Group Title: Quincy NFREC Research Report - University of Florida North Florida Research and Education Center ; 85-5
Title: Peanut insect management in 1985
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074385/00001
 Material Information
Title: Peanut insect management in 1985
Series Title: Quincy NFREC Research report
Physical Description: 6, 12 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Tappan, William B., 1928-
Gorbet, Daniel W ( Daniel Wayne ), 1942-
North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)
Publisher: North Florida Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1985
 Subjects
Subject: Peanuts -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: William B. Tappan and Daniel W Gorbet.
General Note: Caption title.
Funding: Research report (North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074385
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 85762825

Full Text




NORTH FLORIDA RESEARCH AND EDUCATION CENTER
Quincy, Florida

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND EDUCATION CENTER
Marianna, Florida

Quincy NFREC Research Report NF 85-5

Peanut Insect Management in 1985

William B. Tappan, Entomologist, Quincy, and
Daniel W. Gorbet, Agronomist, Marianna

Materials and Methods

Twelve chemical foliar spray treatments were field tested on Florunner
. anuts for insect control, phytotoxicity, and effect on crop performance. In
a second experiment, certain breeding lines and varieties were studied to de-
termine if any tolerance to insect attack could be detected. In a third ex-
periment, 3 F. selections and 2 parent lines were compared to determine if in-
sect tolerance from one of the parents had been transferred to the F5 selec-
tions, and to increase the seed source from the F selections. A fourth ex-
periment was conducted to study the effects of various population levels of
the foliage feeding Lepidoptera complex on foliage damage and yield of Florun-
ner peanuts. -

Spray treatments were applied over the foliage with a boom-type CO -pres-
surized hand sprayer that covered 2 rows with 3 Tee-Jet D3-25 nozzles per row.
The sprayer was calibrated to deliver approximately 26 gallons of spray per
acre at 26 p.s.i. at normal walking speed. The sprayer was also used in the
population-level experiment to control foliage feeding Lepidoptera populations
at the desired levels. The dates spray applications were made are given in a
footnote in Tables 1 through 5 and 12 and 13.

Treatments listed in Tables 1 through 5 and 12 and 13 were replicated 3
times in complete randomized blocks. Each plot was 4 rows wide, and rows were
30 feet long planted on 3-foot centers. The 2 center rows constituted the ex-
perimental plot, and the 1 row on either side acted as buffers between plots.
Alleys between blocks of plots were 10 feet wide. Treatments listed in Tables
6 through 11 were replicated 3 times in complete randomized blocks. Each plot
was 2 rows wide, and rows were 20 feet long planted on 3-foot centers. The 2
rows were the experimental plot, and there were no buffers between plots with-
in blocks. Alleys between blocks of plots were 20 feet wide. The experiment-
al area was located at the Marianna School for Boys west of Florida Highway
167 and north of Interstate 10.

All the cultural practices in preparing the experimental area for planting
were performed in the usual manner. High calcic lime at 2,000 pounds per acre
was applied on March 12. Beds for planting were prepared and fertilizer (500
pounds/acre of 0-10-20 plus Boron at 0.5 pound/acre) was applied on March 25.
Herbicides; Balan, 1 gallon + Vernam, 1 quart/acre, were applied on the test
area on April 19. At cracking; Lasso, 3 quarts + Dyanap, 1.5 gallons/acre
were applied on the foliar spray experimental area on May 17, and Lasso, 3
quarts + Dyanap, 1.5 gallons/acre were applied on the insect plant tolerance





2

and foliage feeding Lepidoptera population-level experimental areas on June
21. Gypsum at 750 pounds/acre was applied on the experimental area.on July 3.
Foliar disease control sprays were applied on the experimental area as fol-
lows: Bravo, 2.125 pints on the foliar spray experimental area on June 21;
Bravo, 2.125 pints on the experimental area on July 8; Bravo, 3 ,pints on
foliar spray experimental area on July 23; Bravo, 3 pints on the experimental
area on August 6; Bravo, 2.125 pints on the experimental area on August 20,
September 4 and 17; and Bravo, 2.125 pints/acre on the insect plant tolerance
and foliage feeding Lepidoptera population-level experimental areas on October
1. The foliar spray experiment was planted on May 10, harvested on September
23, and picked on September 27. The foliage feeding Lepidoptera population-
level experiment was planted on June 11, harvested on October 25, and picked
on November 4. The insect plant tolerance experiments were planted on June
14, harvested on October 25, and picked for seed on November 4.

Tobacco thrips counts in the foliar spray and insect plant tolerance
experiments were made from natural infestations by counting the number
adult and immature thrips collected in 25 cc bottles from 10 terminal foliage
buds per plot at weekly intervals beginning in the foliar spray experiment on
May 21 and ending on June 25, and beginning in the insect plant tolerance
experiment on June 27 and ending on July 16. In the insect plant tolerance
experiment comparing parental lines with F selections, the thrips counts were
made from 5 terminal foliage buds per plo taken weekly beginning on June 27
and ending on July 16. Counts were made in the laboratory after the thrips
had been washed from the buds twice with alcohol and collected on 9 cm. filter
paper in a Buchner funnel under vacuum. A binocular microscope with 15X mag-
nification was used to make the counts. Ratings of foliage damaged by thrips
were made on the same dates that thrips were counted. The rating system used
was based on a scale of 0 to 10, with 0 being no damage and 10 being 100 per-
cent of the foliage showing some feeding damage.

Counts of corn earworm, fall armyworm, granulate cutworm, looper, velvet-
bean caterpillar, yellowstriped armyworm, and other foliage feeding Lepidop-
tera larvae were made from natural infestations by counting the number of live
larvae in 3 feet of row per plot at weekly intervals. Larval counts were made
in the foliar spray experiment beginning on July 23 and ending on September
10, in the insect plant tolerance experiments beginning on August 21 and end-
ing on October 2, and in the foliage feeding Lepidoptera population-level ex-
periment beginning on August 20 and ending on October 15. Foliage feeding
Lepidoptera larval damage ratings were made in the insect plant tolerance ex-
periments on October 2 and in the population-level experiment at weekly inter-
vals beginning on August 20 and ending on October 15. The rating system was
the same as that for thrips damage.

The percent of lesser cornstalk borer infested plants was determined at
harvest in the foliar spray experiment on September 23 and in the insect plant
tolerance experiments on October 25. Ten plants per plot were examined and
damage to pegs, pods, and stems was noted as a damaged plant, and the percent
infested plants was calculated by multiplying the number of damaged plants by
10.

A leafhopper foliage damage rating similar to the thrips damage rating was
made in the insect plant tolerance experiments on August 22. Leafhoppers were





3
not a problem in the foliar spray or foliage feeding Lepidoptera population-
level experiments.

Yield was calculated in pounds per acre from the total weight of dried
peanuts picked from 2 rows of each plot in each experiment, except the insect
plant tolerance experiments. No crop value was calculated for the 4 experi-
ments.

Visual foliage phytotoxicity ratings in the foliar spray experiment were
begun on May 28 and continued at weekly intervals until September 10. Plots
were rated according to severity of phytotoxicity observed. The ratings were
based on the following system:

0 = None
1 = Slight chlorosis or spotting
2 = Moderate chlorosis or spotting
3 = Heavy chlorosis or spc:ting with some necrosis
4 = Severe chlorosis or spotting with considerable necrosis

An analysis of variance was made of all treatment means except the foliar
spray phytotoxicity indices. Duncan's multiple range test was applied to all
means analyzed to obtain statistical comparisons for data interpretation.

Rainfall data expressed in inches for the duration of the experiments from
May 9 to October 26 were as follows:

May June July August September October

9-1.38 8-0.95 2-0.05 1-0.17 2-0.72 2-0.25
10-0.26 11-2.45 4-0.40 3-0.67 3-0.05 3-0.73
21-0.08 12-0.55 8-1.30 7-0.30 5-0.08 5-0.26
23-0.72 15-0.48 15-0.05 8-0.40 8-0.60 Total-2-T
24-0.30 18-1.75 16-0.60 9-0.12 22-0.10
30-0.17 19-0.13 25-0.08 10-0.60 24-0.20
Total-=ST 26-0.08 26-0.60 16-0.20 25-0.10
29-0.70 27-0.26 17-0.33 Total-1T2
30-0.26 30-0.02 20-1.95
Total-'T7 31-0.37 26-0.82
Total-177 27-1.50
28-0.30
Grand Total.= 24.44 inches Total-T13EJ

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Tobacco thrips populations for the entire experimental period were smaller
than in 1984, but population and damage curves followed the same pattern as
has been observed during the past 10 years. Foliage feeding Lepidoptera
larvae began infesting the plants at approximately the same time as in 1984,
but populations reached the economic population level (4 to 5 larvae per foot
of row) in the foliar spray experiment only one time on July 23 owing to some
unexplained reason. The economic population level was reached in the insect
plant tolerance experiment on August 21, 28, September 25, and October 2, in
the parental lines and F selection experiment on August 21 and October 2, and
in the population-level experimentt on August 20, 27, and October 1. The fact







that the experimental area was located in an isolated pasture area, that may
have never been planted in peanuts, may explain the small thrips and Lepidop-
tera population infestations. The primary foliage feeding Lepidoptera species
were corn earworm, fall armyworm, granulate cutworm, looper, velvetbean cater-
pillar, and yellowstriped armyworm. Velvetbean caterpillar infestations began
appearing about one month later than in 1984, but populations were only
slightly larger. Potato leafhopper became a problem in the insect plant tol-
erance experiments in August following approximately 42 days of a slightly
drought period, but were of no consequence in the other experiments. Wilting
of grasses near the insect plant tolerance experiments caused migration of the
leafhopper into these experiments. Lesser cornstalk borer populations were
smaller in all experiments than in 1984 owing to adequate rainfall during the
entire experimental period. The drought period during September and October
came too late in the growing season to allow a large increase in the borer
population. The rainfall during the experimental period was 1.61 inches below
that for 1984, and the total for July was 8.28 inches below that for July of
1984. The rainfall was well dispersed over the experimental period, which
caused yields in the foliar spray experiment to exceed those in 1984 by ap-
proximately 1,000 pounds per acre. The drought during September and October
caused a reduction in yields in the population-level experiment. The dry
spell in 1984 occurred in September and October, whereas in 1984 it occurred
in July and August and again in September and October, which lessened the
impact of the foliage feeding Lepidoptera complex. Overall, the weather
conditions were conducive to lessened insect activity on the crop from the
foliage feeders and lesser cornstalk borer, and to more than adequate yields.

The thrips count on June 4 in the foliar spray experiment indicated that
all treatments except Lannate at 0.56, 1.15, and 2.32 and Pounce at 0.106
pound AI/acre gave significant control. The largest populations on the un-
treated check and treated plots occurred on June 4, two weeks after treatment,
and the count on that date indicated that the efficacy of only Capture at
0.107 and Orthene at 1.10, 2.01, and 3.68 pounds AI/acre had not declined
appreciably. On June 11, the thrips foliage damage indices showed that all
treatments except Lannate at 0.56 and 1.15 and Pounce at 0.106 pound AI/acre
significantly reduced foliage injury. Orthene at 3.68 pounds AI/acre provided
the best protection from foliage injury on June 11, and for the remainder of
the experimental period. There was a pronounced dosage response in the thrips
to Orthene, but the response to Lannate was less than that for Orthene. All
the synthetic pyrethroids: Ammo, Baythroid, and Pounce, with the exception of
Capture, showed a definite weakness for thrips control. (See Table 2.) Yield
response to the treatments indicated for the 10th year in succession that
thrips had no economic influence on the crop. (See Table 4.)

Foliage feeding Lepidoptera populations reached the economic threshold
level only on July 23, and remained below that level for the remainder of the
experimental period. The count on July 30 indicated that all treatments sig-
nificantly controlled the foliage feeders, which at that time were predomin-
antly fall armyworm, granulate cutworm, and corn earworm. (See Table 3.)

Control of the lesser cornstalk borer and the effect on yield are pre-
sented in Table 4. The lesser cornstalk borer infestation was not as large as
anticipated, and was about three times smaller than in 1984 owing to the more
than adequate rainfall during the experimental period. Examination of the
pods and vines immediately after digging on September 23 indicated that none





5

of the treatments gave significant control. None of the treatments had any
significant effect on yield. The increase in yield (approximately 1,000
pounds) over that in 1984 indicated that the well dispersed rainfall enhanced
pod production.

Only Lannate at rates of 1.15 and 2.32 pounds AI/acre caused any detect-
able phytotoxicity. Plant injury was evident as chlorosis with some necrotic
spotting following the first spray application on May 22. The injury follow-
ing the second application on July 26 was not as severe and only moderate to
heavy chlorosis was observed. (See Table 5.) The yield data indicated no
subterranean phytotoxicity. (See Table 4.)

Thrips populations in the insect plant tolerance experiment peaked on July
9, but none of the lines showed any significant tolerance to thrips attack.
Thrips populations were low, which probably accounted for the lack of signifi-
cant differences in tolerance between lines. Thrips foliage damage indices
did not necessarily coincide with thrips counts, but NC-1574E had significant-
ly less damage than either Florunner or Valencia on July 9. By July 16,
NC-15745 had significantly less damage than Florunner. The data indicated
that small numbers of thrips do cause more damage to some lines than large
numbers on other lines. A physiological factor in the plant may trigger the
feeding habit of the thrips, which relates to the amount of foliage damage
that is inflicted. '(See Table 6.) No yield data was taken since past obser-
vations indicated that differences in yield among lines was a function of
genetic differences moreso than thrips damage. Foliage feeding Lepidoptera
populations were small during the entire experimental period probably owing to
the drought period during July and August and again in September and October.
The economic population level of 4 to 5 larvae per foot of row was reached on
August 21, 28, September 25, and October 2. Data collection ended on October
2, since the experiment was inadvertently sprayed with Lannate at 0.45 pound
AI/acre following the count on that date. There were some significant differ-
ences between lines on August 21 and 28, but populations were so small and
variable that meaningful trends could not be established. Larval foliage
damage indices on October 2 indicated that 72 X 41A-6-1-2-2-b3-B, NC-10247,
and 73 X 18A-5-2-3-1-2-B were significantly more tolerant to feeding injury
than either Florunner or Valencia. UF-83110 was no more'tolerant to foliage
feeding Lepidoptera than the highly susceptible Valencia. The predominant
foliage feeder on October 2 was the velvetbean caterpillar. (See Table 7.)
Potato leafhopper foliage damage indices indicated that NC-10247, NC-15745,
and 73 X 18A-5-2-3-1-2-B were significantly more tolerant than Valencia. The
lesser cornstalk borer damage counts at digging on October 25 indicated that
there was no significant differences among the various lines. Borer infesta-
tions were considerably smaller than in 1984 owing to the adequate and well
dispersed rainfall. No yield data were taken, therefore, no comparisons could
be made. (See Table 8.)

In the parental lines and F5 selections experiment, thrips populations
were small and peaked on July 9. There were no significant differences among
the various entries with respect to thrips numbers in the terminal foliage
buds nor thrips damage to the foliage. (See Table 9.) Foliage feeding Lepi-
doptera reached economic population levels on August 21 and October 2. On
none of the count dates were there any significant differences between en-
tries. Counts were discontinued after October 2 due to an inadvertent insect-
icidal application on the experimental area. Larval foliage damage indices on







October 2 indicated that all entries were significantly more tolerant than
519. The velvetbean caterpillar was the predominant foliage feeder responsi-
ble for damage on that date. (See Table 10.) Potato leafhopper foliage
damage indices indicated that there were no significant differences between
entries. Similarly there were no differences between entries with respect to
lesser cornstalk borer infestations. (See Table 11.) The lesser cornstalk
borer infestations were, however, slightly larger in the insect plant toler-
ance and parental lines and F selections experiments than in the foliar spray
experiment owing to the drug t conditions during September and October.

In the population-level experiment, only one of the experimental levels (4
to 10 larvae per 3 feet of row) was reached on August 20 and again on October
1. An application of Orthene at 1.03 pounds AI/acre on August 21 and October
2 maintained the level effectively. Larval level (See Table 12.) and the
foliage damage indices (See Table 13.) in the treated plots were significantly
smaller than the other experimental plots, which were untreated. The yield
data indicated that treating with an insecticide to control foliage feeding
Lepidoptera at a population level of 4 to 10 larvae per foot of row did not
increase yield significantly above that where no treatment was applied. (See
Table 13.) Therefore, the population level of 4 to 10 larvae per foot of row
is not economically feasible for determining when to apply insecticidal con-
trol treatments.





NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 1. Chemical
1985.


Foliar Spray Treatments Applied for Insect Control


on Florunner Peanuts.


AREC, Marianna -


Gallons Lbs. AI
Number per Acre per per Acre per
Treatmentab Applicationsc Application Application
Orthene, 0.5% S(75% SP) 2 26.6 1.10
Orthene, 1.0% S(75% SP) 2 24.4 2.01
Orthene, 2.0% S(75% SP) 2 22.3 3.68
Lannate, 0.29% S(1.8 Ibs./gal. L) 2 23.1 0.56
Lannate, 0.58% S(1.8 Ibs./gal. L) 2 23.6 1.15
Lannate, 1.16% S(1.8 Ibs./gal. L) 2 24.0 2.32
Capture, 0.027% S(2.0 Ibs./gal. EC) 2 24.2 0.055
Capture, 0.054% S(2.0 Ibs./gal. EC) 2 25.7 0.107
Ammo, 0.024% S(2.5 Ibs./gal. EC) 2 25.2 0.048
Pounce, 0.05% S(3.2 Ibs./gal. EC) 2 25.3 0.106
Baythroid, 0.011% S(2.0 Ibs./gal. EC) 2 25.2 0.023
Baythroid, 0.022% 5(2.0 Ibs./gal. EC) 2 25.2 0.045
Check (Untreated)- --- ----


aEC = Emulsifiable Concentrate, L = Liquid, S = Spray, and SP = Soluble Powder.
bCrop was planted on 5/10, harvested on 9/23, and picked on 9/27/85..
CSprays were applied on 5/22 and 7/26/85.






NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 2. Effects of Chemical Foliar Spray Treatments on Thrips Control and Damage on Florunner Peanuts.


AREC, Marianna -


1985.


Treatment and Mean Number Thrips per Budbd Mean Thrips Foliage Damage Indicescd
Lbs. AI per Acre
per Applicationa 5/21e 5/28 6/4 6/11 6/18 6/25 5/21e 5/28 6/4 6/11 6/18 6/25
Orthene, 0.5% S, 1.10 0.8a 2.4bcd 2.6a 2.5abc 4.1d 2.1a 0.0 1.7b 2.7cd 3.3c 3.3b 4.0cd
Orthene, 1.0% S, 2.01 0.7a l.Oabc 0.5a 2.2ab 2.7abcd 1.8a 0.0 1.0a 1.3ab 2.3b 2.0a 1.7ab
Orthene, 2.0% S, 3.68' 1.2a 0.5a 0.4a 1.Ia 2.5abc 1.3a 0.0 1.Oa 1.0a 1.3a 1.Oa 1.Oa
Lannate, 0.29% S, 0.56 1.Oa 3.7d 15.9e 4.8cdef 2.7abcd 1.9a 0.0 2.3bc 6.0hi 8.0ef 7.3de 5.3def
Lannate, 0.58% S, 1.15 1.3a 2.9cd 12.5de 6.1efg 3.7bcd 2.3a 0.0 2.Ob 5.7gh 7.7ef 7.3de 6.0ef
Lannate, 1.16% S, 2.32 0.7a 3.4d 12.6de 6.0defg 3.8bcd 2.3a 0.0 1.7b 4.7fg 7.3e 7.3de 6.3ef
Capture, 0.027% S, 0.055 0.9a 1.6abc 4.8ab 4.0bcde 2.4ab 1.7a 0.0 2.Ob 2.3bcd 4.0c 4.7c 4.3d
Capture, 0.054% S, 0.107 1.0a l.lab 2.4a 3.8bcde 2.1a 1.9a 0.0 1.Oa 1.7ab 3.3c 3.7bc 2.7bc
Ammo, 0.024% S, 0.048 1.0a 2.2bcd 9.4cd 6.9fg 4.0cd 2.6a 0.0 2.0b 4.3ef 7.3e 8.0e 6.7f
Pounce, 0.05% S, 0.106 0.9a 3.6d 12.5de 4.5bcdef 2.1a 2.2a 0.0 2.7c 6.3hi 8.0ef 7.7e 6.7f
Baythroid, 0.011% S, 0.023 1.Oa 2.7bcd 8.1bc 5.3defg 3.1abcd 1.7a -0.0 1.7b 3.3de 7.0e 6.3d 5.0de
Baythroid, 0.022% S, 0.045 1.3 2.2bcd 7.3bc 7.6g 3.1abcd 2.4a 0.0 1.7b 3.3de 6.0d 7.3de 6.0ef
Check (Untreated) 0.6a 3.5d .16.6e 3.5bcd 1.6a 1.9a 0.0 4.0d 7.0i 8.7f 7.7e 6.3ef

% Adults 99.5 27.6 3.1 8.1 6.3 5.2
% Immatures 0.5 72.4 96.9 91.9 93.7 94.8


a = Spray. Crop was planted on
and 7/26/85.
bTen terminal buds per plot were


5/10, harvested on 9/23, and picked on 9/27/85. Sprays were applied on 5/22

examined.


CRating System: 0 = None to 10 = 100% of foliage showing some damage.
dMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
epretreatment count or rating.




NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida

Table 3. Effects of Chemical Foliar Spray Treatments on Control of the Foliage Feeding Lepidoptera Complex
on Florunner Peanuts. AREC, Marianna 1985.

/Treatment and Mean Number Larvae per Foot of Rowb
Lbs. AI per Acre
per Applicationa 7/23c 7/30 8/6e 8/13 8/209 8/27h 9/3' 9/10j
Orthene, 0.5% S, 1.10 5.7a 1.9a 1.7a 1.9a 2.0a 1.2a 1.2a 0.6a
Orthene, 1.0% S, 2.01 5.7a 1.4a 1.3a 2.1a 2.6a 1.9a 1.4a 0.7a
Orthene, 2.0% S, 3.68 5.7a 1.4a 0.8a 1.9a 3.1a 1.3a 1.6a 0.6a
Lannate, 0.29% S, 0.56 5.4a 1.0a 0.8a 2.0a 3.2a 1.8a 1.2a 0.7a
Lannate, 0.58% S, 1.15 6.0a 1.4a 1.6a 1.4a 2.8a 1.8a 1.4a 0.6a
Lannate, 1.16% S, 2.32 7.4a 1.6a 0.8a 1.Oa 1.8a 2.0a 1.3a 0.9a
Capture, 0.027% S, 0.055 5.6a 0.9a 0.9a 1.6a 2.9a 1.8a 0.6a O.la
Capture, 0.054% S, 0.107 5.6a 0.9a 0.7a 2.3a 3.2a 1.8a 0.7a O.la
Ammo, 0.024% 5, 0.048 5.4a 1.9a 0.4a 1.4a 3.7a 1.Oa 1.3a 0.7a
Pounce, 0.05% S, 0.106 7.0a 0.9a 1.2a 1.9a 2.1a 1.6a 0.7a 0.7a
Baythroid, 0.011% S, 0.023 5.9a 0.9a 0.7a 1.6a 3.la 1.7a 0.4a 0.8a
Baythroid, 0.022% S, 0.045 5.9a 0.7a 1.Oa 1.6a 1.8a l.la 1.2a 0.6a
Check (Untreated) 6.3a 3.1b 0.9a 1.8a 3.la 1.6a 1.2a 0.2a


aS = Spray. Crop was planted on 5/10, harvested on
and 7/26/85.


9/23, and picked on 9/27/85.


Sprays were applied on 5/22


bMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
CPredominantly corn earworm 50%, fall armyworm 37%, yellowstriped armyworm 6%, and gra
6%.


nulate cutworm -


predominantly fall armyworm 56%, granulate cutworm 20%, corn earworm 16%, yellowstriped armyworm 5%,
and cabbage looper 3%.
predominantly fall armyworm 60%, corn earworm 24%, granulate cutworm 11%, cabbage looper 4%, yellow-
striped armyworm 1%, and rednecked peanutworm 1%.
fPredominantly fall armyworm 59%, corn earworm 17%, granulate cutworm 13%, cabbage looper 8%, yellow-
striped armyworm 3%, and velvetbean caterpillar 1%.
gPredominantly fall armyworm 75%, corn earworm 13%, cabbage looper 7%, granulate cutworm 3%, yellow-
striped armyworm 1%, and velvetbean caterpillar 1%.
Predominantly fall armyworm 71%, corn earworm 7%, velvetbean caterpillar 7%, granulate cutworm 7%,
cabbage looper 6%, and yellowstriped armyworm 3%.
Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 51%, fall armyworm 23%, granulate cutworm 13%, yellowstriped
armyworm 6%, cabbage looper 4%, and corn earworm 3%.
jPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 75%, granulate cutworm 14%, yellowstriped armyworm 8%, fall army-
worm 2%, and cabbage looper 2%.





NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 4. Effects of Chemical Foliar Spray Treatments on Control of the Lesser Cornstalk Borer and Yield of
Florunner Peanuts. AREC, Marianna 1985.

Treatment-and Lesser Cornstalk B rer Mean
Lbs. AI per Acre % Infested Plants Yield/Acre
per Applicationa 9/23 lbs.
Orthene, 0.5% S, 1.10 13a 6,332a
Orthene, 1.0% S, 2.01 7a 6,607a
Orthene, 2.0% S, 3.68 3a 6,300a
Lannate, 0.29% S, 0.56 10a 5,889a
Lannate, 0.58% S, 1.15 7a 6,332a
Lannate, 1.16% S, 2.32 Oa 6,292a
Capture, 0.027% S, 0.055 3a 6,300a
Capture, 0.054% S, 0.107 3a 6,752a
Ammo, 0.024% S, 0.048 3a 6,413a
Pounce, 0.05% S, 0.106 7a 6,332a
Baythroid, 0.011% S, 0.023 lOa 6,486a
Baythroid, 0.022% S, 0.045 Oa 6,688a
Check (Untreated) lOa 5,969a


aS = Spray. Crop was planted on 5/10, harvested on 9/23,
5/22 and 7/26/85.


and picked on 9/27/85.


Sprays were applied on


bMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.






NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 5. Phytotoxic Effect of Chemical Foliar Spray Treatments on Florunner Peanuts. AREC, Marianna 1985.

Treatment and b
Lbs. AI per Acre Mean Phytotoxicity Indicesb
per Applicationa 5/28 6/4 6/11 6/18 6/25 7/2 7/9 7/16 7/23 7/30 8/6 8/13 8/20 8/27 9/3 9/10
Orthene, 0.5% S, 1.10 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Orthene, 1.0% S, 2.01 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Orthene, 2.0% S, 3.68 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lannate, 0.29% S, 0.56 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lannate, 0.58% S, 1.15 3.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.7 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lannate, 1.16% S, 2.32 3.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.7 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Capture, 0.027% S, 0.055 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Capture, 0.054% S, 0.107 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Ammo, 0.024% S, 0.048 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Pounce, 0.05% S, 0.106 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Baythroid, 0.011% S, 0.023 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Baythroid, 0.022% S, 0.045 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Check (Untreated) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0


aS = Spray. Crop was planted
and 7/26/85.


on 5/10, harvested on 9/23, and picked on 9/27/85. Sprays were applied on 5/22


bRating System: 0 = None, 1 = Slight chlorosis or spotting, 2 = Moderate chlorosis or spotting, 3 = Heavy
chlorosis or spotting with some :encrosis, and 4 = Severe chlorosis or spotting with considerable necrosis.






NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 6. Tolerance of Certain Peanut Breeding Lines and
Marianna 1985.


Varieties


to Thrips Attack and Damage. AREC,


Breeding Lines Mean Number Mean Thrips Foliage
and Thrips per Bud ab Damage Indicesac
Varieties 6/27 7/2 7/9 7/16 6/27 7/2 7/9 7/16
72 X 41A-6-1-2-2-b3-B O.la 2.4a 7.6a 4.5a 0.0 1.7a 3.0ab 7.3c
73 X 18A-4-2-1-1-2-B 0.3a l.la 7.7a 4.0a 0.0 2.0a 3.7abc 6.7bc
73 X 18A-5-2-3-1-2-B O.la 1.5a 9.6a 5.0a 0.0 1.7a 2.7ab 6.3abc
73 X 20B-3-1-2-2-b4-B 0.2a 1.4a 5.9a 2.9a 0.0 1.3a 2.7ab 5.7ab
UF-80202 O.la 2.2a 8.0a 4.2a 0.0 1.3a 3.0ab 6.7bc
UF-81206 0.3a 1.4a 7.0a 3.4a 0.0 1.7a 3.7abc 7.0bc
UF-82201 0.3a 1.4a 6.0a 3.3a 0.0 2.0a 3.0ab 6.3abc
UF-83107 0.3a 2.0a 10.5a 3.8a 0.0 2.3a 4.7cd 6.7bc
UF-83110 0.2a 2.0a 9.3a 4.0a 0.0 2.0a 4.3bcd 6.7bc
NC-10247 0.2a 1.5a 7.7a 3.6a 0.0 1.7a 2.7ab 6.3abc
NC-15745 O.la 1.6a 6.2a 2.2a 0.0 1.Oa 2.3a 5.0a
Valencia 0.2a 3.la 10.9a 4.0a 0.0 1.7a 5.7d 6.3abc
Check (Florunner) 0.3a 1.7a 7.0a 3.0a 0.0 2.3a 4.0bc 7.0bc

% Adults 94.1 23.7 2.7 18.1
% Immatures 5.9 76.3 97.3 81.9


aMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly


bTen terminal buds
11/4/85.


different at the 5% level.


per plot were examined. Crop was planted on 6/14, harvested on 10/25, and picked on


CRating System: 0 = None to 10 = 100% of foliage showing some damage.




NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida

Table 7. Tolerance of Certain Peanut Breeding Lines and Varieties to Foliage Feeding Lepidoptera Attack and


Larval Foliage Damage.


AREC, Marianna 1985.


Breeding Lines b Mean Larval Foliage
Breeding Lines Mean Number Larvae per Foot of Row Damage Indicesb
Varieties 8/21c 8/28d 9/4e 9/11 9/18g 9/25h 10/2i'k 10/2j'k
72 X 41A-6-1-2-2-b3-B 6.3ab 4.9abcd 1.2a 0.9a 2.0a' 3.6a 6.0a 1.Oa
73 X 18A-4-2-1-1-2-B 6.3ab 5.2abcd 2.6a 2.7a 3.4a 2.9a 4.7a 3.0cde
73 X 18A-5-2-3-1-2-B 6.8ab 5.7bcd 3.2a 2.6a 3.1a 4.8a 7.8a 1.3ab
73 X 20B-3-1-2-2-b4-B 10.2cd 7.3d 3.3a 3.la 2.7a 3.8a 4.8a 2.3bc
UF-80202 6.0ab 3.8ab 2.1a 3.0a 2.7a 3.3a 6.4a 2.7bcd
UF-81206 6.9abc 5.0abcd 2.8a 2.4a 2.1a 4-0a 5.2a 2.0b
UF-82201 8.1abc 6.0bcd 1.6a 2.9a 2.3a 3.6a 7.1a 2.0b
UF-83107 8.8bc 6.1bcd 3.0a 2.9a 2.9a 4.2a 5.7a 3.3de
UF-83110 13.2d 5.0abcd 3.7a 3.6a 3.9a 5.la 4.4a 4.3f
NC-10247 7.0abc 4.8abc 2.6a 1.8a 2.9a 3.0a 3.0a 1.0a
NC-15745 7.4abc 2.9a 2.7a 2.9a 2.6a 3.1a 3.9a 2.0b
Valencia 9.0bc 6.9cd 3.7a 3.6a 3.6a 5.2a 6.0a 3.7ef
Check (Florunner) 5.0c 3.8ab 2.0a 2.7a 2.8a 3.6a 4.3a 3.3de


acrop was planted on 6/14, harvested on 10/25, and picked on


11/4/85.


bMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the


5% level.


Cpredominantly fall armyworm 65%, corn earworm 25%, velvetbean caterpillar 6%,
granulate cutworm 2%, and yellowstriped armyworm 1%.
Predominantly fall armyworm 73%, velvetbean caterpillar 12%, corn earworm 6%,
yellowstriped armyworm 3%, and granulate cutworm 1%.


cabbage looper 2%,

cabbage looper 6%,


predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 77%, fall armyworm 17%, yellowstriped armyworm 3%, cabbage looper -
2%, and corn earworm 1%.
fPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 96%, fall armyworm 2%, cabbage looper 1%, granulate cutworm 1%,
and lesser cornstalk borer 1%.
gPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 96%, and fall armyworm, -3%.
predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 97%, granulate cutworm 2%, and fall armyworm 1%.
'Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 89%, and granulate cutworm 10%.
JPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar damage. Rating System: 0 = None to 10 = 100% of foliage showing some
damage.
kplots were inadvertently sprayed with Lannate at 0.45 lb. AI/acre on 10/2/85.






NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 8. Tolerance of Certain Peanut Breeding Lines and Varieties to the Potato Leafhopper and Lesser Corn-
stalk Borer. AREC, Marianna 1985.

Breeding Lines Leafhopper Foliage Lesser Cornstalk Borer
and Damage Indicesb,c % Infested Plantsb
Varieties 8/22 10/25d
72 X 41A-6-1-2-2-b3-B 4.3bc 20a
73 X 18A-4-2-1-1-2-B 2.7ab 17a
73 X 18A-5-2-3-1-2-B 1.0a 27a
73 X 20B-3-1-2-2-b4-B 3.3abc 33a
UF-80202 3.7abc 10a
UF-81206 3.7abc 10a
UF-82201 3.7abc 17a
UF-83107 3.7abc 17a
UF-83110 5.0bc 13a
NC-10247 0.7a 33a
NC-15745 1.0a 23a
Valencia 6.0c 40a
Check (Florunner) 3.3abc 17a
aCrop was planted on 6/14, harvested on 10/25, and picked on 11/4/85.
bMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
CRating System: 0 = None and 10 = 100% of foliage showing some damage.
Plots were inadvertently sprayed with Lannate at 0.45 lb. AI/acre on 10/2/85.







Table 9. Tolerance of Pea
1985.


NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida

nut Parent Lines and F5 Selections to Thrips Attack and Damage. AREC, Marianna -


Parent Lines
and
F5 Selections
519
72 X 41A
80 X 6A-BK1-1
80 X 6A-BK1-2
80 X 6B-BK3


Mean Number
7/2
0.9a
l.la
1.5a
0.3a
1.0a


Thrips per Bud bc
7/9 7/16
4.9a 3.3a
7.9a 5.4a
7.2a 4.7a
3.4a 4.la
5.1a 4.3a


Mean Thri
6/27
0.0
0.0
0;0
0.0
0.0


ps Foliage
7/2
2.3a
1.3a
1.3a
1.3a
1.3a


Damage
7/9
4.0a
2.7a
2.3a
2.7a
2.7a


Indicesbd
7/16
6.3a
5.0a
5.3a
5.7a
6.7a


% Adults 100.0 30.6 8.2 13.5
% Immature 0.0 69.4 91.8 86.5
aCrop was planted on 6/14/85, harvested on 10/25, and picked on 11/4/85.
bMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
CFive terminal buds per plot were examined.
Rating System: 0 = None to 10 = 100% of foliage showing some damage.







Table 10. Tolerance of
Larval Foliag


NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida

Peanut Parent Lines and F5 Selections to Foliage Feeding Lepidoptera Attack and
e Damage. AREC, Marianna 1985.


Parent Lines
and
F5 Selections
-b---------
519
72 X 41A
80 X 6A-BK1-1
80 X 6A-BK1-2
80 X 6B-BK3


8/21c
3.8a
5.7a
5.6a
3.8a
4.8a


Mean Number
8/28 9/4e
2.2a 1.2a
3.2a 1.7a
2.3a 0.9a
3.4a 1.Oa
2.7a 1.4a


Larvae per
9/11
1.6a
1.6a
1.3a
0.8a
1.0a


Foot of
9/189
2.1a
2.la
1.4a
1.3a
2.0a


Rowb
9/25h
1.7a
2.3a
2.1a
2.8a
2.4a


10/21 ,K
5.8a
6.3a
4.1a
4.8a
8.0a


Mean Larval Foliage
Damage Indicesb,c
10/2j,k
3.0c
1.3ab
1.3ab
1.0a
1.7b


aCrop was planted on 6/14, harvested on 10/25, and picked on 11/4/85.
bMeans followed by the same letter, are not significantly different at the 5% level.
Cpredominantly corn earworm 48%, fall armyworm 41%, velvetbean caterpillar 5%, yellowstriped armyworm -
3%, granulate cutworm 2%, and cabbage looper 1%.
Predominantly fall armyworm 76%, corn earworm 10%, velvetbean caterpillar 7%, yellowstriped armyworm -
2%, granulate cutworm 2%, and cabbage looper 1%.
predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 50%, fall armyworm 34%, yellowstriped armyworm 11%, granulate
cutworm 4%, and cabbage looper 2%.
fPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 86%, fall armyworm 11%, and yellowstriped armyworm 4%.
9Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 94%,.corn earworm 3%, and cabbage looper 3%.
predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 97%, fall armyworm 2%, and yellowstriped armyworm 1%.
iPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 96%, and granulate cutworm 3%.
JPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar damage. Rating System: 0 = None to 10 = 100% of foliage showing some
damage.


Plots were in


advertently sprayed with Lannate at 0.45 lb. AI/acre on 10/2/85.






NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 11. Tolerance of Peanut Parent Lines and F5 Selections to
Borer. AREC, Marianna 1985.


the Potato Leafhopper and Lesser Cornstalk


Parent Lines
and
F5 Selections
519
72 X 41A
80 X 6A-BK1-1
80 X 6A-BK1-2
80 X 6B-BK3


Leafhopper Foliage
Damage Indicesb,c
8/22
3.7a
4.0a
3.0a
2.0a
3.7a


Lesser Cornstalk Borer
% Infested Plantsb
10/25d
13a
13a
27a
17a
17a


aCrop was planted on 6/14, harvested on 10/25, and picked on 11/4/85.
bMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
CRating System: 0 = None to 10 = 100% of foliage showing some damage.
dPlots were inadvertently sprayed with Lannate at 0.45 lb. AI/acre on 10/2/85.






NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 12. Effects of Orthene Foliar Spray Treatments in Maintaining Various Population Levels of Foliage
Feeding Lepidoptera on Florunner Peanuts. AREC, Marianna 1985.


Population-Levelsa
larvae/foot of row
4-10m,n
10-20
20-30
30-40
40+ (Check)


8/20cd
7/2a
6.7a
6.4a
6.8a
7.1a


8/27e
0.6a
4.3b
2.8b
4.2b
2.6b


Mean Number
9/3f 9/109
0.6a 0.3a
1.2ab 1.4a
1.2ab 2.2a
1.9b 1.8a
1.7b 1.4a


Larvae per
9/17h
0.9a
1.7a
2.1a
2.2a
1.3a


aCrop was planted on 6/11, harvested on 10/25, and picked on 11/4/85.
bMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the
CPretreatment count.


dPredominantly
predominantly
f
Predominantly
gPredominantly
predominantly
iPredominantly
JPredominantly
Predominantly

Predominantly


fall armyworm 62%, corn earworm 26%, and velvetbean caterpillar 8%.
fall armyworm 65%, velvetbean caterpillar 20%, and corn earworm 6%.
velvetbean caterpillar 76%, fall armyworm 12%, and yellowstriped armyworm 7%.
velvetbean caterpillar 97%, and cabbage looper 2%.
velvetbean caterpillar 97%, and fall armyworm 3%.
velvetbean caterpillar 96%, and granulate cutworm 2%.
velvetbean caterpillar 94%, granulate cutworm 3%, and yellowstriped armyworm 2%.
velvetbean caterpillar 63%, granulate cutworm 35%, and fall armyworm 1%.
velvetbean caterpillar 67%, and granulate cutworm 33%.


m0rthene at 1.03 lbs. Al/acre was applied on 8/21 and 10/2/85.
nOne plot exceeded 4 larvae per foot of row on 10/1/85.


Foot of
9/24i
1.4a
3.6b
3.Ob
3.6b
3.8b


Rowe
10/1
3.1a
5.6b
5.6b
5.8b
6.3b


10/8k
0.7a
1.7a
2.0a
2.6a
2.2a


10/151
0.8a
0.8a
0.9a
1.6a
0.8a


5% level.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs