Group Title: Quincy NFREC Research Report - University of Florida Agricultural Research and Education Center ; NF-86-5
Title: Management of insect pests on peanuts in 1986
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074377/00001
 Material Information
Title: Management of insect pests on peanuts in 1986
Series Title: Quincy NFREC research report
Physical Description: 18 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Tappan, William B., 1928-
Gorbet, Daniel W ( Daniel Wayne ), 1942-
North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)
Publisher: North Florida Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1986
 Subjects
Subject: Peanuts -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: William B. Tappan and Daniel W. Gorbet.
General Note: Caption title.
Funding: Research report (North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074377
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 85775605

Full Text






NORTH FLORIDA RESEARCH AND EDUCATION CENTER
Quincy, Florida

', AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND EDUCATION CENTER
Marianna, Florida

Quincy NFREC Research Report NF 86-5

Management of Insect Pests on Peanuts in 1986

William B. Tappan, Entomologist, Quincy, and
Daniel W. Gorbet, Agronomist, Marianna

Materials and Methods

Eleven chemical foliar spray treatments were field tested on Florunner
peanuts for insect control, phytotoxicity, and effect on crop performance. In
a second experiment, certain breeding lines and varieties were studied to
determine if any tolerance to insect attack could be detected. In a third
experiment, 3 F selections and 2 parent lines were compared to determine if
insect tolerance from one of the parents had been transferred to the F
selections, and to increase the seed source from the F6 selections. A fourth
experiment was conducted to study the effects of various population levels of
the foliage feeding Lepidoptera complex on foliage damage and yield of
Florunner peanuts.

Spray treatments were applied over the foliage with a boom-type
CO -pressurized hand sprayer that covered 2 rows with 3 Tee-Jet D3-25 nozzles
per row. The sprayer was calibrated to deliver approximately 26 gallons of
spray per acre at 26 p.s.i. at normal walking speed. The sprayer was also
used in the population-level experiment to control foliage feeding Lepidoptera
populations at the desired levels. The dates spray applications were made are
given in a footnote in Tables 1 through 5 and 12.

Treatments listed in Tables 1 through 5 and 12 were replicated 3 times in
complete randomized blocks. Each plot was 4 rows wide, and rows were 30 feet
long planted on 3-foot centers. The 2 center rows constituted the
experimental plot, and the 1 row on either side acted as buffers between
plots. Alleys between blocks of plots were 10 feet wide. Treatments listed
in Tables 6 through 11 were replicated 3 times in complete randomized blocks.
Each plot was 2 rows wide, and rows were 20 feet long planted on 3-foot
centers. The 2 rows were the experimental plot, and there were no buffers
between plots within blocks. Alleys between blocks of plots were 20 feet
wide. The experimental area was located at the Marianna School for Boys west
of Florida Highway 167 and north of Interstate 10.

All cultural practices in preparing the experimental area for planting
were performed in the usual manner. No lime was applied to the experimental
area prior to planting. Beds for planting were prepared and fertilizer (500
pounds per acre of 0-10-20 plus Boron at 0.5 pound per acre) was applied on
March 25. Herbicides; Balan, 1 gallon + Vernam, 1 quart per acre, were
applied on the test area on April 18. At cracking; Lasso, 3 quarts + Dyanap,
1 gallon per acre were applied on the foliar spray experimental area on May
30, and Lasso, 3 quarts + Dyanap, 1.25 gallons per acre were applied on the









insect plant tolerance and foliage feeding Lepidoptera population-level ex-
perimental areas on June 23. Gypsum at 750 pounds per acre was applied on the
foliar spray experimental area on July 3 and 7, and on the insect plant toler-
ance and foliage feeding Lepidoptera population-level experimental areas on
July 7. Foliar disease control sprays were applied on the experimental area
as follows: Bravo, 2 pints on July 2; Bravo, 2.125 pints on July 16 and 30;
Bravo 720, 1.5 pints on August 11 and 26, September 8 and 23; and Bravo 720,
1.5 pints per acre on October 7 and 21 on the insect plant tolerance and
foliage feeding Lepidoptera population-level experimental areas. The foliar
spray experiment was planted on May 23, harvested on October 10, and picked on
October 16. The insect plant tolerance and foliage feeding Lepidoptera popu-
lation-level experiments were planted on June 19, harvested on October 30, and
picked on November 3.

Tobacco thrips counts in the foliar spray and insect plant tolerance
experiments were made from natural infestations by counting the number of
adult and immature thrips collected in 25 cc bottles from 10 terminal foliage
buds per plot at weekly intervals beginning in the foliar spray experiment on
June 2 and ending on July 7, and beginning in the insect plant tolerance
experiment on July 1 and ending on July 22. In the insect plant tolerance
experiment comparing parental lines with F selections, the thrips counts were
made from 5 terminal foliage buds per plot taken weekly beginning on July 1
and ending on July 22. Counts were made in the laboratory after the thrips
had been washed from the buds twice with alcohol and collected on 9-cm filter
paper in a Biichner funnel under vacuum. A binocular microscope with 15X
magnification was used to make the counts. Ratings of foliage damage by
thrips were made on the same dates that thrips were counted. The rating
system used was based on a scale of 0 to 10, with 0 being no damage and 10
being 100 percent of the foliage showing some feeding damage.

Counts of corn earworm, fall armyworm, granulate cutworm, looper, velvet-
bean caterpillar, yellowstriped armyworm, and other foliage feeding Lepidop-
tera larvae were made from natural infestations by counting the number of live
larvae in 3 feet of row per plot at weekly intervals. Larval counts were made
in the foliar spray experiment checks beginning on July 14 and ending on
September 29, in the insect plant tolerance experiment checks beginning on
August 20 and ending on October 21, and in the foliage feeding Lepidoptera
population-level experiment beginning on August 25 and ending on October 20.
No foliage feeding Lepidoptera larval damage ratings were made in the insect
plant tolerance on the foliage feeding Lepidoptera population-level experi-
ments, since foliage feeding Lepidoptera populations were too small for
meaningful ratings.

The percent of lesser cornstalk borer infested plants was determined at
harvest in the foliar spray experiment on October 10, and in the insect plant
tolerance experiments on October 30. Ten plants per plot were examined and
damage to pegs, pods, and stems was noted as a damaged plant, and the percent
infested plants was calculated by multiplying the number of damaged plants by
10.

A leafhopper foliage damage rating similar to the thrips damage rating was
made in the foliar spray and insect plant tolerance experiments on September
3.










A nutritional deficiency (foliage yellowing not caused by leafhoppers)
rating similar to the thrips damage rating was made in the foliar spray exper-
iment on September 5.

Yield was calculated in pounds per acre from the total weight of dried
peanuts picked from 2 rows of each plot in each experiment, except the insect
plant tolerance experiments. No crop value was calculated for the 4 experi-
ments.

Visual foliage phytotoxicity ratings in the foliar spray experiment were
begun on June 2 and continued at weekly intervals until September 15. Plots
were rated according to severity of phytotoxicity observed. The ratings were
based on the following system:


None
Slight chlorosis or spotting
Moderate chlorosis or spotting
Heavy chlorosis or spotting with some necrosis
Severe chlorosis or spotting with considerable necrosis


An analysis of variance was made of all treatment means except the foliar
phytotoxicity indices. Duncan's multiple range test was applied to all means
analyzed to obtain statistical comparisons for data interpretation. The re-
lationship of the nutritional deficiency to spray treatments was analyzed by F
test calculated from single degree of freedom comparison.


Rainfall data expressed in inches
May 22 to October 31 were as follows:


for the duration of the experiments from


June


27-0.27
28-0.40
30-0.62
Total-=29


15-0.15
17-1.75
19-0.22
26-0.20
29-0.45
30-0.45
Total-3.722


T = Trace


July


1-0.60
3-1.10
7-0.10
16-0.15
17-0.69
22-0.28
24-0.05
25-0.10
26-0.13
27-0.95
28-0.50
29-0.13
Total-4.78


Grand Total = 20.65 inches


August


3-0.30
5-0.10
7-0.19
11-0.10
12-0.01
13-0.01
14-0.05
15-0.30
21-1.30
26-0.52
27-0.05
28-0.10
29-0.50
30-0.03
31-0.40
Total-3.-9


September

1-0.05
2-0.30
4-0.10
6-0.15
10-0.30
12-0.05
13-0.35
15- T
16- T
18-3.50
23-0.05
Total-4.85


October


1-0.05
9-0.10
10-0.35
11- T
13-0.03
14-0.60
15-0.27
26-1.15
Total-2=55


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Tobacco thrips populations for the entire experimental period were smaller
than in 1985, but population and damage curves followed the same pattern as
has been observed during the past 11 years. Foliage feeding Lepidoptera
larvae began infesting the plants at approximately the same time as in 1985,









but populations never reached the economic population level (4 to 5 larvae per
foot of row) in the foliar spray, insect plant tolerance, parental lines and
F, selections, nor population-level experiments at anytime during the experi-
mental period. The fact that the experimental area was located in an isolated
pasture area, that may have never been planted in peanuts, may explain the
small thrips and Lepidoptera population infestations. The primary foliage
feeding Lepidoptera species were corn earworm, fall armyworm, granulate cut-
worm, looper, velvetbean caterpillar, and yellowstriped armyworm. Velvetbean
caterpillar infestations began appearing about two-weeks later than in 1985,
and were smaller. Potato leafhopper became a problem in all experiments in
early September owing to a generally drought growing season, and persisted
for the remainder of the season. Wilting of grasses near the experimental
area caused migration of the leafhopper into the experiments. Lesser corn-
stalk borer populations were about the same in number as in 1985, as rainfall
was scattered throughout the season even though it was 3.79 inches less than
in 1985. The drought conditions were general over the entire season, but the
scattered rains were sufficient to deter a large increase in lesser cornstalk
borer populations. The reduction in rainfall as compared to 1985 caused a
reduction in yield, which was excellent as compared to years prior to 1985.
Some loss in yield could be attributed to poor nodulation on the root system,
which resulted in foliage nutritional deficiency symptoms. In general, the
weather conditions were conducive to lessened insect activity on the crop by
foliage feeders and lesser cornstalk borer, and to more than adequate yields.

The thrips count on June 9 in the foliar spray experiment indicated that
all treatments gave significant control. The largest populations on the un-
treated check occurred on June 9, and on the treated plots on June 16, two
weeks after treatment. On June 16, Lannate at 1.367, Orthene at 1.022 and
2.0, and Orthene + Danitol at 0.328 + 0.034 and 0.573 + 0.052 pounds AI/acre
remained significantly efficacious. Thrips foliage damage indices on June 16
indicated that all treatments significantly reduced foliage injury. Orthene
at 2.0 and Orthene + Danitol at 0.573 + 0.052 pounds AI/acre provided the best
protection from foliage injury on June 16, and for the remainder of the exper-
imental period. The dosage response in the thrips to Lannate and Orthene was
not as pronounced as in 1985, which may have been due to the small thrips
population. The synthetic pyrethroids, Ammo at 0.062 and Capture at 0.062
pound AI/acre were superior to the other pyrethroid treatments for thrips
control. (See Table 2.) Yield response to the treatments indicated for the
11th year in succession that thrips had no economic influence on the crop.
(See Table 4.)

Foliage feeding Lepidoptera populations on the untreated check never
reached the economic threshold level at anytime during the experimental
period. Therefore, no meaningful data were recorded for control purposes.
(See Table 3.)

Nutritional deficiency indices on September 5 indicated that some of the
insecticidal spray treatments applied on June 2 were significantly controlling
the deficiency symptoms, when analyzed by Duncan's multiple range test. How-
ever, the F test calculated from single degree of freedom comparison of
treated versus untreated showed that the F value of 1.03 was not significant
at either the 5 or 10 percent level of confidence. Therefore, the insecti-
cidal spray treatments were not responsible for the significant differences
found with the Duncan's multiple range test. Examination of the peanut root








systems at harvest found that poor nodulation of the roots was probably re-
lated to the nutritional deficiency symptoms. Peanut plants with the severest
foliage symptoms or severest foliage yellowing had the poorest root nodula-
tion. (See Table 4.)

Control of the lesser cornstalk borer and the effect on yield are presented
in Table 4. The lesser cornstalk borer infestation was about the same as in
1985 owing to the adequately distributed rainfall during the experimental
period. Examination of pods and vines immediately after harvest on September
10 indicated that none of the treatments gave significant control. The non-
significant correlation coefficient (r = -0.149) indicated that the lesser
cornstalk was not associated with any yield effect. The reduction in yield of
the untreated check (591 pounds per acre) from that in 1985 was not related to
the lesser cornstalk borer, but probably to the drought weather conditions
and poor root nodulation.

Leafhopper foliage damage indices indicated no significant effects of
treatments on leafhopper control. No association of leafhopper foliage damage
with yield was found as the nonsignificant correlation coefficient (r =
-0.254) clearly indicated. (See Table 4.)

Only Lannate at 1.367 pounds AI/acre caused any detectable phytotoxicity.
Plant injury was evident as chlorosis with some necrotic spotting following
the spray application on June 2. The injury had been masked by rapid foliage
growth by June 16, and no further evidence of phytotoxicity was observed for
the remainder of the experimental period. (See Table 5.) The yield data
indicated no subterranean phytotoxicity. (See Table 4.)

Thrips populations in the insect plant tolerance experiment peaked on July
8, and all lines except UF-81206-2 and UF-85112 showed significant tolerance
to thrips attack when compared to Valencia. Thrips populations were low, and
the comparisons for plant tolerance to thrips attack must be considered with
that fact in mind. Thrips foliage damage indices did not necessarily coincide
with thrips counts, but UF-81206-1, UF-81206-2, UF-85205, NC-10247, and NC-
15745 had significantly less damage than either Florunner or Valencia on July
8. Nine lines had significantly less damage than either Florunner or Valencia
on July 22, but UF-85205 and NC-10247 were the best of the nine. The data
indicated that small numbers of thrips do cause more damage to some lines than
large numbers on other lines. A physiological factor in the plant may trigger
the feeding habit of the thrips, which relates to the amount of foliage damage
that is inflicted. (See Table 6.) No yield data were taken since past
observations indicated that differences in yield among lines was a function of
genetic differences moreso than thrips damage. Foliage feeding Lepidoptera
populations were small and never reached the economic population level during
the entire experimental period owing to the drought weather conditions and
experimental location. No meaningful foliage feeding Lepidoptera data were
taken for insect plant tolerance comparisons. (See Table 7.) Potato leaf-
hopper foliage damage indices indicated that NC-10247, NC-15745, and 73 X
18A-5-2-3-1-2-B were significantly more tolerant than Valencia. The lesser
cornstalk borer infestation counts on October 30 indicated that there were no
significant differences among the various lines. Borer infestations were
small owing to the adequately dispersed rainfall. No yield data were taken,
therefore, no comparisons could be made. (See Table 8.)








In the parental lines and F selections experiment, thrips populations were
small and peaked on July 8. Selection, 80 X 6A-BK1-2, showed significant tol-
erance to thrips attack, when compared to 72 X 41A and 80 X 6A-BK1-1 on July
8. The tolerance of 80 X 6A-BK1-2 was lost, when the thrips population began
to decline in later counts. There were no significant differences among the
lines or selections in respect to the thrips foliage damage indices. (See
Table 9.) Foliage feeding Lepidoptera populations were small and never
reached the economic population level during the entire experimental period.
Therefore, no meaningful foliage feeding Lepidoptera data were taken for
insect plant tolerance comparisons. (See Table 10.) Potato leafhopper
foliage damage indices indicated that 519 and 80 X 6A-BK1-2 were significantly
tolerant to the leafhopper. There were no significant differences between
entries with respect to lesser cornstalk borer infestations. (See Table 11.)

In the population-level experiment, the foliage feeding Lepidoptera
populations never reached levels large enough for experimental purposes during
the entire experimental period. Therefore, no data for comparative purposes
were taken. (See Table 12.)








NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 1. Chemical Foliar Spray Treatments Applied for Insect Control on Florunner Peanuts.
1986.


AREC, Marianna -


Gallons Lbs. AI
Number per Acre per per Acre per
Treatmenta,b Applicationsc Application Application

MO-70616-17-1, 0.0125% S(1.9 lbs./gal. EC) 1 25.9 0.029
Pydrin, 0.05% S(2.4 lbs./gal. EC) 1 23.1 0.096
Lannate, 0.29% S(1.8 lbs./gal. EC) 1 28.6 0.693
Capture, 0.02% S(2.0 lbs./gal. EC) 1 27.5 0.042
Capture, 0.03% S(2.0 lbs./gal. EC) 1 27.5 0.062
Ammo, 0.032% S(2.5 lbs./gal. EC) 1 23.5 0.062
Orthene, 0.5% S(75% SP) 1 24.8 1.022
Orthene, 0.18% S(1.0 lbs./gal. EC) 1 22.2 0.328
Danitol, 0.018% S(0.1 lb./gal. EC) 1 22.2 0.034
Orthene, 0.24% S(1.0 lbs./gal. EC) ) 1 27.5 0.573
Danitol, 0.024% S(0.1 lb./gal. EC) 1 27.5 0.052
Orthene, 1.0% S(75% SP) 1 24.2 2.000
Lannate, 0.58% S(1.8 lbs./gal. L) 1 28.2 1.367
FBC-37903, 0.1% S(1.7 lbs./gal. EC)e
FBC-37903, 0.2% S(1.7 lbs./gal. EC) --
Check (Untreated)

aEC = Emulsifiable Concentrate, L = Liquid, S = Spray, and SP = Soluble Powder.
bCrop was planted on 5/28, harvested on 10/10, and picked on 10/16/86.
CSprays were applied on 6/2/86.
dA mixture formulation of Orthene and Danitol.
eTreatment was withdrawn from the test prior to the first application.








NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 2. Effects of Chemical Foliar Spray Treatments on Thrips Control and
AREC, Marianna 1986.


Damage on Florunner Peanuts.


Treatment and Mean Number Thrips per Budb'd Mean Thrips Foliage Damage Indicesc'd
Lbs. AI per Acr-
per Application 6/2 6/9 6/16 6/23 6/30 7/7 6/2 6/9 6/16 6/23 6/30 7/7


MO-70616-17-1, 0.0125% S, 0.029 0.7a 3.7bcd 6.7c 1.3a 1.0a 1.8a 0.0 2.7cd 4.7cde 6.7cd 5.3ef 2.7a
Pydrin, 0.05% S, 0.096 0.9a 4.7d 6.6c 1.8a 1.9a 1.3a 0.0 3.0d 5.7e 7.0cd 5.3ef 2.7a
Lannate, 0.29% S, 0.693 0.8a 2.3abc 6.0c 2.5a 0.5a 1.6a 0.0 2.3bc 4.3bcde 6.0c 5.7f 2.7a
Capture, 0.02% S, 0.042 0.7a 3.8cd 6.8c 1.5a 0.8a 1.7a 0.0 2.0b 5.3de 6.3cd 4.3cde 2.3a
Capture, 0.03% S, 0.062 0.8a 2.2abc 5.5c 1.2a 1.2a 1.7a 0.0 2.3bc 3.7bcd 5.0bc 4.0bcd 2.0a
Ammo, 0.032% S, 0.062 0.9a 2.5abc 6.1c 1.8a 1.8a 1.4a 0.0 2.0b 4.7cde 6.0c 5.0def 3.0a
Orthene, 0.5% S, 1.022 0.9a 1.2a 2.lab 1.7a 1.4a l.la 0.0 1.0a 2.7ab 3.3ab 3.0ab 2.0a
Orthene, 0.18% S, 0.328 + l.la 2.0abc 3.2ab 2.0a 1.4a 1.2a 0.0 1.7b 3.3abc 3.0a 3.0ab 2.0a
Danitol, 0.018% S, 0.034
Orthene, 0.24% S, 0.573 + 0.7a 1.2a 2.7ab 1.4a 1.0a 0.8a 0.0 1.0a 1.7a 2.7a 2.7a 1.7a
Danitol, 0.024% S, 0.052e
Orthene, 1.0% S, 2.000 0.7a 1.2a 1.5a 1.4a 1.4a 1.2a 0.0 1.0a 1.7a 2.7a 2.3a 2.0a
Lannate, 0.58% S, 1.361 0.5a 1.6ab 3.7b 1.9a l.la 1.5a 0.0 2.3bc 3.7bcd 5.0bc 5.0def 2.7a
FBC-37903, 0.1% S, 0.0 -
FBC-37903, 0.2% S, 0.0
Check (Untreated) 0.7a 7.6e 6.2c 1.3a 0.8a 1.4a 0.0 5.7e 8.0f 8.3d 6.Of 3.3a

LSD 5% NS 2.0 1.7 NS NS NS -- 0.6 1.5 1.9 1.1 NS
LSD 1% NS 2.7 2.3 NS NS NS -- 0.9 2.1 3.2 1.5 NS
% Adults 100.0 13.0 10.2 7.6 10.8 8.5
% Immatures 0.0 87.0 89.8 92.4 89.2 90.5


aS = Spray. Crop was planted on 5/28, harvested on 10/10, and picked on 10/16/86.
b 6/2/86.
Ten terminal buds per plot were examined.
Rating System: 0 = None to 10 = 100% of the foliage showing some damage.
"Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
eA mixture formulation of Orthene and Danitol.
Treatment was withdrawn from the test prior to the first application.


Sprays were applied on









NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida

Table 3. Number of Larvae of the Foliage Feeding Lepidoptera Complex on Untreated Florunner Peanuts. AREC,
Marianna 1986.


Mean Number Larvae per Foot of Row

Treatment 7/14b 7/21c 7/28d 8/4e 8/11f 8/189 8/25h 9/1i 9/8 9/15k 9/221 9/29a


Check (Untreated) 0.2 0.4 0.9 0.6 0.2 0.6 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.3 1.3 1.4


acrop was planted on 5/28, harvested on 10/10, and picked on 10/16/86. Check plots were
experiment.
predominantly corn earworm 100%.
cPredominantly corn earworm 100%.
dPredominantly corn earworm 88% and cabbage looper 12%.
predominantly corn earwom 80% and cabbage looper 20%.

fPredominantly corn earworm 100%.
predominantly corn earworm 40%, cabbage looper 40%, and fall armyworm 20%.
hPredominantly fall armyworm 50% and yellowstriped armyworm 50%.
iNo larvae present.
JPredominantly cabbage looper 100%.
predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 100%.
Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 92% and cabbage looper 8%.
predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 92% and granulate cutworm 8%.


in the foliar spray








NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 4. Effects of Chemical Foliar Spray Treatments on Nutritional Deficiency Symptoms, Control of the Lesser
Cornstalk Borer and Potato Leafhopper, and Yield of Florunner Peanuts. AREC, Marianna 1986.

Treatment and Nutritional Deficiency Lesser Cornstalk Bo6er Leafhopper Foliagg Mean
Lbs. AI per Acre Symptom Indices' % Infested plants Damage Indices Yield/Acreb
per Application 9/15 10/10 9/3 lbs.


MO-70616-17-1, 0.0125% S, 0.029 0.7abc 7a 4.0a 6,205a
Pydrin, 0.05% S, 0.096 2.7cde 7a 3.7a 5,431a
Lannate, 0.29% S, 0.693 0.7abc 7a 4.0a 5,719a
Capture, 0.02% S, 0.042 0.Oa 10a 2.3a 5,883a
Capture, 0.03% S, 0.062 2.0abcde 7a 3.3a 5,946a
Ammo, 0.032% S, 0.062 3.0de 13a 3.0a 5,912a
Orthene, 0.5% S, 1.022 0.3ab 10a 3.0a 5,707a
Orthene, 0.18% S, 0.328 + 1.0abcd 7a 3.3a 5,955a
Danitol, 0.018% S, 0.034
Orthene, 0.24% S, 0.573 + 4.0e 13a 3.3a 5,968a
Danitol, 0.024% S, 0.052
Orthene, 1.0% S, 2.000 0.7abc 10a 4.0a 5,751a
Lannate, 0.58% S, 1.36 2.0abcde 10a 2.0a 5,661a
FBC-37903, 0.1% S, 0.0f 1.Oabcd 10a 2.7a 5,863a c
FBC-37903, 0.2% S, 0.0 2.7cde 7a 2.7a 5,719a
Check (Untreated) 2.3bcde 13a 5.0a 5,378a

LSD 5% 2.0 NS NS NS
LSD 1% 3.3 NS NS NS


as = Spray. Crop was planted on 5/28,
bMeans followed by the same letter are
cRating System: 0 = None to 10 = 100%
dRating System: 0 = None to 10 = 100%


harvested on 10/10, and picked on 10/16/86.
not significantly different at the 5% level.
of the foliage showing symptoms.
of the foliage showing some damage.


eA mixture formulation of Orthene and Danitol.
fTreatment was withdrawn from the test prior to the first application.


Sprays were applied on 6/2/86.








NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 5. Phytotoxic Effect of Chemical Foliar Spray Treatments on Florunner Peanuts. AREC, Marianna 1986.


Treatment and Mean Phytotoxicity Indicesb
Lbs. AI per Acre
per Application 6/2 6/9 6/16 6/23 6/30 7/7 7/14 7/21 7/28 8/4 8/11 8/18 8/25 9/1 9/8 9/15


MO-70616-17-1, 0.0125% S, 0.029 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Pydrin, 0.05% S, 0.096 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lannate, 0.29% S, 0.693 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Capture, 0.02% S. 0.042 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Capture, 0.03% S, 0.062 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Ammo, 0.032% S, 0.062 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Orthene, 0.5% S, 1.022 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Orthene, 0.18% S, 0.328 + 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Danitol, 0.018% S, 0.034
Orthene, 0.24% S, 0.573 + 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Danitol, 0.024% S, 0.052c
Orthene, 1.0% S, 2.000 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lannate, 0.58% S, 1.367 0.0 3.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
FBC-37903, 0.1% S, 0.0- - - - -
FBC-37903, 0.2% S, 0.0 - -
Check (Untreated) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0


as = Spray.
6/2/86.


Crop was planted on 5/28, harvested on 10/10, and picked on 10/16/86. Sprays were applied on


bRating System: 0 = None, 1 = Slight chlorosis or spotting, 2 = Moderate chlorosis or spotting, 3 = Heavy
chlorosis or spotting with some necrosis, and 4 = Severe chlorosis or spotting with considerable necrosis.
CA mixture formulation of Orthene and Danitol.
., i


aTreatment was withdrawn from the test prior to the first application.








NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 6. Tolerance of Certain Peanut Breeding Lines and
Marianna 1986.


Varieties to Thrips Attack and Damage.


Breeding Lines Mean Number Mean Thrips Foliage
and Thrips per Buda'b Damage Indices
Varieties 7/1 7/8 7/15 7/22 7/1 7/8 7/15 7/22


72 X 41A-6-1-2-2-b3-B 0.7a 7.7ab 2.5a 2.4abc 0.0 6.7d 7.7de 7.0cd
73 X 18A-5-2-3-1-2-B 0.5a 8.4ab 6.5c 4.2d 0.0 6.0cd 7.7de 8.3f
73 X 20B-3-1-2-2-b4-B 0.7a 8.2ab 6.0c 4.0cd 0.0 5.3bcd 6.7cd 7.0cd
UF-80202 0.6a 7.7ab 4.4abc 1.4a 0.0 5.7bcd 6.7cd 6.3bc
UF-81206-1 0.7a 8.4ab 4.2abc 3.2bcd 0.0 4.7bc 6.0bc 6.7cd
UF-81206-2 0.6a 14.5c 4.9bc 2.6abcd 0.0 4.0ab 6.7cd 7.0cd
UF-85111 0.9a 7.3ab 5.5c 2.0ab 0.0 5.7bcd 7.3de 8.0ef
UF-85112 0.9a 11.2bc 3.1ab 2.7abcd 0.0 6.7d 8.0e 7.3de
UF-85205 0.5a 5.8a 4.4abc 3.4bcd 0.0 4.0ab 5.0ab 5.7ab
NC-10247 0.5a 7.4ab 5.4c 3.9cd 0.0 2.7a 4.3a 5.0a
NC-15745 0.7a 7.0a 6.5c 1.5a 0.0 4.0ab 5.0ab 6.3bc
Valencia 0.7a 12.7c 5.7c 3.6bcd 0.0 7.0d 8.3e 8.3f
Check (Florunner) 0.7a 7.3ab 5.9c 3.2bcd 0.0 6.7d 7.3de 8.3f

LSD 5% NS 3.6 2.0 1.4 -- 1.7 1.1
LSD 1% NS 4.8 2.7 1.9 -- 2.3 1.5
% Adults 98.1 3.4 10.9 17.1
% Immatures 1.9 96.6 89.1 82.9
aMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.


bTen terminal buds
11/3/86.


per plot were examined. Crop was planted on 6/19, harvested on 10/30, and picked on


cRating System: 0 = None to 10 = 100% of the foliage showing some damage.


AREC,








NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 7. Number of Larvae of the Foliage Feeding Lepidoptera Complex on Valencia and Florunner Peanuts.
AREC, Marianna 1986.


Mean Number of Larvae per Foot of Row

Varieties 8/20b 8/26c 9/2d 9/9e 9/16f 9/239 9/30h 10/7i 10/14j 10/21k


Valencia 1.4 0.8 0.6 0.8 1.2 2.1 2.2 2.3 1.7 0.9
Check (Florunner) 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.8 0.3 1.2 1.8 1.1 0.4 0.0


aCrop was planted on 6/19, harvested on 10/30, and picked on 11/3/86. Varieties were in the insect plant
tolerance experiment.
bPredominantly corn earworm 60%, fall armyworm 20%, and cabbage looper 20%.
cPredominantly corn earworm 58%, fall armyworm 17%, cabbage looper 17%, and rednecked peanutworm 8%
Predominantly cabbage looper 56%, corn earworm 33%, and velvetbean caterpillar 11%.
predominantly corn earworm 36%, cabbage looper 29%, velvetbean caterpillar 29%, and yellowstriped
armyworm 7%.
fPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 71%, cabbage looper 21%, and corn earworm 7%.
gPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 90%, corn earworm 3%, fall armyworm 3%, and granulate cutworm -
3%.
predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 100%.
iPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 97%, and fall armyworm 3%.


3Predominantly
kredominantl
Predominantly


velvetbean caterpillar 100%.
velvetbean caterpillar 100%.


*








NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 8. Tolerance of Certain Peanut Breeding Lines and Varieties to the Potato Leafhopper and Lesser
Cornstalk Borer. AREC, Marianna 1986.


Breeding Lines Leafhopper Foliage Lesser Cornstalk Bo6er
and aDamage Indices % Infested Plants
Varieties 9/3 10/30


72 X 41A-6-1-2-2-b3-B 8.0e 1.3a
73 X 18A-5-2-3-1-2-B 3.7ab 1.7a
73 X 20B-3-1-2-2-b4-B 7.3de 0.7a
UF-80202 5.7bcde 1.3a
UF-81206-1 6.3bcde 0.7a
UF-81206-2 6.0bcde 0.7a
UF-85111 6.7cde 0.7a
UF-85112 6.3bcde 0.7a
UF-85205 5.0bcd 0.7a
NC-10247 1.3a 2.0a
NC-15745 4.0bc 1.3a
Valencia 7.7de 1.7a
Check (Florunner) 5.7bcde 1.3a

LSD 5% 2.5 NS
LSD 1% 3.4 NS
acrop was planted on 6/19, harvested on 10/30, and picked on 11/3/86.
bMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
CRating System: 0 = None and 10 = 100% of the foliage showing some damage.









NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Tolerance of Peanut Parent Lines and F6 Selections
1986.


to Thrips Attack and Damage. AREC, Marianna -


Parent Lines Mean Number Thrips per Budbc Mean Thrips Foliage Damage Indicesb'd
AND
F6 Selections 7/1 7/8 7/15 7/22 7/1 7/8 7/15 7/22


519 1.4a 10.8ab 6.3a 2.2a 0.0 6.7a 6.3a 7.7a
72 X 41A 0.9a 12.2b 5.7a 3.7a 0.0 6.3a 7.7a 8.0a
80 X 6A-BK1-1 1.2a 13.6b 4.9a 3.0a 0.0 5.7a 7.3a 7.3a
80 X 6A-BK1-2 1.4a 7.0a 7.5a 2.5a 0.0 5.0a 6.0a 6.7a
80 X 6B-BK3 1.2a 9.6ab 6.9a 2.7a 0.0 6.0a 6.7a 7.3a

LSD 5% NS 4.6 NS NS -- NS NS NS
LSD 1% NS 6.6 NS NS -- NS NS NS

% Adults 98.9 3.4 13.6 21.0
% Immatures 1.1 96.6 86.4 79.0
acrop was planted on 6/19, harvested on 10/30, and picked on 11/3/86.
bMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
cFive terminal buds per plot were examined.
dRating System: 0 = None to 10 = 100% of the foliage showing some damage.


Table 9.








NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 10. Number of Larvae of the Foliage Feeding Lepidoptera on a F6 Parental
Marianna 1986.


Peanut Breeding Line. AREC,


Mean Number of Larvae per Foot of Row
Breeding h
Line 8/20b 8/26c 9/2d 9/9e 9/16f 9/239 9/30h 10/7i 10/143 10/21


519 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.7 1.2 1.2 1.3 0.2 0.0


aCrop was planted on 6/19, harvested on 10/30, and picked on 11/3/86. Breeding
of the F6 selections in the insect plant tolerance experiment.
Predominantly fall armyworm 100%.
cPredominantly corn earworm 100%.
predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 100%.
ePredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 67% and fall armyworm 33%.
fPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 83% and yellowstriped armyworm 17%.
gPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 100%.
hPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 100%.
predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 100%.
JPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 100%.
]Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 100%.


line was one of the parents








NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 11.


Tolerance of Peanut Parent Lines and F6 Selections to the Potato Leafhopper and Lesser Cornstalk
Borer. AREC, Marianna 1986.


Parent Lines Leafhopper Foliage Lesser Cornstalk Bo6er
and Damage Indices % Infested Plants
F6 Selections 9/3 10/30


519 4.3a 1.0a
72 X 41A 7.0b 1.0a
80 X 6A-BK1-1 6.0b 1.7a
80 X 6A-BK1-2 4.0a 2.3a
80 X 6B-BK3 6.3b 1.7a

LSD 5% 1.2 NS
LSD 1% 1.7 NS

acrop was planted on 6/19, harvested on 10/30, and picked on 11/3/86.
bMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
CRating System: 0 = None to 10 = 100% of the foliage showing some damage.









NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 12. Number of Larvae of the Foliage Feeding Lepidoptera Complex on Untreated Florunner Peanuts and
Yield. AREC, Marianna 1986.


Mean Number of Larvae per Foot of Row Mean
ab c d e f gh Yield/Acre
Treatment 8/25b 9/1 9/8d 9/15e 9/22 9/299 10/6h 10/13i 10/203 lbs.


Check (Untreated) 0.2 0.6 0.2 0.9 1.4 2.3 1.8 1.3 0.2 4,510


aCrop was planted on 6/19, harvested on 10/30, and picked on 11/3/86. Check plots were in the population-
level experiment. No sprays were applied.


predominantly
CPredominantly
predominantly
predominantly
fPredominantly
gPredominantly
predominantly
iPredominantly
JPredominantly


corn earworm 50% and fall armyworm 50%.
cabbage looper 80% and corn earworm 20%.
velvetbean caterpillar 100%.
velvetbean caterpillar 87% and yellowstriped armyworm 13%.
velvetbean caterpillar 100%.
velvetbean caterpillar 100%.
velvetbean caterpillar 100%.
velvetbean caterpillar 92% and yellowstriped armyworm 8%.
velvetbean caterpillar 100%.




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