Group Title: Quincy AREC Mimeo Report - University of Florida Agricultural Research and Education Center ; NF-1972-3
Title: Small grain performance in Florida in 1972
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074381/00001
 Material Information
Title: Small grain performance in Florida in 1972
Series Title: Quincy AREC mimeo report
Physical Description: 7 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Barnett, Ronald David, 1943-
Agricultural Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)
Publisher: University of Florida, Agricultural Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1972
 Subjects
Subject: Grain -- Yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Grain -- Field experiments -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: R.D. Barnett ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "August 1, 1972."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074381
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 85610550

Full Text
V0

F tl University of Florida
SF Agricultural Research and Education Center, Quincy
August 1, 1972

Quincy AREC Mimeo Report NF-1972-3


Small Grain Performance in Florida in 1972

R. D. Barnett, W. H. Chapman, R. L. Smith, and R. L. Stanley, Jr.l/

Small grains are grown for forage or grain, or sometimes both. Small grain forage is
of excellent quality and is produced at a time when permanent pasture grasses are dormant
and before clover is available in the spring. Most of the acreage planted to oats or rye is
used for grazing, whereas wheat is harvested for either feed grain or food. Barley is being
grown for a feed grain on a small acreage.

The Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service reported that 70,000 acres of wheat
were planted in Florida for the 1971-72 season but only 54,000 acres were harvested. The
average yield was 15 bushels per acre which was 1/2 of the record 30 bushels per acre
harvested in 1971. Total production of 810,000 bushels was 60 percent below the 2,010,000
bushels harvested in 1971. Oats harvested for grain on 17,000 acres was the same as in 1971.
This year's oat crop yielded an average of 32 bushels per acre, down sharply from the 49
bushels per acre harvested in 1971. Production of 544,000 bushels was 35 percent below that
of the previous year.

The 1971-72 growing season was very unfavorable for small grain production. Dry weather
prevented planting in early fall and excess moisture delayed the soybean harvest into late
fall, resulting in a further delay in planting. The December-January period of the 1971-72
season was the warmest in 40 years. A severe freeze on January 15 and 16 caused considerable
winter killing because the plants were in a tender condition due to the unusually warm
weather which had preceded the freeze. Oats particularly suffered considerable damage.

Natural infections of leaf rust and crown rust appeared early in the growing season and
increased rapidly because of the warm wet weather. Stem rust and Septoria appeared later
and caused considerable damage. Powdery mildew was present, but did not cause any yield
reductions. The yields were further reduced by a prolonged drought in the spring during the
grain filling period. Disease problems and dry weather resulted in very low yields and
higher abandonment than normal.


Grain and forage yields in 1972 were ob
with four or more replications at several lo
practices, and topdressing were performed ac
uniform for all entries at a given location.


stained from randomized complete block designs
cations. Date of planting, fertilization
cording to the latest recommendations and were


Information on varietal performance at Quincy, Marianna, and Jay for 1972 and 3-year
summaries are presented in this report. Characteristics of recommended varieties are also
included. Recommendations concerning soil selection, liming, seedbed preparation, planting,
fertilization, harvesting, and disease control are found in uExtnsio wrcl -W ch can
be obtained from your County Extension Director. | HUME 8i YI |


1/Assistant Professor (Assistant Agronomist), Professor (Agron
Agricultural Research and Education Center, Quincy; Associat4
Agronomist), Agricultural Research Center, Jay; and Assistan
Agronomist), AREC, Quincy.


mist) an Cntef Direct r,
Professor (Associate
Professor (Assistan%,
\ ,.-Ps qj^: e4 !016










Choosing the Best Grain for a Specific Purpose

*There are significant differences among varieties and kinds of small grains in type of
growth, winterhardiness, disease resistances and production of forage and grain. Rye grows
at lower temperatures and produces more forage than oats, wheat, or barley; however, it
produces low yields of grain. Oats are more suitable for production of both forage and
grain than the other small grains, whereas wheat and barley are more suitable for grain
production. Rye produces forage earlier in the fall than oats.

Diseases are an important factor in small grain production, but can be controlled most
economically by utilizing resistant varieties. Generally, there are as many different races
or strains of the disease organism as there are different varieties of a crop. A change in
the race of a disease necessitates a change in the variety to be grown. Diseases are much
more of a factor in grain production than in forage production.

Leaf rust and Septoria are the most important diseases of wheat and are quite
damaging to grain yields. Mildew quite often becomes prevalent but usually does not cause
much damage. Leaf spots caused by Helminthosporiums are usually less severe, but are almost
always present. Damage is dependent on temperature and rainfall, but is less where
rotation and good sanitation practices are followed.

Stem rust of wheat usually occurs late in the season and has not been considered a
very serious disease when compared with the more noticeable damage from leaf rust or
septoria. However, McNair 2203 was severely attacked in 1972 and many fields of this
variety had to be abandoned. This was the first year commercial wheat suffered extensive
damage from stem rust and can likely be explained because inoculum appeared earlier than
usual; warm humid conditions caused it to spread rapidly; and McNair 2203 is more
susceptible than previously grown varieties. Stem rust can be controlled by planting
resistant varieties. If these are not available, growing early maturing varieties will
decrease chances of severe damage.

Crown rust and leaf blotch are the most important diseases of oats. Florida 500 and
501 were damaged by crown rust in commercial plantings for the first time this past year.
Several newer varieties (Elan and Ga. 7199) have been released but they have Fla. 500 as
one parent and are no better for crown rust resistance than Fla. 501. Fla. 500 and 501
still are the most disease resistant varieties available to Florida growers.

Barley has only been grown commercially in Florida since 1967. More hazards are
normally involved in growing barley than in other small grains, but by good crop rotation,
seed treatment, fertilization practices, and adapted varieties, satisfactory commercial
production has been obtained in north Florida. Spot blotch, leaf rust, and mildew are the
most important diseases. Florida 102 has good resistance to these diseases and its early
maturing characteristic helps in escaping damage. Also, its early maturity allows it to be
planted late more successfully than some of the other varieties of small grains.

Recommended varieties of rye are susceptible to some extent to leaf rust, mildew, and
anthracnose; however, these diseases do not generally damage their forage production. Grain
yields are very erratic and usually low.






-3-


Performance and Description of Varieties

Wheat

Table 1. Yields of Selected Wheat Varieties Grown at 3 Locations in 1972 and
1970-72 Averages.

Bushels per Acre
1972 2-Year Average quincy
Variety Jay Marianna Quincy Avg. Jay Marianna 1971 1970 3-yr. Avg.

Coker 68-19 11 15 17 14 22 33 57 51 42
Holley 8 12 10 10 20 27 53 52 38
McNair 701 10 17 20 16 22 32 57 -- 39*
McNair 2203 11 15 17 14 22 29 57 51 42
Wakeland 10 8 10 9 22 26 55 52 39
Coker 65-20 10 11 15 12
Blueboy 9 5 10 8 24 25 54 55 40
Blueboy II 10 5 8 8 23 18 54 -- 31*
McNair 1813 14 13 12 13 26 29 58 49 40
McNair 4823 15 7 6 14 23 17 40 33 26
Hadden 7 9 16 11 19 23 47 46 36
Georgia 1123 9 5 11 9 21 21 59 49 40
Pennington 6-23 11 12 11 11
Coker 68-15 6 -- 3 -- 17 -- 51 44 33
Arthur 12 -- 2 -- 18 -- 40
Arthur 71 10 -- 3 -- 18 -- 21

*Two-year Average.


Table 2. Characteristics of Recommended Wheat Varieties.


Days Later Resistance to
Than Height Lodging Test Leaf Stem Powdery
Variety Holley Inches Resistance Weight Rust Rust Mildew

Holley 45 fair good good good good
Coker 68-19 8 40 good good good good fair
McNair 701 8 41 good good good poor good
McNair 2203 8 41 good good good poor poor


Coker 68-19.-Released in 1970 by Coker's Pedigreed Seed Company, Hartsville, South
Carolina. A short, early, strong-strawed variety with good yielding ability. It has good
resistance to both leaf and stem rusts.

Holley.-Released in 1971 by the University of Georgia. It is high yielding and has
superior disease resistance. Holley is relatively short in height and has good straw
strength but will lodge if high N is applied. Holley is very early in maturity and well
adapted for double cropping systems. Seed may be in short supply this fall (1972).

McNair 2203.-Released in 1970 by McNair Seed Co., Laurinburg, North Carolina. A short,
early, strong-strawed variety with good yielding ability. It has bronze chaff and has good
resistance to leaf rust and the Hessian fly; but is fairly susceptible to powdery mildew and
very susceptible to stem rust.









McNair 701.-Released in 1972 by McNair Seed Co. It is very similar to McNair 2203
except that it has superior resistance to powdery mildew. It also is very susceptible to
stem rust. Seed may be in short supply this fall.

If seed of recommended varieties can not be obtained, Wakeland, Hadden, or Georgia 1123
would probably be better than other possible choices. Blue, Blueboy II, or Coker 65-20 are
not recommended. Arthur, Arthur 71 and Abe, released by Purdue University in Indiana, have
very good disease resistance and high test weights. They make very little growth in the
fall and are late in maturity and thus do not fit into a double cropping system. They can
be successfully grown in Florida if planted early in the fall; however, their late maturity
make them vulnerable to septoria damage.

Oats


Table 3. Yields of Selected Oat Varieties Grown at
1972 and 1970-72 Averages.


2 Locations in


Bushels per Acre
1972 2-year Avg. Quincy
Jay Quincy Avg. Jay 1971 1970 3-yr. Avg.

Florida 501 21 59 40 44 99 84 81
Florida 500 20 53 37 46 89 72 71
Elan 20 55 38 50 83 81 73
Ga. 7199 15 55 35 32 81 -- 68*
Ora 13 31 22 42 85 67 61
Nora -- 6 -- 116 -- 61*
Coronado 17 53 35 35 102 81 79
Cortez 17 74 46 40 108 82 88
Coker 67-22 28 25 27 43 105 96 75
Suregrain 26 57 42 41 81 66 68
Floriland 15 17 16 26 56 60 44

*Two-year average.

Table 4. Characteristics of Recommended Oat Varieties.

Days Later Resistance to
Than Height Test Forage Crown
Variety Fla. 501 Inches Weight Value Lodging Rust

Florida 501 40 excellent good good good
Elan 6 36 excellent good excellent good


Florida 501.-Released by University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations. It has
good resistance to crown rust and has same general disease resistance as Florida 500 but is
more uniform and has higher grain quality. It produces good grain and early forage yields.
It is recommended in favor of Florida 500; however, Florida 500 is quite satisfactory for
commercial production.

Elan.-Released by Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station. It has short stiff straw
that stands well for combine harvesting. It has good disease resistance but is about one
week later in maturity than Florida 501.






Coronado and Cortez.-Released by the Texas A. and M. University. They are high
yielding with good disease resistance. Coronado is about 6 days later than Cortez.
may be limited in Florida by the availability of seed.


Both


Because of susceptibility to crown rust, Coker 67-22 and Nora are being removed from
the recommended list.

Barley

Table 5. Yields of Selected Barley Varieties Grown at 3 Locations in
1972 and 1970-72 Averages.

Bushels per Acre
1972 2-year Avg. Quincy
Jay Marianna Quincy Avg. Jay Marianna 1971 1970 3-yr. Avg.

Florida 102 20 39 18 26 23 49 98 56 57
Barsoy 14 1 6 7 23 28 77 66 50
McNair 601 -- 2 3 -- 21 63 50 39
Miller 11 16 3 10 14 30 74 47 41
Ga-Jet 10 5 3 6 14 23 76 58 46


Florida 102 is the only barley variety currently being recommended for growing in
Florida. It is an early maturing, six-rowed, bearded barley released in 1967 by the
University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations. The heads are long and bend over as
the relatively plump kernels fill. The plants make an upright type of growth with only a
moderate amount of tillering. The straw is relatively stiff and fairly resistant to lodging.
Besides being sufficiently winter-hardy for the Southern Coastal Plain, Florida 102 has good
resistance to spot blotch, leaf rust, and mildew. A bearded type should offer no
disadvantage in machine harvesting as compared to beardless varieties; however, the concaves
in the combine should be set closer together in order to remove as much of the beard as
possible.


Barsoy, McNair 601, Miller, and Ga-Jet are not recommended for
Florida.


commercial production in


Triticale


Table 6. Yields and Other Characteristics of Triticale Varieties
Grown at 3 Locations in 1972 and 1971-72 Averages.


and Other Small Grains


Grain Yield in Pounds per Acre Heading
1972 2-year Averages Test* Leaf* Date
Variety Jay Marianna Quincy Avg. Jay Marianna Quincy Wt. Rust Quincy

FasGro 203 1422 1230 1626 1425 1701 1545 2313 43.8 tS 4- 2
FasGro 204 1536 1572 1074 1394 1488 1626 2007 41.8 tS 3-11
Pathfinder 1386 1128 1446 1320 ---- ---- --- 45.0 tS 4- 3
Florida 501 Oats 1038 804 2028 1290 ---- ---- ---- 34.3 30S 3-27
Mark IV 1158 1284 1332 1258 -- ---- ---- 41.8 tS 3-12
Florida 102 Barley 1056 1584 1128 1256 ---- ---- ---- 35.5 tS 3-18
FasGro 208 1074 1194 1374 1217 1647 1677 2127 46.3 5S 4- 2
FasGro 205 1230 930 1218 1126 ---- ---- --- 46.5 tS 4- 1
Coker 68-19 Wheat 690 774 1710 1058 1305 1887 2565 55.5 tS 3-21
FasGro 209 1140 828 1020 996 1380 1434 1920 44.8 tS 4- 2
GrazeGrain 70A 810 780 804 798 ---- ---- ---- 47.0 25S 3-28
Grand Mean 1139 1100 1342
LSD (.05) 442 396 350
C.V. 27% 25% 18%
*Average of Marianna and Quincy data.








During the last several years, considerable interest has developed in a new small grain
crop called "Triticale". Triticale, a man-made plant species, was developed by plant
breeders to combine the grain quality, productivity, and disease resistance of wheat with
the vigor and hardiness of rye. It was produced by the use of colchicine to double the
chromosome number of the sterile hybrid that results from a cross between wheat and rye.
Triticale gets its name from a combination of the generic names of wheat (Triticum) and rye
(Secale).

Triticale is being evaluated as a new winter forage crop and feed grain for Florida.
The individual plants are quite impressive in appearance having long, broad leaves; large
stems; and long, bearded heads. The seed are normally large but usually are shriveled or
shrunken. Several hundred acres of Triticale have been grown by several north Florida
farmers. The varieties which they grew had a tendency to lodge and were very difficult to
combine.

Although results are available for only two years, it appears that triticale varieties
tested to date are unable to compete successfully with wheat foi grain and rye for forage.
The varieties available are unsatisfactory for bread making or for general purpose flours
but they are suitable for feed grain. At present, there are no market channels for this new
crop but the crop does have great potential and hopefully can be grown successfully in the
future.

Rye

Table 7. Characteristics of Recommended Rye Varieties.

Days Later Resistance to
Than Height Forage Leaf
Variety Fla. Black Inches Value Lodging Rust Anthracnose

Fla. Black 65 excellent fair poor fair
Weser 2 66 excellent fair good good
Wrens Abruzzi 2 67 excellent fair poor good
Gator 3 67 excellent good excellent poor
Explorer 5 67 excellent fair poor fair
Elbon 5 68 excellent fair poor fair
McNair Vita-Graze 4 67 excellent fair fair fair


Florida Black and Wrens Abruzzi produce forage earlier in the season than the other
recommended varieties and are best suited for early and mid-winter production. Vita-Graze,
Explorer, Elbon, Gator, and Weser produce most of their forage for winter and early spring
grazing.

Wintergrazer 70, Acco WR-811, Penngrazer-W, Wondergrazer, Gurlevs Grazer, Triple
Graze, Kool Graze, and Funk'l FW-188 produced satisfactory yields for the past one or two
year; however, they cannot be added to the recommended list until they have produced
satisfactory yields for three years. Funk's FW-188 is a mixture of Florida Black rye,
Wrens Abruzzi rye, Rosner triticale, W-425 wheat, and G-2419 hybrid wheat.









Forage Production

Table 8. Forage Production of Small Grain Varieties at
AREC, Quincy.

Pounds of Dry Matter per Acre
Variety 1970 1971 1972 3-Yr. Avg.

RYE
Explorer 5496 5031 4517 5015
Vita-Graze 5009 4732 4802 4848
Wrens Abruzzi 4786 4488 5034 4769
Elbon 4478 4464 4743 4562
Weser 4547 4644 4265 4485
Gator 4292 3903 4489 4228
Fla. Black 3798 3933 3788 3840
Wintergrazer 70 ---- 5491 5212 5352*
Acco WR-811 ---- 4957 5458 5208*
Funk's FW-188 ---- ---- 4637 ---
OATS
Fla. 501 3860 2665 3497 3341
Fla. 500 3851 3221 ---- 3536*
Ga. 7199 --- 3370 --
WHEAT
Wakeland 3153 3862 3450 3488
Blueboy 2954 2828 3818 3200
Coker 68-19 ---- 2895 2364 2630*
McNair 2203 ---- 2262 3239 2750*
Hadden 2344 2634 ---- 2489*
BARLEY
McNair 601 4191 3339 2124 3218
Fla. 102 3467 2938 2953 3119
TRITICALE
FasGro 203 ---- 3103 3204 3153*
FasGro 204 ---- 2834 2500 2667*
GrazeGrain 70A --- ---- 2777--

*Two-year Average.








RDB
8/72
200 CC




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