Group Title: NFES mimeo report - University of Florida North Florida Experiment Station ; 63-6
Title: Performance of peach varieties at Quincy, Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074386/00001
 Material Information
Title: Performance of peach varieties at Quincy, Florida
Series Title: NFES mimeo report
Physical Description: 3, 2 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Young, H. W ( Harold William ), 1930-
North Florida Experiment Station
Publisher: North Florida Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1963
 Subjects
Subject: Peach -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Peach -- Yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by H.W. Young.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "February 8, 1963."
Funding: NFES mimeo rpt. ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074386
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 85762850

Full Text
/06'

"00 6J -6
NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Quincy, Florida

February 8, 1963

NFES Mimeo Report 63-6

PERFORMANCE OF PEACH VARIETIES AT QUINCY, FLORIDA

By H. W. Young
Assistant Horticulturist

Data on the performance of peach varieties and selections were reported for the
years 1960, 1961 and 1962 in NFES Mimeo Reports 61-3, 62-1 and 63-2. This report is a
three year summary of results with named varieties which are available from nurseries.

Trees in the variety orchard are spaced 18 to 25 feet apart each way, and new
varieties are added each year to replace unsuitable trees removed. All yields were taken
on tree-ripe fruit in contrast to commercial harvests which are made several days earlier
to permit shipment.

Yields

Yield records are summarized in Table 1. When comparing yields of any two varie-
ties, the tree age must be considered. The age listed in the table includes the year of
production. In this area a few fruit may be produced the second growing season; however,
a sizable yield is not usually expected until the third growing season.

Tree and Fruit Characteristics

In each of the three years, at each harvest from each tree, representative sound
fruit were measured, and these measurements were averaged at the end of the season for each
variety (Table 2). However, the average weight per fruit was based upon the entire harvest,
and all sound fruit were considered in the average.

In Table 2 dates of full bloom (when 50% or more of the blossoms are open) and
foliage break (when 50% of the leaf buds are about 1/4 inch in length) and date of first
ripe fruit are shown as averages for the three years. The date of blooming of any variety
varied from year to year. A certain number of hours of temperature at or below 45 degrees
is necessary to break the dormancy of a particular variety. Usually this chilling must be
received before Feb. 15 to produce normal flowering. This me a variety with a low
chilling requirement may flower extremely early if after the Iing I. ement is met
the temperature warms sufficiently to permit flowering. T inger with ^ chilling
varieties is that late spring freezes may damage the flowe or fruit. p other hand,
if a variety with a high chilling requirement is grown, th r mai n cient cold
to break the dormancy, and the flowering will be erratic a these hi -chilling
varieties will decline in vigor and perhaps eventually die following one or ore mild
winters. With the information now available it would appeal that varieties with a chill-
ing requirement between 600 and 650 hours are the most promisl~afo6i{TeLandar.ality. The
varieties Hiland and Sunhigh, although considered to require 750 lits, seem to flower
rather normally with less hours.

When using the information in this report it will be necessary to compare the
Quincy climatic conditions (particularly the hours of cold) with the location where the
peaches are to be planted. Table 3 indicates the hours at or below 45 degrees at Quincy,
Florida, for the periods indicated.









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TABLE 3. Accumulated hours at or below 45 degrees at Quincy, Florida.

Winter Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb.
31_ 5 30 15 31 15 31 T

1959-60 7 50 150 286 361 415 581 650

1960-61 0 42 57 224 405 532 757 864

1961-62 15 36 95 114 296 495 582 666

The average chilling hours (to February 15) at Quincy for a 13 year period from 1949
to 1962 was 666 hours. The lowest recorded was in the 1949-50 season with 379 and the
highest in the 1957-58 season with 886. These records were taken from official weather
records until 1961, when unofficial instruments were placed closer to the variety orchards.

Fruit Thinning

In 1960 and 1961 considerable thinning was done to remove excessive fruit.
Generally an attempt was made to space the fruit at least 4 inches apart. In 1962 very
little thinning was done because a late cold period occurred after most of the varieties
had set fruit. Some fruit set after the cold and the flowering period extended over a long
period so that size of young fruit was variable. Rather than to risk over-thinning it was
decided to take the alternate risk of under-thinning. Under-thinning resulted in several
varieties, such as Junegold, maturing too many fruit which resulted in reduced size.

Spring Freezes

Spring freezes that affected the crops to some extent occurred in 1960 and 1962.
A freeze the latter part of February in 1960 killed most of the fruit set at that time.
Therefore early flowering varieties (those with low chilling requirements) produced few
or no fruit. In 1962 a low of 27 on March 6 killed many of the young fruit.

Fertilization

In general, for trees three years of age or younger, a fertilization schedule of
one pound of 8-8-8 or 10-10-10 for each per year of age of the tree was applied in February.
Then in June or early July approximately one-quarter pound of ammonium nitrate per year of
age of the tree was applied. In 1962 these rates were increased to approximately 1,000
pounds per acre of 10-10-10 and 400 pounds per acre of ammonium nitrate, since many of the
trees were quite large.

Diseases, Insects and Spray Program

For the three-year period the spray schedule as outlined in NFES Mimeo Report 63-5
entitled "Suggestions for Peach Growers in the North Florida Experiment Station Area" was
followed. Because of the many varieties with different flowering and fruiting dates
several additional sprays were necessary. This spray program included parathion, wettable
sulphur and DDT.

In all three years insects were adequately controlled. Borers occasionally gave
trouble where the trunk sprays were not properly applied. Stink bugs were occasionally seen,
but few misshapen fruit were found. Scab was present but usually not serious except on the







-3 -


late varieties. Brown rot was present and did some damage to the soft-fruited varieties.

Observations and Recommendations

For areas with climatic conditions similar to Quincy, Maygold appears to be the
most dependable variety for the early shipping market. Earligold and Junegold are
suggested for limited planting because of their earliness and acceptable fruit quality.
Hiland and Sunhigh have good fruit quality but their higher chilling requirements make
them doubtful varieties for commercial consideration. Flordaqueen appears suitable for
home garden production, however, its rapid ripening and softness would make shipping risky.
Suwannee has fine quality fruit; however, it is too late for the early market. Flordahome
and Saturn are suitable for ornamental trees.

Information regarding tree longevity and performance on various rootstocks must be
reserved until additional observations are accumulated.

These variety trials are being continued and additional varieties will be added
each year. Selections from breeding material will also be evaluated for consideration as
new varieties.


































HWY
2/8/62
600 cc








TABLE 1. Peach yields at Quincy, Florida in the years 1961, 1962 and 1963.


Variety




Earligold

Earligold

Junegold

Hiland

Maygold

Maygold

Flordaqueen

Flordaqueen

Flordaqueen

Robin

Meadowlark

Flordahome

Saturn

Valigold

Sunhigh

Fortyniner

Goldrush

Suwannee

Suwannee


Rootstock(l)


Rancho



Okinawa

Okinawa

Nemaguard

Nemaguard

Okinawa

37-12




Nemaguard


Okinawa


Average yield per tree in pounds and age of
tree in parentheses.

1960 1961 1962

35 (3) 26 (4) 72 (5)

0 (1) 1 (2)

29 (3) 46 (4) 84 (5)

62 (4) 39 (5) 24 (6)

39 (3) 57 (4) 128 (5)

37 (3) 44 (4) 141 (5)

4 (2) 4 (3) 126 (4)

5 (2) 6 (3) 135 (4)

40 (5) 3 (6) 100 (7)

27 (3) 2 (4) 10 (5)

2 (2) 22 (3) 33 (4)

0 (2) 3 (3) 0 (4)

28 (3) 40 (4) 86 (5)

27 (3) 14 (4) 5 (5)

123 (5) 145 (6) 137 (7)

61 (4) 99 (5) 82 (6)

35 (4) 54 (5) 50 (6)

69 (5) 78 (6) 26 (7)

38 (4) 38 (5) 22 (6)


(1) Rootstock listed where known...









Table 2: Peach


bloom, foliage break, ripening and fruit characteristics at Quincy, Florida
Date averaged for the years 1960, 1961 and 1962.


Dates
-First
Full Foliage ripe
bloom break fruit


Fruit Characteristics
Percent
red Diameter in inches
overcolor (1) (2)


Ut. per
peach Flesh Cling
Length in lbs. color or Free


Earligold
Junegold
Robin
Hiland
Maygold
(3)
Flordahome
Meadowlark
Flordaqueen
Valigold
Suwannee

Saturn
Goldrush
Sunhigh
Fortyniner


(1) Diameter at right angle to suture
(2) Diameter through the suture
(3) Ornamental variety fruit produced in


Probable
Chilling
hours


Yel.
Yel.
White
Yel.
Yel.

Yel.
Yel.
Yel
Yel.
Yel.

Yel.
Yel.
Yel.
Yel.


Cling
Cling
Free
Cling
Cling

Fr e
Cling
Cling
Free
Free

Free
Free
Fresh
Fre


1961 only


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