mourning over my condition, as one forsaken
of God and man? "Well, then," said I, "if God does not for-
sake me, of what ill consequence can it be, or what matters it,
though the world should all forsake me, seeing on the other
hand, if I had all the world, and should lose the favour and
blessing of God, there would be no comparison in the loss ?"
From this moment I began to conclude in my mind that it
was possible for me to be more happy in this forsaken, solitary
condition than it was probable I should ever have been in any
other particular state in the world; and with this thought I was
going to give thanks to God for bringing me to this place. I
know not what it was, but something shocked my mind at that





LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


thought, and I durst not speak the words. How canst thou be-
come such a hypocrite," said I, even audibly, to pretend to be
thankful for a condition which, however thou mayest endeavour
to be contented with, thou wouldst rather pray heartily to be
delivered from ?" So I stopped there; but though I could not
say I thanked God for being there, yet I sincerely gave thanks
to God for opening my eyes, by whatever afflicting providence,
to see the former condition of my life, and to mourn for my
wickedness, and repent. I never opened the Bible, or shut it,
but my very soul within me blessed God for directing my friend
in England, without any order of mine, to pack it up among my
goods, and for assisting me afterwards to save it out of the wreck
of the ship.
Thus, and in this disposition of mind, I began my third year;
and though I have not given the reader the trouble of so par-
ticular an account of my works this year as the first, yet in
general it may be observed that I was very seldom idle, but
having regularly divided my time according to the several daily
employment that were before me, such as: first, my duty to
God, and the reading the Scriptures, which I constantly set
apart some time for thrice every day; secondly, the going
abroad with my gun for food, which generally took me up three
hours in every morning, when it did not rain; thirdly, the
ordering, cutting, preserving, and cooking what I had killed or
caught for my supply; these took up great part of the day.
Also, it is to be considered, that in the middle of the day, when
the sun was in the zenith, the violence of the heat was too
great to stir out; so that about four hours in the evening was
all the time I could be supposed to work in, with this exception,
that sometimes I changed my hours of hunting and working,
and went to work in the morning, and abroad with my gun in
the afternoon.
To this short time allowed for labour I desire may be added
the exceeding laboriousness of my work; the many hours which,
for want of tools, want of help, and want of skill, everything I
did took up out of my time. For example, I was full two and
forty days in making a board for a long shelf, which I wanted in
my cave; whereas, two sawyers, with their tools and a saw-pit,
would have cut six of them out of the same tree in half a day.
My case was this: it was to be a large tree which was to be
cut down, because my board was to be a broad one. This tree
I was three days in cutting down, and two more cutting off the
boughs, and reducing it to a log or piece of timber. With in-
expressible hacking and hewing I reduced both the sides of it






ROBINSON CRUSOE


into chips till it began to be light enough to move; then I turned
it, and made one side of it smooth and flat as a board from end
to end; then, turning that side downward, cut the other side till
I brought the plank to be about three inches thick, and smooth
on both sides. Any one may judge the labour of my hands in
such a piece of work; but labour and patience carried me through
that, and many other things. I only observe this in particular,
to show the reason why so much of my time went away with so
little work-viz. that what might be a little to be done with help
and tools, was a vast labour and required a prodigious time to do
alone, and by hand. But notwithstanding this, with patience
and labour I got through everything that my circumstances made
necessary to me to do, as will appear by what follows.
I was now, in the months of November and December, expect-
ing my crop of barley and rice. The ground I had manured and
dug up for them was not great; for, as I observed, my seed of
each was not above the quantity of half a peck, for I had lost
one whole crop by sowing in the dry season. But now my crop
promised very well, when on a sudden I found I was in danger
of losing it all again by enemies of several sorts, which it was
scarcely possible to keep from it; as, first, the goats, and wild
creatures which I called hares, who, tasting the sweetness of the
blade, lay in it night and day, as soon as it came up, and eat it
so close, that it could get no time to shoot up into stalk.
This I saw no remedy for but by making an enclosure about it
with a hedge; which I did with a great deal of toil, and the more,
because it required speed. However, as my arable land was but
small, suited to my crop, I got it totally well fenced in about
three weeks' time; and shooting some of the creatures in the
daytime, I set my dog to guard it in the night, tying him up to
a stake at the gate, where he would stand and bark all night
long; so in a little time the enemies forsook the place, and the
corn grew very strong and well, and began to ripen apace.
But as the beasts ruined me before, while my corn was in the
blade, so the birds were as likely to ruin me now, when it was in
the ear; for, going along by the place to see how it throve, I saw
my little crop surrounded with fowls, of I know not how many
sorts, who stood, as it were, watching till I should be gone. I
immediately let fly among them, for I always had my gun with
me. I had no sooner shot, but there rose up a little cloud of
fowls, which I had not seen at all, from among the corn itself.
This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw that in a few days they
would devour all my hopes; that I should be starved, and never
be able to raise a crop at all; and what to do I could not tell;






LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF


however, I resolved not to lose my corn, if possible, though I
should watch it night and day. In the first place, I went among
it to see what damage was already done, and found they had
spoiled a good deal of it; but that as it was yet too green for
them, the loss was not so great but that the remainder was likely
to be a good crop if it could be saved.
I stayed by it to load my gun, and then coming away, I could
easily see the thieves sitting upon all the trees about me, as if
they only waited till I was gone away, and the event proved it
to be so; for as I walked off, as if I was gone, I was no sooner
out of their sight than they dropped down one by one into the
corn again. I was so provoked, that I could not have patience
to stay till more came on, knowing that every grain that they
ate now was, as it might be said, a peck-loaf to me in the conse-
quence; but coming up to the hedge, I fired again, and killed
three of them. This was what I wished for; so I took them up,
and served them as we serve notorious thieves in England-
hanged them in chains, for a terror to others. It is impossible
to imagine that this should have such an effect as it had, for the
fowls would not only not come at the corn, but, in short, they
forsook all that part of the island, and I could never see a bird
near the place as long as my scarecrows hung there. This I was
very glad of, you may be sure, and about the latter end of
December, which was our second harvest of the year, I reaped
my corn.
I was sadly put to it for a scythe or sickle to cut it down, and
all I could do was to make one, as well as I could, out of one of
the broadswords, or cutlasses, which I saved among the arms out
of the ship. However, as my first crop was but small, I had no
great difficulty to cut it down; in short, I reaped it in my way,
for I cut nothing off but the ears, and carried it away in a great
basket which I had made, and so rubbed it out with my hands;
and at the end of all my harvesting, I found that out of my half-
peck of seed I had near two bushels of rice, and about two bushels
and a-half of barley; that is to say, by my guess, for I had no
measure at that time.
However, this was a great encouragement to me, and I foresaw
that, in time, it would please God to supply me with bread. And
yet here I was perplexed again, for I neither knew how to grind
or make meal of my corn, or indeed how to clean it and part it;
nor, if made into meal, how to make bread of it; and if how to
make it, yet I knew not how to bake it. These things being
added to my desire of having a good quantity for store, and to
secure a constant supply, I resolved not to taste any of this crop,




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