Group Title: Quincy NFREC research report - University of Florida Research and Education Center ; NF 87-12
Title: Management of insects attacking peanuts in 1987
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074375/00001
 Material Information
Title: Management of insects attacking peanuts in 1987
Series Title: Quincy NFREC research report
Physical Description: 20 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Tappan, William B., 1928-
Gorbet, Daniel W ( Daniel Wayne ), 1942-
North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)
Publisher: North Florida Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1987
 Subjects
Subject: Peanuts -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: William B. Tappan and Daniel W. Gorbet.
General Note: Caption title.
Funding: Research report (North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074375
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 85775413

Full Text
/0Th




NORTH FLORIDA RESEARCH AND EDUCATION CENTER
Quincy, Florida

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND EDUCATION CENTE"---
Marianna, Florida Centr~! Scicnco

Quincy NFREC Research Report NF 87-12

Management of Insects Attacking Peanuts in 1987 DEC 14 1987

William B. Tappan, Entomologist, Quincy, and C.i ,a.0 of iarda
Daniel W. Gorbet, Agronomist, Marianna __

Materials and Methods

Nine chemical foliar spray treatments were field tested on Florunner
peanuts for insect control, phytotoxicity, and effect on crop performance. In
a second experiment, certain breeding lines and varieties were studied to
determine if any tolerance to insect attack could be detected. In a third
experiment, 3 F selections and 2 parent lines were compared to determine if
insect tolerance from one of the parents had been transferred to the F
selections, and to increase the seed source from the F selections. A fourth
experiment was conducted to study the effects of various population levels of
the foliage feeding Lepidoptera complex on foliage damage and yield of
Florunner peanuts.

Spray treatments were applied over the foliage with a boom-type CO2-
pressurized sprayer that covered 2 rows with 3 Tee-Jet D3-25 nozzles per row.
The sprayer was calibrated to deliver approximately 26 gallons of spray per
acre at 26 p.s.i. at normal walking speed. The sprayer was also used in the
population-level experiment to control foliage feeding Lepidoptera populations
at the desired levels. The dates spray applications were made are given in a
footnote in Tables 1,2,4,5,12, and 13.

Treatments listed in Tables 1 through 5 and 12 and 13 were replicated 3
times in complete randomized blocks. Each plot was 4 rows wide, and rows were
30 feet long planted on 3-foot centers. The 2 center rows constituted the ex-
perimental plot, and the 1 row on either side acted as buffers between plots.
Alleys between blocks of plots were 10 feet wide. Treatments listed in Tables
6 through 11 were replicated 3 times in complete randomized blocks. Each plot
was 2 rows wide, and rows were 20 feet long planted on 3-foot centers. The 2
rows were the experimental plot, and there were no buffers between plots
within blocks. Alleys between blocks of plots were 20 feet wide. The experi-
mental area for treatments listed in Tables 1 through 5 and 12 and 13 was
located near the hedge-row in the northwest corner of the Agricultural
Research and Education Center. The experimental area for treatments listed in
Tables 6 through 11 was located at the Marianna School for Boys east of
Highway 167 and north of Interstate 10.

All cultural practices in preparing the experimental areas for planting
were performed in the usual manner. Dolomite at one ton per acre was applied
to the experimental areas on March 6. Beds for planting were prepared and
fertilizer (400 pounds per acre of 0-10-20 plus minor elements) was applied on
March 17 at the Marianna School for Boys and on March 23 at the Agricultural









Research and Education Center. Herbicides; Balan, 1 gallon + Vernam, 1.17
quarts per acre, were applied on the foliar spray and foliage feeding
Lepidoptera population-level experimental areas on April 10, and on the insect
plant tolerance experimental areas on April 15. At cracking; Dual, 2 pints +
Gramoxone, 0.5 pint was applied on the foliar spray experimental area on May
20 followed by Paraquat, 0.5 pint + surfactant + Butoxone, 1 pint per acre on
June 29. Cracking time application on the foliage feeding Lepidoptera
population-level experimental area consisted of Lasso, 1 quart + Paraquat, 0.5
pint per acre on June 25. On the insect plant tolerance experiments, Dual,
2.5 pints per acre was applied at cracking on June 29. Gypsum at 750 pounds
per acre was applied on the foliar spray experiment on June 24, on the foliage
feeding Lepidoptera population-level experiment on July 10, and on the insect
plant tolerance experiments on July 13. Foliar disease control sprays were
applied on the experimental areas as follows: Bravo, 1.5 pints per acre on
June 22; Olei, 3 pints per acre on July 2, 14, and 28; Olei at 2.5 pints per
acre on August 24, September 8 and 22 at the Agricultural Research and
Education Center, and Bravo, 1.5 pints per acre on June 26, July 7, 20, August
4, 18, 31, September 15, 29, and October 13 at the Marianna School for Boys.
The foliar spray experiment was planted on May 11, harvested on September 29,
and picked on October 1. The insect plant tolerance experiments were planted
on June 9, harvested on October 26, and picked on October 30. The foliage
feeding Lepidoptera population-level experiment was planted on June 19,
harvested on November 6, and picked on November 9.

Tobacco thrips counts in the foliar spray and insect plant tolerance
experiments were made from natural infestations by counting the number of
adult and immature thrips collected in 25 cc bottles from 10 terminal foliage
buds per plot at weekly intervals beginning in the foliar spray experiment on
May 22 and ending on June 26, and beginning in the insect plant tolerance
experiments on June 22 and ending on July 13. In the insect plant tolerance
experiment comparing parental lines with F selections, the thrips counts were
made from 5 terminal foliage buds per plot taken weekly beginning on June 22
and ending on July 13. Counts were made in the laboratory after the thrips
had been washed from the buds twice with alcohol and collected on 9-cm filter
paper in a Bichner funnel under vacuum. A binocular microscope with 15X
magnification was used to make the counts. Ratings of foliage damage by
thrips were made on the same dates that thrips were counted. The rating
system used was based on a scale of 0 to 10, with 6 being no damage and 10
being 100 percent of the foliage showing some feeding damage.

Counts of corn earworm, fall armyworm, granulate cutworm, cabbage looper,
velvetbean caterpillar, yellowstriped armyworm, and other foliage feeding
Lepidoptera larvae were made from natural infestations by counting the number
of live larvae in 3 feet of row per plot at weekly intervals. Larval counts
were made in the foliar spray experiment checks beginning on July 14 and
ending on September 14, in the insect plant tolerance experiment checks
beginning on July 28 and ending on October 13, and in the foliage feeding
Lepidoptera population-level experiment beginning on August 24 and ending on
October 12. Foliage feeding Lepidoptera larval damage ratings were made in
the insect plant tolerance experiments on September 22 and October 6 and
weekly in the foliage feeding Lepidoptera population-level experiment
beginning on August 24 and ending on October 12.









The percent of lesser cornstalk borer infested plants was determined at
harvest in the foliar spray experiment on September 28, and in the insect
plant tolerance experiments on October 26. Ten plants per plot were examined
and damage to pegs, pods, and stems was noted as a damaged plant, and the
percent infested plants was calculated by multiplying the number of damaged
plants by 10.

A leafhopper foliage damage rating similar to the thrips damage rating was
made in the foliar spray experiment on June 26.

Yield was calculated in pounds per acre from the total weight of dried
peanuts picked from 2 rows of each plot in each experiment, except the insect
plant tolerance experiments. No crop value was calculated for the 4
experiments.

Visual foliage phytotoxicity ratings in the foliar spray experiment were
begun on May 22 and continued at weekly intervals until September 4. Plots
were rated according to severity of phytotoxicity observed. The ratings were
based on the following system:

0 = None
1 = Slight chlorosis or spotting
2 = Moderate chlorosis or spotting
3 = Heavy chlorosis or spotting with some necrosis
4 = Severe chlorosis or spotting with considerable necrosis

An analysis of variance was made of all treatment means except the foliar
phytotoxicity indices. Duncan's multiple range test was applied to all means
analyzed to obtain statistical comparisons for data interpretation.

Rainfall data expressed in inches for the duration of the experiments from
May 11 to November 5 were as follows:


Agricultural Research


and Education Center


May

11-0.09
12-0.07
13-0.71
14-0.31
16-0.13
17-0.32
18-0.10
19-0.13
20-0.09
22-1.67
23-0.01
25-0.01
Total-4.-46


June


5-0.08
13-0.05
15-1.32
16-0.40
17-0.24
18-0.05
20-0.02
22-0.49
23-1.67
24-0.07
25-0.12
27-0.92
Total-Y.43


July


1-0.10
2-0.36
3-0.39
6-0.18
7-0.04
8-1.36
9-0.12
15-0.05
22-0.43
25-0.26
27-0.09
28-0.02
29-0.04
30-0.47
31-1.60
Total-5751


August

3-0.04
6-0.24
7-0.05
13-2.00
14-0.77
15-0.57
16-0.04
18-0.47
Total-J 18


September

1-0.11
2-0.10
3-0.05
5-0.25
6-0.16
7-0.06
9-0.58
12-0.59
13-0.02
18-0.08
20-0.21
30-0.06
Total-2.27


October


27-0.06
Total-U-TO

November

4-0.75
5-0.29
Total-TI54


Grand Total = 22.95 inches









Marianna School for Boys


June July August September October

5-0.40 1-0.02 4-0.98 1-0.47 27-0.10
13-0.15 2-1.78 6-0.98 2-0.90 Total-OT.T
14-1.05 3-0.22 7-0.05 3-0.31
15-1.25 5-2.30 13-0.80 4-0.27
16-0.65 6-0.20 14-1.88 5-0.36
17-0.50 7-0.10 15-1.40 6-0.20
18-0.01 8-1.25 16-0.12 9-0.52
20-0.38 9-0.45 18-0.32 12-1.85
22-1.65 14-0.50 Total-6.53 13-0.20
23-2.40 15- T 18-0.16
24-0.18 22- T 19-0.02
25-0.05 25-0.10 20-0.40
26-0.12 28-0.20 30-0.25
27-0.15 29-0.10 Total-5.91
Total-8.-9 31-0.08
Total-7.30

T = Trace
Grand Total = 28.78 inches

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Tobacco thrips populations for the entire experimental period were about
the same as that in 1986, and population and damage curves followed the same
pattern as has been observed during the past 12 years. Foliage feeding
Lepidoptera larvae began infesting the plants at approximately the same time
as in 1986, and populations reached the economic population level (4 to 5
larvae per foot of row) only in the population-level experiment two times on
August 24 and 31. Populations of foliage feeding Lepidoptera larvae never
reached the economic population level in the other experiments for the entire
growing season. This marks the third year in succession that foliage feeding
Lepidoptera larval populations have been of little or no consequence to the
crop. No apparent explanation for the small Lepidoptera populations on peanut
foliage was obvious. The primary foliage feeding Lepidoptera species were
corn earworm, fall armyworm, granulate cutworm, cabbage looper, velvetbean
caterpillar, and yellowstriped armyworm. Velvetbean caterpillar infestations
began appearing about two weeks earlier than in 1986, and were about as
numerous. Potato leafhopper became a problem in only the foliar spray experi-
ment on June 20, and disappeared about two weeks later. None of the other
experiments were attacked by leafhoppers. Lesser cornstalk borer populations
were about the same in number as in 1986, as rainfall was scattered throughout
the season and was 2.30 inches more at the Agricultural Research and Education
Center and 8.13 inches more at the Marianna School for Boys than in 1986.
Droughty conditions occurred during October, which did not enhance lesser
cornstalk borer populations because cool temperatures during the month pre-
vented an increase in the populations. Plants at the Marianna School for Boys
did not show symptoms of wilt at anytime during the growing season, but plants
at the Agricultural Research and Education Center in the population-level
experiment exhibited wilt symptoms for most of the month of October and into
November until the plants were harvested. Yields were generally smaller than









in 1986 even though rainfall was larger. The adverse effect of the October
drought drastically reduced the yield in the population-level experiment,
which clearly indicated that dry weather has more impact on yield than insect
damage or insect control. In general, weather conditions had little effect on
the crop, except in the population-level experiment, which was planted later
than the other experiments.

The thrips count on May 29 in the foliar spray experiment indicated that
all treatments gave significant control. The largest populations on the
untreated check occurred on May 29, and on the treated plots on June 5, two
weeks after treatment. On June 5, Orthene at 0.930 and 2.005 and Capture at
0.057 pounds AI/acre remained significantly efficacious. Thrips foliage
damage indices on June 5 indicated that all treatments significantly reduced
foliage injury. Orthene at 2.005 pounds AI/acre provided the best protection
from foliage injury on June 5, and for the remainder of the experimental
period. The dosage response in the thrips to Lannate and Orthene was similar
to that observed in 1985, and indicated that the thrips may be developing re-
sistance to both compounds. Capture at 0.057 pound AI/acre was significantly
superior to Ammo at 0.079 pound AI/acre in protecting the peanut foliage from
thrips injury. (See Table 2.) Yield response to the treatments indicated for
the 12th year in succession that thrips had no economic influence on the crop.
(See Table 4.)

Foliage feeding Lepidoptera populations on the untreated check never
reached the economic threshold level at anytime during the experimental
period. Therefore, no meaningful data were recorded for control purposes.
This is the third year in succession that foliage feeding Lepidoptera popula-
tions have been below the economic population level in the foliar spray exper-
iment. No apparent reason for this phenomenon was observed. (See Table 3.)

Control of the lesser cornstalk borer and the effect on yield are presented
in Table 4. The lesser cornstalk borer infestation was about the same as in
1986 owing to the adequately distributed rainfall during the experimental
period. Examination of pods and stems immediately after harvest on September
28 indicated that none of the treatments gave significant control. The non-
significant correlation coefficient (r=-0.550) indicated that the lesser
cornstalk borer was not associated with any yield effect. The reduction in
yield of the untreated check (1,409 pounds per acre) from that in 1986 was not
related to the lesser cornstalk borer, but probably due to leafspot, which was
worse than in 1986.

Leafhopper foliage damage indices indicated that Capture at 0.040 and 0.057
pound AI/acre gave significant control for four weeks following treatment
applications. The residual effectiveness of Capture was clearly demonstrated
in this experiment. No association of leafhopper foliage damage with yield
was found as the nonsignificant correlation coefficient (r=-0.198) clearly
indicated. (See Table 4.)

Only Lannate at 1.124 pounds AI/acre caused any detectable phytotoxicity.
Plant injury was evident as light chlorosis following the spray application on
May 22. The injury had been masked by rapid foliage growth by June 5, and no
further evidence of phytotoxicity was observed for the remainder of the exper-
imental period. (See Table 5.) The yield data indicated no subterranean
phytotoxicity. (See Table 4.)









Thrips populations in the insect plant tolerance experiment peaked on June
29, and populations were insufficient on Valencia, a susceptible variety, for
experimental evaluation. UF-82107 and UF-86106 had the largest populations
and were significantly inferior to Florunner. Thrips foliage damage indices
did not necessarily coincide with thrips counts, but 73 X 20B-3-1-2-2-b4-B,
NC-10247, and 73 X 18A-5-2-3-1-2-B had significantly less damage than either
Florunner or Valencia on July 6. Only two lines, NC-10247 and UF-86106, had
significantly less damage than either Florunner or Valencia on July 13, with
NC-10247 being consistently the best entry over the entire experimental
period. The data indicated that small numbers of thrips do cause more damage
to some lines than large numbers on other lines. A physiological factor in
the plant may trigger the feeding habit of the thrips, which relates to the
amount of foliage damage that is inflicted. (See Table 6.) The yield data
indicated that differences in yield among lines was a function of genetic
differences moreso than thrips damage. (See Table 8.) Foliage feeding
Lepidoptera populations were small and never reached the economic population
level during the entire experimental period. No meaningful foliage feeding
Lepidoptera data were taken for insect plant tolerance comparisons. (See
Table 7.) The lesser cornstalk borer infestation counts on October 26 indi-
cated that all breeding lines and varieties were significantly more tolerant
to the borer than Valencia. However, borer infestations were small owing to
the adequately dispersed rainfall. The nonsignificant correlation coefficient
(r=-0.282) indicated that the lesser cornstalk borer had no effect on yield.
Foliage feeding Lepidoptera damage indices showed a positive significant cor-
relation (r=0.606) with yield, which indicated that as Lepidoptera damage
increased yield increased. However, the effect of genetic differences among
breeding lines and varieties influenced yield moreso than Lepidoptera damage,
and resulted in the confused correlation coefficient. Those breeding lines
that had the least amount of Lepidoptera damage naturally produced the least
yields. (See Table 8.)

In the parental lines and F, selections experiment, thrips populations were
small and did not reach the largest level until July 13. Owing to the small
population, none of the entries were significantly different from each other
regarding populations or infestations. However, all selections, with the
exception of 80 X 6B-BK3, and the parent line 72 X 41A were significantly more
tolerant to thrips foliage damage than the parent line 519 on July 6. (See
Table 9.) Foliage feeding Lepidoptera populations were small and never
reached the economic population level during the entire experimental period.
Therefore, no meaningful foliage feeding Lepidoptera data were taken for
insect plant tolerance comparisons. (See Table 10.) There were no signifi-
cant differences among entries in the parental lines and F, selections
experiment regarding foliage feeding Lepidoptera damage indices. (See Table
11.) Also, there were no significant differences between entries with respect
to lesser cornstalk borer infestations. (See Table 11.)

In the population-level experiment, the foliage feeding Lepidoptera
populations reached the economic population level of 4 to 10 larvae per foot
of row on August 24, but did not reach the desired populations for any of the
other population-level treatments for the entire experimental period. One
spray application of Orthene at 1.282 pounds AI/acre on August 25 maintained
the population level significantly below 4 to 10 larvae per foot of row for
the remainder of the experimental period on the 4 to 10 larvae per foot of row
population-level treatment. (See Table 12.) The Orthene spray application









maintained the Lepidoptera foliage damage indice at a significantly low level
for the entire experimental period. (See Table 13.) There were no signifi-
cant differences between population-level treatments with respect to yield.
(See Table 13.) The data indicated that the accepted economic population
level of 4 to 5 larvae per foot of row is too low, since that level was ex-
ceeded in the 4 to 10 larvae per foot of row treatment and that no significant
yield reduction was observed. This matter should be investigated further to
ascertain a true economic population level for use by Florida peanut growers.
The effect of weather conditions, especially drought, on yield was clearly
evident in this experiment. Dry weather persisted for 34 days during the
critical pod filling stage, and drastically reduced yield as compared to the
yields in the other experiments. (See Tables 4, 8, and 13.)










NFREC Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 1. Chemical Foliar Spray Treatments Applied for Insect Control on Florunner Peanuts.
1987.


AREC, Marianna


Gallons Lbs. AI
a b Number per Acre per per Acre per
Treatment Applications Application Application


Capture, 0.02% S(2.0 lbs./gal. EC) 1 26.7 0.040
Capture, 0.03% S(2.0 lbs./gal. EC) 1 25.3 0.057
Orthene, 0.5% S(75% SP) 1 22.5 0.930
Orthene, 1.0% S(75% SP) 1 24.3 2.005
Lannate, 0.29% S(1.8 lbs./gal. L) 1 22.1 0.536
Lannate, 0.58% S(1.8 lbs./gal. L) 1 23.2 1.124
Ammo, 0.02% S(2.5 lbs./gal. EC) 1 30.6 0.046
Ammo, 0.032% S(2.5 lbs./gal. EC) 1 22.8 0.060
Ammo, 0.04% S(2.5 lbs./gal. EC) 1 23.1 0.079
Check (Untreated)

bEC = Emulsifiable Concentrate, L = Liquid, S = Spray, and SP = Soluble Powder.
cCrop was planted on 5/11, harvested on 9/28, and picked on 10/1/87.
Sprays were applied on 5/22/87.











NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 2. Effects of Chemical Foliar Spray Treatments on Thrips Control and Damage on Florunner Peanuts.
AREC, Marianna 1987.


Treatment and Mean Number Thrips per Budbd Mean Thrips Foliage Damage Indicesc'd
Lbs. AI per Acr
per Application 5/22e 5/29 6/5 6/12 6/19 6/26 5/22e 5/29 6/5 6/12 6/19 6/26


Capture, 0.02% S, 0.040 2.8a 5.0ab 13.0bc 8.7a 2.7ab 2.lab 0.0 2.7a 5.0c 7.3c 6.7c 3.0a
Capture, 0.03% S, 0.057 2.6a 5.8ab 9.8ab 8.4a 2.5a 2.3ab 0.0 2.0a 4.7b 6.7c 6.7c 3.0a
Orthene, 0.5% S, 0.930 4.4a 5.0ab 2.9a 6.0a 4.6abc 1.7a 0.0 2.7a 4.0b 4.3b 4.0b 4.0a
Orthene, 1.0% S, 2.005 3.9a 4.0a 2.7a 4.9a 5.6bc 3.1abc 0.0 1.7a 2.7a 3.0a 3.0a 3.0a
Lannate, 0.29% S, 0.536 3.8a 9.9bc 13.5bc 5.4a 6.4c 3.8bcd 0.0 4.0b 7.3e 8.3de 8.0def 8.0d
Lannate, 0.58% S, 1.124 3.5a 11.lc 12.5bc 6.0a 6.2c 3.0abc 0.0 3.7b 6.7d 8.0d 7.7de 7.0bcd
Ammo, 0.02% S, 0.046 3.6a 9.8bc 19.7c 6.6a 4.8abc 4.9d 0.0 3.7b 7.7e 9.0ef 8.0def 6.7bc
Ammo, 0.032% S, 0.060 4.4a 9.0abc 15.6bc 8.3a 4.4abc 3.6bcd 0.0 3.7b 7.3e 8.3de 8.3ef 7.0bcd
Ammo, 0.04% S, 0.079 2.9a 6.5abc 16.8bc 6.7a 5.4abc 4.4cd 0.0 2.3a 6.3d 8.0d 7.3cd 6.0b
Check (Untreated) 2.8a 19.0d 15.4bc 3.6a 6.9c 4.8d 0.0 6.0c 9.3f 9.7f 8.7f 7.7cd


LSD 5% NS 4.4 7.9 NS 2.7 1.5 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.9 1.2
LSD 1% NS 6.1 10.9 NS 3.7 2.1 1.4 1.5 1.1 1.2 1.7


% Adults 99.1 4.4 6.8 8.2 4.5 6.4
% Immatures 0.9 95.6 93.2 91.8 95.5 93.6

as = Spray. Crop was planted on 5/11, harvested on 9/28, and picked on 10/1/87. Sprays were applied on
b5/22/87.
Ten terminal buds per plot were examined.
Rating System: 0 = None to 10 = 100% of the foliage showing some damage.
eMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
Pretreatment count and rating.











NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 3. Number of Larvae of the Foliage Feeding Lepidoptera Complex on Untreated Florunner Peanuts. AREC,
Marianna 1987.


Mean Number of Larvae per Foot of Row

Treatment 7/14b 7/21c 7/28d 8/3e 8/10f 8/179 8/24h 8/31i 9/7j 9/14k


Check (Untreated) 0.3 0.6 1.6 1.2 1.1 0.3 1.7 2.0 0.8 1.0


acrop was planted on 5/11, harvested on 9/28, and picked on 10/1/87. Check plots were in the foliar spray
experiment.
Predominantly corn earworm 100%.
Predominantly corn earwom 80% and cabbage looper 20%.
rPredominantly corn earworm 93% and granulate cutworm 7%.
SPredominantly corn earworm 100%.
Predominantly corn earworm 40%, yellowstriped armywom 20%, velvetbean caterpillar 20%, fall armyworm
- 10%, and granulate cutworm 10%.
gPredominantly corn earworm 33%, velvetbean caterpillar 33%, and granulate cutworm 33%.
.Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 80% and corn earworm 20%.
Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 56%, corn earworm 28%, yellowstriped armyworm 11%, and
granulatee cutworm 6%.
Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 71% and yellowstriped armyworm 29%.
Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 67%, granulate cutworm 22%, and cabbage looper 11%.











NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 4. Effects of Chemical Foliar Spray Treatments on Control of the Lesser Cornstalk Borer and Potato
Leafhopper, and Yield of Florunner Peanuts. AREC, Marianna 1987.


Treatment and Lesser Cornstalk Borer Leafhopper Foliag c Mean b
Lbs. AI per Acre % Infested Plants Damage Indices 'Yield/Acre
per Application 9/28 6/26 lbs.


Capture, 0.02% S, 0.040 20a 0.3a 4,049a
Capture, 0.03% S, 0.057 13a 0.3a 4,227a
Orthene, 0.5% S, 0.930 10a 5.3b 4,211a
Orthene, 1.0% S, 2.005 17a 4.7b 3,961a
Lannate, 0.29% S, 0.536 27a 3.3b 3,896a
Lannate, 0.58% S, 1.124 13a 4.7b 4,106a
Ammo, 0.02% S, 0.046 23a 6.0b 4,211a
Ammo, 0.032% S, 0.060 20a 5.7b 3,791a
Ammo, 0.04% S, 0.079 17a 3.7b 4,195a
Check (Untreated) 27a 4.7b 3,969a


LSD 5% NS 2.5 NS
LSD 1% NS 3.5 NS


as = Spray. Crop was planted on 5/11,
b5/22/87.
Means followed by the same letter are
Rating System: 0 = None to 10 = 100%


harvested on 9/28, and picked on 10/1/87.


Sprays were applied on


not significantly different at the 5% level.
of the foliage showing some damage.











NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 5. Phytotoxic Effect of Chemical Foliar Spray Treatments on Florunner Peanuts.
1987.


AREC, Marianna -


Treatment and Mean Phytotoxicity Indicesb
Lbs. AI per Acre
per Application 5/22 5/29 6/5 6/12 6/19 6/26 7/3 7/10 7/17 7/24 7/31 8/7 8/14 8/21 8/28 9/4


Capture, 0.02% S, 0.040 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0' 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Capture, 0.03% S, 0.057 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Orthene, 0.5% S, 0.930 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Orthene, 1.0% S, 2.005 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lannate, 0.29% S, 0.536 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lannate, 0.58% S, 1.124 0.0 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Ammo, 0.02% S, 0.046 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Ammo, 0.032% S, 0.060 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Ammo, 0.04% S, 0.079 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Check (Untreated) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

aS = Spray. Crop was planted on 5/11, harvested on 9/28, and picked on 10/1/87. Sprays were applied on
b5/22/87.
Rating System: 0 = None, 1 = Slight chlorosis or spotting, 2 = Moderate chlorosis or spotting, 3 = Heavy
chlorosis or spotting with some necrosis, and 4 = Severe chlorosis or spotting with considerable necrosis.











NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 6. Tolerance of Certain
Marianna 1987.


Peanut Breeding Lines and Varieties to Thrips Attack and Damage.


Breeding Lines Mean Number Thrips per Budab Mean Thrips Foliage Damage Indicesa,c
and
Varieties 6/22 6/29 7/6 7/13 6/22 6/29 7/6 7/13


72 X 41A-6-1-2-2-b3-B 0.2a 3.9abc 1.4a 3.0a '0.0 2.7c 5.3bc 4.0de
73 X 18A-5-2-3-1-2-B 0.2a 2.4ab 2.3a 2.6a 0.0 1.7ab 3.7ab 3.3bcd
73 X 20B-3-1-2-2-b4-B 0.la 1.8ab 3.1a 2.3a 0.0 1.0a 3.3a 3.3bcd
UF-80202 0.2a 2.9ab 1.4a 2.2a 0.0 1.7ab 6.3c 3.0bc
UF-81206-1 0.3a 2.lab 2.la 1.6a 0.0 2.3bc 5.7c 3.3bcd
UF-81206-2 0.2a 3.4abc 1.8a 2.2a 0.0 1.7ab 6.0c 3.3bcd
UF-79308-1 0.3a 4.7bc 1.6a 2.la 0.0 2.3bc 6.3c 4.0de
UF-82107 0.5a 6.3c 1.6a 3.0a 0.0 2.7c 6.7c 4.0de
UF-86106 0.5a 6.6c 1.Oa 1.9a 0.0 2.3bc 5.3bc 2.7ab
NC-10247 0.3a 1.5a 1.8a 2.3a 0.0 1.0a 3.3a 2.0a
NC-15745 0.3a 2.6ab 2.2a 1.9a 0.0 1.0a 5.3bc 3.7cde
Valencia 0.3a 3.6abc 1.5a 1.4a 0.0 3.7d 6.7c 4.3e
Check (Florunner) 0.2a 2.0ab 1.9a 2.5a 0.0 2.0bc 5.7c 3.7cde


LSD 5% NS 2.0 NS NS 0.8 1.9 0.8
LSD 1% NS 3.9 NS NS -- 1.1 2.6 1.1


% Adults 92.9 4.6 12.7 5.4
% Immatures 7.1 95.4 87.3 94.6


aMeans followed by
Ten terminal buds
10/30/87.
Rating System: 0


= None to 10 = 100% of the foliage showing some damage.


AREC,


the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
per plot were examined. Crop was planted on 6/9, harvested on 10/26, and picked on











NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida

Table 7. Number of Larvae of the Foliage Feeding Lepidoptera Complex on Valencia and Florunner Peanuts.
AREC, Marianna 1987.


Mean Number of Larvae per Foot of Row

Varieties 7/28b 8/4c 8/11d 8/18e 8/25f 9/19 9/8h 9/15i 9/22j 9/29k 10/61 10/13m


Valencia 1.7 0.9 0.4 0.9 2.8 2.9 3.0 1.0 3.6 3.0 2.3 2.2

Check (Florunner) 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.2 2.3 1.2 1.0 0.3 1.4 1.9 1.7 2.2


aCrop was planted on 6/9, harvested on 10/26, and picked on 10/30/87. Varieties were in insect plant
tolerance experiment.
Predominantly corn earworm 89% and velvetbean caterpillar 11%.
Predominantly corn earworm 64%, yellowstriped armyworm 27%, and granulate cutworm 9%.
Predominantly corn earworm 57%, velvetbean caterpillar 14%, yellowstriped armyworm 14%, and granulate
cutworm 14%.
predominantly corn earworm 40%, velvetbean caterpillar 30%, yellowstriped armyworm 20%, and fall
farmyworm 10%.
Predominantly corn earworm 70%, velvetbean caterpillar 15%, cabbage looper 9%, granulate cutworm 4%,
and fall armyworm 2%.
gPredominantly corn earworm 78%, fall armyworm 16%, and cabbage looper 5%.
hPredominantly corn earworm 47%, cabbage looper 28%, fall armyworm 19%, granulate cutworm 3%, and
.velvetbean caterpillar 3%.
IPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 33%, corn earworm 25%, granulate cutworm 17%, cabbage looper -
.17%, and fall armyworm 8%.
jPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 67%, granulate cutworm 18%, cabbage looper 7%, corn earworm 4%,
fall armyworm 2%, and yellowstriped armyworm 2%.
1Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 95%, fall armyworm 2%, and cabbage looper 2%.
Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 79%, fall armyworm 9%, granulate cutworm 6%, and yellowstriped
armyworm 6%.
mPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 70%, granulate cutworm 10%, fall armyworm 12%, corn earworm -
3%, cabbage looper 3%, and yellowstriped armyworm 3%.











NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 8. Tolerance of Certain Peanut Breeding Lines and Varieties to the Lesser Cornstalk Borer and Damage
by the Foliage Feeding Lepidoptera Complex with Yields. AREC, Marianna 1987.


Breeding Lines Lesser Cornstalk Bo er Foliage Feeding Lepidoptgra Complex Mean
and % Infested Plants Damage Indices Yield/Acre
Varieties 10/26 9/22 10/6 lbs.


72 X 41A-6-1-2-2-b3-B 13a 1.0a 1.0a 1,186g
73 X 18A-5-2-3-1-2-B 10a 1.0a 1.3ab 1,682f
73 X 20B-3-1-2-2-b4-B 10a 1.3ab 1.0a 2,505e
UF-80202 7a 1.3ab 2.7de 3,860c
UF-81206-1 10a 1.3ab 2.0bcd 3,255d
UF-81206-2 3a 1.3ab 1.7abc 3,642c
UF-79308-1 10a 1.7bc 2.3cde 5,022a
UF-82107 10a 2.0c 2.3cde 4,429b
UF-86106 7a 2.0c 2.7de 4,344b
NC-10247 7a 1.0a 1.0a 2,977d
NC-15745 10a 1.0a 1.7abc 3,243d
Valencia 27b 2.0c 3.0e 2,626e
Check (Florunner) 13a 1.7bc 2.0bcd 4,259b


LSD 5% 11 0.6 0.8 309
LSD 1% 15 0.8 1.3 420


aCrop was planted on 6/9, harvested on 10/26, and picked on 10/30/87.
Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
CRating System: 0 = None to 10 = 100% of the foliage showing some damage.











NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 9. Tolerance of Peanut Parent Lines and F7 Selections to Thrips Attack and Damage. AREC, Marianna -
1987.


Parent Lines Mean Number of Thrips per Budbc Mean Thrips Foliage Damage Indicesb'd
and
F7 Selections 6/22 6/29 7/6 7/13 6/22 6/29 7/6 7/13


519 0.5a 2.2a 1.3a 1.3a 0.0 2.0c 6.3b 4.0c
72 X 41A 0.3a 0.7a 0.7a 2.8a 0.0 1.0a 3.0a 2.0a
80 X 6A-BK1-1 0.8a 1.0a 1.5a 3.5a 0.0 1.7bc 3.7a 2.0a
80 X 6A-BK1-2 0.la 2.1a 1.5a 3.7a 0.0 1.3ab 3.7a 2.3ab
80 X 6B-BK3 0.5a 2.1a 0.5a 1.8a 0.0 2.0c 5.0ab 2.7b


LSD 5% NS NS NS NS -- 0.7 2.0 0.7
LSD 1% NS NS NS NS 1.0 2.9 1.0


% Adults 81.3 6.6 20.0 7.1
% Immatures 18.8 93.4 80.0 92.9


,Crop was planted on 6/9, harvested on 10/26, and picked on 10/30/87.
Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
cFive terminal buds per plot were examined.
Rating System: 0 = None to 10 = 100% of the foliage showing some damage.










NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 10.


Number of Larvae of the Foliage Feeding Lepidoptera Complex on F7 Parental Peanut Breeding Lines.
AREC, Marianna 1987.


Mean Number of Larvae per Foot of Row
Breeding c d e f-g-h i k k
Line 8/4b 8/11c 8/18d 8/25e 9/1 9/89 9/15 9/22 9/293 10/6 10/131


519 0.4 0.1 0.3 3.0 2.7 1.2 0.3 0.8 2.2 0.7 1.0

72 X 41A 0.0 0.1 0.3 3.4 3.4 2.3 0.8 1.7 1.4 0.8 0.8

aCrop was planted on 6/9, harvested on 10/26, and picked on 10/30/87. Breeding lines were the parents of F7
selections in the insect plant tolerance experiment.
Predominantly yellow striped armyworm 50%, corn earworm 25%, and fall armyworm 25%.
dPredominantly corn earworm 50% and rednecked peanutworm 50%.
Predominantly corn earworm 33%, fall armyworm 17%, velvetbean caterpillar 17%, yellowstriped armyworm
- 17%, and granulate cutworm 17%.
Predominantly corn earworm 95%, cabbage looper 3%, and velvetbean caterpillar 2%.
Predominantly corn earworm 89%, cabbage looper 8%, and fall armyworm 4%.
gPredominantly corn earworm 78%, cabbage looper 13%, fall armyworm 6%, and granulate cutworm 3%.
hPredominantly corn earworm 50%, velvetbean caterpillar 30%, cabbage looper 10%, and granulate cutworm
- 10%.
Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 68%, fall armyworm 18%, granulate cutworm 9%, and cabbage looper
- 5%.
kPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 88% and fall armyworm 12%.
kPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 85%, corn earworm 8%, and granulate cutworm 8%.
Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 81%, corn earworm 6%, granulate cutworm 6%, and yellowstriped
armyworm 6%.










NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 11.


Tolerance of F7 Parental Breeding Lines and Selections to the Lesser Cornstalk Borer and Damage
by the Foliage Feeding Lepidoptera Complex. AREC, Marianna 1987.


Parent Lines Lesser Cornstalk Borer Foliage Feeding Lepidoptgr8 Complex
and a % Infested Plants Damage Indices '
F7 Selections 10/26 9/22 10/6

519 10a 2.0a 2.0a
72 X 41A 17a 1.0a 1.0a
80 X 6A-BK1-1 17a 1.0a 1.0a
80 X 6A-BK1-2 20a 1.0a 1.0a
80 X 6B-BK1 10a 1.0a 1.0a


LSD 5% NS NS NS
LSD 1% NS NS NS


aCrop was planted on 6/9, harvested on 10/26, and picked on 10/30/87.
bMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
Rating System: 0 = None to 10 = 100% of the foliage showing some damage.










NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Effects of Orthene Foliar Spray Treatment in Maintaining Various Population
Feeding Lepidoptera on Florunner Peanuts. AREC, Marianna 1987.


Levels of Foliage


Population Levelsa Mean Number of Larvae per Foot of Rowb

larvae/foot of row 8/24c,d 8/31e 9/7f 9/149 9/21h 9/28i 10/5j 10/12k


4-101 4.4a 1.7a 1.3a 0.8a I.Oa 0.7a 0.2a O.la
10-20 4.2a 4.1b l.la 1.7a 0.8a 0.9a 0.7a 0.4ab
20-30 4.7a 3.8b 1.4a 1.6a 1.0a 0.8a 0.6a 0.4ab
30-40 3.8a 5.2b 1.la 0.7a 1.4a 1.0a 1.0a 0.4ab
40+ (Check) 3.2a 4.3b 1.4a 1.7a l.la 1.6a 0.4a 1.0b


LSD 5% NS 1.4 NS NS NS NS NS 0.6
LSD 1% NS 2.1 NS NS NS NS NS 0.9


bCrop was planted on 6/19, harvested on 11/6, and picked on 11/9/87.
Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
dPretreatment count.
Predominantly corn earworm 56%, velvetbean caterpillar 37%, fall armyworm 4%, and yellowstriped
armyworm 3%.
Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 44%, corn earworm 38%, fall armyworm 9%, yellowstriped armyworm
f- 7%, cabbage looper 1%, and granulate cutworm 1%.
Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 60%, corn earworm 19%, yellowstriped armyworm 10%, fall armyworm
- 9%, and granulate cutworm 2%.
gPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 89%, fall armyworm 4%, yellowstriped armyworm 4%, and granulate
cutworm 4%.
.Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 100%.
.Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 98% and fall armyworm 2%.
3Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 100%.
Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 86%, fall armyworm 5%, granulate cutworm 5%, and cabbage looper
r- 5%.
Orthene at 1.282 Ibs. AI/acre was applied on 8/25/87.


Table 12.











NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 13.


Effects
Feeding
1987.


of Orthene Foliar Spray Treatment in Maintaining Various Population Levels of Foliage
Lepidoptera on Larval Foliage Damage and Yield of Florunner Peanuts. AREC, Marianna -


Population Levelsa Mean Larval Foliage Damage Indicesbc Mean b
Yield/Acre
larvae/foot of row 8/24d'e 8/31f 9/7g 9/14h 9/21i 9/28j 10/5k 10/121 lbs.


4-10m 1.0a 1.0a 1.0a 1.0a 1.0a 1.0a 1.0a 1.0a 2,452a
10-20 1.0a 1.0a 2.7b 2.7b 3.0b 3.0b 3.0b 3.0b 2,339a
20-30 1.0a 1.0a 2.7b 2.7b 3.0b 3.0b 3.0b 3.0b 2,493a
30-40 1.0a 1.7a 2.7b 2.7b 2.7b 3.0b 3.0b 3.0b 2,428a
40+ (Check) 1.0a 1.0a 2.7b 3.0b 2.7b 2.7b 2.7b 2.7b 2,565a


LSD 5% NS NS 0.9 0.9 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 NS
LSD 1% NS NS 1.4 1.4 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.9 NS

a
,Crop was planted on 6/19, harvested on 11/6, and picked on 11/9/87.
Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
Rating System: 0 = None to 10 = 100% of the foliage showing some damage.
ePretreatment rating.
Predominantly corn earworm 56%, velvetbean caterpillar 37%, fall armyworm 4%, and yellowstriped
farmyworm 3%.
Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 44%, corn earworm 38%, fall armyworm 9%, yellowstriped armyworm
- 7%, granulate cutworm 1%, and cabbage looper 1%.
*Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 60%, corn earworm 19%, yellowstriped armyworm 10%, fall armyworm
- 9%, and granulate cutworm 2%.
hPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 89%, fall armyworm 4%, yellowstriped armyworm 4%, and granulate
.cutworm 4%.
.Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 100%.
pPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 98% and fall armyworm 2%.
kPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 100%.
1Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 86%, fall armyworm 5%, granulate cutworm 5%, and cabbage looper
- 5%.
morthene at 1.282 lbs. AI/acre was applied on 8/25/87.




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