Group Title: Quincy AREC Research Report - University of Florida Agricultural Research and Education Center ; NF-82-5
Title: Management of insects on peanuts in 1982
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074376/00001
 Material Information
Title: Management of insects on peanuts in 1982
Series Title: Quincy AREC research report
Physical Description: 6, 12 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Tappan, William B., 1928-
Gorbet, Daniel W ( Daniel Wayne ), 1942-
Agricultural Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)
Publisher: Agricultural Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1982
 Subjects
Subject: Peanuts -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
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Statement of Responsibility: William B. Tappan and D.W. Gorbet.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074376
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 85775508

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AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND EDUCATION CENTER
tT S Quincy, Florida

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER
Marianna, Florida

Quincy AREC Research Report NF 82-5

Management of Insects on Peanuts in 1982

William B. Tappan, Entomologist, Quincy, and
D. W. Gorbet, Associate Agronomist, Marianna


MATERIALS AND METHODS

Three bait and 11 insecticidal foliar spray treatments and 2 insecticidal
bait soil treatments were field tested on Florunner peanuts for insect control,
phytotoxicity, and effect on crop performance. In a second experiment, certain
breeding lines and varieties were studied to determine if any tolerance to insect
attack could be detected. In a third experiment, 3 F2 crosses and the 2 parent
lines were compared to determine if insect tolerance from 1 of the parents had
been transferred to the F2 crosses, and to increase the seed source from the F2
crosses. A fourth experiment was conducted to study the effects of broadcast
parathion granular treatments with and without irrigation and irrigation versus
no irrigation on infestations of the lesser cornstalk borer on Florunner peanuts.

The Orthene bait soil treatment was banded in a 12-inch band over the row,
and additional applications were banded in a 12-inch band over the foliage on the
dates of spray treatments. One Orthene bait treatment was broadcast over the
foliage on the dates of spray treatments. All sprays were applied with a boom-
type CO2 pressurized hand sprayer that covered 2 rows with 3 nozzles per row.
The sprayer was calibrated to deliver approximately 26 gallons of spray at 26
p.s.i. at normal walking speed. The parathion granular treatments in the lesser
cornstalk borer experiment were broadcast over the foliage beginning 2 weeks
after planting and continuing on a bi-weekly schedule tion was
applied 3 times at 1 inch of water per acre in the les e all A e i-
ment, when soil moisture reached 60 c.b. of tension. Only half of the lbs
were irritated on July 23, 1982 owing to rain that int rrupte3Lthe, application.

The dates treatment applications were made are g y in a footnote in Ta les
1 through 4. The insecticidal bait and foliar sprays r -.enlr*a y0pil. s
needed for thrips and worm control. Parathion granules an "
were applied in the lesser cornstalk borer experiment on dates listed in footnotes
in Tables 11 and 12. One spray application of Sevin + Orthene, 1.4 + 0.09 Ibs.
Al/acre, was applied on September 8 for velvetbean caterpillar control in the
lesser cornstalk borer experiment.

Treatments listed in Table 1 were replicated 3 times in complete randomized
blocks. Each plot was 4 rows wide, and rows were 30 feet long planted on 3-
foot centers. The 2 center rows constituted the experimental plot, and the 1
row on either side acted as buffers between plots. Alleys between blocks of
plots were 10 feet wide. Treatments listed in Tables 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and
12 were replicated 3 times in complete randomized blocks. Each plot in Tables 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 was 2 rows wide, and the rows were 20 feet long planted on




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3-foot centers. The 2 rows were the experimental plot, and there were no buffers
between plots within blocks. Alleys between blocks of plots were 10 feet wide.
Each plot in Tables 11 and 12 was 5 rows wide, and the rows were 20 feet long
planted on 3-foot centers. The 3 center rows constituted the experimental plot,
with the right-hand 2 rows serving for foliage insect counts and yield determin-
ations and the left-hand 1 row serving for lesser cornstalk borer counts during
the growing season. The 1 row on either side of the 3 center rows acted as buffers
between plots. All alleys between blocks of plots were 10 feet wide. The experi-
mental areas were located in the northwest portion of the farm adjacent to the
north boundary of Barry Brecke's herbicide experiment at the Agricultural Research
Center in Marianna, Florida.
All cultural practices in preparing the experimental areas for planting were
performed in the usual manner. Beds for planting were prepared and fertilizer
(250 pounds/acre of 0-0-41) applied on March 2. Sol-U-Bor at 2 pounds/acre was
mixed with the first herbicide application and applied on April 2. Herbicides;
Balan, 1 gallon + Vernam, 2.33 pints/acre were applied on all experimental areas
on April 2, and Lasso, 2 quarts/acre was applied on the bait and spray experi-
mental areas on May 7. The insect tolerance and lesser cornstalk borer experi-
mental areas were treated with Lasso, 3 quarts + Dyanap, 6 quarts/acre on June 7.
Foliar disease control sprays were applied to all experimental areas as follows:
Bravo, 1.5 pints/acre on June 11; Bravo, 2 pints/acre on June 24; Bravo, 2.125
pints/acre on July 7 and 21; and Bravo, 2.125 pints + sulphur, 1 quart/acre on
August 8, 18, September 1, 15, and 29; with the last 2 sprays being applied
only on the insect tolerance and lesser cornstalk borer experimental areas. The
bait and spray experiments were planted on April 29, harvested on September 9,
and picked on September 15. The insect tolerance and lesser cornstalk borer ex-
periments were planted on June 1, harvested on October 15, and picked on
October 19.

Tobacco thrips counts in the bait and spray and 1 of the insect tolerance
experiments were made from natural infestations by counting the number of adult
and immature thrips collected in 25 cc. bottles from 10 terminal foliage buds per
plot at weekly intervals beginning in the bait and spray experiment on May 10
and ending on June 14, and beginning in the insect tolerance experiment on
June 15 and ending on July 6. In the parental lines and F2 crosses experiment,
the thrips counts were made from 5 terminal foliage buds per plot taken weekly
beginning on June 15 and ending on July 6. Counts were made in the laboratory
after the thrips had been washed from the buds with alcohol and collected on 9
cm. filter paper in a Biichner funnel under vacuum. A binocular microscope with
15X magnification was used to make the counts. Ratings of foliage damaged by
thrips were made on the same dates that thrips were counted. The rating system
used was based on a scale of 0 to 10, with 0 being no damage and 10 being 100
percent of the foliage showing some feeding damage.
Counts of corn earworm, fall armyworm, granulate cutworm, looper, velvet-
bean caterpillar, yellowstriped armyworm, and other foliage feeding Lepidoptera
larvae were made from natural infestations by counting the number of live larvae
in 3 feet of row per plot at weekly intervals beginning on July 20 and ending on
September 7 in the bait and spray experiment. Worm counts were made weekly
beginning on July 22 and ending September 30 in 1 of the insect tolerance ex-
periments, and July 20 to Septebmer 28 in the lesser cornstalk borer experiment.
In the parental lines and F2 crosses experiment, worms on 6 plants per plot were
counted weekly beginning on July 22 and ending on September 30. A foliage-
feeding-worm damage rating was made in 1 of the insect tolerance experiments on
September 23, in the lesser cornstalk borer experiment on October 5, and in the
parental lines and F2 crosses experiment on October 7. The rating system was






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the same as that for thrips damage.

Lesser cornstalk borer counts in the lesser cornstalk borer experiment were
made on dates foliage feeding worms were counted. The number of lesser corn-
stalk borer larvae either in or out of the silken tubes was counted and included
in the number of worms per foot of row or per plant on the count dates. At
harvest, the percent of infested lesser cornstalk borer plants was determined on
September 9 in the bait and spray experiment and on October 15 in both insect
tolerance experiments and the lesser cornstalk borer experiment. Ten plants per
plot were examined and damage to pegs, pods, and or stems was noted as a damaged
plant, and the percent infested plants was calculated by the number damaged
multiplied by 10.

Yield was calculated in pounds per acre from the total weight of dried
peanuts picked from 2 rows of each plot in each experiment, except the parental
lines and F2 crosses experiment. No crop value was calculated for the 4 experi-
ments.

Visual phytotoxicity ratings in the bait and spray experiment were begun on
May 10 and continued at weekly intervals until August 23. Plots were rated
according to severity of phytotoxicity observed. The ratings were based on the
following system:

0 = None
1 = Slight chlorosis or spotting
2 = Moderate chlorosis or spotting
3 = Heavy chlorosis or spotting with some necrosis
4 = Severe chlorosis or spotting with considerable necrosis

An analysis of variance was made of all treatment means except the bait and
spray phytotoxicity indices. Duncan's multiple range test was applied to all means
analyzed to obtain statistical comparisons for data interpretation.

Rainfall data expressed in inches for the duration of the experiments from
April 29 to October 19 were as follows:

May June July August September October
8 0.91 1 0.06 3 0.71 1 0.23 4 0.22 6- 0.23
18 0.33 2 0.46 6 0.10 2 0.07 10 2.17 7 0.09
20 1.03 13 0.27 7 0.53 6 0.35 11 0.97 13 1.53
23 0.42 14 0.19 8 0.02 7 0.26 12 0.59 Total 1.65
24 1.64 15 0.01 9 0.03 8 0.05 13 0.95
25 0.12 18 0.55 10 0.09 9 0.13 14 0.43
26 0.03 22 0.27 12 0.45 10 0.20 19 0.64
27 0.12 23 0.17 13 0.05 11 0.25 21 0.03
30 0.45 25 0.09 16 0.02 13 2.35 Total 6.00
31 0.34 26 0.01 17 0.43 18 0.47
Total 5.39 27 0.25 22 0.07 19 0.02
28 0.14 24 1.31 21 0.01
29 0.01 25 0.75 22 0.03
30 0.52 26 0.34 Total 4.42
Total 3.00 28 0.06
29 1.16
30 1.27
31 0.12
Total 7.51
Grand Total 27.97 inches






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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Tobacco thrips populations in early season were about twice as large as they
were in 1981, but population and damage curves followed the same pattern as has
been observed during the past 7 years. Foliage feeding worm populations began
infesting the plants at approximately the same time as in 1981, but populations
were generally larger in late season. The lesser cornstalk borer populations in
the bait and spray experiment were larger at harvest than in 1981, and infes-
tations in the insect tolerance and lesser cornstalk borer experiments began in-
creasing in mid-September. The primary foliage feeding insect species were corn
earworm, fall armyworm, granulate cutworm, looper, velvetbean caterpillar, and
yellowstriped armyworm. The economic threshold level was reached in the bait
and spray experiment on July 20, 1 of the insect tolerance experiments on July
22, the parent lines and F2 crosses experiment on August 19, and the lesser corn-
stalk borer experiment on August 17. The magnitude of foliage feeding insect
populations for all experiments were about the same. Velvetbean caterpillar infes-
tations began appearing about a week earlier than in 1981 and were more numer-
ous than any other Lepidoptera species. The adequate rainfall during the early
part of the season kept the lesser cornstalk borer infestations to a minimum until
2 drought spells that occurred in late August and late September. The rainfall
in the 1981 experimental period was 5.21 inches below that in 1980, but in 1982
rainfall was 11.49 inches above that in 1981. Both 1980 and 1981 were extremely
dry years, but 1982 had enough rainfall to produce record yields in excess of
6,000 pounds/acre. Florunner peanuts will produce good yields during dry years,
but under good moisture conditions, will produce excellent yields. (See Tables 3,
7, and 12.)

The thrips count on May 24 indicated that all treatments gave significant
control, and that heavy rainfall, 1.64 inches, on May 23 did not cause an appre-
ciable reduction in population on the untreated check. On May 31, the thrips
foliage damage indices showed that all treatments except Ammo at 0.037, FCR-1272
at 0.019, and Pounce at 0.11 pound Al/acre significantly reduced foliage injury.
The planting time application of Orthene bait banded at 2 pounds Al/acre followed
by an additional 2 pounds Al/acre banded on May 11, as well as the broadcast
Orthene bait at 1 pound All/acre and Orthene + Molasses spray at 0.95 pound Al +
1 gallon/acre applied on May 11 were 3 of the better treatments tested in reducing
foliage injury. Orthene bait at 2 pounds Al/acre banded at planting and again on
May 11 provided the best protection from foliage injury. Orthene bait + Molasses
at 0.95 pound Al + 1 gallon/acre, Orthene bait at 1 pound Al/acre broadcast, and
Orthene spray at 0.91 pound Al/acre applied on May 11 followed in that order.
The low rates of the synthetic pyrethroids; Ammo, FCR-1272, and Pounce, showed
a definite weakness for thrips control, particularly when populations were large.
(See Table 2.) Yield response to the treatments indicated for the 7th year in suc-
cession that thrips had no economic influence on the crop. (See Table 3.)

Control of corn earworm, fall armyworm, granulate cutworm, lesser cornstalk
borer, looper, velvetbean caterpillar, and other Lepidoptera and the effect on yield
are presented in Table 3. The economic threshold level for foliage feeding worms
was reached on July 20 and peaked on September 7. The population of worms in
early season was small as in 1981, but increased considerably in late season, which
was mostly velvetbean caterpillar. The early season infestation began appearing in
the peanuts about the same time as in 1981, but about 3 weeks later than in 1980.
Control on August 10, 79% corn earworm and fall armyworm, and on September 7,
86% velvetbean caterpillar, was significant for all treatments. All the Orthene
bait treatments appeared to provide about 3 to 4 weeks protection from foliage
feeding worms; whereas, the sprays lost efficacy at 5 weeks. There was no signi-
ficant difference between the Orthene sprays containing molasses and those without.





- 5-


The best treatment with respect to residual effectiveness appeared to be Pounce
spray at 0.11 pound Al/acre. All treatments significantly reduced the percent-
age of lesser cornstalk borer infested plants. Of the Orthene bait treatments,
the 2-pound-A /acre-rate banded at planting and again on May 11, June 22,
July 28, and September 1 gave the best protection from lesser cornstalk borer
attack. The lesser cornstalk borer infestation was larger than anticipated, but
the majority of the feeding damage was confined to the pods. Since adequate
rainfall occurred during the growing season, except in late August and September,
the lesser cornstalk borer infestations never had the opportunity to build-up to
levels seen in 1980 or 1981. None of the treatments had any significant effect on
yield. The yield and worm count data seemed to confirm that the threshold values
of 4-5 worms per foot of row, which have been set for foliage feeding worms on
peanuts, are too low. The yield data definitely indicated that the peanuts re-
sponded to the adequate rainfall, more so than any other factor.

No phytotoxicity was observed on any of the treated plants. (See Table 4.)
The yield data also indicated no below ground phytotoxicity. (See Table 3.)

Thrips populations in the insect tolerance test peaked on June 29, with
several lines showing significant tolerance to thrips attack on June 22. The thrips
foliage damage indices did not necessarily coincide with the thrips counts, but
there were several lines that had significantly less damage than either the check
(Florunner) or Valencia. The data indicated that low numbers of thrips do not
lead to less damage and vice versa as might be expected. That phenomenon may
be related to a physiological factor in the plant that may trigger feeding, or the
lack of the factor may repell feeding. (See Table 5.) The effects of thrips on
yield of the various lines was obscured by varietal differences, and it is doubtful
that the differences in yield among lines was attributable to thrips damage. The
proceeding deduction was drawn from the fact that 73 X 18A-4-2-1-1-1-B had a
high thrips foliage damage index, but produced the second highest yield of all
the experimental lines. (See Tables 5 and 7.) Several lines were significantly
better than Valencia for tolerance to foliage feeding worms on August 12, but
when the worm populations peaked on September 2, none of the lines were sta-
tistically different from Valencia or each other. Even though 72 X 41A-6-1-2-
2-b3-B, 73 X 18A-5-2-3-1-2-B, and 73 X 20B-3-1-2-2-b4-B had significantly less
worm foliage damage than any of the other lines, there was no significant dif-
ferences in worm infestations on September 2. There apparently was some
physiological factor that rendered those 3 lines less palatable to the worms than
the other lines. (See Table 6.) Yield varied with the particular line, and no
conclusion could he drawn with respect to the effects of foliage feeding worms on
yield. (See Table 7.) The lesser cornstalk borer infestation in the insect toler-
ance experiment was about the same as that in the bait and spray experiment.
Adequate rainfall during most of the growing season kept the population at a low
level, and none of the lines showed any significant differences. The effect of
the lesser cornstalk borer on yield was a nonsignificant (P = 0.05) negative cor-
relation (-0.385) between yield and percent lesser cornstalk borer infested plants.
(See Table 7.)

On June 22 in the parental lines and F2 crosses experiment, one of the parent
lines (519) had significantly fewer thrips per terminal bud than the other lines,
but significantly more foliage damage. That phenomenon changed on June 29, when
there were no significant differences in number of thrips per bud or foliage damage
between any of the lines. (See Table 8.) The parental line (72 X 41A) on August
19 and 26 had significantly fewer worms per plant than the other lines, but no





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significant differences between any of the lines was noticed from September 2
until the end of the growing season. However, the worm foliage damage rating
made on October 7 showed that 72 X 41A had significantly less damage than all
other lines except one of the F2 crosses (80 X 6A). The worm counts did not
indicate that any of the insect tolerance in 72 X 41A had been transferred to any
of the F2 crosses, but the worm damage rating showed that two of the F2 crosses
had significantly less damage than the parent, 519. Therefore, some of the toler-
ance from the parent, 72 X 41A, had been transferred, some of which was evident
in all 3 F2 crosses, but significant in only two. The foliage damage rating may be
a more reliable key to insect tolerance than insect counts. (See Table 9.)
Lesser cornstalk borer populations were small, and only 80 X 6A was significantly
different from one of the parents (72 X 41A), but not the other (519). In order
to get more conclusive evidence of lesser cornstalk borer tolerance in the F2
crosses, the lesser cornstalk borer population will have to be larger during the
experimental period. (See Table 10.)

When the number of foliage feeding worms per foot of row in the lesser corn-
stalk borer experiment exceeded 8, there was a significant reduction in number
where parathion granules had been applied. The significant efficacy of the para-
thion treatment was also evident in the worm damage rating made on October 5.
Owing to the adequate rainfall that occurred during the experimental period,
irrigation had no significant effect, either positively or negatively, on the parathion
treatment. Irrigation seemed to enhance worm populations, but not significantly.
(See Table 11.) The lesser cornstalk borer population was small, and a significant
reduction in percent of plants infested occurred in plots irrigated, irrigated
plus parathion, and not irrigated plus parathion. Even with the small lesser corn-
stalk borer population and the adequate rainfall during the experimental period,
irrigation caused a significant reduction in the borer infestation. However, no
significant difference in yield was noted from any of the treatments. A non-
significant (P = 0.05) positive correlation (+0.038) between yield and percent
lesser cornstalk borer infested plants indicated that the borer had no effect on
yield. (See Table 12.)








AREC, Quincy and ARC, Marianna, Florida


Table 1: Soil and Foliar Insecticide Treatments Applied for Insect
Marianna 1982.


Control on Florunner Peanuts. ARC,


Lbs. or Gals. Lbs. Al
No. per Acre per per Acre per
Treatment Applications Application Application

Orthene, 5%B + Orthene, 5%B 1 + 4 20.0b + 20.0c 1.00 + 1.00
Orthene, 5%B + Orthene, 5%B 1 + 4 40.0 + c0.0 2.00 + 2.00
Orthene, 5%B 4 20.0 1.00
Orthene, 0.35%S (75%SP) 4 26.4 0.78
Orthene, 0.45%S (75%SP) 4 24.1 0.91
Orthene, 0.23%S (75%SP) + Molasses 4 24.4 0.48 + 0.97 gal.
Orthene, 0.45%S (75%SP) + Molasses 4 25.2 0.95 + 1.00 gal.
Lannate, 0.29%S (1.8 lbs./gal. L) 4 24.7 0.60
FCR-1272, 0.011%S (1.67 Ibs./gal. EC) 4 24.9 0.019
FCR-1272, 0.022%S (1.67 Ibs./gal. EC) 4 24.9 0.038
Pounce, 0.05%S (3.2 Ibs./gal. EC) 4 26.9 0.11
Ammo, 0.019%S (2.5 Ibs./gal. EC) 4 24.6 0.037
Ammo, 0.032%S (2.5 Ibs./gal. EC) 4 24.5 0.056
AmmQ 0.038%S (2.5 Ibs./gal. EC) 4 26.4 0.080

aB = Bait, EC = Emulsifiable Concentrate, L = Liquid Concentrate, S = Spray, and SP = Soluble Powder.
cBanded over row at planting on 4/29/82. Crop was harvested on 9/9/82.
dBanded over the foliage on 5/11, 6/22, 7/ 28, and 9/1/ 82.
Broadcast over the foliage on the same dates as spray treatments: 5/11, 6/22, 7/28, and 9/1/ 82.


t. **




AREC, Quincy and ARC, Marianna, Florida,


Table 2: Effects of Soil and Foliar Insecticide Treatments on Thrips Control and Damage on Florunner Peanuts. ARC,
Marianna 1982.

Treatment and Mean Number Thrips per Budb d Mean Thrips Foliage Damage Indicescd
Lbs. A I per Acre
per Applicationa 5/10e 5/17 5/24 5/31 6/7 6/14 5/10 5/17 5/24 5/31 6/7 6/14

Orthene, 5%B +
Orthene, 5%B, 1.0 + 1.09 1.la 7.1ab 8.lab 3.7ab 0.7a 1.2abc 0.0 5.0bcd 4.7b 4.0b 3.3b 2.7ab
Orthene, 5%B +
Orthene, 5%B, A.0 + 2.0g 0.9a 3.5a 3.4a 2.1a 1.0a 0.6a 0.0 2.0a 2.3a 1.3a 1.3a 1.Oa
Orthene, 5%B, 1.0 1.4a 10.9bc 4.0a 2.3a 1.6a 1.6abcd 0.0 6.3def 4.7b 3.3b 2.7ab 1.7ab
Orthene, 0.35%S, 0.78 2.1a 11.Obc 11.9ab 7.4abcd 1.4a 2.5cde 0.0 6.3def 7.7def 6.7cd 6.0c 4.7c
Orthene, 0.45%S, 0.91 1.9a 7.7abc 4.3ab 5.1ab 1.7a 0.7a 0.0 3.7abc 5.3bc 3.7b 3.3b 3.Ob
Orthene, 0.23%S +
Molasses, 0.48 + 0.97 gal. 1.3a 7.6abc 6.7ab 6.0abc 2.3a 1.6abcd 0.0 5.Obcd 7.Ocde 6.0c 6.3cd 5.0cd
Orthene, 0.45%S +
Molasses, 0.95 + 1.0 gal. 1.5a 8.8abc 3.6a 4.9ab 1.4a 0.9ab 0.0 3.3ab 5.7bc 3.3b 3.Oab 2.7ab
Lannate, 0.29%S, 0.60 1.4a 12.7cd 12.3ab 8.6abcde 2.1a 1.9abcde 0.0 5.3bcd 7.7def 7.Ocde 6.3cd 5.3cde
FCR-1272, 0.011%S, 0.019 2.1a 7.1ab 12.7ab 15.3f 1.4a 2.3cde 0.0 6.Ocde 8.3efg 8.3defg 8.7e 7.3f
FCR-1272, 0.022%S, 0.038 1.5a 6.7ab 9.8ab 12.3cdef 2.5a 2.2bcde 0.0 5.Obcd 7.Ocde 7.Ocde 8.Ode 6.3cdef
Pounce, 0.05%S, 0.11 1.8a 12.8cd 24.4c 8.5abcde 1.7a 3.0e 0.0 8.3fg 9.0fg 9.3fg 8.3e 6.7def
Ammo, 0.019%S, 0.037 1.7a 8.1abc 13.5b 13.6def 2.1a 1.7abcde 0.0 7.7efg 9.0fg 8.7efg 8.7e 7.0ef
Ammo, 0.032%S, 0.056 1.4a 6.4ab 10.Oab 13.0def 1.2a 1.9abcde 0.0 6.Ocde 7.7def 8.0def 8.3e 6.7def
Ammo, 0.038%S, 0.080 2.2a 5.3a 10.Oab 14.9ef 1.8a 1.8abcde 0.0 4.3bcd 6.3bcd 7.Ocde 7.7cde 6.Ocdef
Check (Untreated) 1.9a 17.1d 32.8d 9.3bcdef 1.6a 2.6de 0.0 9.0g 10.Og 10.Og 8.7e 7.0ef
% Adults 99 16 3 2 6 5
% Immatures 1 84 97 98 94 95

B = Bait and S = Spray
bTen terminal buds per plot were examined.
CRating System: 0 = None to 10= 100% of foliage showing some damage.
Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
epretreatment count for all treatments except the bait banded at planting.
f
Banded over row at planting on W 29/82. Crop was harvested on 9/9/82.
gBanded over the foliage on 5/11, 6/22, 7/28, and 9/1/ 82.
hBroadcast over the foliage on the same dates as spray treatments: 5/11, 6/22, 7/28, and 9/1/82.




AREC, Quincy and ARC, Marianna, Florida'


Table 3: Effects of Soil and Foliar Insecticide Treatments on Control of Lepidoptera Complex, Lesser Cornstalk Borer, and
Yield of Florunner Peanuts. ARC, Marianna 1982.

Treatment and N W p R b Lesser Cornstalk Borer Mean
Lbs. Al per Acre Mean Number Worms per Foot of % Infested Plants Yield/Acre
per Applicationa 7/20c 7/27d 8/3e 8/10f 8/179 8/24 8/31i 9/ 7 9/9 Ibs.
Orthene, 5%B, +
Orthene, 5%B, 1.0 + 1.0 3.0a 1.3a 0.1a 0.4a 1.Bab 4.4abc 16.3a 10.6c 27c 5,832a
Orthene, 5%B +
Orthene, 5%B, 2.0k + 2.0 3.8a 1.3a 0.4a 0.2a 2.3ab 5.7bcd 17.1a 7.1b 7a 6,405a
Orthene, 5%B, 1.0m 3.1a 1.3a 0.6a 0.7a 2.8bc 5.4bcd 17.0a 1.Oa 23bc 5,864a
Orthene, 0.35%S, 0.78 4.7a 1.6a 0.6a 0.3a 2.2ab 4.6abc 14.8a 0.6a 20abc 5,453a
Orthene, 0.45%S, 0.91 3.1a 1.9a 0.4a 0.7a 1.8ab 4.6abc 9.6a 0.6a 10ab 6,376a
Orthene, 0.23%S, +
Molasses, 0.48 + 0.97 gal. 3.1a 1.6a 0.3a 0.6a 2.1ab 4.4abc 18.8a 0.2a 7a 6,002a
Orthene, 0.45%S +
Molasses, 0.95 + 1.0 gal 2.9a 1.9a 0.4a 0.3a 1.7ab 4.7abc 15.8a 0.1a 13ab 6,106a
Lannate, 0.29%S, 0.60 2.9a 1.6a 0.2a 0.4a 2.2ab 6.Ocd 23.2a 2.3a 23bc 5,671a
FCR-1272, 0.011%S, 0.019 3.9a 1.9a 0.2a 0.7a 2.1ab 2.7a 15.0a 0.4a 7a 6,300a
FCR-1272, 0.022%S, 0.038 3.0a 1.6a 0.4a 0.3a 1.7ab 4.3abc 14.7a 0.7a 10ab 5,817a
Pounce, 0.05%S, 0.11 3.4a 1.8a 0.2a 0.7a 1.3a 2.8a 9.0a 1.3a 23bc 6,219a
Ammo, 0.019%S, 0.037 4.3a 1.4a 0.2a 0.1a 1.2a 5.2bcd 19.9a 0.6a 20abc 5,703a
Ammo, 0.032%S, 0.056 3.9a 1.7a 0.3a 0.2a 1.7ab 5.2bcd 19.4a 0.7a 20abc 5,856a
Ammo, 0.038%S, 0.080 4.6a 2.3a 0.3a 0. a 2.Oab 3.3ab 24.7a 0.8a 17abc 5,776a
Check (Untreated) 4.Oa 1.6a 0.9a 1.6b 3.6c 7.4d 17.2a 18.2d 47d 5,389a
a
bB = Bait and S = Spray.
Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
dPredominantly corn earworm 90% and fall armyworm 9%.
Predominantly corn earworm 77% and fall armyworm 20%.
fPredominantly corn earworm 50%, fall armyworm 37%, and looper 10%.
Predominantly fall armyworm 50%, corn earworm 29%, looper 12%, and velvetbean caterpillar 6%.
9Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 37%, looper 23%, corn earworm 22%, and fall armyworm 15%.
SPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 83%, looper 7%, fall armyworm 5%, and corn earworm 5%.
.Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 94%.
JPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 86% and fall armyworm 11%.
kBanded over row at planting on 4/29/82. Crop harvested on 9/9/82.
Banded over the foliage on 5/11, 6/22, 7/28, and 9/1/ 82.
mBroadcast over the foliage on the same dates as spray treatments: 5/11, 6/22, 7/ 28, and 9/1/82.





AREC, Quincy and ARC, Marianna, Florida


Table 4: Phytotoxic Effect of Soil and Foliar Insecticide Treatments on Florunner Peanuts. ARC, Marianna 1982.

Treatment and Mean Phytotoxicity Indicesb
Lbs. AI per Acre
per Applicationa 5/10c 5 17 5/24 1 31 6/7 6/14 6/21 6/28 7/5 7/12 7/19 7/26 8/2 8/9 8/16 8/23
Orthene, 5%B +
Orthene, 5%B, 1.0d + 1.0e 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Orthene, 5%B +
Orthene, 5%B, 2.0 + 2.0e 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Orthene, 5%B, 1.0f 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Orthene, 0.35%S, 0.78 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Orthene, 0.45%S, 0.91 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Orthene, 0.23%S +
Molasses, 0.48 + 0.97 gal. 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Orthene, 0.45%S +
Molasses, 0.95 + 1.0 gal. 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lannate, 0.29%S, 0.60 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
FCR-1272,0.011%S, 0.019 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
FCR-1272, 0.022%S, 0.038 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Pounce, 0.05%S, 0.11 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Ammo, 0.019%S, 0.037 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Ammo, 0.032%S, 0.056 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Ammo, 0.038%S, 0.080 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Check (Untreated) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

aB = Bait and S = Spray.
bRating System: 0 = None, 1 = Slight chlorosis or spotting, 2 = Moderate chlorosis or spotting, 3 = Heavy chlorosis or
spotting with some necrosis, and 4 = Severe chlorosis or spotting with considerable necrosis.
dPretreatment count for all treatments except the bait banded at planting.
Banded over row at planting on 4/ 29/82. Crop was harvested on 9/ 9/82.
eBanded over the foliage on 5/11, 6/22, 7/28, and 9/1/ 82.
Broadcast over the foliage on the same dates as spray treatments: 5/11, 6/22, 7/28, and 9/1/ 82.




AREC, Quincy and ARC, Marianna, Florida


Table 5: Tolerance of Certain Peanut Breeding Lines and Varieties to Thrips Attack and Damage. ARC, Marianna 1982.
Breeding Lines Mean Number Mean Thrips Foliage
and Thrips per Bud 'b Damage Indicesa"
Varieties 6/15 6/22 6/29 7/6 6/15 6/22 6/29 7/6
72 X 41A-6-1-2-2-b3-B 0.9a 7.8abc 6. 4a 1.7abc 0.0 6.0def 7.7cdef 8.3de
73 X 18A-4-2-1-1-1-B 1.1a 9.7c 8.7a 2.2abc 0.0 6.7ef 8.0def 8.7de
73 X 18A-4-2-1-1-2-B 1.2a 8.4abc 7.6a 1.6ab 0.0 7.3fg 8.3ef 9.Oe
73 X 18A-5-2-3-1-2-B 0.9a 5.6a 8.3a 2.8bc 0.0 5.7cdef 7.3cde 8.3de
73 X 24A-2-1-1-1-b3-B 0.9a 8.2abc 7.5a 3.Obc 0.0 4.7cd 7.3cde 7.7cd
73 X 20B-3-1-2-2-b4-B 0.8a 5.5a 9.3a 1.8ab 0.0 4.7cd 6.7bc 7.7cd
NC-343 0.5a 5.6a 7.3a 1.6ab 0.0 2.7ab 5.0b 5.3ab
NC-10247 Oa 5.8a 8.8a 1.7ab 0.0 2.7ab 3.7a 6.3bc
NC-15729 0.5a 5.5a 7.9a 1.3a 0.0 1.3a 3.0a 4.7a
NC-15745 0.7a 6.6abc 6.2a 1.9ab 0.0 4. Obc 5.7b 7.7cd
SE Runner 56-15 1.2a 9.3c 8.0a 2.4abc 0.0 5.0cde 7.Ocd 7.7cd
Valencia 1.2a 9. Obc 6. Oa 3.4c 0.0 8.3g 8.7f 8.3de
Check (Florunner) Oa 6. lab 6.5a 1.3a 0.0 5.3cde 7.3cde 8. Ode

% Adults 85 3 3 16
% Immatures 15 97 97 84

aMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
bTen terminal buds per plot were examined. Seed sown on 6 82, and the crop was harvested on 1015 82.
Ten terminal buds per plot were examined. Seed sown on 6/1/ 82, and the crop was harvested on 10/11- 82.


CRating System:


0 = None to 10 = 100% of foliage showing some damage.




AREC, Quincy and ARC, Marianna, Florida'


Table 6: Tolerance of Certain Peanut Breeding Lines and Varieties to the Lepidoptera Complex and a Season-Ending Damage
Rating. ARC, Marianna 1982.

Breeding Lines r Foot of Rowa Mean Worm a
an -Mean Number Worms per Foot of Row a
and def h Damage Rating'
Varieties 7/ 22 7/29d 8/ 5e 8/12 8/199 8/26 9/2 9/9 9/16k 9/23 9/30m 9/23"
72 X 41A-6-1-2-2-b3-B 1.9ab 0.8abc 0.8abc 0.9a 4.2a 12.8a 20.3a 7.1a 1.7a 3.7a 5.9bc 1.3a
73 X 18A-4-2-1-1-1-B 1.6a 0.8abc 0.4a 2.2bc 5.3a 17.2a 15.7a 8.1a 2.6a 2.7a 3.4ab 7.0d
73 X 18A-4-2-1-1-2-B 2.6ab 1.lbcd 0.4a :.8abc 4.6a 14.8a 12.9a 8.3a 2.6a 2.8a 4.9abc 6.3cd
73 X 18A-5-2-3-1-2-B 3.0ab 0.6ab 0.8abc 2.3bc 4.1a 16.4a 16.0a 7.Oa 2.7a 2.9a 5.7abc 2.3a
73 X 24A-2-1-1-1-b3-B 3.lab 1.3cd 1.lbc 2.7bc 5.4a 15.9a 22.Oa 8.4a 4.3a 5.8a 6.7c 5.0bc
73 X 20B-3-1-2-2-b4-B 2.9ab 0.4a 0.6ab 2.6bc 5.1a 16.7a 17.2a 5.6a 2.3a 3.4a 4.8abc 2.3a
NC-343 3.4b 1.3cd 1.1bc 2.2bc 5.Oa 17.4a 14.6a 6.8a 2.0a 3.6a 4.Oab 5.3bc
NC-10247 2.1ab 1.4de 0.9abc 1.7ab 4.2a 19.Oa 20.8a 8.4a 2.2a 2.6a 3.9ab 4.3b
NC-15729 2.2ab 0.8abc 1.2c 2.0abc 4.7a 12.9a 12.0a 6.2a 1.9a 3.1a 3.1a 5.7bcd
NC-15745 2.7ab 1.2cd 0.6ab 1.8abc 4.6a 14.0a 13.0a 6.6a 2.9a 2.3a 5.2abc 4.3b
SE Runner 56-15 3.7b 1.Oabcd 1.2c 2.2bc 4.8a 17.0a 19.2a 8.9a 3.3a 3.2a 5.9bc 4.7b
Valencia 6.4c 2.Oe 2.4d 2.9c 5.9a 18.9a 16.3a 8.7a 3. Oa 2.3a 3.3ab 8.7e
Check (Florunner) 3.2ab 1.Oabcd 1.3c 1.6ab 4.1a 15.2a 13.2a 8.2a 2.7a 2.9a 3.2ab 7.0d


aMeans followed
harvested on
Rating Systerm
dPredominantly
Predominantly
Predominantly
Predominantly
hPredominantly
. Predominantly
.Predominantly
Predominantly
k Predominantly
IPredominantly
Predominantly
Predominantly


j by the same letter are not sic
10/15' 82.
: 0= None to 10 = 100% of the
:orn earworm 88% and fall arr


;nificantly different at the 5% level.

foliage showing some damage.
nyworm 6%.


Seed sown on 6/1/ 82, and crop was


corn earworm 68%, fall armyworm 18%, and granulate cutworm 10%.
looper 30%, fall armyworm 24%, corn earworm 21%, granulate cutworm 16%, and velvetbean caterpillar 8%.,
looper 38%, velvetbean caterpillar 33%, fall armyworm 13%, and corn earworm 12%.
velvetbean caterpillar 71%, looper 11%, corn earworm 9%, and fall armyworm 8%.
velvetbean caterpillar 93%.
velvetbean caterpillar 95%.
velvetbean caterpillar 98%.
velvetbean caterpillar 93%.
velvetbean caterpillar 86% and looper 13%.
velvetbean caterpillar 95%.
velvetbean caterpillar damage.







AREC, Quincy and ARC, Marianna, Florida


Table 7: Tolerance of Certain Peanut Breeding
Yields. ARC, Marianna 1982.


Lines and Varieties to the Lesser Cornstalk Borer with


Breeding Lines Lesser Cornstalk Borer Mean
and % Infested Plantsa Yield/Acrea
Varieties 10' 1 5 Ibs.
72 X 41A-6-1-2-2-b3-B 13a 1, 742g
73 X 18A-4-2-1-1-1-B 17a 3,606abc
73 X 18A-4-2-1-1-2-B 10a 3, 872a
73 X 18A-5-2-3-1-2-B 13a 2, 565f
73 X 24A-2-1-1-1-b3-B 17a 2,710ef
73 X 20B-3-1-2-2-b4-B 20a 3,073de
NC-343 10a 3,327bcd
NC-10247 1 3a 3,388bcd
NC-15729 13a 3,725ab
NC-15745 20a 3, 303cd
SE Runner 56-15 13a 1, 670g
Valencia 40a 1,888g
Check (Florunner) 10a 3, 279cd

aMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.

bSeed sown on 6/1/ 82, and crop was harvested on 10/15/82.


4. ,







AREC, Quincy and ARC, Marianna, Florida

Table 8: Tolerance of Peanut Parent Lines and F2 Crosses to Thrips Attack and Damage. ARC, Marianna 1982.


Parent Lines Mean Number Mean Thrips Foliage
and CrThrips per Bud 'b Damace Indicesac
F2 Crosses 6/15 6/22 6/29 7/6 6/15 6/22 6/29 7/6

519 0.7a 4.8a 10.7a 2.5a 0.0 8.3b 8.3a 8.0a
72 X 41A 0.6a 7.9b 8.7a 3.4a 0.0 7.0a 8.0a 8.0a
80 X 6A 1.0a 9.6b 9.5a 2.4a 0.0 6.7a 7.7a 8.0a
80 X 6A 0.7a 8.4b 13.0a 3.5a 0.0 7.0a 8.Oa 8.0a
80 X 6B 1.la 9.5b 7.8a 3.7a 0.0 7.3a 8.0a 8.0a

% Adults 92 4 4 20
% Immatures 8 96 96 80


aMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at
Five terminal buds per plot were examined. Seed sown on 6/1/82,
CRating System: 0 = None to 10 = 100% of the foliage showing some


























4 4 4 > 4 4 t


the 5% level.
and the crop was harvested on 10/15/82.
damage.


b 1 V


I .-


*.






AREC, Quincy and ARC, Marianna, Florida


Table 9: Tolerance of Peanut Parent Lines and F2 Crosses to the Lepidoptera Complex and a Season-Ending Damage
Rating. ARC, Marianna 1982.

ParentLines Mean Number Worms per Planta DaMean Wormab

F Crosses 7/22c 7/29d 8/5e 8/12 8/19g 8/26 9/2 9/9 9/16 9/23 9/30m 10/7n
2

519 2.5a 2.2a 0.8a 1.Oa 5.3b 47.2c 28.Oa 6.8a 7.5a 10.7a 7.3a 6.Oc
72 X 41A 0.3a 1.2a 0.3a 0.2a 1.0a 20.5a 17.2a 3.8a 4.2a 10.7a 6.0a 1.3a
80 X 6A 3.5a 0.7a 0.5a 1.2a 5.Ob 26.8ab 30.3a 10.3a 4.5a 14.5a 10.Oa 4.7ab
80 X 6A 2.3a 1.0a 0.3a 1.0a 5.3b 35.2bc 32.2a 9.Oa 5.5a 13.3a 8.5a 5.3bc
80 X 6B 3.Oa 0.7a 0.5a 0.8a 4.Ob 34.3abc 30.2a 7.8a 6.2a 14.8a 8.2a 4.3b

aMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level. Seed sown on 6/1/82, and crop
was harvested on 10/15/82.
Rating System: 0 = None to 10 = 100% of the foliage showing some damage.
CPredominantly corn earworm 90% and fall armyworm 6%.
dPredominantly corn earworm 79%, fall armyworm 12%, and granulate cutworm 6%.
Predominantly corn earworm 33%, looper -27%, fall armyworm 20%, and granulate cutworm 20%.
Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 32%, corn earworm 27%, fall armyworm 18%, looper 18%, and yellowstriped
armyworm 5%.
9Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 58%, corn earworm 26%, fall armyworm 7%, and looper 5%.
. Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 93%.
Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 96%.
.Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 97%.
JPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 95%.
SPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 84% and looper 15%.
Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 97%.
nPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar damage.
nPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar damage.


& 4\ 4 4


A A I


**<


* 0, A









AREC, Quincy and ARC, Marianna, Florida


Table 10:


Tolerance of Peanut Parent Lines and F2 Crosses to the Lesser Cornstalk
Borer. ARC, Marianna 1982.


Parent Lines Lesser Cornstalk Borer
and % Infested Plantsa
F2 Crosses 10/15b

519 20ab
72 X 41A 30b
80 X 6A 17ab
80 X 6A 10a
80 X 6B 27b


aMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
Seed sown on 6/1/82, and crop was harvested on 10/15/82.


4 4


' -<





AREC, Quincy and ARC, Marianna, Florida


Table 11: Effects of Broadcast Parathion Granular Treatments with and without Irrigation and Irrigation and No Irrigation
on Control of the Lepidoptera Complex and a Season-Ending Damage Rating on Florunner Peanuts. ARC,
Marianna 1982.

Treatment and Mean Number Worms per Foot of Rowc Mean Worm c d
Lbs. Al per Acar e h iDamage Ratinqd
per Application 7/20e 7/27f 8/39 8/10h 8/17i 8/24 8/31 9/71 9/14mn 9/21 9/28P 10/51

Irrigation +
Parathion, 10%G, 2.0 5.1a 2.2a 1.0a 0.6a 3.8a 3.Oa 4.7a 2.la 0.4a 0.3a 0.2a 1.Oa
No Irrigation +
Parathion, 10%G, 2.0 4.4a 2.1a 0.8a 1.0a 2.9a 2.2a 3.7a 1.7a 0.3a 0.1a 0.1a 1.0a
Irrigation 3.4a 2.0a 0.6a 1.la 4.4a 8.9b 26.6b 15.8b 0.6a 5.3b 3.4b 7.3b
No Irrigation 3.2a 1.9a 0.9a 1.2a 3.8a 8.2b 17.2b 14.2b 0.9a. 5.7b 3.9b 7.7b


aG = Granules. Parathion was applied on 6/8, 6/22, 7/6, 7/20, 8/3, 8/17, 8/31, 9/14, and 9/28/82. Seed sown on 6/1/82,
and the crop was harvested on 10/15/82.
Irrigation, 1.0 inch of water per acre, was applied on 7/23, 8/27, and 9/3/82.
Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
Rating System: 0 = None to 10 = 100% of the foliage showing some damage.
predominantly corn earworm 95%.
Predominantly corn earworm 80% and fall armyworm 14%.
hPredominantly fall armyworm 35%, corn earworm 31%, granulate cutworm 17%, and looper 17%.
.Predominantly fall armyworm 37%, corn earworm 29%, and looper 26%.
Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 47%, looper 35%, fall armyworm- 10%, and corn earworm 6%.
kPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 87%, looper 6%, and corn earworm 5%.
kPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 88% and fall armyworm 8%.
Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 91% and fall armyworm 6%.
mPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 55%, fall armyworm 35%, and looper 10%.
nTreated all plots with Sevin + Orthene, 1.4 + 0.09 Ibs. Al/acre, spray on 9/8/82 for velvetbean caterpillar control.
0Predominantly looper 60% and velvetbean caterpillar 36%.
PPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 81% and looper 19%.
qPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar damage.


4 A


I *


t








AREC, Quincy and ARC, Marianna, Florida


Table 12:


Effects of Broadcast Parathion Granular Treatments with and without Irrigation and Irrigation
and No Irrigation on Control of the Lesser Cornstalk Borer with Yields of Florunner Peanuts.
ARC, Marianna 1982.


Treatment and Lesser Cornstalk Borer Mean
Lbs. Al per Acre % Infested Plantsc Yield/Acrec
per Application a'10/15 d lbs.

Irrigation +
Parathion, 10%G, 2.0 10a 3,472a
No Irrigation +
Parathion, 10%C, 2.0 10a 3,243a
Irrigation 13a 2,904a
No Irrigation 33b 3, 061a


G = Granules. Parathion was applied on 6/8, 6/22, 7/6, 7/20, 8/3, 8/17, 8/31, 9/14,
Seed sown on 6/1/82, and crop was harvested on 10/15/82.
Irrigation, 1.0 inch of water per acre, was applied on 7/23, 8/27, and 9/3/82.
eans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
Treated all plots with Sevin + Orthene, 1.4 + 0.09 lbs. Al/acre, spray on 9/8/82 for
caterpillar control.


and 9/28/82.



velvetbean




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